Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...rbillivirus infection of sheep and goats, is widely distributed in Middle East, Central and South Asia, China and Africa. Whereas PPR antibodies were first reported in Kenyan small stock as early as 1995, the clinical disease was observed later in 2006 following dramatic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and the current study detail the clinical, pathological and laborato...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...oundary viral disease of sheep and goats. PPR is enzootic in India as more number of outbreaks have occurred in the past and now occurring regularly, round the year and most frequently during the lean period throughout the country. In some Indian states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Chhattisgar h the PPR outbreaks in sheep and goats have declined after implementing the strategic mass vaccination programme. The decrease...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...ally important plague of sheep and goats that serves as a major constraint in the development of the small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately affected with its attending impact on poverty in what are already the poorest areas of the globe. PPR i...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...total loss due to PPR in sheep and goats was INR 5041.5 million (77% was mortality loss and 23% was morbidity loss) and INR 11074.6 million (73% mortality loss and 27% morbidity loss), respectively. Further, sensitivity analysis under Ceteris paribus, revealed a loss of INR 8058.8 million and INR 24174.1 million at the minimum (5%) and maximum (15%) incidence levels, respectively. Thus, the estimated loss due to PPR in sheep and...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...tagious viral disease of sheep and goats. Domestic sheep and goats are important species for the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Within societies where PPR is now spreading, poverty is widespread and the disease is expected to have significant negative impacts on livelihoods. In resource-constrained marginalised societies, it is often difficult to collect disease data in conventional ways. Participat...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...vaccinated mixed herd of sheep and goats. Goats in the herd showed characteristic signs of PPR including nasal and ocular discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed within two weeks. Interestingly, the disease was exclusively observed in goats and all sheep kept in the same herd were serologically positive but did not show any clinical s...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

... PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to December 2015 with no history of vaccination. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed using PPRV antigen to determine antibody titres level. The overall prevalence of antibodies to PPRV in goats an...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

... outbreaks of PPR/FMD in sheep and goats in Hail. Saudi Arabia. During the outbreaks 271 (20.6%) died out of 648 (49.3%) of affected animals, the overall morbidity in goats (33.3%) was higher as compared to sheep (12.3%), with a case fatality rate in goats reached 74.69% in the 2nd outbreak. Affected animals exhibited fever, stomatitis, mucopurulent to bloody nasal/ocular discharges, watery to bloody diarrhea and lameness. The major gross lesions were erosive ...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...y devastating disease of sheep and goats. Present study was designed to have an insight into the epidemiology of PPR under field conditions in the country using molecular tools. A total of eighty-four (n = 84) PPR outbreaks were investigated during the study (2010 to 2013). The highest number of outbreaks was reported from Punjab province (n = 38) followed by Sindh (n = 21) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, n = 10). In 48 out of 84 outbreaks, disease occurred in go...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...sses. It is a disease of sheep and goat, particularly in the regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia. Besides clinical signs and symptoms of PPR various diagnostic assays, both serological and molecular, have been developed and are applied for estimating the current status of the disease. This review article focuses on the development of different molecular diagnostic assays from conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to real time reverse...
Sherin Reda Rouby
...erging hazard to cattle, sheep and goat. Diseases caused by capripoxviruses are transboundary in nature and are regularly spread into neighboring, non-endemic regions with significant economic implication. Capripoxvirus isolates are extremely conserved with genome identities of at least 96% between SPPV, GTPV and LSDV. The LSDV is similar in antigenicity and in cultural characteristics to SPPV. The current study was delineated to identify capripoxviruses ...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...enterotoxaemia suspected sheep and goats from the endemic areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan during 2016. The isolates were initially identified through colony characters, Gram staining and biochemical tests. The identified isolates were quantified on blood agar and confirmed through PCR. Toxins were extracted, quantified, formalized and adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide gel. Safety, sterility and stability of the toxoid were ascertained. Bacteri...
Maryam Javed*, Farwa Saghir, Naveera Aziz, Maham Saeed, Asif Nadeem and Wasim Shehzad
...gnment demonstrated that sheep and goat were having the wild base Guanine against which the cattle and buffalo depicted the mutant form Adenine. Results of this study illustrated the genetic tendency of large domestic bovines towards aggression and attack, so they should be handled with great caution.
...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
...sative agents of CCPP in sheep and goats in Northern Pakistan. The current study was thus aimed to identify relative abundance of members of MM in small ruminants suspected of CCPP in Northern region of Pakistan. A total of 300 samples, (150 sheep and 150 goats) were randomly collected from nasal discharge, pleural fluid and lung tissues, and streaked into Pleuropneumonia like organism (PPLO) medium for isolation and identification of Mycoplasma species...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

...ified and sequenced from sheep and goats (n=12). Nucleotide identity among Hail strains was identified to be 96.2-100%, while identity with previously sequenced Saudi Arabian strains and with reference PPRV retrieved from GenBank was found to be 94.1-98% and 81.2-100%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hail PPRV strains clustered in four separate groups within lineage IV indicating genetic divergence based on N gene. These findings further supp...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...ainly but not limited to sheep and goats, which lead to high economic impact in developing countries including India. The causative agent, Orf virus (ORFV) belong to the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV) of the family poxviridae produces a typical papillomatous, cauliflower like external growth around mouth regions and rarely the lesions are found in other parts of the body and internal organs. Another characteristic feature of ORFV including other PPVs is the ability ...
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
...ples were collected from sheep and goats suffering from seasonal diarrhea. C. perfringens type D was identified through different biochemical tests and PCR. Antibiograms and lab animal trials were also carried out on local isolates of C. perfringens type D. Out of 204 analyzed samples, 89.18 % were found positive while 10.82 % were negative for C. perfringens type D. The division wise distribution showed that Quetta, Zhob, Sibi and Kalat w...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1*, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Dakwang Nalong1, Rengkat Jonah1 and Olabode Mayowa

...ndii antibodies in pigs, sheep and goats at slaughter in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. Five hundred (500) serum samples comprising of 300 pigs, 100 each of sheep and goats were collected and analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) using latex agglutination test (LAT). Serum samples with LAT titer >10 IU/ml were considered positive. The study showed that 176 of the 500 samples analyzed were positive for Toxoplasma go...
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
...i>B. abortus in both sheep and goats. Brucellosis in sheep and goats is caused by B. ovis and B. melitensis, respectively but B. abortus (causative agent of bovine) may cross the species barrier to infect the small ruminants which may complicate the control measures of brucellosis because most of the control programs rely on serological screening of brucellosis rather than molecular assay which could...
Muhammad Raza Khan1, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim2, Shaista Andleeb1 and Abdul Hamid1
...inly donkey, horse, cow, sheep and goats, resulting in a negative perception among the locals. Most of the depredation occurs at night time while maximum livestock are depredated during winter season. 
...

Abdul Razzaq1*, Muhammad Islam2, Zahra Islam3, Zahida Fatima1, Munib Hussain4 and Farmanullah5,6 

...ichostrongylus) infected sheep and goats. Overall results revealed susceptibility of these anthelmintics (97-99% Confidence Interval of Faecal Egg Count Reduction-FECR) against four nematodes and no evidence of resistance recorded. However, three herbal anthelmintics (Atreefal Deedan, Deedani and Kirmar) available in Pakistan were tested against nematodes as an option of alternate remedy. Among these Atreefal Deedan showed highest (90-96%) FECR, followed by De...
Abdul Kabir¹, Amjad Hussian Mirani¹, Jam Kashif1, Shumaila Manzoor2, Abdullah Iqbal3*, Ihsan Ullah Khan4 and Muhammad Abubakar2
...nt production systems of sheep and goat in district Nowshera, KPK. A total of 246 serum samples were randomly collected from three age groups (<1 year, 1-2 year and >2 years) of sheep and goats. Competitive ELISA was performed to evaluate sero-prevalence of PPR in goats and sheep. The swab and tissue samples were collected from the surrounding areas from suspected sheep and goats to ...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
...ases in small ruminants (sheep and goat) have been frequently reported. Despite PPRV is endemic in Pakistan, information on disease serosurveillance of prevailing strains in Gilgit-Balitistan (GB) territory is scarce. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the seroprevalence of PPRV and to evaluate potential risk factors involved in the transmission of PPR disease in four distinct locations of GB province. We reported occurrence and risk factor an...

Nasrullah1*, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso1, Jamila Soomro2, Ilahi Bakhash Marghazani1, Masood-ul-Haq Kakar1, Abdul Hameed Baloch1, Sarfaraz Ahmed Brohi1 and Muhammad Asif Arain1* 

...avior and performance of sheep and goat. The animals were fed on Maize, Sorghum, and Millet. For this purpose, a total of 90 animals (n=45 sheep) and (n=45 goats) were randomly assigned into six groups (n=15) each under 2x3 factorial arrangement. All groups of both species were fed maize, millet and sorghum randomly. Results indicated that goat spent more time to eat than sheep while sheep rumination time were noted significantly (P<0.05) higher in sheep co...

Hafiz Muhammad Imran Javed* and Mushtaq Ahmed 

...tagious viral disease of sheep and goats. The present study compared the select genetic markers of the vaccine and field strains originating from the field outbreaks for phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analyses, and a comparison of three-dimensional protein structures. The N gene ORF was 1578 nucleotide long with a single open reading frame encoding 526 amino acids. Similarly, the ORF of F gene was 1641 nucleotide long which e...

Muhammad Shakeel1*, Mudussar Nawaz1, Zahid Naseer1, Muhammad Fiaz1, Asghar Khan1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Awais Ur Rehman1, Ahmad Yar Qamar2 and Ali Raza3

Caprine and Ovine Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Five Districts of Punjab, Pakistan
...brucellosis in different sheep and goat breeds in five districts of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1239 serum samples were collected from male (n=73) and female (n=1166) different sheep (n = 865; Pak-Karakal, Thalli, Lohi, Kajli and non-descript type) and goat (n = 374; Teddy, Beetal and non-descript type) breeds of variable age groups (0 months to 4years). All the serum samples were analyzed using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and seropositive samples were furt...
Zeki Aras1*, Gökçenur Sanioğlu Gölen1, Zafer Sayin2 and Ali Evren Haydardedeoğlu3
...nates and infertility in sheep and goats worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. abortus in abomasum content of aborted sheep and goat fetuses from provinces of the Central Anatolia of Turkey by PCR. A total of 105 aborted sheep fetuses and 15 aborted goat fetuses were collected from 120 different herds in the lambing seasons 2015-2016. Chlamydial DNA was detected in seven (5.8%) of the ...

Sidra Shehzadi, Sher Bahadar Khan*, Umar Sadique and Saqib Nawaz

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Clostridium perfringens Type D in Goats in District Peshawar
...tic animals particularly sheep and goat widespread in Pakistan due to endemic outbreak in every spring season; therefore the current study was conducted for isolation  and molecular identification of new strains of C. perfringens Type D for effective diagnosis, treatment and vaccination. A total of 100 fecal samples  were collected aseptically from four different zones of district Peshawar during the period of February, 2019 to April, 2019. C. perfri...
Muhammad Riaz1*, Zahida Tasawar1, Muhammad Zaka Ullah2 and Zawar Hussain3
Parasitological and Molecular Survey on Theileriosis of Sheep and Goats and the Related Risk Factors in Musa Pak Shaheed Town, Multan, Pakistan
... piroplasms infection in sheep and goats, respectively. Among Theileria species, PCR identified the incidence of T. lestoquardi and T. ovis was 16.5% and 5% respectively while 6% blood samples revealed mixed infection of both species in overall small ruminants. The infection rate of T. lestoquardi was higher (9.5% and 7%) than T. ovis (3% and 2%) in sheep and goats respectively. Statistically significant correlation revealed...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

March

Vol. 37, Iss. 1, Pages 1-330

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