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Abnormal and Unsatisfactory Conventional Cytological Examination of HPV Related Cervical Cancers in Nigeria

Abnormal and Unsatisfactory Conventional Cytological Examination of HPV Related Cervical Cancers in Nigeria

Mohammed Bashar Danlami1*, Basiru Aliyu1, Abbas Bazata Yusuf1, Bashar Gulumbe Haruna1 and Asmau Nono Mahe1

Department of Microbiology, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.


Papanicolaou smear is a conventional cytological examination for the screening of cervical cancer. However, the routine test is known and prone to significant error rate. This study examines the prevalence of abnormal and unsatisfactory Pap smear among women attending Federal Medical Center Birnin Kebbi. The study was a retrospective review of all Conventional Papanicolaou smear registry data of women who underwent a cytological examination at the cytology unit of the FMC Birnin Kebbi spanning a period of 10 years (2009-2019). The study used a hospital-based archive that covers the entire Kebbi State without any well-defined population to collects data on all Pap smear cases presenting to the hospital for possible diagnosis of cervical cancer. Descriptive and summary statistics and cross-tabulation were used to describe the data using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Out of the 92 women who had cervical cytology by Pap smear during the period under review, 22 had abnormal pap smears, a prevalence rate of (23.9%); 7/92 (7.6%) were low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion while 12/92 (13.0%) were high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Five women (3.3%) had atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance. The unsatisfactory pap smears were seen in 18/92 (19.6%) cases; six cases were seen in women aged 18 - 30 years. Four (4) cases each seen in 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years. The major source of unsatisfactory pap smears was poor fixation 10(55.6%) and obscured blood 4(22.2%). The high percentage of abnormal Pap smear call for an increasing awareness campaign in the study population. There is a need for improving sample handling and processing by trained persons due to a high rate of unsatisfactory Pap smear reported in this study. The study population needs to be sensitized to make better utilization of the facilities at histochemistry unit of FMC Birnin Kebbi.

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Journal of Virological Sciences


Vol. 3, Iss. 1

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