Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...erse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Collectively, results indicate the continuous persistence of PPRV in Kenya.

...

Paul I. Ankeli, Mashood A. Raji, Haruna M. Kazeem, Moses O. Odugbo, Nendir J. Umaru, Idowu O. Fagbamila, Livinus T. Ikpa, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Issa A. Muraina, Pam D. Luka and Nicholas D. Nwankpa

...al biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Six (6) were observed to ferment glucose, reduce tetrazolium chloride and hydrolysed casein. They had no phosphatase activity, did not produce ‘film and spots’ and neither hydrolysed arginine nor urea and were preliminarily identified as members of the Mycoplasma mycoides sub-cluster which comprises Mmm and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc). Three (3) of the 8 Mycoplas...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...(CAV) using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IBDV antigen was detected by AGID while CAV by PCR. This confirms the diagnosis of concurrent infection of CIA and IBD in the affected flock. This is the first case report of a concurrent and natural field outbreak of CIA and IBD in a commercial poultry farm in Nigeria.

...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...as analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which demonstrated high expression level in the brain. During embryogenesis, SS1 mRNA was detected during early-stage embryonic development, decreased during subsequent developmental stages then increased gradually from the stage of midgastrula onward. This study provides some basic evidence that SS1 may play a role in growth, development and metabolism in C. nasus, and provides a basis for further stud...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...enotypic identification, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied for identification of Candida species, Cryptococcus albidus, Saccharomyces, Trichosporn, Torulopsis and Rhodotorula. Using universal primers ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 amplified ITS region. And it yielded a unique PCR size of approximately 376-930 bp. PCR amplicons were digested with enzyme MspI and the generated bans corresponded to the predicted size.
...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...outhern blot techniques, polymerase chain reaction and other DNA polymerase-mediated assays, and microarray detection. Of these, microarray detection provides the greatest capability for parallel yet specific testing and can be used to detect individual or combinations of viruses with sensitivity comparable to ELISA. Methods based on PCR provide the greatest sensitivity among the listed techniques but are limited in parallel detection capability even in &ldquo...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...ng reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure. Out of 600 examined locations twenty two (22) H9N2 subtypes isolates were recorded. The total prevalence recorded was 3.66%and out of 498 broiler operations yielded 17 (3.4%) positive isolates and 44 golden type native chicken farms yielded 05 (11.36%) isolates of AIV H9N2 and 58 captive pheasant’s samples were negative. It was observed that...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
...ned for HBV by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Out of 659, 522 (79.21%) were found positive for HBV, of which 318 (over all 4.4%) were male, while 341 (over all 3.55%) were female. The HBV PCR positivity rate was 80.18% (n=255) in males and 78.30% (n=267) in females patients. Among different age groups HBV PCR positivity was highest (n=181, 83.41%) in the age group of 31 to 40 years. HBV genome was detected in 79.21% of HBsAg positive samples, showing tha...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...DRB1*12 allele using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). While total level of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all serum samples. This study indicated that the frequency of both alleles HLA-DRB1*11and HLA-DRB1*12 in aero allergy patients is less as compared to healthy controls. HLA-DRB1*11 demonstrated significant association with aeroallergens and could have a protective role for allergy...
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
...tion of gene was done by polymerase chain reaction. PCR products were sequenced bi-directionally, aligned and single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Bioinformatics tools were applied for construction of phylogenetic tree and genetic diversity analysis. Lower genetic diversity was observed. The finding of this research is prerequisite for future research.
...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

Selçuk Kaplan1,* and Sertaç Atalay2
...rphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the regulatory region of the IGF1 gene was detected by amplification of the 294 bp region using specific primers and cleavage with the BfoI enzyme. Allele frequencies of A and B were found with 0.915 and 0.085 respectively. The genotype frequencies of IGF1 gene were 0.85 (AA), 0.13 (AB) and 0.02 (...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...al reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcriptase loop mediated isothermal amplification over the last decade. These diagnostic assays vary in their sensitivity, specificity, reliability and reproducibility. Although these assays are detecting PPRV with precision but there is need to develop some cost effective diagnostic assays which wou...
Sherin Reda Rouby
...erase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) together with tissue culture-adapted cattle LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain and two Sheep poxvirus vaccinal strains as control. LSDV yield amplicon differed in length by 21 nucleotides from those produced from SPPV either field or vaccinal strain. Among different LSD clinical samples, skin nodules and scabs are proved excellent sample material as they yield clear DNA bands that reflect the high concentra...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Same samples were further processed for the isolation of virus by embryonated egg inoculation technique. Moreover, out of 507 samples, 479 serum samples were scrutinized by enzyme linked immunosorbent essay (ELISA). Sero-prevalence of AIV among different species of wild birds was as follows; peacock (n=35; 14%), duck (n=5; 2%), migratory water fowl (n=3; 1%), pheasant (n=2; 0.8%), grey leg goose (n=1...
Niamatullah Kakar, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Shafee and Tauseef Asmat*
... further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three samples were found positive by PCR test while other detection methods were not that sensitive to detect the tuberculosis at that stage. Two patients were reported with history of tuberculosis but were effectively treated before imprisonment. On age basis, 128/186 (68.88%) patients were of younger age (18-30 years) and 10 (5.37 %) were above 50 year. Illiteracy, unemployment (daily wages) and tobac...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
... The rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for the molecular detection of NPV gene from native NPV diseased insect. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis were performed to compare SlNPV- FSD15 based on Lef-8 with other Lef-8genes sequences clearly showed that our SlNPV-FSD15 isolate belongs to Spodoptera litura associated NPVs. The biological activities of this NPV isolates were inves...
Zain ul Abidin1, Aisha Khatoon2, Abdul Whab Manzoor1,*, Nida Arooj1, Sajjad Ali1 and Muhammad Numan1
...). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed for both samples gave a product of 443-bp amplifying the highly conserved “N”-region gene of virus confirming the rabies infection in both cases.
...
Samiah Shahid1,Jawaria Shaheen1, Wajeehah Shahid2, M. Waheed Akhtar1,3 and Saima Sadaf1,*
...v>Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction PCR (qPCR) may be utilized as a sensitive and reliable technique for the determination of circulating miRNA expression. Despite recent advancements, there is not a single consensus on the use of reference gene for quantification of circulating miRNAs through qPCR analyses in ALL. In the current study, we identified the reference gene that is the most suitable for qPCR normalization in patient and control plasm...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Muhammad Jafir1, Muhammad Wajid Javed1, Sumaira Maqsood3 and Samina J.N. Ahmad1,2,*
Sumreen Hayat1,6, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique2, Bilal Aslam1, Habibullah Nadeem2, Asma Ashraf3, Muhammad Saqalein1, Mohsin Khurshid4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Saima Muzammil1,*
...>-TEM was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 392 blood and urine samples, 120 were found positive for microbial growth. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of K. pneumoniae isolates illustrated high resistance to ceftazidime (95.6%). Phenotypically,52.17% of K. pneumoniae isolates were found to be ESBL producers as observed by double disc synergy test while the tested ESBL genes were detected in 56.52% of isolates. The studyrevealed...

Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba1, Naglaa Fathy Saeed Awad1*, Gamelat Kotb Farag Kotb2, Amany Adel3 

...ng Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for VP2 hypervariable region of selected five IBDV field isolates were determined and compared to well characterized reference and vaccine strains worldwide. The IBD virus was detected in 9 out of 16 (56.25 %) investigated chicken flocks. Sequence analysis revealed that the analyzed Egyptian isolates identified as very virulent Infectious bursal disease...
Ping Jiang1 , Zhihui Zhao1, 2, Xiaohui Li2, Mengyan Wang2, Lixin Xia2, Yang Cao3, Runjun Yang2 and Xibi Fang2*
...y quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot, cell TG Assay and RT2 Profiler PCR array. The results showed that ABCA1 knockdown reduced the TG content in BMECs. On the other hand, the RT2 Profiler PCR array demonstrated that the expression levels of 12 genes, including fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase short/branched chain (ACADSB), ELOVL fatty acid elongase 3 (ELOVL3) and solute ...
Beenish Zahid*1,2,7, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Amir Zohaib2, Asim Aslam3, Raheela Akhter3, Haleema Sadia4, Qurat ul Ain5, Razia Sultana6, Irfan Irshad3 and Sobia Alyas7
...of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Out of 50 field samples 11 cloacal swabs (34%), were positive and out of 50, nine oropharyngeal swabs (18%) were positive for NDV through RT-PCR. DNA sequencing was performed by amplifying the RT-PCR amplicon targeted the F gene. Phylogenetic tree was constructed. It was concluded that virulent strains were existed in ducks and more than one genotype of NDV was prevalent in ducks.
...
Tanweer Kumar1, Sahib Zada2,3,Muhammad Irfan4,*, Huma Batool5 and Wasim Sajjad2,6
...by Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the existence of antibodies against HBV. It was observed that 307 (12.8%) out of the 2382 individuals harbored antibodies in their blood against HBV. Among the different age groups, the highest number of incidences of HBV antibodies was found in the 16-25 age groups (7.01%). ICT positive samples were further screened by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine...
Nahed H. Ghoneim, Maha A. Sabry, Zeinab S. Ahmed and Esraa A. Elshafiee*
...>spp. were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as C. jejuni (63.6 %) and C. coli (36.4 %) through the detection of the Map A and Ceu E genes, respectively. The antibiotic resistance of the Campylobacter isolates was determined via the disc diffusion method and was observed most frequently to nalidixic acid (81.8 %), tetracycline (72.7 %), ciprofloxacin (54.5 %), and erythromycin (54.5 %), while low resistance to cef...
Farzana Rashid1, Rabia Masood1 and Mariam Faiz2*
...la NDM was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Among 240 strains, prevalence of MBL in K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and Acinetobacter Species was 26%, 52%, 27% and 5% respectively. Prevalence of blaNDM-1 gene was 51% identified in 14 strains of P. aeruginosa, 2 strains of A. Baumanni, 29 strains of E. coli and 18 strains of K. pneumoniae. In conclusion, high prevalence of blaNDM-1 in our strains is a serious concern. A careful use of carbapenems ...
Mubashra Salim1, Omeira Ibrahim1, Hugo Vilhena2,3,4, Carla Maia5, André Pereira5, Maria Shahzeen1, Shabana Kalsoom1, Asim K. Mahmood6 and Furhan Iqbal1*
Bo Gao1,2, Fengmei Yang3, Wei Chen2, Xiaojia Song4, Xiaobo Liu5 and Dongmin Li1*
...byreal-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in tumor, adjacent, and non-cancerous tissues. The tumor markers were detected with COBAS 6000. The prognostic value of relative MDR1 expression level in malignant tumors was investigated by univariate survival and Cox regression model analyses, and survival times were compared using the log-rank test. At the same time, through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, their diagnostic ...
Muhammad Rizwan Ashraf1, Asif Nadeem1,2, Eric Nelson Smith3, Maryam Javed1, Utpal Smart3, Tahir Yaqub4, Abu Saeed Hashmi1 and Panupong Thammachoti3
Weihao Chen1,2, Zhilong Tian2, Lin Ma2, Shangquan Gan3, Wei Sun1,4,* and Mingxing Chu2,*
..., quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the expression level of six genes in the brain, cerebellum, hypothalamus, pituitary, testis, epididymis, vas deferens, and adrenal gland in high fecundity (Small Tail Han sheep) and low fecundity (Sunite sheep) rams. The results were as follows: BMPR1B, GDF9, Smad1, Smad5 and Smad9 were expressed in all selected tissues, but BMP15 was specifical...

Tingting Li, Shuangshuang Geng, Long Xie, Huiyan Xu, Aolin Luo, Pengwei Zhao, Huan Yang, XingWei Liang, YangQing Lu, XiaoGan Yang* and KeHuan Lu*

.... Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results showed that the GDNF gene expression in the PB-GDNF-Sertoli cell line was significantly increased compared with that in the control Sertoli cell line (p<0.01). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results showed that GDNF gene secretion was also significantly increased in PB-GDNF-Sertoli cells compared with that in control Sertoli cells (p<0.05). We further compared two types of sp...
Muhammad Khan1, Tehmina Ameer Khan1, Aziz Ud Din2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah3,*, Kalim Ullah4, Sadia Tabassum1,*
...genes were amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified gene products were sequenced and compared with the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) Accession-No. N_012920.1. Four mutations in 16S-rRNA gene have been identified viz mt-2552T>A, mt-1811A>G, mt-1888A>G and mt-2467A>T and two are novel, mt- 2552T>A and mt-2467A>T while others have been previously reported, in patients of German and French populatio...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,*, Samina J.N. Ahmad1,2,*, Mubashir Ahmad Malik1, Abid Ali1, Muhammad Ali3, Ejaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Tahir2 and Muhammad Ashraf2
... through CTAB method and polymerase chain reaction was performed using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene based primers. Gel electrophoresis of the PCR products of desert locustsindicated a 710bp amplified DNA fragment on 1.5% agarose gel. DNA sequence analysis of PCR product indicated that specimens shared a 99-100% identity with Schistocerca gregaria gregaria)(Forskål, 1775). Molecular phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary divergence...
Faryal Saad1,3, Zia Ur Rahman2, Aamir Khan3, Rabia Noushin4, Irfan Ullah5, Farman Ullah Dawar3,Shahid Naiz Khan3, Rafiqe Hussain6, Kenza Javed2Abid ur Rehman7, Amna Fayaz3, Zohra Saifullah3 and Kalim Ullah3*

Sidra Shehzadi, Sher Bahadar Khan*, Umar Sadique and Saqib Nawaz

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Clostridium perfringens Type D in Goats in District Peshawar
...g, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) . Results revealed that 25 feacal samples collected from suspected goats were positive for C. perfringens  Type D  and the overall prevalence of enterotoxaemia in goats in district Peshawar was 25%. The prevalence of enterotoxaemia was 24%, 44%, 20% and 12% in zone I, II, III and IV respectively.  Zone II showed the highest prevalence rate of 44%. However, the colony morphology, microscopy...
Shikang Deng1,2, Yan Jin2, Jing Xu2, Xiufang Zhu2, Pinghai Hu2, Jiao Li2, Li Zhang2 and Jianzhong Tang2,*
... of cells; and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of TGF-β1, cyclinD1, and CDK4 mRNA in each group of cells. The results showed that after 5-FU intervention, the proliferation of bile duct scar fibroblasts was inhibited, and the expressions of TGF-β1, cyclinD1, CDK4 mRNA and protein in the cells were down-regulated (P<0.05), showing concentration-dependence. In conclusion, 5-FU may have a role in inhibitin...
Faheem Ahmed Khan1*, Sarzamin Khan2, Qurat-ul-Ain3, Saqib Ishaq1Muhammad Salman1, Abdul Rehman1, Ikram Ullah4, Kalsoom5 and Johar Jamil5
...entified by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were characterized for production of single cell microbial protein (SCMP). Out of 60 different fruit samples, a total number of confirmed S. cerevisiae isolates were 1, 2 and 1 from orange (Citrus sinensis), grapes (Vitis), and peach (Prunus persica), respectively. Utilizing yeast extract, peptone and dextrose maximum biomass was produced by S. cerevisiae isolate re...
Eman Khalifa1*, Riad Khalil2 and Haitham Elaadli3
...nt biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 500bp diagnostic for M. bovis, as well as (2) to determine the therapeutic efficacy of the various antimicrobials (9 types) on the isolated M. bovis by using different antimicrobial sensitivity plate method. A total number of 100 samples of mastitic milk from native lactating buffaloes’ breed were collected aseptically from 4 private farms in Cairo-Alexandria desert road in the nor...

 Muhammad Ajmal1, Saima Mustafa1, Fizza Ibrahim Bajwa1, Cheng Zhou2, Guangdong Wen2, Soe Lwin Myint2, Syed Irfan Raza3, Ihtasham Bukhari4, Mubashir Hassan5, Muhammad Faisal6 and Furhan Iqbal1*

Saad A. Moussa1, Mohammed Ahmed Mahmoud Abdullah2*, Mahmoud Saied1, Mustafa Saleh1, Mohamed A. Soliman2 and Ali Mahmoud Zanaty2
...rum, As well as realtime polymerase chain reaction by using standardized NDV specific primers and finally eight viruses were selected for further sequencing for the partial fusion protein, The eight NDVs isolates of velogenic genotype VII and contain the unique cleavage site motif 112RRQKRF117 with high relation to very virulent NDV Chinese strain Chicken /China/SDWF07/2011 strain with nucleotide identity percentage (99.3% -100%). The main causative agent of r...

Hosts and Viruses

December

Vol. 7, Iss. 6, Pages 129-146

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