Fig. 2.
Interactions between aphid (above-ground) (AG) and grub (below-ground) (BG) via mediated plant responses. (A) The densities of aphid survival with or without below-ground herbivore, both are AG and BG herbivore, and (B) The densities of grub survival with or without above-ground herbivore.
Notes: A & G, A, G groups are aphid and grub, aphid, grub, respectively. Values are means ± S.E. * p< 0.05, ** p <0.01, *** p <0.001, **** p <0.0001.