Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...essure of vaccination by genetic evolution and antigen variation. Moreover, the ratio of L226 in the haemagglutin (HA) receptor binding site has increased, which indicates that the H9N2 virus has the increasing potential to infection and cause human epidemics. The threat to the poultry industry and public health should not be ignored. In this review, we summarised the findings of recent studies on H9N2 AIVs epidemics and strategies for their prevention in poul...
Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1,2,, Shan Liang1, Muhammad Saleem Kalhoro2, Shoaib Ahmed Pirzado2, Nasir Rajput2, Muhammad Naeem2, Fahmida Parveen2 andYongjie Liu1*
...A, S336N). The HA and NA genetic evolution analysis revealed that one isolate was most similar to the newly isolated H3N2 viruses from dogs in China and had the same evolutionary branching. The result provided a foundation for further studies on biological characteristics of CIV.

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

... analysed to study their genetic evolution followed by estimation of their evolutionary rates among different virus clusters. This analysis revealed a high evolution rate for clade Additionally, analysis of selection pressures in the HA gene revealed a positive selection pressure. Deduced amino acid analysis revealed characteristic mutations at HA antigenic sites besides two other mutations (129∆, I151T) that were found to be stable in recent su...

Amany Adel1, Abdelsatar Arafa1, Hussein A. Hussein2 and Ahmed El-Sanousi 2

...e sequences to study the genetic evolution of the NS1 gene of such viruses. The viruses were isolated from chickens and ducks in both live bird markets and backyard populations. NS1 gene was amplified, sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences revealed deletion of 5 amino acids at positions 80 to 84 in the NS1 protein along all Egyptian isolates under study. Ala149, which is a pathogeneicity marker for interferon antagonism was found in...

Journal of Virological Sciences


Vol. 8, Pages 1-27


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