Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

... intestinal anatomy, and immune system, pig is particularly a suitable animal species for the modeling of human enteric pathogen infections, immune responses and for vaccine evaluations. These are the basis for the successful establishment of the infection and disease models for human rotavirus, human norovirus and human enterovirus 71 using neonatal gnotobiotic pigs. The differences between germ-free and normal animals in the maturation status of

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...g cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are crucial to gaining insight into HP-PRRSV-induced pathogenesis and for the development of novel protective vaccines. In this review, we disc...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...ces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors involved. In the last years substantial progres...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...esses of cell growth and immune system. Thus, results from our current study indicate that DEG analysis of RNA-seq data help us better understand the precise mechanisms of PEDV in pig PBMC. 
...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
... both active and passive immune system if given before 75 days of parturition.
...
Youbao Zhong1, Xianlai Zhang1, Xiaofen Hu1 and Yong Li1, 2,*
...for the hedgehog’s immune system.
...
Ambreen Asghar, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*
...ies in the metabolic and immune system. Present work was designed to evaluate the variations in serum protein level induced by fat rich diet. For this purpose, two groups of Wister rats were fed with diets carrying difference in percentage of fats. Protein profiling of treated groups indicated a marked increase in serum protein (related to iron metabolism and immune response) level compared to low fat-fed rats. Additionally, a decreased level of serum proteins...
Jun-Ying Liu, He-He Liu*, Jie Kou, Yang-Mei Zhao, Ji-Wen Wang, Liang Li and Xiao-Hui Du
...olecular response in the immune system may contribute more to the TLR4 signaling cascade.
...
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
...lity to evade the innate immune system was determined by whole blood killing, exposure to hydrogen peroxide, and biofilm assays. This study represents the first Report of S. iniae infection of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).
...
Ming-Yan Shi2, Xu-Liang Yan1, Ping-Ping Han1, Yu-Jie Tang1 and Hui-Xia Li1*
...d the development of the immune system in 315 potential target genes, while 39 target genes were associated with adipogenesis and metabolism, immune responses, and stem cell differentiation. Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database showed that these differentially-expressed miRNAs were involved in several pathways and were target genes that could regulate SMSC differentiation into adipocytes. Our study provided an overview of the ...
Fei Wang1, Xianlai Zhang1, Youbao Zhong2, Xiaoen Tang3, Xiaofen Hu1
ShanShan Yang1, Shengwei Zhong1, Zuohong Zhou1, Jin Liu1, Xu Yuan1 
and Yong Li1*
...uroendocrine and mucosal immune system as an information molecule due to the high expression of VIP. It will provide the basis for clarifying the biological function of VIP in pigeons.
...
Muhammad Saeed Shah1, Fazal Nasir2, Sana Ul Haq1 and Muhammad Tahir Khan2*
...on Pro";">The human immune system is a highly sophisticated system of biological structures that defends the human body against harmful antigens. In this paper, the concept of biological immune system, idiotypic network theory and clonal selection theory are applied in multi-robot cooperation. Idiotypic network theory governs the stimulation and suppression of an antibody in response to an antigen. Clonal selection theo...

Muhammad Umair Hassan1, Muhammad Aamer1, Muhammad Nawaz2, Abdul Rehman3, Talha Aslam3, Ubaid Afzal4, Bilal Ahmad Shahzad3, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub5, Faryal Ahmed1, Ma Qiaoying1, Su Qitao1 and Huang Guoqin1*

Agronomic Bio-Fortification of Wheat to Combat Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries
...ient (IQ) levels, weaker immune system, and impaired physical and mental development. Wheat crop play a chief role in daily food requirement and calories need in developing countries, however, inherently wheat has lower Zn contents. Moreover, soil Zn deficiency further increasing the problem of low Zn contents in wheat grain. Thus, the finest way to combat the Zn deficiency is to produce the grains of wheat having desirable Zn contents at farmer’s field....

Muhamamd Rizwan1*, Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Kashif3, Aneela Zameer Durrani4, Asghar Abbas5, Tanveer Ahmad6, Muhammad Nadeem7 , Kinza Khan8

...c (Bacteria and Archaea) immune system that provides protection against viral infection. When bacteria recognize viral DNA inside it, bacteria incorporate small fragment of viral DNA into its genome at specific site termed as CRISPR locus. Insertion of viral DNA at CRISPR locus allows to remember, diagnose and clear the viral infection by the mechanism of sequence specific Adaptive Immunity. CRISPR Cas system is sustainable to combate with the mutation develop...
Amreen Zahra1, Mushtaq A. Saleem1*, Hasnain Javed2, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Naveed1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4
...targets the body’s immune system, including the CD4 cells, which help the immune system fight off infections. Gag-Pol are the principal viral elements in HIV-1, which cause disease initiation and progression. Here we present a comprehensive study, where both the in vitro and in-silico analyses were performed on HIV-1 from isolates of the Punjab area of Pakistan. The main objective in the curren...

Keqiang Wei1*, Yue Wei2 and Changxia Song1

...mpletely on their innate immune system comprised of various cells, molecules and signaling pathways to survive. Although signaling pathways such as MAPK, NF-κB and Nrf2 have been extensively studied in vertebrates, our current understanding of them in crustaceans is still in the infancy. Studies have found that three members, i.e. p38, RelA (p65) and Nrf2 are evolutionarily conserved, but the specific cells responsible for their synthesis and function ha...

Muhammad Khubaib Hameed, Muhammad Aziz ur Rahman, Muhammad Ashraf, Safdar Hassan, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Qamar Bilal, Fawwad Ahmad, Muhammad Sharif*

...s of growth, carcass and immune system in broilers birds. A total of 240 day old cobb-500 male chicks were purchased and were divided into 4 treatments in completely randomized design. Each treatment further subdivided into six replicates and each replicate contained 10 chicks. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric starter (CP and ME as 22% and 2850 kcal/kg, respectively) and finisher (CP and ME as 20% and 2950 kcal/kg, respectively) diets (A, B, C and D) were ...

Roheela Yasmeen1* and Samia Chaudhry2

...eath of people with weak immune systems. Its most common reported symptoms are fever, fatigue, dry cough, lymphopenia, raised levels of lactate de-hydrogenase and, bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs (opacities may be mild damage of one lobe or all five lobes). This virus has the potential to affect pregnant women, however, its prevalence was not noticed in new-borns. Time to recovery is generally two weeks. To reduce the spread of CO...

Laiba Ajmal1, Sidra Ajmal2, Maleeha Ajmal3, Gul Nawaz3, Rabail Hassan Toor4, Hooria Younas1, Tassaduq Hussain Sheikh5 and Raazia Tasadduq1*

... paradox as the maternal immune system accepts and tolerates the semi allogeneic fetus. Continued tolerance of the fetus relies on an optimal immune privileged environment that allows the developing fetus to avoid recognition and rejection. Any dysregulation in the crosstalk between the host’s immune system and the fetal allograft would result in rejection of the fetus, subsequently leading to miscarriages. The functio...

Wafaa M.A. Ghoneem*, Muhammad M. Shaklouf, Ali M. Ali and Mohammed H. Bakr

..., blood biochemistry and immune system response of the animals. Culbac® was added at 0, 10 and 20g/h/d in G1 (control), G2 and G3, respectively. Digestion coefficients of the most nutrients and nutritive value did not significantly (P<0.05) differ between G2 and G1. However, G3 recorded lower values. WBCs, RBCs, Ht, Hb, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils were not affected by treatment. Culbac® significantly (P<0.05) de...

Muhammad Haris Raza Farhan1*, Qamar Iqbal1, Tariq Jamil1, Muhammad Fayaz2, Abdul Kabir2,3, Eid Nawaz2, Marjan Ali2, Shumaila Manzoor2 

...nutrients can affect the immune system of the animals increasing their susceptibility to different infections including parasitic infestation. A referral clinical examination was carried out on a small ruminant farm with a mixed population of sheep and goats. History taken from the farm owner revealed the mortality of 8 animals within the duration of 14 days following a pattern of anorexia, no fever, emaciation, recumbency, and ultimately death. A detailed phy...

Yanjie Liu

...rcise intensity on human immune system under different environments. Sixty physical education students were enrolled as research objects and divided into control group (normal oxygen group), hypoxia group, and high-altitude group. Each group was given the same exercise intensity. Venous blood was collected before and after each test to determine changes in Immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), IL-2, WBC, natural killer (NK) ce...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Vol. 55, Iss. 1, Pages 1-500

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