Nicola J. Stonehouse

... RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus. The aptamers are able to inhibit the function of the enzyme both in vitro and in the context of a sub-genomic replicon and highlight the future potential of this technology in many aspects of virus research as well as in diagnostics and therapeutics.

...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...ranscription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Collectively, results indicate the continuous persistence of PPRV in Kenya.

...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...ergence (mean) of tiny parasitoid from host eggs treated during egg, larval and pupal stages with the virus at field dose (x), 2x dose, and 0.5x dose ranged from 83.2- 87.3%, 87.1- 91.6%, and 83.7- 89.7%, respectively, relative to control eggs treated with water. The parasitism rates by female parasitic wasps emerged from host eggs treated at x dose when paras

Thomas J. Coleman III

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2, Pages 39-41
...reclaim Darwin from the grasp of the New Atheists by charging him with uncovering “[t]he truth about religion.

 

...

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...optera: Encyrtidae) (a parasitoid of the cotton mealybug) in the Laboratory, it is necessary to know the development capacity of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), on different host plants. Such studies would identify the best host plant for its efficient rearing. The present study investigated some basic life table parameters i.e. female life span, adult female weight, longevity and reproductive potential of ...

Reviewed by Dr William Patterson

...demonstrate that the contrasting mindsets underlying science (with its emphasis on rationality, evidence, experimentation, and observation) and religion (with its emphasis on faith) are intrinsically opposed and that all attempts to reconcile them must result in failure. Coyne has much of use to say on the topic and many of his points are powerfully made. His case is weakened, however, by his incoherent treatment of epistemology. This problem is serious in tha...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...ntioxidative enzymes in Brassica juncea L. cv. alankar was investigated. Forty-day-old pot plants were exposed to different concentrations of the insecticide, ranging from 0 to 40 grams active ingredient per hectare (g.a.i ha-1) through foliar spray. Analyses were done at days 3, 7, and 15 after treatment. Lipid peroxidation rates and contents of proline, ascorbate (ASC), glutathione (GLU), antioxidative enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), asc...

Rick Repetti

...hat grace doesn’t erase the imperfection of creating imperfection. However, Adams’s theodicy arguably maintains two points: (a) non-existing superior beings cannot be harmed by not being created, and (b) if God must create superior beings, we wouldn’t be them. Setting aside whether God is justified in satisficing per se, I target one element of Adams’s satisficing theodicy, viz. (b), his “non-identity” thesis: we would not b...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...the knee orthosis in contrast to normal walking. Moreover, the mediolateral moment applied on the knee joint decreased significantly. This new design of the orthosis improves the performance of the subjects during walking. It carried same performance as that of the knee cage, and additionally is more cosmesis, ease in use and is economical.

...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...omic returns of Canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Findings of the experiment revealed that guar as previously green manuring crop considerably increased leaf area index (LAI) 4.4, crop growth rate (CGR) 5.7 g m-2 d-1, seed yield (2329 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.10%). Incorporation of whole plant had significantly increased LAI (4...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...es decreased production drastically. Moreover, an increase of N from 120 kg ha-1 is not of much value under these circumstances but have the potential to investigate for increasing production of the sunflower crop in the region.  

...

Haq Aman Ullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Ijaz2 and Aqeel Javeed3

.../i> and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1 is the most common metabolite highly toxic for humans and animals. In the present study contamination status of aflatoxin B1 in cotton seed cake, wanda, wheat bran and homemade concentrate mixture of dairy goats was investigated in district Lahore of Pakistan. A total of Twenty 20 goat farms were randomly selected and out of that 40 feed samples 2 from each farm were collected in the month of April. All...

Tahir Khan, Raziuddin, Fakharuddin* and Muazam Jamal Razi

...ortant attributes in Brassica napus using 10 parental lines and their 21 F4 populations. Significant differences were observed among genotypes, parents, F4 populations and parents versus F4 populations for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, primary branches plant-1 and main raceme length. Among parents, CA2, DH8, DH4, CA4 and DH6 performed better for different traits. Whereas among F4<...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Hidayat-ur-Rahman2, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Fakharuddin2

...uo;KHG24’ with contrasting traits were crossed in all possible combinations to generate 7 x 7 diallel crosses. In 2008 and 2009, all F1 hybrids along with their parent cultivars were planted in randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replicates at Tobacco Research Station Mardan (plain) and Tobacco Research Substation Mansehra (hilly). Data for all traits were analysed in pooled analysis and individual environments. Heterosis over bet...

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
...F1 crosses in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) during 2011-2013 to scrutinized potential lines, hybrids, and nature of gene action involved in the inheritance of maturity and plant architecture traits. Analyzed data revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for days to flowering, maturity, plant height, primary branches plant-1 and main raceme length. Analysis of combining ability revealed highly significant GCA (general combining ability), SCA (...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

...in Pakistan, especially grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). We evaluated K requirements of five elite grass pea genotypes in a field experiment. The experiment was organized in factorial block design with three replications. The study involved five commonly grown grass pea genotypes (Sel-B 111, Sel-449, Sel-190, Sel-1785 and Sel-945) and three K doses (0, 10 and 20 kg K ha-1). The results rev...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

...are blood sucker, ecto-parasites of a wide range of mammals that enforce major economic threats to the livestock industry throughout the world. The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tick in goat’s population of three different areas (Kaptai, Kattoli and Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 60 goats were examined for tick infestation in three places using random p...

 Ian von Hegner

...Democracy is usually contrasted with the concept of dictatorship, and is defined as a type of government in which power flows from the citizens to the leaders of government, who are selected through free elections. This article argues, that if the concept of democracy is generalized to be universally applicable, then the concept of hypothetical gods’ right to rule results in dictatorship. Whereas the concepts of dictator and tyrant originally had a more ...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

... trays on reducing ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Acari:Varroidae) populations in honeybee Apis mellifera linguistica (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in the winter, spring and summer season (2013-14). Four honeybee colonies were exposed to oxalic acid (3.2%), thymol (0.5 g) and formic acid (65%) on screen bottom boards in winter, spring and summer seasons. The fourth group had screen bottom board trays but without any chemical. There...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

..., Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata and Lecanicillium muscarium isolated from root and soil samples collected in Prague, Czech Republic, were cultured on agar media and tested against Meloidogyne hapla both in-vitro and in-vivo. All fungi proved to be efficient in reducing final population of northern root knot nematode M. hapla and giving vigour to the plants. In...

Felwa A. Thagfan1, Mohamed A. Dkhil1,2* and Saleh Al-Quraishy1

...ecreased the number of parasitic stages and the number of goblet cells in the jejunal villi in the infected mice. Moreover, the expression of the goblet cell mucin gene, muc2 was upregulated after treatment with the root extract. Based on our results, it could be concluded that, S. persica root extracts acts as anticoccidial agent.

...

Paul I. Ankeli, Mashood A. Raji, Haruna M. Kazeem, Moses O. Odugbo, Nendir J. Umaru, Idowu O. Fagbamila, Livinus T. Ikpa, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Issa A. Muraina, Pam D. Luka and Nicholas D. Nwankpa

...chemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Six (6) were observed to ferment glucose, reduce tetrazolium chloride and hydrolysed casein. They had no phosphatase activity, did not produce ‘film and spots’ and neither hydrolysed arginine nor urea and were preliminarily identified as members of the Mycoplasma mycoides sub-cluster which comprises Mmm and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc). Three (3) of the 8 Mycoplasma iso...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

... rats. Serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, total bilirubin, hepatic glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LP) levels were estimated. Moreover these biochemical parameters were confirmed by histopathological examination using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Mason trichrome stains (MTC). Immunohistochemical investigations for the express...

Abida Saleem, Sajida Parveen and Muhammad Jamal Khan

... soil suggesting its contrasting effect at different IZnA levels.

...

Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

... uses viz. forest land, grassland, and cultivated land were quantified. These land uses belonged to two soil groups having different soil type and climate. Selected soil groups were Inceptisols (site 1) and Mollisols (site 2). Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density (BD), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), extractable potassium (K) and pH. Statistically (p ≤ 0.05) higher SOC contents of Inceptisols and Mollis...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...tly increased, and the parasitism of mealybug was obviously decreased, both in fire ant-infested plots and in fire ant-free plots. Colony growth rate of mealybug in fire ant-infested plots was greater than fire ant-free plots. These results suggest that S. invicta suppresses the exploitation of honeydew-producing hemipterans by ghost ant and occupies most of the honeydew resource.

...lyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which demonstrated high expression level in the brain. During embryogenesis, SS1 mRNA was detected during early-stage embryonic development, decreased during subsequent developmental stages then increased gradually from the stage of midgastrula onward. This study provides some basic evidence that SS1 may play a role in growth, development and metabolism in C. nasus, and provides a basis for further study of S...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...e and gamma irradiated parasite was not studied before. A total of 30 female BWF1 mice were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group (I) control group (lupus uninfected); group (II) live P. chabaudi infected group (lupus + live P. chabaudi infection); and group (III) irradiated P. chabaudi-infected group (lupus + irradiated P. chabaudi-infection). All groups were killed at day 14 post infection. Histological and biochemical investigations were perf...

Imed Ben Salem*, Aymen Ben Ibrahim, M’barek Chetoui and Said Nouira

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...erse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Out of 24 samples taken from each organ, 22, 21, and 18 samples from trachea, lungs, and intestine showed viral RNA, respectively. Taken together, results showed that the H9N2 is endemic and widely distributed in asymptotic layers. Furthermore results indicated that H9N2 subtype may survive in layers without showing any symptoms.

...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

...LP), alanine aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Similarly, aluminium phosphide enhanced levels of AST, ALT and ALP as both concentration and time dependent in elevation were recorded when compared to the control. The use of aluminium phosphide in agricultural fields near water bodies should be strongly monitored in view of the observed effects on this catfish fish physiology. The use of aluminium ph...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...emonium sp., Alternaria brassicicola, Pythium sp. and Aspergillus flavus were screened against Wilt causing pathogens using the dual culture assay. Among them, Aspergillus flavus was found active fungus against the selected vascular Wilt causing fungus and bacteria, i.e. Fusarium oxysporum (87.50 ± 0.11% inhibition), Xanthomonas campestris (67.00 ± 0.46% inhibition) and Clavibacter michiganensis (72.00 ± 1.02% inhibition). The A. flavus wa...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...and JC-1 staining and ultrastructural alterations by transmission electron microscopy. Our data clearly shows that ceranib-2 is more effective than C2 ceramide in promoting apoptosis. The cytotoxic effects of these components cause ultrastructural changes in A549 cells.
...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...ic identification, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied for identification of Candida species, Cryptococcus albidus, Saccharomyces, Trichosporn, Torulopsis and Rhodotorula. Using universal primers ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 amplified ITS region. And it yielded a unique PCR size of approximately 376-930 bp. PCR amplicons were digested with enzyme MspI and the generated bans corresponded to the predicted size.
...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...and performance of endoparasitoid of aphids, Diaeretiella rapae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and plant extract were applied on aphid pests, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi and parasitoid was released. The data regarding emergence, parasitism, sex ratio, tibia length, adult weight and adult longevity of parasit...
Muhammad Arshad1*, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2*, Faisal Hafeez3, Ravaid Sherazi1 and Naeem Iqbal4
...e aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L.;pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was evaluated in the laboratory in no choice and free choice feeding assays. In the no choice feeding assay, the stages of beetle (adults, 3rd and 4th instar) consumed more aphids than early stages (1st and 2nd instar). In the free choice feeding assay, the consumption of pea aphid (77.647) was statistically high followed by spinac...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
...developmental time and parasitization rate of Citrostichus phyllocnistoides was evaluated on Phyllocnistis citrella at nine constant temperatures ranging from 15ºC±1 to 35ºC±1 in 2.5ºC increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15ºC to 9.15 days at 35ºC. The lower developmental threshold for C. phyllocnistoides estimated was 8.93°C. Mortality r...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...demonstrated that the intraspecific distance of P. websteri was 0.33%, whereas the interspecific distance of P. websteri ranged from 18.88% (with P. brevipalpa) to 24.79% (with Boccardia proboscidea). The intraspecific genetic distances of polydorids examined in the present study ranged from 0.33% to 1.67%, whereas the interspecific distances ranged from 18.88% to 24.79%. Such large barcoding gaps...
Mahanama De Zoysa1, Si-yun Ryu1, Hyeon-cheol Kim2 and Bae Keun Park1*
...fy;">A freshwater ecto-parasitic crustacean was isolated from the naturally infested goldfish (Carassius auratus) purchased from commercial aquarium in Korea. Based on the morphological comparison with all Argulus species, isolated fish lice was identified as Argulus japonicus Thiele, 1899. A. japonicus is native to Asia, which also is a habitat for its typical hosts, such as goldfish and common k...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Ghulam Sarwar1, Waqar Ahmad1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1, Ammara Balouch1 and Muhammad Khalid Rafique1
...i> Linguistica) from Brassica campestris was examined during February - March 2015 at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Twenty five honeybee colonies were used which had similar number of worker bees, brood and stored food. In order to study the foraging activity of honeybees in the field condition, the number of pollen foragers returning to the hive entrance was recorded for 10 min duration on hourly basis between 0800 h to 1600 h for 3...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...tential, the adults of parasitoids mostly depend on supplemental food sources, such as sugars and other carbohydrates. These food resources are commonly obtained from animal secretions or plant exudates which include honeydew, fruit juices and both floral and extra-floral nectar. A direct behavioral assay was conducted to investigate the dietary preference and effects of different diets on the fecundity, sex ratio and longevity of B. hebetor. Three diff...
Sidra Ilyas1, Abdul Rehman1* and Qasim Ilyas2
... and Pb treatment in contrast to Cd, Cr and Cu exposure. GSH: GSSG ratio declined after As, Pb and Cr treatment, whereas non-protein thiol levels were higher after Cd and As treatment followed by those of Pb, Cr and Cu treatment. Candida sp. PS33 was able to remove 78% (Cd), 70% (As), 82% (Cu), 65% (Cr) and 87% (Pb) from the medium after 8 days of incubation. This multi-resistant yeast can be used efficiently for the removal of toxic metals from the was...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...the possible role of esterases in development of tolerance/resistance in phosphine-tolerant populations. The level of total esterases, carboxyl esterases, choline esterases, acetylcholine esterases and aryl esterases were determined in 4th & 6th instar larva...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
... justify;">Among plant parasitic nematodes, root knot nematodes are the major problem for vegetables including eggplant. Chemical control of nematodes is hazardous to health and causes environmental pollution by contaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot t...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine which indicate renal and liver damage. Concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Cu and zinc in serum were significantly decreased (P< 0.05), indicating tubular damage in kidneys. 
...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
..., and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive. Piperacillin, Tazabactam and cinxacin were moderately effective against Staph. aureus. The concluded remarks of research staged Staph. aureus to the most obvious pathogen and widely resistant to antimicrobials camel mastitogen. The risk factors were found soul determinants of pathogen spread among mammary glands of camels.
...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
... from crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This sequence is 1338bp that encodes a polypeptide of 445 amino acids. The calculated molecular weight of crucian carp Wap65 protein (CcWap65) is 50.8kDa, containing a signal peptide cleavage site between amino acids 18 and 19. The CcWap65 is a hydrophilic protein and no trans-membrane topological proteins. The SMART analysis revealed that CcWap65 contains three hemopexin-like...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
...nflower blossoms. In contrast, sunflower plots covered with insect-proof bags gave minimum seed production and oil contents, which most probably was because of bee visitors denied to forage on flowers of the crop. Results revealed that sunflower in blooming stage attracted large number of bee visitors particularly Apis mellifera and A. florea. Visitation/foraging of honeybee contributed significantly towards increase in the yield and quality of s...
Mürşide Dartay*, Tuncay Atessahin and Erdal Duman
...gher CPUE values. In contrast increasing depths gave rise to a decrease in CPUE values.
...
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...e infected tissue. The parasites had formed pocked in the bile duct mucosa, glandular hyperplasia, thickened blood vessels. The results demonstrate that morphological markers, pathological, hematological and bile biochemical studies are effective tools that could be used as complementary in diagnosis of amphistome infections in ruminants. 
...
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...>Toxoplasma gondii parasite, is one of the most worldwide parasitic infections of warm-blooded animals including man. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause serious health problems in infants, pregnant women and immune compromised patients. Abortion is one of the most serious outcomes in pregnant women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 162 women of child bearing age were included from...

Tuli Dey, Sonnet Poddar and Mukti Barua

...3rd lactation came to Madras veterinary college with the clinical sign of complete uterine prolapse which calved one day before. The cow was handled and the prolapsed mass was corrected so carefully that there could be saved the life without any complication. The prolapsed mass of cow was managed with lukewarm water and manual pressure replacement in non-raising condition of hindquarter. Vulvar Retention Suture (modified Bhuners suture) was given for not to re...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...to the generally poor infrastructure, lack of well-equipped poultry slaughter houses, lack or inadequate water supply at these markets which hampers the ability of handlers to maintain good sanitary and hygiene conditions of the carcass, environment and themselves. Data collected could be valuable for instituting effective intervention strategies for Salmonella control in Nigeria with the aim of reducing Salmonella spread from poultry to humans.

...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
... while the second for ultrasonication treatment, before conducting antimicrobial activities. Zones of inhibition were measured by using disc diffusion method. Supernatant fraction of E. coli was positive against Sal. typhi and supernatant fraction of P. multocida was positive against E. coli, which show that antimicrobial agents were secretory in nature. Sonicated fractions were on second order to produce antimi...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...nt of a gregarious ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The number of adults, sex ratio and size of emerging adults were recorded. Smaller and larger host species were used to determine the survival potential of the wasp. It was observed that maximum number of adult wasps emerged from the hosts G. mellonlla (95 ±2.30 (se) and S. litura (81 ±1.15 (se)) by placing the lowest number of wasp eggs (4 egg...
Wali Khan*, Ghazal Mumtaz, Saima Bibi and Salma Afzal
...mine the prevalence of parasitic infection in vegetables collected from the vegetable markets in Lower and Upper Dir districts. A total of 520 vegetable samples were collected during April to October 2016. These vegetable samples were screened for parasitic contamination. The results showed that 10.7% of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with one or more than one species of paras

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

... the present era led to drastic changes in the transformation of agriculture to produce more farm commodities in shortest possible time with minimum inputs. Agriculture is the pivotal source of producing food crops including dairy, fruit cultivation, poultry, bee keeping and edible and non-edible like forestry products etc. An Agriculture Extension Officer (AEO) plays the role of a hub in agricultural development and covers all the areas of Agriculture. The pr...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...nt life stages, beta-esterase phenotype and amplification of rDNA and partial sequence homology of ITS-1and ITS-2. Host differential tests confirmed the race 2 of M. incognita infecting passion fruit. Pathogenic relationship with the passion fruit was proved through inoculation studies and inoculated plants also produced almost similar above-ground symptoms and profuse root galling. The pathogenic potential of M. incognita on passion fruit was de...
YaQiu Liu and ZhiJian Wang*
...bserve morphology and ultrastructure of intestinal tract of Paramisgurnus dabryanus with light and electron microscopies. Intestinal tract was divided into three parts. Morphologically complex folds were formed on surfaces of anterior and middle intestines where many secretory cells were present. Highly developed junction complex were seen in anterior intestine. Cytoplasm contained abundant mitochondria and pinocytotic vesicles. Epithelium of posterior ...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...osphatase (ALP)). In contrast, in the groups given D-GaIN and EA, a decrease in the damage of the liver tissue, a significant decrease activated Bax and caspase-3-positive hepatocytes, while increase in the number of Bcl-2 positive hepatocytes, a decrease in the biochemistry markers levels were found. Group 4, given EA before D-GaIN, showed better results when compared to Group 5, given EA after D-GaIN, in terms of histopathological and biochemical values. In ...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...n blot techniques, polymerase chain reaction and other DNA polymerase-mediated assays, and microarray detection. Of these, microarray detection provides the greatest capability for parallel yet specific testing and can be used to detect individual or combinations of viruses with sensitivity comparable to ELISA. Methods based on PCR provide the greatest sensitivity among the listed techniques but are limited in parallel detec...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...d a total number of 16 parasites and predators were observed in these crops during the period of study. The bio-agents recorded belonged to Order Dictyoptera, Neuroptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera.

...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...eolus aureus Roxb.), A. brassicae in mustard (Brassica campestris L.) and Drechslera oryzae in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Propineb 70WP and prochloraz 45EC considerably reduced the appearance of A. alternata and flusilazole 40EC reduced Fusarium sp.in mungbean seed than untreated control.Amarked reduction in population of A. brassicae by difenoconazole 25EC and flusilazole 40EC was observed i...

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
...d bio-control agents (Micraspis crocea, Micraspis discolor, Brumus suturalis and Scymnus bourdilloni ). All botanicals tested showed least mortality and was on par with unsprayed control. Dimethoate (0.1%) was highly toxic causing 100% mortality. Whereas, dichlorvos (0.1%) was least toxic in comparison to dimethoate. Botanical insecticides tested in different conc./combinations are compatible with natural enemies and may be ...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...gement schedule of the parasite, crops, other than sugarcane, grown in the target area were evaluated for their potential as trap and catch crops of the parasite. Twelve crops, selected on the basis of germination induction test of A. pedunculata seeds on root exudates as compared to that of three germination inducing chemicals (viz.; NaOCl, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and GR24-a strigol analogue) and growth o...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...including hymenopteran parasites away from the mealy bug. The cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Mask. (Homoptera: Margarodidae) is a soft-bodied mealy bug infesting guava leaves all over Bangladesh. It is reddish-brown and lays up to 600-700 eggs during her lifetime. The life cycle is completed within 46-240 days depending on different environmental conditions. The females develop parthenogenetically. It is a sucking pest and mainly feeds on citrus. Its s...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...phthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix showed significantly positive correlation of canker severity with maximum relative humidity at 1% level whereas, anthracnose correlated well with minimum relative humidity, temperature and number of rainy days at 5% level. The negative correlation was obtained for stem canker and dry rot with all parameters at 1%...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...ext-align: justify;">A Parasitoid database consisting of 62 (sixty two) species records gathered by conducting a systematic survey of parasitoids on insect pests of crops in different localities of Manipur was developed by using MS-Access. The database is for academic purpose and it includes the taxonomic details of the parasitoid, host insect, host plant, morphological characters, geograp...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...ns are antibiosis, mycoparasitism, competition for space and nutrient, production of certain toxins and secondary metabolites, solublization and sequestration of immobilized plant nutrients, plant growth prowth promoting properties and induced resistance. Multiple interactions between bacteria-fungi-actinomycete, may exist in nature and that is why consortium of microorganisms is needed for tackling several plant pathogens simultaneously instead of only one bi...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...caused by Phytophthora parasitica and growth, yield, and keeping quality by applying two bioagents, viz., P. fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. P. fluorescens inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1 was applied once at pre-monsoon, twice during pre- and post- monsoon and four times at quarterly intervals. T. harzianum inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1was applied at quarterly intervals. Bordeaux mixture (BM) was used to compare the treatments in preventing the ...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...gether. Considering the drastic reduction in the wet latex supply, SPFP has taken up series of initiatives which are summarized in this paper. Initially, a survey made in more than 80 farmers holdings supplying wet latex to the industry to get the first hand information on the extent of mealy bug incidence. Secondly, it facilitated select cluster of papaya growers to meet the concerned authorities and scientists of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Co...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
...h. A single species of parasite (Tetrastichus spp.) was found to emerge from the gall. Pruning at 30 cm had been found to be most effective in managing the pest. Spraying of thiamethoxam @ 0.008%, imidacloprid @ 0.006% and monocrotophos @ 0.005% gave effective control of the pest.


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Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
... tested on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.), chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with culture filtrate of biocontrol agents and found both positive and negative effect on seed germination, plant growth and vigour. Maximum increase in germination by 13.64% (chilli), shoot length by 59.69% (tomato), root length by 84.51% (cauliflower) and biomass by 46.55% (cauliflower) were obtained by the isolate B16 follow...

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik and M.L. Chatterjee

Evaluation of new and conventional insecticides for the management of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.)
...erysimi K. on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.). Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with eight treatments. Insecticides used in the experiments were imidacloprid 17.8% SL at 27g a.i/ha, lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC at 25g a.i/ha, chlorpyriphos 20% EC at 375g a.i/ha, dichlorvos 75% EC at 375g a.i/ha, thiamethoxam 25% WG at 27g a.i/ha, dimethoate 30% EC at 375g a.i/ha and chlorpyriphos 50% + cypermethrin 5% EC (Canon) at 375g a.i/ha. Chlorpyriphos (93.50...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...g fungi as well as endoparasitic fungi. For more than a century scientists are studying different facets of biology of NF including their potential as a bioagents to control nematodes. Their inconsistent success in control of nematodes in field trials, however, is enigmatic. This paper takes a review of the researches done by various workers on the diversity, morphology ecology, physiology of nutrition, trap formation and mechanism of nematode capture as well ...

S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
... respectively. Highest parasitized larvae of diamond back moth by Cotesia plutellae were found on 15th and 8th March with 10.42 and 10.50% larval parasitisation during both the seasons, respectively, whereas maximum coccinellid was observed on 23rd February of 2011-12 and 2012-13 crop seasons with 11.67 and 9.67 coccinellids/ 5plants, respectively. Both maximum and minimum temperature had major role to build up the populatio...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...cular biology of plant parasitic nematodes during the early seventies of last century. The main research areas were biochemical mechanism of resistance against phytonematodes and diagnostics of economically important plant parasitic nematodes. Specific isozymes have been identified for differentiating the important root knot nematodes species of India belonging to the genus Meloiodogyne. Further, molecular markers like RAPDs...

Someshwar Bhagat and Sitansu Pan

Comparative ecological behaviour of some pre- and post-tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from Andaman & Nicobar Islands
...isolates showed better parasitic ability and rhizosphere colonization when the competition of other organisms withdrawn compared to natural and sun dried soil. Both competitive parasitic behaviour and rhizosphere colonization was low in post-Tsunami isolates of Trichoderma. The chlamydospore inoculum was found best in percentage colonization of sclerotia of boh R. solani and S. rolfsii, followed by mycelial and conidial inoc...

V. S. Desai, S. D. Desai, A. J. Mayekar and V.G. More 

Infestation of coconut eriophyid mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer in Konkan region of Maharashtra
... in Konkan region of Maharashtra from January 2002. Three orchards from this area were surveyed to record infestation level of this pest in April and October of 2004 and March 2005. The survey indicated that the infestation was higher in Thane district followed by Sindhudurg district.
 

 

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Manidipa Chowdhury 

Incidence of saw fly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug. as influenced by level of irrigation and fertilizers on mustard
...d c.v. NC-1 (Jhumka) of Brassica campestris var. yellow sarson. Highest saw fly population (0.26 larvae/plant) was recorded on the crop grown without irrigation and medium level of fertilizers (60:30:30 Kg NPK ha-1) while lowest population level (0.10 larvae/plant) was observed at highest level of irrigation (three) coupled with medium level of fertilizers (60:30:30 kg NPK ha-1) and two irrigations coupled with lowest level of fertilizers (40:20:20 Kg NPK ha-1...

S. Choudhury and S. Pal

Population dynamics of mustard aphid on different Brassica cultivars under terai agro-ecological conditions of West Bengal
...the aphids on different Brassica cultivars seem to be governed by varietal characteristics of different germplasms. Brassica campestris varieties as a group harboured relatively higher populations of the aphid than Brassica juncea varieties.
 

 

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V. N. Jalgaonkar, M. S. Gawankar, V. W. Bendale and P. D. Patil

Efficacy of some insecticides against cashew tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii Sign
... of Konkan region of Maharashtra State. Nearly 60 different pests have been reported on cashew. Among them the Tea Mosquito Bug, Helopeltis antonii Sign. is the most serious one, which is responsible for considerable yield losses in cashew. A field trial was conducted during 2005 at Cashew Research Farm, Regional Fruit Research station, Vengurle, Dist. Sindhudurg, (M.S.) with an objective to identify an alternative insecticide for management of Tea Mosquito Bu...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
... The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly (P<0.05) high in infected groups A and B. On 3rd, 5th and 9th day five birds from each group were slaughtered and histopathological lesions observed in bursa, spleen and thymus and compared with control. Mild to severe hemorrhages and lymphocytic depletion, follicle necrosis, leukocytic infiltration...
Sohail Ahmed, Muhammad Arshad and Babar Hassan*
...pping application in contrast to coating method. Drying of woods prior to resin application was also effective in resisting termites’ infestation. The findings of treatment with resins are discussed with previously cited effects of resins and its implication in wood preservation.
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Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...ated by inoculation of parasitized weed propagules like infected leaves, stems, root and floral parts on different fungal growth media. The diagnostic characteristic features of each isolate were critically studied using relevant literature. The pathogenicity of the isolates was examined to select biocontrol agent against host weed. 
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Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...mechanical as well as intrastadial and transstadial routes. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of two LSDV isolates from Ixodid (hard) ticks (Amblyomma hebraeum) in Egypt. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that both isolates had nine nucleotide mutations in compar...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
...y;">Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) comprise a large and diverse family of enzymes with a wide phylogenetic distribution. They are multifunctional enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular detoxification and oxidative stress tolerance. Comparing with that in mammals, investigation of GSTs is more complicated in teleosts because of the greater pressure they suffer in aquatic environment. In this study, we identified a set of 27 GSTs including 8 classes of ...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...erse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure. Out of 600 examined locations twenty two (22) H9N2 subtypes isolates were recorded. The total prevalence recorded was 3.66%and out of 498 broiler operations yielded 17 (3.4%) positive isolates and 44 golden type native chicken farms yielded 05 (11.36%) isolates of AIV H9N2 and 58 captive pheasant’s samples were negative. It was observed that frequ...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
...r HBV by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Out of 659, 522 (79.21%) were found positive for HBV, of which 318 (over all 4.4%) were male, while 341 (over all 3.55%) were female. The HBV PCR positivity rate was 80.18% (n=255) in males and 78.30% (n=267) in females patients. Among different age groups HBV PCR positivity was highest (n=181, 83.41%) in the age group of 31 to 40 years. HBV genome was detected in 79.21% of HBsAg positive samples, showing that HBsA...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...veloped to detect hyperparasitism in cotton mealybug. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive and major pest on cotton. Aenasius bambawalei (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an effective parasitoid of mealybug and has been the backbone of the biological control program of cotton mealybug in Pakistan, but its multiplication for inundative releases has been impacted by a hype...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...leaves of rose, citrus, brassica and wheat (1.2±0.2006, 1.3556±0.1416, 1.5778±0.1829, 2.1444±0.2027, respectively) attracted significantly more numbers of C. septempunctata as compared to control and aphids alone (0.7667±0.1204 and 0.8333±0.1153). With every next hour (3, 6 and 12 h) of observation the movement of C. septempunctata toward target localities was elevated. Finding of the current investigatio...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...2 allele using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). While total level of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all serum samples. This study indicated that the frequency of both alleles HLA-DRB1*11and HLA-DRB1*12 in aero allergy patients is less as compared to healthy controls. HLA-DRB1*11 demonstrated significant association with aeroallergens and could have a protective role for allergy while...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...ustify;">The brood ectoparasitic mites, Tropilaelaps clareae is causing greater damage to Apis mellifera colonies and major economic losses (a serious threat) to beekeeping industry in Pakistan. Seven treatments including five essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), oregano (Origanium vulgare), lemon (Citrus lemon) and thyme (Thymus linearus
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
...f gene was done by polymerase chain reaction. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally, aligned and single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Bioinformatics tools were applied for construction of phylogenetic tree and genetic diversity analysis. Lower genetic diversity was observed. The finding of this research is prerequisite for future research.
...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...>(Fabricius 1781), Micraspis allardi (Mulsant 1853) and Propylea dissecta (Mulsant 1850) belonged to tribe Coccinellini (Latreille 1807) of subfamily Coccinellinae (Latreille 1807). Two species belonged to tribe Chilocorini (Costa 1849) of subfamily Chilocorinae (Mulsant 1846) i.e. Brumoides suturalis (Fabricius 1798) and Exochomus nigripennis (Erichson 1843). Two species namely Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabr...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
...Glover, jassids Amrasca devastans Distant, whiteflies Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, thrips Thrips tabaci Lindeman, red cotton bugs Dysdercus koenigii Walk and dusky cotton bugs Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa, has been a challenge on transgenic (Bt) cotton crop all over the world. This study assessed the field efficacy of six commercial insecticides viz.; Blaster 72.5%WP (imidacloprid + acephate), Bugatti 50%SC (imidacl...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...tify;">Root rot is very drastic disease prevalent in major cotton producing areas of Pakistan. Complex nature of disease due to root rot fungi and root-knot nematode cause huge losses to cotton. Experiments were conducted to assess the role of fungi and root knot nematodes in root rot disease complex of cotton and to optimize their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on dis...
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...of reported intestinal parasitic infections for patients visiting Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, KSA from 2010 to 2014. Our retrospective study estimated a total 775 case out of 11110 case were infected with one or more intestinal parasites, with prevalence rate 6.98 %. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection during the period of study was as follows; Ascaris lumb...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
...h of root zone for each grass and the root portion was separated, weighed, oven dried at 60 Co for estimating below ground pytomass carbon Mg C ha-1. Carbon pool in above ground phtyomass was 0.08 MgCha-1 while below ground phytomass carbon was estimated as 0.05 MgCha-. In grazed and un-grazed sites, the SOC (%) MgCha-1 decreased depth wise as well as in total carbon MgCha-1. In grazed site, the...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...l O Methyl transferase (COMT) gene and association of these genes with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Pakistani Patients. We selected OCD patients (n=100) following the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) criteria and controls (n=120) from Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and Panjab Institute of Mental Health, Lahore from August 2011 to January 2014. During the sample collection the factors like age/period, employment status and marit...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

...cium application. By contrast, salinity increased the BER incidence but the salinity-induced increase in BER incidence was lower with calcium application as compared to control plants.

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Asad Abdullah1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Waqar Hassan2,    Samina Khalid3, Yasir Iftikhar4, Muhammad Arshad1 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6
...a: Aleyrodidae) and Amrasca biguttula Ishida, (Homopter: Cicadellidae) infesting Bt and non-Bt cotton cultivars. Foliar application of neem seed, Azadirachta indica extract was applied upon reaching economic threshold levels of B. tabaci and A. biguttula. The insect pest population was recorded 24 hours before and 24h, 72h and 168h after spray. Maximum reduction of 60.20% of B. tabaci on Bt cotton was rec...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
Nasira Kazi1, Muhammad Israr2 and Shahina Fayyaz1,*
...Paradorylaimus Andrassy 1969 is described and illustrated from Pakistan. Paradorylaimus dorsocaudali new species differ from all known species of the genus in having smaller body length, tail length and odontostyle length. The new species is characterized by 1.3-1.6 mm long female body, lip region truncate, offset by weak depression, odontostyle 21.4-23.2 µm long is and 2.8-3 µm wide, twice as long as the lip region width; vulva longi...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...sociated with altered infrastructure, new or modified machinery, or increased labour. 

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Habibun Nabi1, Saher Islam2, Amna Arshad Bajwa2, Imran Rashid1,*, Haroon Akbar1, Wasim Shehzad2, Kamran Ashraf1, Nisar Ahmad1 and Aneela Durrani3
...is caused by coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. One third of human population of the world is believed to be infected with T. gondii. Cats serve as final host of Toxoplasma gondii and are the main source of contamination of soil and water. Fecal samples from cats at Pet center of UVAS (Lahore, Pakistan) were screened for coccidian parasites through microscopy examination. DNA was extracted fro...
Rabia Arif*, Shahar Bano, Muhammad Ishfaq and Muhammad Saleem
... were taken from two contrasting environments (Natural and Harsh) from the south facing and north facing slopes of Evolution Canyon, Israel. Sequenced amplicons were introduced to the NCBI database as a query in BLASTN. The query revealed >100% resemblance with the Ascomycota genus Sordaria and the topmost species in this investigation was fimicola. Circular Phylogram showed close relatedness among the strains under study and potential associa...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
... improved, for proper infrastructure and latest communication technologies so that extension workers may have far reaching approach to disseminate the improved technologies and give benefit to the farmers. 
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Nehafta Bibi1, Muhammad Shafiq2, Munawar Saleem Ahmad3 and Haitao Wang1,4,*
...study, we investigated Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus) dominant individuals for neophobia and influence of social context on foraging. In our experiments, a subject (observer) was presented with three novel and familiar food in each of three contexts: asocial, first social context (conspecifics without food) and second social context (conspecifics with food). The results showed that individuals preferred to consume novel food only in social context c...
Tahira*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan and Mubashar Ahmad Khan
...ncement in rapeseed (Brassica napus).For this thirty-six rapeseed hybrids were sown in a RCBD with four repeats at NARC, Islamabad during the cropping season 2014 and 2015. Cluster analysis based on WARD’s method showed considerable genetic variation among the hybrids. In the first year, thirty- six Brassica hybrids were grouped into thirteen clusters. Cluster-IV comprised of maximum number of hybrids (six). The...
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...f the glutathione transferase isoenzyme P1-1 gene from Camelus dromedarius (CdGSTP1-1). The coding sequence was cloned using RT-PCR. Sequence analysis demonstrated significant differences between amino acid sequence of C. dromedarius and other mammalian GSTP1-1 enzymes. Phylogenetic relationship was studied with different organisms belonging to animal kingdom and revealed that CdGSTP1-1 is grouped with the enzyme from S. scrofa
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
...icultural activities, infrastructure and land sliding and disturbances by the increasing human population were major threats to the avian fauna of Rawalakot.
...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect representative virulence factors or genes, including E.coli adherence factor (K88, CS31A, afaE-8), toxins (estA, estB, Stxl, Stx2, EAST1), pathogenicity island (eaeA, irp2, ETT2) and outer membrane protein (ompA). Moreover O-antigen serotype was tested by slide agglutination test and a mouse model was built to assess the lethality of the E.coli isol...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...c intestinal protozoan parasitic infection in farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. One hundred and fifteen (11.04%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal protozoans. Forty one (35.6%) of the participants were infected with single paras
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...ht after calving. In contrast GG homozygotes had the longest intercalving period. The results prove the existence of dependencies between genu PIT-1 gene polymorphism in locus c.1178G>A, reproductive potential and body weight of cows and calves. More favorable results were observed in AA homozygotes. It is possible to use these dependencies in genetic selection of farm animals. In order to confirm the obtained results it would be advisable to conduct...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...the efficiency of this parasitoid is variable according to the locality and the plants on which P. solenopsis is feeding. In this context, this experiment investigated under field and laboratory conditions the influence of the host plant of P. solenopsis on the parasitism success and the female fitness of A. bambawalei, Five plant species, commonly found to be host of P. solenopsis, were te...
Sayyed Ghyour Abbas1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1,*, Muhammad Akbar Khan1, Kiran Aftab2, Ayesha Riaz3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...>salmontanus, Elachistoceras khauristanensis and Gazella lydekkeri. The boselaphines are predominant at the type locality. The taxa are consistent with a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene age of the deposits. The findings expand our knowledge on the dental anatomic features of the described species that existed in the Middle Siwalik Subgroup during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene.
...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...nline software and luciferase reporter gene system were used to predict and verify the target relationship between miR-122 and DUSP4/PDK4, miR-449a and FKBP1B. Thereafter, comparison analysis was done on miR-122, miR-449a, DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B mRNA expression levels in different bull testes tissues (1-day, 12-months-old and 24-months-old). In addition, genes mRNA and protein levels were detected after bull testicular...
Salma Javed, Saima Majeed, Nasira Kazi and Shahina Fayyaz*
...jpuri and Loof, 1968) Andrassy, 2009 is reported for the first time from Pakistan is briefly redescribed and illustrated.

 

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Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...l/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 35.56±1.16iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 44.16±1.83 iu/L were recorded for adult birds while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were significantly (P<0.05) higher 104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical parameters of M. gallopavo and significantly (P<0.05) higher values for cholesterol 6.18±0....

Naeem Iftikhar1, Qamar Zaman Qamar2, Usman Ali3, Muhammad Siddique Awan4, Syeda Shaista Bibi4, Riaz Aziz Minhas4*

...ck grazing and seasonal grass cutting, fire and hunting were identified as major threats to the survival of this species in AJK. This study recommended the immediate formulation and implementation of Cheer pheasant conservation action plan along with declaration of its potential habitats as protected area to ensure the further survival of this important species.

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Ayesha Aihetasham*, Faiza Qayyum and Muhammad Xaaceph

Muhammad Zamin* and Abdul Mateen Khattak 

...its suitability as turf grass needed to be assessed for conservation and to combat salinity problem. For this purpose, various ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were investigated by conducting mowing tests in the year 2013 under UAE climatic conditions. Fifty ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were cut at various heights, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Significant differences were found among various ecotypes and mowing heights for different growth and quality parameter...
...hore Zoo (site 1) in contrast to lions at display at Safari zoo Lahore (site 2). The frequency of natural behavior was periodic in African lions housed at Safari zoo Lahore. In the present study stereotypic behavior in lions represented here as a tool to measure the level of comfort at housing sites. This behavioral display also defines the safety of these groups of lions kept in distinct captive environment. This is evident that the quality of lodging environ...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...llinators on canola (Brassica napus L. Var. Chakwal Sarsoon) crops along with managed Apis mellifera. Thirty five insect species belonging to twenty families under five orders were recorded on canola. Among the hymenopterans, abundance of managed A. mellifera was maximum (87.76%) followed by Apis florea (1.11%) and Apis dorsata (0.98%). Peak activity of the insect visitors was observed at the mid of the day i.e., 12:00...

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

... IPM technique natural parasites and predators are used to check pest growth instead of pesticides which reduces ecological and health damage. Pesticides are used at the last resort in IMP method so it reduces the cost of production and increases the farmers’ profit. However, concerns about production may hinder widespread adoption of this technology by farmers. The aim of the study is to evaluate economic feasibility of IPM method in Punjab. The study c...

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

...la (L.) in Cauliflower, Brassica oleracea crop at District Haripur of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Field studies results showed that the population of P. xylostella gradually increased from mid of July where the population was 2.1 and 2.0 larvae and pupae per plant in the year 2012 and 2013 respectively. The population increased in September to highest number of larvae and pupae per plant (8.25 and 8.4) were recorded in the years 2012 and 2013 respectively. Then popula...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
...e infected with single parasite and one hundred forty four (13.8%) with multiple infections. Taenia saginata 32.6% (n=146/447), Ascaris lumbricoides 20.3% (n=91/447), Hymenolepis nana 19.7% (n=88/447), Trichuris trichura 14.3% (n=64/447), Enterobius vermicularis 6.48% (n=29/447), Ancylostoma duodenale 2.90% (n=13/447), Entamoeba histolytica 2.68% (n=12/447), and Giardia lamblia/intestinalis 0.89%(n=4/447)...
Sumaira Zareen1, Syeda Sadaf Zahra2, Ayeza Mehmood3, Muhammad Asadullah4* and Aish Muhammad5

 

...d cultured on standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of benzyl amino purine (BAP) or kinetin for shoot induction and Indole acetic acid (IAA) for primary shoot and Indole Butyric acid (IBA) for root proliferation. Best shoot proliferation (4.48 per explant) was observed in MS medium containing 0.2/0.4 mg/L BAP/IAA combination. For rooting of the micro shoots, MS medium was supplemented with 1.0 mg/l...

Ata-ul-Mohsin*, Ehsan-ul-Haq** and Muhammad Naeemullah*

...hodum (Walker) and its parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Steph.). High calcium and high phosphorus concentrations applied to a partially resistant wheat cultivar “Rapier” did not have a significant effect on the growth and development of the aphid or its parasitoid. However, the mean fecundity of the parasitoid was higher on plants with high phosphorus than those treated wit...

Haq Nawaz Malik*, Iffat Ara**, Muhammad Naeem, Mozammil Hussain, M. Hanif Munawwar and M. Yousaf

...m number of grains (51) Grast-8288 produced the lowest (29). One hundred grain weight ranged from 23g (EV-6098) to 39g (2512).

...

 Ghulam Shabbir*, Muhammad Aftab, Abid Mahmood** Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah* and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

...seed research including Brassica crops. Long and consistent breeding efforts on Brassica improvement programme by the breeders has resulted in the development of a high yielding and drought tolerant elite line SPS-5, selected from the segregating progenies of a cross between Ganyou-4 x Westar. Breeding was carried out by the pedigree method and the elite line was evaluated for its yield potential in various yield trials cond...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

...n insect acetylcholinesterase (AChEs). The enzyme activities were tested for the effect of saponins. The AChE activity of T. castaneum was inhibited by the saponins and follows competitive inhibition kinetics. In case of A. mellifera enzyme activity was not inhibited. In vitro and in vivo inhibition was observed for T. castaneum at larval stages, in dose dependent and time dependent manner. LC50 was determined to be 0....
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...among population. In contrast, the majority of diversity (88.98%) occurred among individual within a population. Results from Nei’s genetic distance indicated that the YX and TB populations were grouped in one cluster, which was clustered with the ZZ population, the LX population was grouped in a separated cluster. Low genetic diversity and strong genetic differentiation have been found in this study. The baseline population genetic information supplied ...
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
... ticks. Soil cores from grasslands were baited with last instars of the great wax moth (GWM), Galleria mellonella L., and an EPN isolate was obtained, it belonged to the genus Heterorhabditis and identified as JMO71. The nematodes were cultivated in GWM larvae, and the emerging infective juveniles (IJs) were collected from White traps, and pooled in canted neck vented plastic flasks. The susceptibility of an important livestock arthropod, the cat...
Muhammad Kashif Maan1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Muhammad Ijaz2, Hamid Akbar1, Sajid Umar 3 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*
...) in serum alanine aminotrasferase, aspartate transaminase and blood urea nitrogen as compared to isoflurane anesthesia; whereas, no statistical difference (P>0.05) was observed for alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and bilirubin between the two groups. Heart rate, blood pressure and saturation of oxygen were decreased in both groups but this decline was significantly lesser (P<0.05) in isoflurane administered group com...

 Nazakat Nawaz, Malik Shah Nawaz*, Nasir M. Cheema** and Mubashir A. Khan*

Corresponding author:nazakat_nawaz@yahoo.com

ZINC AND IRON APPLICATION TO OPTIMIZE SEED YIELD OF MUSTARD
... and 2006. The mustard (Brassica juncea) variety BARD-1 was treated with various -1 levels of Zn and Fe, (0-0, 0-1.5, 0-3, 2.5-0, 2.5-1.5, 2.5-3, 5-0, 5-1.5 kgha and -1 -1 5-3 kgha ), respectively. A basal dose of 90N and 60P kg ha was applied, in the form of Urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) with Zn and Fe. The increase in -1 Zn and Fe fertility from 0-1.5 to 5-1.5 kg ha increased yield of BARD-1. The maximum yield response was recorded when 5 kg ha-1 -1 ...

 A. N. Naqvi and K. Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF LIVESTOCK DISEASES IN NOMAL AND NALTAR VALLEYS GILGIT, PAKISTAN
...oductive diseases, endoparasites, ectoparasites, wounds, hematuria, respiratory diseases, emaciation, hemorrhagic septic-emia, tumour, blue tongue, cow pox, enterotoxaemia, tetanus, paralysis and arthritis. In precise, endoparasites were found in 25.3% animals followed by respiratory diseases (24.74%). Most of the cattle (2053) and sheep (926) were found affected with endopa

 Arshad Ali, Imdad Ali Mahmood, Muhammad Salim, Muhammad Arshadullah* and Abdul Rasool Naseem**

GROWTH AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE SODIC CONDITIONS
...d yield response of six Brassica cultivars (BARD-I, Dunkled, Rainbow, BRS-II, Sultan Raya and cv. 95102-5) under saline sodic conditions. Data on growth and yield parameters were collected randomly (average of five plants per replication) at the time of crop maturity. Ionic concentration in plant tissues and oil content in seeds were also determined. Comparatively more number of branches and pods per plant were produced by cultivar Dunkled closely followed by ...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
...d that maximum rate of parasitism was 95.70 ± 1.94 at 28 ± 1 °C while minimum was 61.30 ± 1.70 at 32 ± 1 °C. Maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2± 5.83 female ratio at 28 ±1 °C while minimum was 51.10% with female ratio of 58.1 at 32±1 °C. The maximum developmental duration (9.6 ± 0.32 days) and adult longe...

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Akhter Ali**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi**, Naveed Jehan*, Imran Ullah* and Majid Khan*

ASSESSMENT OF POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF PLUM IN SWAT, PAKISTAN
...ng materials and poor infrastructure. Total post harvest losses in the marketing channel of the plum were 21.51% of which 5.12% occurred at farm level, 1.44% at wholesale level, 6.31% at retail level, and 8.64% at the consumer level. Harvesting at proper maturity, using experienced labor and storage facility can reduce extent of post harvest losses of plum.

...

 Nasia Batool*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar**, Imdad Hussain Mirza** and Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan**

MIXING LESS PALATABLE GRASSES WITH UREA, MOLASSES AND EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS AND ITS EFFECT ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...tation of low palatable grasses with urea, molasses and Effective Microorganisms (EM) on chemical composition and digestibility in goats. (HC), (CA), (SH) and (DB) were used and the combinations were grass + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea, grass + 4% urea + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea + 1:100 EM, g...

 Shahida Khalid*and Shahida Nasreen Khokhar*

INTERACTION OF HERBICIDES AND BIO-INOCULANTS WITH AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND WEEDS
...oratory conditions were Brassica spp. and Zea mays while Phalaris minor was the test weed. In first experiment, Brassica and maize, grown in soils having residues of either Triasulfuron+Terbutryn (Logran) or Sulfosulfuron (Leader), were found to significantly mitigate (% increase in root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) the inhibitory effect of residues , when inoculated with Azospirillum A4. In second expe...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
... and nutritive value of grasses namely Brachiaria brizantha, B. mulato, and B. mutica and five legume herbs such as Clitoria ternatea, Dolichos lablab, Macroptilium bracteatum, Centrosema pascuorum and Centrosema pascuorum in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia using completely randomised block design. Each species was planted on 2.5m x 3m plot, and repeated 6 and 4 times in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Parameters measured include plant height, tillage number, dr...

 Nazir Ahmad*, Sultan Ayaz*, Sumaira Shams**, Karimullah*** and Riaz Ahmad****

PREVALENCE AND MORPHOLOGY OF HELMINTH PARASITES OF FISH FROM RIVER SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
... study of the Helminth parasites of fish of River Swat was conducted from September, 2012 to August, 2013. A total of 250 fish belonging to five genera and six species were examined. The parasites collected were Diplozoon khyberensis, Bathybothrium rectangulum, Bothriocephalus, Nippotaenia, Cucullanidae, Proteocephalus, Rhabdochona charsaddiensis, Rhabdochona schizothoracis and Neoechynorhynchus devdevi. They were identified...

 Aniqa Iram*, Javed Khan**, Nadeem Aslam**, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Habib Iqbal Javed**, Muhammad Irfan*, Awais Rasool*, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi** and Sumera Aslam* 

EFFICACY OF PLANT DERIVED OILS AND EXTRACTS AGAINST WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI (GENNADIUS) ON SESAME CROP
...cine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soy...

 Mian Sabahatullah*, Manzoor Ahmad Mashwani**, Qurratul Ain Tahira* and Mian Inayatullah*

NEW RECORD OF SUBFAMILY CHARMONTINAE (BRACONIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) IN PAKISTAN WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES
...e larval and pupal endoparasitoids of lepidopterous insect pests and their recorded hosts belong to 16 families of Lepidoptera.

...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...of mixing low palatable grasses namely Heteropogon contortus, Desmostachya bipinnata, Sorghum halepense and Chrysopogon aucheri with tree leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil) in the ratio of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, along with sole species on their chemical composition. Samples were analyzed for proximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry m...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...of mixing low palatable grasses of Heteropogon contortus (HC), with tree leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil, II) in the ratio of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, along with sole species on their digestibility in small ruminants. Goats fed II , HC II , HC II , HC II and HC had similar 100% 25% 75% 50% 50% 75% 25% 100% dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) consumption among all the treatments. The digestibility percentage of dry matter intake (DMI...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

INOCULATION AND INTER-CROPPING OF LEGUMES IN ESTABLISHED GRASS FOR INCREASING BIOMASS OF FODDER
...67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
...ctivities of carboxylesterase (CE), total esterases (TE), alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, alkaline phosphatase (AkP), acidic phosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri dishes. The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline and centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses. Re...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

IMPROVING FODDER QUALITY OF PANICUM GRASS THROUGH INTERCROPPING OF LEGUMES AND THEIR INOCULATION
...ntercropping of Panicum grass with legumes (33%, 50% and 67%) with or without inoculation to investigate its fodder quality. The study clearly indicated that quality of fodder increased significantly both with the legumes and inoculation. The intercropping of Panicum grass with 67% inoculation proved the best combination. The 6-7% higher crude protein (CP) of mixed fodder was recorded from 67% intercropping in comparison to ...

 Israr Ali*, Naushad Ali*, Riffat Tahira**, Sardar Ali*, Izhar Hussain* and Sher Aslam Khan*

GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN BRASSICA GERMPLASM BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES
...Genetic diversity of 28 Brassica genotypes was studied using different morphological attributes. Data were recorded on days to maturity (DM), -1 -1 plant height (PH), primary branches plant (PBPP), pod length (PL), seed pod (SP), -1 1000-seed weight (1000-SW), yield plant (YPP) and oil (%). Three checks (Pakola, CM and TA), were used to check the performance of collected materials with already available brassica varieties. S...

 Sameera Arshad*, Iftikhar Hussain*, Maqsood Anwar* and Sarwat Naz Mirza*

HABITAT SURVEY FOR RECOGNIZING BIRD ATTRACTANTS AROUND BENAZIR BHUTTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...ng society with covered trash transfer facility (with rank, 1.3) had least bird attracting sites. About 64 plant species and 34 bird species were recorded during the survey. Results indicated that habitat near BBIA is highly conducive for bird activity which in return is a serious safety concern for aircraft operation. Outcome of this study could be incorporated into off airfield bird management programme for monitoring bird activity and land use practices aro...

 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

SPATIAL PRICE TRANSMISSION IN PAKISTAN: THE CASE OF WHEAT AND RICE MARKETS
...cations and transport infrastructure. All the wheat markets are adjusted to price changes in the long run equilibrium except few markets. Unidirectional and bidirectional causality exists between wheat and rice markets. Bad and poor infrastructure is a major impediment to price transmission among the markets. These market imperfections lead to food insecurity in the country. Government should formulate better policies and de...

  Sohaib Arshad*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar** and Maqbool Shahbaz**

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC RHODES GRASS ACCESSIONS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...;"> Utilization of grasses as fodder and forage is the most important source of nutrition for cattle as it provides them with metabolizable energy, carbohydrates, proteins and other important minerals. As global warming is increasing, overall water scarcity is resulting in deterioration of natural resources, and it is need of the hour to find fodder crop resources which are more accustomed to change climatic conditions. Hence, different exotic and indigen...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

MARKETING SYSTEM OF LIVE CAMELS IN THE DESERT ECOLOGIES OF PAKISTAN
...lack of proper market infrastructure/facilities compel farmers to sell camels at village level to the village dealers and fellow farmers at relatively low prices. Percent difference in prices at wholesale market and village levels were 28.6, 12.9, 6.0 and 0.5 for adult male, wet female, dry female and young stock, respectively. The prevailing marketing situation of live camels is an indicative of exploitation farmers from the village dealers/market intermediar...

  Mohammad Umar Farooq* , Sarfraz Ahmad ** , Mohammad Islam and Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar ***

ASSESSING THE STATUS OF CARBON POOL IN TWO RANGELAND GRASSES ( ) IN POTHWAR, REGION, PAKISTAN
...ducted in two rangeland grasses and in field area of Rangeland Research Institute (RRI), National Agricultural Research Centre, (NARC), Islamabad. Carbon is considered as the most important component of green house gases. Carbon sequestration during the photosynthesis process via plant biomass is the extent of this atmospheric gas. Data for above and below phytomass for two rangeland grasses was collected and carbon pool was...
Rabia Faiz and Dilara A. Bukhari*
...(B.t.) produces parasporal inclusion bodies Cry and Cyt proteins. The present study focuses on determining the insecticidal activity of cyt positive B.t. strains against 3rd instar larvae of mosquito. Larval mortality was noted after 24 h and GCU B.t. 4 (400± 1.15) was found to be the most toxic against 3rd instar larvae of mosquitoes. Spores LC50 values of other isolates were 451± 0.90...
Selçuk Kaplan1,* and Sertaç Atalay2
...s were examined by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the regulatory region of the IGF1 gene was detected by amplification of the 294 bp region using specific primers and cleavage with the BfoI enzyme. Allele frequencies of A and B were found with 0.915 and 0.085 respectively. The genotype frequencies of IGF1 gene were 0.85 (AA), 0.13 (AB) and 0.02 (BB). T...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Arshad1, Rashid Mahmood2,* and Ziyad Abdul Qadir2
...oa destructor. Ectoparasitic mite, V. destructor is considered the most important parasite of A. mellifera L. that badly affects the development and performance of bees. Main objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of five synthetic acaricides (Bayvarol®, Apivar®, Apistan® Apitol® and Perizin®) against
David Beckwith Greene
...s seeking: Both a fresh grasp on the discontinuity between humankind and other moments of natural history and a new kind of continuity.
...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...erse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcriptase loop mediated isothermal amplification over the last decade. These diagnostic assays vary in their sensitivity, specificity, reliability and reproducibility. Although these assays are detecting PPRV with precision but there is need to develop some cost effective diagnostic assays which would be ...
Zheng Quan Jiang1,2, Feng Shan Li3, Jiang Hong Ran1,*, Chen Hao Zhao1, Man Zhang1 and Hua Li4
...i> natural island nest, grass mound nest, dirt mound nest and floating grass nest. The nest length, nest width, nest height and nest volume among the four types of nests all were significantly different in the order: floating grass nests >dirt mound nests >grass mound nests >natural island nests, indicating that nest size was related to nest typ...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza2, Muhammad Afzal2,Hafiz Salah-ud-Din2, Imtiaz Sarwar2, Muhammad Yahya2 and Khurram Shehzad3
...es viz. natural (grassland, forest/silviculture, barren) and agricultural (lemon, guava, lychee orchards, rice-wheat crop) lands on soil macroinvertebrate fauna. Random sampling was done in winter 2015 and summer 2016 using monoliths and pitfall traps. Results revealed that land-used types exert a differential impact on the diversity and population abundance of macrofaunal communities. Highest indices of macroinvertebrate diversity, richness and evennes...
Zhiping Hu, Hussain Ahmad, Jingfei Zhang, Lili Zhang and Tian Wang*
... and alanine aminotransferase were significantly increased compared to CON group at 42d in broilers. Serum globulin content (21d) and total protein content (42d) were lower in T2 group than that of CON group. Serum total antioxidant capacity was higher and malondialdehyde content was lower in T1 group than that of CON group at 21d. Serum glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity was significantly increased in T1 group compared to CON group at 42d. Malondialdehyde...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
... and trypsin. While, esterase, esterase lipase, α-chymotrypsine, α-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, N-acetyl- β-glucosaminidase, α-mannosidase, and α-fucosidase were recorded as negative. Moreover, S. dysenteriae IM showed elevated alkaline-phosphatase, leucine arylamidase, trypsin, and acidic-phosphatase activities. The present study reveals th...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
...Nigeria is affected by parasites they harbour. Some of these parasites endanger humans as well. This study was conducted to determine the terrestrial snail species and associated helminth parasites in Ugwueme agricultural zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. The snails were collected from two communities. Light and teasing methods were used for recovery of paras
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
...in Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, serum creatinine, urea whereas decrease in glucose level in diseased animals. The current study concluded that paying close attention to animal feeding, housing and keeping may reduce the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep.
...
Muhammad Arshad,1* Sajjad Ahmad1, Muhammad Sufyan1, Zain-ul Abdin1 and Sumaira Maqsood2
...th strip intercropping (brassica, alfalfa, berseem and garlic) and wheat monoculture. Results showed that the first aphid was seen in the last week of January while the predator population was first recorded during the first week of March. Aphid population was maximum on wheat monoculture when 130 specimens were recorded per tiller. Among strip cropping garlic showed maximum population (113 per tiller) followed by brassica (...
Farhan Ahmad1,*, Muhammad Waris Sanjrani1, Shah Nawaz Khuhro1, Asif Sajjad2, Abid Ali3, Rashad Rasool Khan3, Farooq Ahmed3 and Junhe Liu4,*
...ly populations and its parasitism with connection to temperature and relative humidity was conducted in fourteen cotton growing districts of Sindh province (southern Pakistan) for 2012 and 2013 seasons. There was a significant difference in whitefly population and percent parasitism among the fourteen districts. The highest average whitefly populationof two consecutive years was recorded in Khaipur, Sukhur, Sangar and Nausha...
Sherin Reda Rouby
...owed by 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) together with tissue culture-adapted cattle LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain and two Sheep poxvirus vaccinal strains as control. LSDV yield amplicon differed in length by 21 nucleotides from those produced from SPPV either field or vaccinal strain. Among different LSD clinical samples, skin nodules and scabs are proved excellent sample material a...

Nadia Faqir1, Aish Muhammad2*, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Armghan Shehzad2, Hafeez Ur Rahman3, Farhatullah4 and Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder

...alysis of two genes (maturase k and geranyl geranyl biphosphate reductase) from chloroplast region. Analysis of variance has revealed significant variation among the studied date palm samples pertaining to the studied physical traits and chemical composition of fruit. Sequences of the maturase k gene has complete identity to the reference genome of ‘Khalas’ cultivar. While geranyl geranyl biphosphate reductase ha...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...erse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Same samples were further processed for the isolation of virus by embryonated egg inoculation technique. Moreover, out of 507 samples, 479 serum samples were scrutinized by enzyme linked immunosorbent essay (ELISA). Sero-prevalence of AIV among different species of wild birds was as follows; peacock (n=35; 14%), duck (n=5; 2%), migratory water fowl (n=3; 1%), pheasant (n=2; 0.8%), grey leg goose (n=1; 0.4%...

Feroza Haider1,2, Shamim Gul2,3*, Javaid Hussain4, Sadaf Asalam Ghori5, Muhammad Naeem Shahwani6, Muhammad Murad6 and Abdul Manan Kakar

...edible parts (roots) of Brassica rapa (turnip) under groundwater and wastewater irrigation. Biochars were applied at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kg m-2 to soil. Amendment of biochar increased significantly the aboveground plant biomass by 28% - 34.3% under groundwater and 18.3% - 30.4% under wastewater irrigation. Dry weight of root biomass increased by 16.1% - 20.2% under groundwater and by 21% - 31.2% under wastewater irrigation in response to biochar amendment. Wood-de...
Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1,*, Hummaira Iqbal1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Haseena Ghulam Muhammad1 and Muhammad Irfan1
...citricola were more drastic than bifenthrin. It was also recorded that at low prey density, predation by C. citricola was delayed as compared to higher prey densities. C. citricola showed the type I functional response. It is concluded that both studied insecticides are not suitable for IPM program in the study area.
...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...e most dangerous plant parasitic nematode species that infects a huge number of crop plants. It also infects the ornamental plants resulting in a serious growth-limiting factor in ornamentals. In this study, the response of ten ornamental plants to M. incognita was assessed in pot experiments. All the ornamental plant species showed varying degree of infection of M. incognita. Rhapis excels and Ophiopogan japonicas were moderately r...
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...i>which is an obligate parasite. In this study eleven S. mutans strains were isolated from carious lesions on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar along with twenty potentially active Streptomyces strains were isolated from the soil of agriculture farmlands. The biochemical and physiological characterization along with the molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed that caries isolates are pathogenic S. mutans and soil isol...
Niamatullah Kakar, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Shafee and Tauseef Asmat*
...er investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three samples were found positive by PCR test while other detection methods were not that sensitive to detect the tuberculosis at that stage. Two patients were reported with history of tuberculosis but were effectively treated before imprisonment. On age basis, 128/186 (68.88%) patients were of younger age (18-30 years) and 10 (5.37 %) were above 50 year. Illiteracy, unemployment (daily wages) and tobacco smo...
Ambrina Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*

 

...the level of various esterases in deltamethrin-resistant populations of Trogoderma granarium collected from some godowns of Punjab. The level of various esterases like total esterases, cholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, arylesterase and carboxyleste

Ashraf Sayed Awaad1 and Mohamed Zaki Fathy2*  

...dural space guided by ultrasonography (US). This study was conducted on seven lumbosacropelvic regions of goat cadavers and five live goats of both sexes ranged between 25-30 kg body weight. Longitudinal and cross anatomical sections were done on these samples; the sections were photographed and compared with coronal and sagittal sections of CT images. While transverse and parasagittal US were performed in goats over the sel...
Fazul Nabi1,2, Hui Zhang1, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal1 , Mujeeb ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahzad3, Khalid Mehmood1,3 and Jiakui Li1,* 
...e in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum along with decrease in level of antioxidant enzymes and significantly increase in the MDA contents in TD afflicted chickens compared to control group. The SM administration to TD affected birds significantly ameliorated lameness, stimulated ALP level with a decrease in ALT and AST contents, increase in antioxidant parameter and d...
Nadia Saeed1,Mian Sayed Khan2, Habib Ahmad3, Muhammad Abdullah4 and Muzafar Shah5,*
...es infested with plant parasitic nematodes were treated with different organic amendments pigeon manure, horse dung, cow dung, duck manure and castor oil cakes at the rate of 8 Kg/tree and saw dust at the rate of 10kg/tree, respectively. Untreated trees were kept for the comparison. Soil samples and sub samples of both treated and untreated trees after 3, 6 and 12 month from Abbottabad and Mansehra by using Bearmann funnel technique. After Quantitative analysi...
Muhammad Asim Khan1,*, Shahid Niaz Khan1, Sanaullah Khan2, Abdul Jabbar Khan3, Muhammad Adnan4, Nawab Ali5 and Ijaz Ali6
... detection of malarial parasites. In the Southern districts, the overall incidence of Plasmodium slides positivity was 52.47% of which 91.07% were identified as Plasmodium vivax and 6.23% as P. falciparum and 2.69 was 43.62%, of which Plasmodium vivax were 91.2%, Plasmodium falciparum were 6.09% and 2.68% were identified as mixed infections. Malaria was most prevalent in the age group 11 - 20 years (61.68 %,) and 40 -50 > ...
Hazrat Nabi1, Irshad Hussain2, Muhammad Adil3, Amar Nasir3,*, Arbab Sikandar3, Saeed Khan1 and Nasrullah Khan3

 

...ed from Aspergillus parasiticus were mixed in the feed measuring 150 ppb and fed to various broiler groups. Mycotoxin binders were also added into the feed and offered to group E and F from 14th-42nd day of age. The impact of mycotoxin binders on antibody titer against New Castle disease virus, feed consumption, weight gain, relative weights of lymphoid organs and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers were investigated. Chicks fe...

Fatma Abdallah1*, Ola Hassnain2, Elsayed Attar3, Haytham Ali3,5, Mohamed Megahed1 and Venugopal Nair

...ains together with the Eurasian origin viruses in an independent taxonomic unit distant from the North American strain.  

...
Danyu Zhang1, Ying Liu1, Qinxin Shi1, Zhiwei Peng1, Yan Hua1 and Zhijun Hou1,2,*
...about gastrointestinal parasite and bacterium of the sable, but it was important for its health. Five parasitic species and two hundreds thirty four gut bacteria (genus) of the sable were detected by the saturated NaCl floating and next sequencing methods. The parasites were Capillaria sp., Baylisascaris devosi, Echinochasmus sp., and two Coccidian...

Muhammad Shoaib Saleem*, Muhammad Faheem Akbar, Amjad Sultan and Saqib Ali 

...(IGRs) against jassid (Amrasca devastans Dist.) on eggplant crop. The crops were grown in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications, each have five treatments inclusive of control. The recommended doses of Nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (combination of Nitenpyram+Chlorfenapyr) and Buprofezin were applied when population of insect pests reached at economic threshold level (ETL). Pre-treatment data were taken before 24 hours and post-...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabayasachi Pal2, Amit Singh2, Ashok Dhananjaybhai Patel3, Bhagubhai Ambaram Patel3Tushar Manohar Ghule2 and Victor Phani1
...escriptions and beta-esterase phenotyping. The present study elucidated information on M. indica for its easy detection, diagnosis, dimension of damages on citrus, and Bt-cotton under Indian conditions.
...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...ort term immunity in contrast to other pox viruses and also produce localized skin lesions in humans who are in contact with infected animals and their products. Unique and specific virulence genes located at termini of ORFV genome with their encoded products are attributed to host immune evasion, short-term immunity both in natural infection post-vaccination in target species and repeated host susceptibility. However, these genes are variable among ORFV isola...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

 

...iformis, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Lecanicillium muscarium, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Monacrosporium ellipsosporum demonstrated a prominent attraction intensity. The attraction intensity of all these fungi increased with time, while that of two fungi, Dactylaria gracilis and A. dactyloides, remained neutral throughout the ...

Muhammad Khalid1,2 and Muhammad Naeem2* 

... Results indicated that Grass Carp is a rich source of protein (58.35%) in dry body weight, additionally, the pioneer reference to the proximate analysis for this species from farming system of southern Punjab, Pakistan is provided. 

...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...ta and other plant parasitic nematodes multiplied significantly more in untreated soil than in treated soil, which clearly indicated that L. muscarium effectively reduced the nematode infestation level in the soil.
...

Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahito1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1 and Inayatullah Rajper2  

... i.e., Bemesia tabaci, Amrasca biguttula biguttula and Scirtothrips dorsalis was recorded on weekly basis cotton grown with both green manure and IPM treatments. The green manure treatments suffered comparatively higher population of B. tabaci (0.83±0.09) and S. dorsalis (3.43±0.47) than IPM treatment with population of 0.46±0.05 whiteflies and 1.98±0.72 thrips, respectively. However, IPM cotton suffered higher A. biguttula biguttul...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
...apid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for the molecular detection of NPV gene from native NPV diseased insect. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis were performed to compare SlNPV- FSD15 based on Lef-8 with other Lef-8genes sequences clearly showed that our SlNPV-FSD15 isolate belongs to Spodoptera litura associated NPVs. The biological activities of this NPV isolates were investigate...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...ic metabolites and mycoparasitism. In vitro bioassays were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. hamatum and difenoconazole alone or its combinations against S. sclerotiorum. The results showed that T. hamatum could infect and destroy the mycelia and sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum by mycoparasitism. The cell-free culture supernatant and ethylacetate extracts from T. hamatum inhibited myc...

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Muhammad Zeshan1,2, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahmed1 and Sabir Hussain Shah3 

Arifa Mehreen1, Iram Liaqat2,Muhammad Arshad3, Muzzamil Waheed4 and Najma Arshad1,*
...atients. However, the intraspecific association was noticed among these genes. Coa and spa polymorphism and association analysis indicated that spa negative isolates possess Coa of 1200 and 900bp, whereas spa positive isolates contain Coa of 650bp and 750bp. The most prevalent genes, spa, CPs8 and sea may be considered as molecular targets in designing treatment and control strategies.
...

Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali, Liaquat Ali Jamali, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro*, Shakeel Hussain Chattha, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto, Naseer Ahmed Abbasi and Noor Mehdi Qumi  

... covered with sugarcane trash. The samples of sugarcane were taken at an interval of 24 hours to determine different quality parameters i.e. cane weight, brix, pol/sucrose, purity, fiber and commercial cane sugar. The results revealed that weight loss and fibre content throughout increased with increasing storage period. However, a decrease was observed with increasing storage period for brix content, sucrose content, purity percentage and commercial cane suga...
Zain ul Abidin1, Aisha Khatoon2, Abdul Whab Manzoor1,*, Nida Arooj1, Sajjad Ali1 and Muhammad Numan1
...erse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed for both samples gave a product of 443-bp amplifying the highly conserved “N”-region gene of virus confirming the rabies infection in both cases.
...
Amtur Rafeh, Rana Manzoor Ahmad, Ayesha Iqbal, Abdul Majid Khan*
...liocene from Africa to Eurasia. The morphological characteristics indicate this genus as a conservative bovid with simple morphology. 
...

Muhammad Abu Sufyan Ali, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Ghaffar Ali and Muhammad Fayaz 

...pment of agricultural infrastructure. Provision of subsidized inputs could help in raising farmer’s return from agriculture and changing their perception in favor of using their lands for crops and livestock production 

...
Faxiang Wang, Yan Chen, Sai Chen, Xianghong Li, Jian Yu, Jianhui Wang and Yongle Liu*
...ition and properties of grass carp protein. The results show that muscle proteins of grass carp were degraded and underwent conformational changes when stored at 4 °C, and significant changes of the proteins content, as shown by the SDS-PAGE fingerprint, was observed after 6 days of storage. Protein’s surface hydrophobicity and total SH content increased during the first 4 days and then decreased gradually up to 10...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

...lign: justify;">Canola (Brassica napus L.) is a rich source of vegetable oil. Its production is often limited by shortage of water during reproductive stages. Salicylic acid, potassium nitrate and methanol are considered to induce drought tolerance in plants. Field trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar-Pakistan to study the effects of moisture stress and foliar application of chemicals at different growth stages on canola gr...
Li Lv1, Liuan Li1,*, Ruibo Zhang1, Zhichao Deng1, Tianming Jin1 and Gaimei Du2
...d then plateaued. In contrast, these parameters initially increased and subsequently decreased for the high-dose group. Increasing levels of selenium supplementation proportionately increased egg white, egg yolk and total egg selenium levels, as well as egg production (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with selenium enriched yeast increases the egg white, egg yolk and total egg selenium levels, as well as egg production of North China hens (P...

Amar Razzaq1, Abdur Rehman4*, Abdul Hassan Qureshi2, Iqbal Javed3, Raheel Saqib5 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal6 

... concentration of HEI infrastructures installed on the farms. Sprinkler irrigation system was mainly installed on wheat crop while the drip irrigation systems were installed on mango orchards. Therefore, one half of the sample consisted of modern and conventional farmers growing wheat crop and the other half of the sample consisted of modern and conventional farmers growing mango orchards. Economic analysis measures of benefit-cost ratio (BCR) and net present ...
Hans Van Eyghen
...ints to the effect of infrasound, and an explanations that points to the effect of magnetic variance. I argue that the argument is not convincing because all three explanations are not sufficiently backed up by empirical data and do not have a sufficiently broad scope.
...

Inzimamul Haq1*, Shahid Sattar1, Bashir Ahmed1, Qamar Zeb2 and Amjad Usman

...ichogramma chilonis as parasitoid in the integrated pest management of Chilo partellus in maize field, basic studies on the efficacy of some insecticides against Chilo partellus in Jalal variety of maize and selectivity for the bio-control agent, T. chilonis were carried out under field conditions at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab Peshawar during 2016. Treatments viz Proclaim (Emamectin benzoate® 1.9 EC) + T. chilonis, Confidor® (Imidacloprid ...

Waqas Ali* and Mudasser Habib 

...ccination campaigns and drastic environmental conditions strains under negative selection has the ability to make escape mutants. 

...
Asima Bano1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Hira Sherawat3, Muhammad Mutlib4, Muhammad Arshad5, Muhammad Akram Qazi6, Sajida Naseem5, Rabia Ishaq1, Iram Liaqat2 
...and glucathione S-transferases with breast cancer. For enzyme estimation plasma samples from the patients suffering from breast cancer and age matched healthy individuals (control) were collected. The results revealed decline in the level of these enzymes in breast cancer patients as compared to healthy individuals because of this decline the overall level of protein was also found to be decline. It is concluded from the study that these enzymes can be used as...

Umair Riaz1*, Muhammad Ali Kharal2, Ghulam Murtaza3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Sana Javaid4, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Humera Aziz3 and Zafar Abbas1 

...alyzed by O-methyltransferase. It has been concluded that exogenous application of cafeic acid may be a best option to cope with salinity, ion toxicity, drought and heavy metal stress. 

...

Shoaib Nawaz1, Muhammad Razaq1, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sajjad1*, Syeda Aneeza Ubaid1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2 and Usman Haider

Saleh S. Alhewairini
...m mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) was evaluated. This includes the potential of Injo200 and Huwa-San TR50 in increasing the effectiveness of oxamyl against all developmental stages including eggs of O. afrasiaticus. Oxamyl was found to be very effective in controlling the adult of O. afrasiaticus with a little effect on its eggs under laboratory conditions. T...
Ghazunfar Rashid1, Muhammad Avais1, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Rais Ahmed3,*, Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Naveed-ul-Haque4, Mehtab Ahmad5Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Naimat Ullah Khan6
...na sativa (Jai), Brassica rapa (Shaljam) and Brassica Campestris (Sarson) were estimated twice a day i.e. early morning and afternoon. The fodder samples were collected from different villages of Okara, Pattoki and Ravi areas of the Province Punjab. Nitrate contents of different parts of the fodder plants were estimated qualitatively through the Diphenylamine Filed Test (DFT) and quantitatively by sp...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Ijaz Ahmad1, Faraz Akrim1, Abdul Hamid1, Muhammad Waseem1, Abid Hussain1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...of dry leaves of annual grass Poa annua, small twigs of bushes and downy feathers. The depth of nest ranged between 5-10 cm. Clutch size ranged from 8-20 eggs while the incubation period was found to be 22-24 days. Hatching success was up to 85% (range 75 to 85%) in different nests. The dense vegetation consisting of Dodonaea viscosa and Poa annua provided shelter, cover and abundant supply of insects to the chicks. The study concludes tha...
Saba Irshad*, Aruba Muhammad, Ammara Muazzam, Farah Sarfraz Anmol and Rehman Shahzad
... platelets counts in contrast to control. The reported polymorphism was meant to be lowering the frequency of blood transfusions and to some extent responsible for diminishing the disease burden among ‘Thalassemia Major’ patients. 
...
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
...cies were examined for parasitic, fungal and bacterial infection. The fish species studied were; Carassius auratus and its six varieties (shubunkin, comet, black moor, oranda, double tail and fantail); molly Poeciliasphenops; platy Xiphophorus maculates; sword tail Xiphophorus helleri; guppy Poecilia reticulata; tiger oscar Astronotus ocellatus; koi carp Cyprinus carpio; ...

 Muhammad Akram and Faheem Aftab

THIDIAZURON INDUCES IN VITRO BUD BREAK AND SHOOT DEVELOPMENT FROM NODAL EXPLANTS OF ORTHOTROPIC SHOOTS OF MAIDENHAIR TREE (GINKGO BILOBA L.)
... and inoculated on MS (Murashig and Skoog, 1962) medium supplemented with different concentration (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1,2,3,4 or 5uM) of TDZ for 24 days. Highest bud break (100%) was obtained at 0.005 uM TDZ after 14 days of initial culture. The same cultures were further maintained and subsequently obtained with 20.6 mm shoot length and 7.2 average number of leaves for another 10 days. Similarly, all other TDZ’s concentrations below 1 u...

 Hafiz Muhmmad Tahir1*, Rabia Yaqoob2

Comparing the efficiency of Taq DNA polymerase and PuRe Taq Ready-To-Go PCR beads in amplifying 12S and 16S ribosomal genes
...iciency of Taq DNA polymerase, an enzyme traditionally used in gene amplification, was compared with the newly developed amplification method, PuRe Taq Ready-To-Go PCR beads. One hundred seventy samples, including both fresh and up to five years old tissue samples, were compared. Taq DNA polymerase was found to be less efficient compared to the PuRe Taq Ready-To-Go PCR beads for amplification of the 12S rDNA gene. However, d...

 Phong Huy Pham

Nesting biology of a spider wasp Auplopus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) in Vietnam
...us Heteropoda, family Sparassidae. Developmental time of egg, larva, pre-pupa, pupa, and pre-adult was 6 - 7, 13 - 14, 5 - 7, 41 - 43, and 3 - 4 days, respectively. The duration of egg to adult development ranged from 68 to 75 days.

...

Muhammad Babar Khawar, Nadeem Sheikh*

Effect of paper industry leachate on various serological indices and serum proteins of wistar rats
...um aspartate aminotransferases (AST) (P<0.0001), cholesterol (P<0.0001) and High density lipoproteins (HDL) (P<0.0001) while a significant negative change in triglycerides (P=0.0002) and creatinine (P=0.0370) level in both experimental groups. Alanine aminotransferases (ALT) level showed a significant increment in Group 1 and a decrement in Group 2 compared to control group (P<0.0001). SDS page analysis revealed ...

Muhammad Zafar*1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Asmatullah3

Efficacy of methamidophos, fenpropathrin and metasystox against aphid population within the response of Brassica campestris at Multan
... of aphid population on Brassica campestris. The experiment was conducted during October 2013 to April 2014. Crop season following a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications and six treatments in the research farm of Babar Agricultural Farm at Old Shuja Abad Road, Multan. Different insecticides showed different mortality of aphid population. Of the three insecticides tested, methamidophos resulted in more than 80% mortality in the aphid p...

 Muhammad Moosa Abro1, Ali Murtaza Dharejo2, Muhammad Munif Khan2, Nadir Ali Birmani2, Saima Naz2*

Description of first record of Petasiger exaeretus Dietz, 1909 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in avian host from Pakistan.
... exaeretus is a common parasitic species of Cormorants. However, it has not been reported from
Pakistan in Little Cormorant, Phalacrocorax niger prior to the present study.

...

 Saima Naz*, Adil Ali Rajpar, Abdul Hameed Chandio

New Records of some Phthiraptera (chewing lice) of birds from urban areas of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
...n house crow; Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763) from wild
goose; Brueelia nebulosa (Burmeister, 1838) and M. eurysternus (Burmeister, 1838) from common myna and bank
myna; Neopsittaconirmus lybartota (Ansari, 1947) from Indian Parakeet; Degeeriella regalis (Giebel, 1866) from black
kite. All were new records from Hyderabad. Bank myna was recorded as new host for M. eurysternus and black kite
was reported first time harbouring D...

 Zafar Iqbal*, Hafiza Madhia Imtiaz

Parasites of double tail goldfish, Carassius auratus L. imported to Pakistan
...planned to investigate parasitic infection of imported ornamental fish, double tail goldfish,
Carassius auratus. A total of 25 experimental fish were examined for parasitic infection. One fish
specimen showed head lesion (1x1cm). Eight different species of parasites were observed on the fish.
The gills showed 100% infection by Dactyl...

 Asma Karim1, Wajid Ali1*, Noreen Ahmad1, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3

Histological and biochemical study of liver of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) after acute exposure to pyrethoride (deltamethrin)
...is [alanine amino transferase (ALT), and aspartate amino-transferase (AST)]. Liver histology
revealed that necrosis, nuclear pycnosis, hypertrophy of hepatocytes, vacuolization, nuclear atrophy and congestion
of blood vessels were observed as compare to control group. This result was also supported by the significant
increase in levels of hepatic enzymes AST and ALT in blood plasma of exposed fish as com...

 Bushra Siyal1, Sanjota Nirmal Das1, Rafia Rehana Ghazi2, Aly Khan3

Heterotestophyes gibsoni sp.n. (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the bird little tern (Sternula albifrons) in Sindh, Pakistan
...estigation on helminth parasites of birds, a new species of trematode genus Heterotestophyes gibsoni
sp. n. was recorded from the intestine of little tern (Sternula albifrons) collected from Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. The
new species is characterized by having small body, maximum width attained at the level of mid body region and
twisted at the level of pharynx. Oral sucker terminal, rounded and broader than long. Esophagus long, intestina...

 Zafar Iqbal1, Muhammad Farooq Nasir1, Imran Bodlah1*, Rahmatullah Qureshi2, Ayesha Aihetasham3

Notes on three morphs of Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Northern Pakistan
...of the coccinellid are, Krascheninnikovia
ceratoides, Artemisia vulgaris and A. maritima, are documented. Notes on
diagnostics of the species are given with illustrations and new distributional
records.

...

 Zafar Iqbal

A review of fisheries education in University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
...rch facilities in Fish Parasitology, Fish
Mycology and Fish Bacteriology to researchers. Over 60 students have completed
their research projects in fish disease and health management. The future aspects
of “Fisheries Education” needed in aquaculture industry in Pakistan and Asia
Pacific Region is discussed.

...

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
... steaming or boiling, ultrasonication, and bursting, chemical methods i.e.,
solvents, acids, salts, bases, the physicochemical processes include liquid hot
water and AFEX (ammonium fibre explosion), biological methods involving whiterot/
brown-rot fungi and bacteria, and quite a few combinations thereof to
breakdown the lignocellulose into its components. Pre-treatment process changes
cellulose morphological, chemical and phy...

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed* and Muhammad Afzal 

...lantations and wooden infrastructures all over the world including Pakistan. This study was aimed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of 10 commercial formulations of new-chemistry insecticides against Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Termitidae), one of the most economic subterranean termite species in Indo-Pak region. Label-recommended dose rates of insecticides were tested against worker termites using modified filter paper disc method according to completel...

Akshay Sharma*, Mohit Mahajan, Madhumeet Singh and Pravesh Kumar 

...ustify;">Trans rectal ultrasonography of a 7 year old crossbred Jersey cow was done at weekly interval from 21 to 63 days post artificial insemination. Monochorionic diamniotic monozygotic twins were confirmed on the basis of different amniotic sacs and corpus luteum on one ovary. Color Doppler study was done to assess the vascularity and functional activity of corpus luteum present on the left ovary. Ultrasonography was emp...
Qingling Hu1,2,3,* and Jinian Feng3
...etae on pronotum, the ultrashort chapped craspedum on posterior margin of abdominal tergites, and the shape and relative locations of setae on tergite IX.
...

Fouzia Tabssum1, Qamar uz Zaman2*, Yinglong Chen3,4, Umair Riaz5*, Waqas Ashraf6, Ambreen Aslam2, Nusrat Ehsan2, Rab Nawaz2, Humera Aziz7 and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah8 

... rice cultivars with contrasting salt tolerance: Super basmati (salt susceptible) and Shaheen basmati (salt tolerant) in both nursery and field conditions. For pot experiment, salinity stress was imposed by applying 50 mM of NaCl solution to the soil daily for three continuing days, and applications of proline (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM) was applied 25 DAS. For field experiment, the same cultivars were grown in a saline soil (EC = 5.05 d Sm-1) for two growth se...

Muhammad Salman Wazir and Mohammad Akmal 

...one other crops rows of Brassica (Brassica juncea), Fababean (Vicia faba) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), hereafter, referred as IC-I and IC-II. The N splits were applied of the total recommended 120 kg ha-1 N in splits, i.e. N splits application (NS) viz. NS1 (50% sowing and 50% tillering), NS2 (25% sowing: 50% tillering and 25% anthesis) and NS3 (25% sowing, 25% tillering and 50% anthesis). Experimental design was a ran...
Xiao-Ying Ren1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...ficant differences in intraspecific skulls, some differences were shown in interspecific skulls, such as the point between the anterior tip of suture nasal and premaxilla, anterior tip of suture between nasal and premaxilla, anterior and posterior most ventral points of the upper incisor alveolus, and coronoid process, angular process ascending ramus and condylar process on the mandible. The genus Eothenomys could be classified into two subgenera. Moreo...
Gangchun Xu1,2, Fukuan Du2, Yuyu Wang2, Yan Li2, Zhijuan Nie2 and Pao Xu1,2,*
...g at a low level. In contrast, PTGES2b expression significantly increased during spawning. These results provide basic knowledge of the new PTGES2s of C. nasus.
...
Asim Faraz1,*, Muhammad Younas2, Abdul Waheed1, Muhammad Yaqoob2 and Kashif Ishaq3

 

...e kikar, phulai, beri, siras, jand, khagal, dhaman, persain, khawi, bui, bhakra, kari, laana, phog, karir and khar laana. Regarding hair mineral status Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn concentrations were found to be significantly different (P<0.05) between calf groups being higher in IMS as (685.07±15.86, 595.67±15.86; 104.33±5.12, 101.17±5.12; 7.08±0.34, 6.73±0.34; 65.33±2.25, 59.33±2.25; 322.20±8.67...
Jair Millán-Orozco1,*, Jersson Millán-Orozco2 and Luz María Tejada-Ugarte3
...kg, stocked on a Taiwan grass (Pennisetum purpurem) pasture maintained at a sward surface height of 30 cm. Observations were conducted during daylight hours (06:00-18:00) from May to April of the next year for three consecutive days every month of the following year. The highest (P<0.05) grazing activity was observed during September (38.9±11.4 min/h), while in May (27.1±14.3 min/h) was the month with least activity (P<...
Muhammad Saqib Shahzad1, Amina Arif1,*,Saeeda Kalsoom2, Javed Iqbal3, Shahnam Shafique2, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem4 and Rafique Ahmed5
... and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were recorded and analyzed for rapid virologic response (RVR), non-rapid virologic response (NRVR), sustained virologic response (SVR) and non-sustained virologic response (NSVR). Among the evaluated patients RVR was found among 81.5% and NRVR among 18.5%. Out of RVR patients, SVR was found in majority (80.2%). However, among NRVR equal percentage of SVR and NSVR was found. An inverse association of SVR was found agai...

Mudassar Javed, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed*, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Afzal 

...g with the biological (parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis egg cards) and cultural techniques against okra lepidopterous borers. According to results, maximum shoot and fruit infestations (i.e. 19.86 and 15.63%, respectively) by okra borers were recorded in control (unsprayed) module, while minimum (i.e. 6.76 and 2.89%, respectively) were found in IPM module. Mean shoot and fruit infestations in farmers’ routine module were 13.91 and 10.83%, respectively du...

Salman Ali*, Inamullah, Muhammad Arif, Mehran Ali, Muhammad Owais Iqbal, Fazal Munsif and Arsalan Khan 

...l crop growth stage can drastically reduce crop yield, therefore, five times irrigation each at (mentioned) crop growth stage along with 75 kg ha-1 K is recommended for higher maize production. 

...
Muhammad Asad Saleem1,*, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1, Mudssar Ali1, Muhammad Amin2, Muhammad Tayyab1,3 and Sumaira Maqsood4
...ecrease in weight gain, frass production and cumulative gain in size was found when larvae were treated with integrated effect of Bb and Nit. Depending on the lethal of treatment, development duration of RPW was disturbed. Integration of Bb and Nit delays the development and diet uptake in RPW which can be used for agent of control for this cryptic insect.
...
Tamoor Azeem1,*, M. Yasin Tipu1, Asim Aslam1, Sajjad Ahmed2, Salman Ahmed Abid1, Abdullah Iqbal3, Naeem Akhtar4, Muhammad Saleem4, Aamerzish Mushtaq4 and Sajid Umar4
...;0.05).
...
Pingping Cang1, Mingming Zhang1, Guo Qiao1,Qirui Sun1, Dehai Xu3, Qiang Li1, Xinghua Yuan4 and Wenbin Liu2,
...iv>...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Ashfaq1, Muhammad A. Aqueel2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah2
...prising cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). Current inspections were carried out to determine their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence by exposing three field strains of S. litura (Faisalabad, Chiniot and Sargodha), under laboratory conditions. Both NPV and Bt were applied using diet incorporation method. Two concentrations of a NPV based formulation (Somestar): 1x107 and 1x108 POB...
Huseyin Cetin1,*, Oner Kocak2, Emre Oz1, Samed Koc1, Yesim Polat1 and Kalender Arıkan2
...ic bacteria, fungi and parasites. The use of synthetic pyrethroid (SP) insecticides is recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of adult houseflies. Despite the fact that SPs have been used effectively, this insect has developed resistance in many regions/countries of the world. The use of synergistic substances to overcome insecticide resistance is widespread. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is used as a synergist in combination with SPs for the ...
Samiah Shahid1,Jawaria Shaheen1, Wajeehah Shahid2, M. Waheed Akhtar1,3 and Saima Sadaf1,*
...titative real time polymerase chain reaction PCR (qPCR) may be utilized as a sensitive and reliable technique for the determination of circulating miRNA expression. Despite recent advancements, there is not a single consensus on the use of reference gene for quantification of circulating miRNAs through qPCR analyses in ALL. In the current study, we identified the reference gene that is the most suitable for qPCR normalization in patient and control plasma samp...
Tafail Akbar Mughal1, Muhammad Zubair Saleem2, Shaukat Ali3,*, Khawaja Khurshid Anwar1, Muhammad Majid Bashir1, Muhammad Babar4 and Muhammad Adeeb Khan1
...LAT (alanine aminotransferase), ASAT (aspartate aminotransferase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) and biochemical components like glucose, urea, lipids, cholesterol and protein contents both in the liver and blood while DNA and RNA contents only in liver. The administration of CCl4 resulted in increase in plasma ALAT and decrease in LDH. Vitamin E pre-treatment abolished CCl4-induced changes in the acti...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

..., is highly infectious parasite of small ruminants, and is a major cause of diseases and significant mortality in various cattle, sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have developed multiple resistances against the synthetic anthelmintics. Hence, various biological controls, vaccines and local medicinal pl...
Imran Bodlah1, Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Muhammad Amin2, Ayesha Aihetasham3
...e first time as larval parasitoid of Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Menochilus sex maculata (Fabricius, 1781) from various areas of Pothwar. Main identification characters of N. mirabilis supported with measurements and illustrations are provided here with notes on distributional range.
...

Rizwan Ullah Shah* and Iqbal Munir 

...nd root regeneration of Brassica carinata. Seeds were sterilized and germinated, of which one week cotyledon and hypocotyl were used for callus formation and shoot regeneration at five different level of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid NAA (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/l) and 6-benzyl amino purine BAP (0.1, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/l), and root regeneration at four levels of indole butyric acid IBA (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/l). Results showed that at NAA 0.05 mg/l...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Muhammad Jafir1, Muhammad Wajid Javed1, Sumaira Maqsood3 and Samina J.N. Ahmad1,2,*
...) was done through Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. In PCR, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene based primers were used for identification of this pest collected from various cotton fields in Punjab. Phylogenetic analysis was also complemented to differentiate DCB identified from other countries of the world. The PCR bands obtained in gel electrophoresis amplified PCR fragments from all DCB species at 710 bp. The sequencing results and phylo...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...f Emulsiflex prepared oxyrase extracted from cytoplasmic of membrane fragments of E. coli. For this purpose, 88 E.coli isolates from 30 intact poultry intestines were cultured and identified preliminary on the basis of microscopy and biochemical testing. E. coli strain EC4 was screened as best oxyrase producer with activity of 0.41±0.008U/mL/min with 41% reduction in dissolved oxygen at pH 7.5, te...
Osman Ergene1,*, Isfendiyar Darbaz1, Serkan Sayiner2 and Selim Aslan1
...ion (AI). Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was performed on all cows on days 30 and 40 after AI. Measurements were carried out on 9 cows whose pregnancy was confirmed and 9 cows whose embryonic mortality (EM) was determined. In PAG-Serum, there was a statistically significant difference (P <0.05, P <0.01) between the measurements on 40th day when EM was detected and on the 28th and 32nd days of pregnancy. In the PAG-Milk and PSPB-...
Luo Lei1, Xingxing Deng1, Dengyue Yuan2, Zonglin Zheng1, Chengke Zhu1, Hui Luo1, Baohai Li3, Hua Ye1,* and Chaowei Zhou1,3,*

 Tung-Yi Kho

...odernization in all its grasping materiality and technological glory, my paper reveals that the capacity of a modernist lifestyle to engender well-being, much less the good life, is far from assured. Meanwhile, my research in Shenzhen disclosed an alternative, Relationist, conception of well-being that was seldom expressed or associated with the good life despite also being ever present. This was a mode of well-being that was constantly being re-created in the...
Jason Shepard1 and Tyra Turner2
...ng specific cultural contrasts (Study 2 and Study 3). Taken together these three studies provide evidence that the relation between future-oriented thought and well-being is robust across cultures. This research also provides an example of how big data can be leveraged for cross-cultural research. 

...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

... database (100%); In contrast, alignments among the same genera and species demonstrated 91–98% identity. We then predicated that isolated encoded culture (MPS16) predetermine with Macrophomina sp. 

...

Arjumand Nizami1, Jawad Ali1 and Muhammad Zulfiqar2* 

...es and other physical infrastructure. In order to overcome these losses, communities apply short-term coping strategies by spending limited means and hard-earned cash reserves. These unsustainable strategies further exacerbate vulnerabilities and give way to new ones. Taking empirical example of Chitral, the study recommends to formulate policies and encourage investment to substitute short term coping strategies with long term climate change adaptation measur...

 Xu Lijie, Obaid Ullah, Liu Haixing, Ihsan Ali, Zhongshu Li* and Nan-Zhu Fang*

...DUOX1, and NOXA1. By contrast, embryo treatment with pioglitazone after H2O2 exposure promote embryo development, significantly decreased the ROS level, downregulates the expression levels of NOX2, DUOX1, and NOXA1, and upregulated the expression levels of PPARγ, Nrf2, and the antioxidant enzyme genes GPx3, GPx4, SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3. In conclusion, pioglitazone can reduce intracellular oxidative stress during in vitro development b...
Saleha Gul1,2, Muhammad Khisroon2, Ajmal Khan2, Attaullah1, Saira Gul3 and Gul Nabi Khan1,4,*
... other narcotics like charas and snuff (p˂0.05). The passive smokers using snuff were having significantly higher TCS values then the control (p˂0.05). Reduction in TCS values of active smokers using green tea on daily basis were statistically significant (p˂0.05). Taking together, our results indicate that tobacco smoking highly induces DNA damage in blood cells. Additionally, green tea significantly reduces the toxic effects of smoke ...

 Şaban Çelebi

...ificantly (P<0.05) incrased GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities in treatment groups. In conclusion, results indicated that Vitamin E and selenium supplementation of laying hen diets could protect these animals from detrimental effect of free radicals by increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes.

...

Huma Khalil1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Sajjad Khalil1, Farghama Khalil2 and Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel1 

...odiversity of braconid parasitoids in citrus orchards of Sargodha, Pakistan. Surveys were done during January 2014 to December 2015 from various citrus growing localities. A total of 3,176 parasitoids belonging to five subfamilies (Alysiinae, Aphidiinae, Braconinae, Microgastrinae and Opiinae), 12 genera and 16 species were collected. Out of them, two genera and 12 species were recorded for the first time from this area. Aph...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1, Batim Turdam1, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Waziri Ibrahim Anjili2 and Mayowa Olabode2 

...d risk factors for endoparasitic infections in donkeys at Ganawuri district market, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 300 donkeys and analyzed using a standard laboratory procedure. Coprological examination conducted using flotation and sedimentation techniques showed that 276 (92.0%) were positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. A greater proportion (70.7%) of the nematodes were Strongyles followed by mixed infe...

 Tazeen Jamil, Saba Ijaz, Rabia Arif*, Faiza Akram and Muhammad Saleem

...recollected from two contrasting environments of Evolution Canyon i.e. harsh South facing slope and neutral North facing slope. Retroelements profiles were generated in order to detect retrotransposons. Strains from South facing slope exhibited more copy number of Ty3-gypsy, LINEs and Ty1-copia as compared to strains from North facing slope. In total, 52 fragments of Metaviridae (Ty3-gypsy), 104 fragments of LINEs and 66 fragments of Ty1

Amer Mumtaz2*, Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui2, Muhammad Naeem Safdar2, Masooma Munir2, Aqsa Qayyum2, Sahar Shibli2 and Muhammad Khalid Ibrahim3 

...nd DNA fragmentation. Ultrasounds have diversified application in meat industry, extraction of bio actives, dairy industry, Enzyme technology, fruit and vegetable juice industry, water, waste water treatment, starch modification and removal of food allergens from food. 

...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,2, Azhar Qayum3, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Naif Awdh Al-Maliki4, Abdulaziz Alamri4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,5,*
...ecomes altered when the Kras gene is mutated. The most common Kras mutations are found in codon 12 and 13 and 61. Some other noncanonical mutations have been reported in codon 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 27, 30, 31, 117, 146 and 154. We aimed to demonstrate the conformational changes induced in two novel K RAS variants, p.E31K and p.G138V, identified...
Sumreen Hayat1,6, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique2, Bilal Aslam1, Habibullah Nadeem2, Asma Ashraf3, Muhammad Saqalein1, Mohsin Khurshid4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Saima Muzammil1,*
...was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 392 blood and urine samples, 120 were found positive for microbial growth. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of K. pneumoniae isolates illustrated high resistance to ceftazidime (95.6%). Phenotypically,52.17% of K. pneumoniae isolates were found to be ESBL producers as observed by double disc synergy test while the tested ESBL genes were detected in 56.52% of isolates. The studyrevealed multi...
Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1,*, Shahina Fayyaz2 and Nasira Kazi2
...the diversity of plant parasitic and soil nematodes associated with cotton plants in Sindh. During 2017–2018 extensive surveys were conducted at the time of cropping and at harvesting and soil root samples were collected from different fields in the cotton producing regions of five districts of Sindh viz., Sanghar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Mityari and Tando Allahyar. The analysis of samples resulted in the identification of one new species of soil nem...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Khalid Abbas2, Wardah Hassan3, Moazama Batool4, Shakeela Perveen5, Sadia Maalik4 and Sajida Mushtaq4
...and glutathione S-transferase in different organs (liver, gills, kidney, brain, heart and muscle) of fish, Labeo rohita. The LC50 of chlorpyrifos+endosulfan mixture was calculated as 1.95±0.02 μgL-1 for 96 h with the 95% confidence limits. The fish expose to the mixture (1:1) for 96-h. The results obtained from this study showed that superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione S-transferas

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...s. Climate change has a drastic effect for the development of this disease and still there are no remedies to tackle this problem. Environmental issues are also needed to be addressed in the future research agenda of this disease.
 

...
Bushra Siddique1,*, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Naeem1 and Muhammad Ali2
...of foraging. Aphid endoparasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) have an ability to locate itshosts by responding to odours from aphid hostplants or by visual searching.The treatments with different combinations of plant extracts and semiochemicals were used for natural enemypreference experiment. The experiment was conducted with seven treatments and five replications at Glass house situated in Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agricultu...
Ailing Huang, Lingyu Meng, Wei Zhang, Junyan Liu, Guangyao Li, Huihua Tan, Wen Lu and Xialin Zheng*
...ermethrin on Carboxylesterase (CarE) was the most obvious than other four pesticides; activity of glutathione-s transferase (GST) was inhibited by abamectin, while the trend was in the opposite direction for other four pesticides; activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was promoted by beta-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, and inhibited by abamectin and bisultap; Activity of catalase (CAT) was promoted by beta-cypermethrin, chl...

Bina Khanzada1*, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed1 and Nazir Ahmed2 

...d ornamental plants on parasitoid performance. Among artificial diets tested were honey, sugar, protein hydrolysate solution to enhance fecundity and fertility of the parasitoid under laboratory conditions and compared with the provision of flower nectors such as ornamental sunflower, merry gold and hollyhock in the laboratory. The ornamental plants sunflower, merry gold and hollyhock were also tested in the field for conser...
Sheng Niu1, Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Fa-jie Jia1, Xin Li1, Guan-bao Ning1, Ding Zhang1, Hai-li Ma1, Wei-fang Hao2, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Shi-min Gao1, Jian-hui Li1, Gui-lan Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Huan-chun Chen1,3 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
...ant glutathione-S-transferase A3 (rGSTA3) proteins. We explored the responses of HDPs in erythrocytes to thiram-induced TD and rGSTA3 protein by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed many HDPs expressions were suppressed by thiram-induced TD, and the expressions of HDPs were upregulated by rGSTA3 protein. These findings demonstrated that mRNA expressions of HDPs are highly related to thiram-induced TD, and rGSTA3 protein enhanced the immune ...
Yuyu Wang, Gangchun Xu*, Zhijuan Nie, Quanjie Li, Nailin Shao and Pao Xu*
...05). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cortisol and lysozyme in serum showed no significant differences between the two stocking groups (P>0.05). Fish reared at high stocking density had significant lower total protein (TP), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and glucose (Glu) content in serum compared with those reared at low ...

Abdur Rehman1*, Iqbal Javed2, Zhang Nannan3, Muhammad Niamatullah1, Raheel Saqib4 and Allah Bakhsh

... ranked first for the infrastructure of agricultural information, the capital city Shijiazhuang in Hebei province as ranked first in the agricultural informatisation and human resources index. The Hengshui city ranked first in the agricultural informatisation subject to environmental index. Recently the Park in Hebei province, although more modern and high standard basic farmland and so on the basis of the modern agriculture construction, but still incomplete ...
Hayat Zada and Ahmad-ur-Rahman Saljoqi*
...rough intercropping (Brassica campestris, Brassacicacae), Glycine max, leguminacae), Trifolium alexandrinum, Fabaceae) and Triticum aestivum, Poaceae) in the apple orchard were a substantial effect on the management of C. pomonella (L). Minimum mean fruit drop were recorded for the intercrop Apple + Trifolium (2.87) which were significantly lower than all other intercrops including control ...
Wang Zaigui1,*, Guo Panpan1, Ye Miao1, Sun Linghong1, Zhang Hongfu2 and Liu Chaoliang1,*
...nificantly decreased contrasting to the blank group (P<0.05). (2) In the larval duration of 4th instar silkworm, adding B. subtilis to the feed could significantly increase the AWG and RFC and decrease of RAML (P<0.05) (3) In the larval duration of 5th instar silkworm, maximum growth parameters level were achieved with silkworm in the experiment group, that the AWG, RFC and RAML, were very significantly affected...
Wali Khan1,*, Mudassar Iqbal2 and Israr Khan2
...trolling of intestinal parasitic diseases in children.
...
Shamsudin Bojang1, Idris Abd Ghani2, Jugah Kadir1, Adamu Saidu Paiko1, Yasir Iftikhar3 and Muhammad Kamran3,4,*
...>infections on the turf grasses. Samples were collected based on the sparsely growth and chlorotic appearance of the greens. A total of 36 soils and roots sample were collected. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to identify the parasitic nematode. Both the field symptoms and SEM micrographs confirmed that the nematode isolate was M. graminis. Since this nematode has been known to damage the greens and other ...
Iqra Jaffar, Zainab Sehzadi, Muhammad Adeel, Khalid P. Lone and Mehwish Faheem*
... of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO). Catalase activity increased significantly in liver and gills of fish exposed to 10μg/l of DBP. Level of GSH and LPO increased significantly in gills while a non-significant decrease was recorded for GSH and GST in liver. These results showed that exposure to low concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate are capable of inducing oxidative stress in v...
Abid Hussain Shahzad1, Abdul Sattar1,*, Nasim Ahmad1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Deniz Nak3 and Yavuz Nak3
...y was diagnosed using ultrasonography on d30, d60 and d90 post AI. Ovulatory follicle diameter was measured at timed AI and progesterone profile (ng/mL) on d30 and d60 post AI. Pregnancy rate was analyzed by Chi-square procedure while ovulatory follicle diameter and Progesterone profile by one way ANOVA (α=0.05). Ovulatory follicle diameter (Mean±SEM) was 15.19±0.17 (OVP0), 15.30±0.21 (OVP5) and 15.24±0.19 (OVP7), respectively...
Abdur Rauf Nizami*
...emblages of the Middle Jurassic Samana Suk Formation, Chichali Gorge Section, Surghar Range, Sub-Himalayas-Pakistan”. The Samana Suk Formation is a carbonate sequence of the Middle Jurassic age and is widely distributed in the Upper Indus Basin, northern Pakistan. This formation belongs to the Baroch Group and is mainly comprised of limestones, which were thought to be a prospective fossils archive. The Samana Suk Form...
Lichao Feng1,2, Shaoqing Zhang4, Dianyuan Chen2, Sina Adl3 and Donghui Wu1,4*
...onum), or leaves of grasses (Poa annua, Echinochloa crusgalli), or maize leaves (Songyu 419, a hybrid variety) as food sources to feed the adult of A. fuscicollis. The larvae were reared on roots of the same grasses and germinated maize seedlings. Additionally, potato tuber the common food used to grew the beetles that was selected as a reference to demonstrate that blooming wildflowers through their...
Xiaona Cao1,3-5, Yuanyuan Ren2-5, Xiaoteng Cui2-5, Baoxin Qian2-5, Chunyan Zhao 2-5, Jie Yang2-5, Chao Su2-5,* and Xingjie Gao2-5,*
...f stressed cells; in contrast, 87% of cells with strong hnRNP A1 signal within nucleus reduced to 50% during stress. In addition, transport receptor importin-β pathway seems to be involved in the nuclear import of hnRNP A1, rather than HuR and TIA1. However, the slightly enhanced cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 can not influence the formation of hnRNP A1 granules during oxidative stress. Timely and effective dynamic distribution of specific st...

Essossinam Ali* 

...ent of transportation infrastructure in order to reduce farmers’ risk aversion in the study areas. 

...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Sami Ullah1*, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Abbas3, Ijaz Ahmad4, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Muhammad Zeshan5, Adeel Abbas1, Mehmood Ali Noor1 and Mohsin Nawaz1 

...ng grain filling, in contrast to late application rate. 

...

Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba1, Naglaa Fathy Saeed Awad1*, Gamelat Kotb Farag Kotb2, Amany Adel3 

...erse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for VP2 hypervariable region of selected five IBDV field isolates were determined and compared to well characterized reference and vaccine strains worldwide. The IBD virus was detected in 9 out of 16 (56.25 %) investigated chicken flocks. Sequence analysis revealed that the analyzed Egyptian isolates identified as very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

...n the other hand, in contrast to all other treatments, the joint use of 50% NPK+50% PM exhibits the most significant impact on okra growth. 

...
Saeed Murtaza1,*, Nazir Ahmad2, Muhammad Asif Raza3, Muhammad Saleem Akhtar1, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz4, Muhammad Ali5 and Rais Ahmed6
...epididymis.
...
Wen-Feng Li1, Rong-Yue Zhang1, Chun-Hua Pu2, Jiong Yin1, Zhi-Ming Luo1, Xiao-Yan Wang1, Xiao-Yan Cang1, Hong-Li Shan1 and Ying-Kun Huang1,*
...vided into two groups: parasites and predators. The dominant species include Apanteles flavipes (Cameron), Sturmiopsis inferens Townsend and Trichogramma sp., which parasitize the sugarcane borer; Synonycha grandis (Thunberg), Lemnia biplagiata (Swartz), Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) and Thiallela sp., which prey on Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner; and Euborelli...
Naheed Ikram and Nafisa Shoaib*
...pagrus sp. Parastromateus niger, Nemipterus sp., Pampus argenteusIlisha sp., Alepes djedabaEpinephelus sp., Teraponjarbua, Terapon puta, Scomberomorus koreanus, Epinephelus coioides, Lutjanus sp., Pomadasys sp. and Lutjanus johnii procuredfrom Kemari fish harbor (Pakistan). Our study shows that fresh fishes were not contaminated by incidence of fungi. As...

Attaullah Khan Pathan1, Imran Ali Rajput1*, Agha Mushtaque Ahmed2, Muhammad Waseen Kalroo1, Muhammad Munir Shahid4, Abdul Qadir Baloch3 and Faheem Ahmed Rajput2 

...umentation of braconid parasitoids of pink bollworm on cotton crop at lower Sindh was conducted during the cotton season 2016. The results found that maximum parasitoid mean population 175.85±0.16 was recorded from Sanghar and lowest population 139.42±0.45 from Umerkot district. The highest population was recorded in the month October. Highest number of Bracon gelechiae found than other in all selected district...
Khansa Nazir1,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Humayun Javed2
...he management of plant parasitic nematodes using nanoparticles can be one of the important alternatives. In the present study, the nematicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was investigated against the most destructive root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). The maximum mortality of juveniles was recorded at a concentration of 100 mg/ml followed by 75 mg/ml of AgNP. The minimum mortality was recorded with 25 mg/ml of AgNP. With the increas...
Constance Obiageli Ejilibe1, Helen O. Nwamba2, Ifeanyi Chinedu Atama3,*, Chiamaka Lynda Ani2, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie3, Josephine C. Madu3 and Christopher Didigwu Nwani3
... The Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) concentrations in homogenized muscle samples was determined by standard procedures. ALT, AST and ALP increased significantly in response to concentrations of Butaforce® (7.00, 9.00 and 11.00 µgL-1) and Termex® (15.00, 20.00 and 25.00 µgL-1) us...
Kun Wang1,2, Yinglin Cui2, Xu Zhao2 and Changjiang Hu1*
...sion of DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was evaluated by western blot. And microRNA-29b was identified using quantitative real-time PCR. 3). Compared with the Model group, the group treated with XN had a significantly reduced number of dead neurons in hippocampus and cortical regions of ICH rats. Furthermore, this treatment significantly increased protein expression of claudin-5, ZO-1 and VE-cadherin while protein expre...

Chukwuemeka Calistus Okolo1*, Ikenna Onyema Ezeh2, Chinelo Nnenna Uju3 and Nwakaego Ernestina Nweze1 

...cted control (F). When parasitaemia peaked, groups A and B received 7mgKg-1 and 3.5mgKg-1 of diminazene aceturate (DA) respectively alongside ongoing probiotics supplementation. Group C received only probiotics. Group D received 3.5mgKg-1DA only. Group E (infected control) received no treatment. Parasitaemia, haematobiochemical, and oxidative stress markers were determined. At day 13 PS, there were no significant (p< 0.05...

Obaidul Islam*, Shameema Khatun and Mustasim Famous 

...P>0.05). In case of parasitic diseases, the highest prevalence was observed in DVH (34.61%) and lowest in CVASU (28.57%). The prevalence of nutritional diseases was lower than in other clinical conditions. The highest prevalence of diseases according to age, breed and sex was observed in younger (<1 year), Local breed and male respectively. Keeping in view these findings, an appropriate control strategy could be designed and applied, which helps to preve...
Sikander Ali1, Muhammad Kamil Malik1, Muhammad Zubair1*, Muhammad Jawad Saleem2, Kanwal Hanif2 and Saira Azmat3
...ustard aphid.
...

Sajjad Ali1, Atta-ur-Rahman1 and Sher Ali2* 

... land utilization for infrastructure instead of farming remains at the same speed till 2055, there will be no agricultural land in the tehsil for farming. Population increase is the main cause of such firm land loss. Statistical technique like central tendencies, dispersion and co-efficient of correlation were applied on population, area under built-up environment, cultivated area and crop production in the study area. During the study period from 1985-2015, r...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

June

Vol. 35, Iss. 2, Pages 320-662

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