Thaddeus Metz

...a genuine value-theoretic category as something distinct from and competing with, say, objective well-being, and, second, that, even if there were a value of meaning in life, my fundamentality theory of it would not capture its essence well. In this article, I reply to both of these criticisms, aiming to probe these underexplored issues still more deeply. I also contend that these two criticisms are in tension with each other; in order to contend that my theor...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

...f the genus Pestivirus in cattle worldwide. Herein, we present the current status of the disease in Brazil showing its nation-wide distribution. In Brazil, BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and ‘HoBi’-like viruses are frequently reported whereas BVDV-2 has a higher frequency when compared with other continents. It is important to reinforce that currently Brazil has no official control program for BVDV. The significance of cattle pr...

Jonathan Jong

...e biological ones), fuzzy categories. There is no such thing as religion, such that the term “religion” picks out all and only all examples of religion, or specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for counting as religious. Rather, there are causally and phenomenologically distinct phenomena—such as the belief in supernatural agents, participation in rituals, formation of non-kin groups, obedience to moral codes, and so forth—t...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

...sters. That study was the catalyst for the current study of rabbis’ shift in religious beliefs in general, and belief in God in particular. Approximately 25 rabbis voluntarily submitted vignettes concerning their shifts in religious belief. These vignettes were solicited via rabbinic list-serves. Those rabbis who denied a belief in a supernatural being were interviewed to explore the evolution of their religious faith and its impact on their religious pr...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...mples were collected from cattle slaughtered at Peshawar, Pakistan. Samples were processed and analyzed for TVC of E. coli and S. typhymurium at 0, 48, 144 and 288hrs during 12 days of meat samples refrig- eration storage at 4±1 °C. The pH of meat samples were checked and recorded on similar intervals. During 12 days storage, significant reductions (i.e. P <0.05) were found in both E. coli O157: H7 and S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these ...

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

...et of sera collected from cattle with foot-and-mouth disease vaccination. The pattern of antibody titers in animals of different age groups was observed as less than 1 year, 1-2 years and more than 2 years for both ELISA and SNT. The peak immune response measured by SNT was 2.8log10 whereas ELISA detected serum antibody titer up to 2.4 log10. Findings showed that highest titers were seen in animals of age > 2 years ...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...peroxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were assessed. Imidacloprid enhanced malondi- aldehyde (MDA) and proline contents over their respective controls at all doses and growth stages observed, attaining maximum with 40 grams Imidacloprid active ingredient per hectare-1 at day 15 after treatment. The antioxidative enzyme activity of SOD, APX and GR showed increasing trend in a dose-dependent manner, a...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...at irrigation system is a catalyst for appreciable rice yield in this area. However, proper application of fertilizer and expansion of existing farmland should be adopted among the rice farmers in the study area and other related environment.

...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...oofed livestock including cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and wild ungulates. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic losses to livestock farming and industry has increased global concern for the disease. Currently, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, ...

 Zahir Shah, Shakoor Ahamd, Mian Saeed Sarwar, Murad Ali Khan and Javid Ali

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...mples were collected from cattle and humans respectively. Total 40 samples of subsistence farms and 30 nomadic herds were analysed. Forty eight farm workers, 40 farm owner 36 abattoirs workers, 15 veterinary assistants, 15 veterinarian and 40 butchers were also screen out. Overall sero-prevalence in cattle was 15.36% on SPAT, 14.39% by i-ELISA and 14.14% through PCR. Higher prevalence was recorded in abattoir shops (31.01%) ...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

...relationships between the catch of Portunus trituberculatus in the northern East China Sea, and 6 main impact factors, which include the number of main catch vessel (NMV), power of main catch vessel (PMV), number of trawl vessel (NTV), power of trawl vessel (PTV), release number of larval crab (RELE), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the interpretation ratio (IR) ...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...: justify;">Chitosan is a cationic biopolymer that can be used for sustainable waste water treatment as a coagulant-flocculent due to its ability to coagulate various ionic substances such as metal ions as well as dyes. In the current study novel polymer composites were prepared using natural polymers chitosan and starch in molds. Structure of composites was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The physical parameters such as weight and swelling degree...

Paul I. Ankeli, Mashood A. Raji, Haruna M. Kazeem, Moses O. Odugbo, Nendir J. Umaru, Idowu O. Fagbamila, Livinus T. Ikpa, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Issa A. Muraina, Pam D. Luka and Nicholas D. Nwankpa

...nal of apparently healthy cattle in Plateau State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty six ear swab samples (n=166) were cultured from which eight (8) Mycoplasma species were isolated and characterized using conventional biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Six (6) were observed to ferment glucose, reduce tetrazolium chloride and hydrolysed casein. They had no phosphatase activity, did not produce ‘film and spots’ and nei...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...oduction, reared improved cattle breeds, get better access to veterinarian services and used more nutritious fodder (silage), as compared to non-members. The findings of study also provided the evidence that establishment of milk marketing cooperatives foster more economic opportunities to female dairy smallholders and assist them in rural development. Based on study findings certain policy options has also been suggested to extend the farmer cooperative activ...

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

... bait traps were used for catching flies. Chicken liver was used in the study to attract blowflies. Eggs and larvae of the flies that oviposited on the liver were raised and identified. Six different indices were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity [S], Margalef Species Richness Indices, Pielou’s Evenness [EH], and Simpson Resiprocal Indices). Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora ...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...011-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food. Economic factors such as food commodities price and household’s income and their socio-economic and demographic characteristics are included in the model. Results indicate that with an increase in the age, household consume m...

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

...oaches. The lower poorest category estimated through deciles contributes 2.78% to the overall rural region’s income. However, the upper richest category shares 30.06% to the aforementioned income. The deciles measured through expenditure approach revealed that the lower poorest category and upper richest category contributes 3.13 and 25.59, respect...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

... Juveniles of the African catfish were exposed to varying acute concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat. The fishes responded, exhibiting different behavioural abnormalities like hyperactivity, abnormal swimming, restlessness, loss of equilibrum and haemorrhage. Observation of opercular ventilation count (OVC), tail fin movemant rate (TMR) and air gulping index (AGI) showed a marked difference between control and exposed fishes, indicating that the herbicide...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

... BW records including one categorical (sex) and six continuous (head girth above eyes, neck length, diagonal body length, belly sprung, shank circumference and rump height) predictors were utilized. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted BW (r) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) were used as goodness-of-fit criteria, among others. A 10-fold-cross validation was applied to train and test CART, CHAID and ANN and to estimate MR coeffi...

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

...n: justify;">Turkish Grey cattle (TGC) is one of Turkey’s native cattle breeds. TGC was a popular race to breeding within Thrace and Western Anatolia, but unfortunately they are under the threat of extinction recently. The application of gene specific molecular markers in genotyping and genetic identification is of essential significance for preserving genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to reveal the genotype...

Bibi Tayyaba Batool1, Aemal Tareen1, Shahjahan Shabir Ahmed1, Hira Ejaz1, Mohammad Azam Kakar1, Syed Abdul Rehman2, Mohammed Saeed1, Zafar Ahmad3, Mohammad Masood Tariq3, Mohammad Arif Awan3 and Muhammad Naeem Shahwani1*

...nd bovine tuberculosis in cattle, goats and sheep in some primary dwelling districts of Balochistan. Our results showed that brucellosis was found 2.2% positive from Quetta district and 0.6% positive from Pishin district and bovine (TB) was found 0.60% positive from Quetta and none from Pishin district of Balochistan.

...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

...d biochemistry of African catfish (C. gariepinus) juvenile on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were exposed to 0.175, 0.0875 and 0.035 mg/L corresponding to 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50 of the 96 h LC50 value (1.75) of the pesticide. Behavioral responses which include colouration of the fish skin and opercula colouration were observed. Aluminium phosphide elicited effects on the haematological parameters of the fish such as a decrease in Hb when compared to the control; red...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...y viral disease affecting cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and wild animals around the globe. This highly contagious disease causes severe economic loss due to reduced productivity of the affected animals as well as increased mortality in calves and kids. In this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospec...

Noor Us Saher1, Zunaira Amanat2, M. Asif Gondal3 and Naureen Aziz Qureshi4,*

...collected as a part of by catch of gillnet deployed for shrimps from April 2005 to March 2007 in Sonmiani Bay waters (Miani Hor lagoon). M. planipes was found abundantly in Sep. 2005, Nov. - Dec. 2005 and Dec. 2006 (93.3%, 94.7%, 92.3% and 87 % respectively). A. lunaris was found in abundance during May 2005 (85.7%) and Aug. 2005 (81.8%). Male specimens of both species (M. planipes: χ2 = 245.4, P < 0.005) and (A. lunaris: χ2 = 99.4, P<0.005) were...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

... justify;">Time series of catch and effort data were analyzed to estimate the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) of Indian oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes, 1847, Family: Clupeidae), fishery resources from Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data (1994 – 2009) were analyzed by CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) consists of Fox, Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models and ASPIC (a surplus production model ...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

... respondents of different categories comprised of 43 adopters and 57 non-adopters of sunflower. The probit estimates were carried out to find out factors contributing to non-adoption of sunflower. Factors contributing to non-adoption of sunflower were respondent experience, access to credit, total cost of sunflower, access to price information of market, distance from input shop and more profit from competing crops indicating that the 1 percent increase in the...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...t was disbursed under the category of medium term followed by short term. The average yield, cost and return for the maize crop showed significant results due to the proper utilization of the credit by the farmers. The major constraints to farmers while obtaining credit were complicated procedure of pass book preparation, amount less than requirement, unavailability of timely credit and non-availability of collateral. The study recommends amount of loan accord...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...ms. The sample farms were categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, descriptive statistics and gross margin were used. The average total cost of small poultry farm was Rs. 3,10,067 per flock while that of medium and large farms were Rs. 4,99,002 and Rs.7,34,290 respectively. The highest cost was estimated for feed followed by chicks cost. The average gross margin of small farms was Rs. 38,556 while that of medium and l...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...onent of ceramide pathway catalyze metabolism of proapoptotic ceramide to anti-apoptotic sphingosine and other fatty acids. In this study we have evaluated the pro-apoptotic effect of ceranib-2, a human ceramidase inhibitor and of a short-chain C2 ceramide on human lung adenocarcinoma cells, A549 by determining cytotoxicity of these agents by trypan blue assay, apoptosis inducing ability by annexin V and JC-1 staining and ultrastructural alterations by transmi...
Muhammad Mohsin Javed*, Muhammad Azhar Nisar, Bushra Muneer and Muhammad Usman Ahmad
...in U-shaped manner with a cation exchange membrane. The MFC constructed was subjected for the bioelectricity production by using vegetable waste extract as substrate. The power production was analyzed for three days. Maximum power density of 88990mW/m2 with a current density of 314.4mA/m2 was observed on the second day of process with minimum internal resistance comparatively i.e. 123.23Ω. The higher power density shows effic...
Hafiz Aftab Ahmed1, Asif Ali2, Akbar Ali2, Salman Ahmed Abid3 and Sajid Umar4*
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
... antixenosis or tolerance category of resistance to the R. padi. This study concludes, Serin-2010’ as standard resistant cultivar for future breeding program.
...
Mehmet Cilbiz1* and F. Banu Yalim2
...) by length-converted catch curve was estimated at 0.83 year-1, fishing mortality (F) 0.14 year-1, natural mortality (M) 0.69 year-1 and exploitation rate (E) 0.17. According to the result of Relative Yield/Recruit analysis estimated Emax>E, so in this context stock of O. mykiss was not overexploited in Karacaören I Dam Lake.
...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
...ties by LDH-C4 catalyzed anaerobic glycolysis, which reduces the dependence on oxygen and enhances the adaptation to the hypoxic environments.
...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
... recessive resistance are categorized as most beneficial plant defense approaches used by plants. The review also briefly explains about introgression of durable resistance to generate virus resistant cultivars for economically important crops through molecular breeding techniques via utilizing advanced molecular markers involving cis and trans genetics. The review adhere recent research findings regarding disease resistance against viral diseases and conclude...

Tuli Dey, Sonnet Poddar and Mukti Barua

...oductive disease of dairy cattle. A crossbreed cow of 3rd lactation came to Madras veterinary college with the clinical sign of complete uterine prolapse which calved one day before. The cow was handled and the prolapsed mass was corrected so carefully that there could be saved the life without any complication. The prolapsed mass of cow was managed with lukewarm water and manual pressure replacement in non-raising condition of hindquarter. Vulvar Retention Su...

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

Cansu Akbulut1,*, Tuğba Kotil2, Burcu Öztürk1 and Nazan Deniz Yön1
...ic vacuolization, mitotic catastrophe in mitochondria , chromatin condensation, mitochondrial vesiculation and dispersion at ooplasm were observed. In mitochondria, mitotic catastrophe , vesiculation, swelling and loss of organization of cristae were detected.Here we showed that TiO2 exposure trigger paraptotic type cell death in zebrafish ovary.
...
Shahzad Ali1,*, Heinrich Neubauer2, Falk Melzer2, Iahtasham Khan1, Shamim Akhter3,Tariq Jamil2 and Sajid Umar3
...ection in three different cattle farms located at Potohar Plateau in Punjab, Pakistan. A total of399 serum samples from indeginous and exotic cattle were tested for brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and multiplex real-time PCR for Brucella sp., Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. A total of 20 (5.01%) samples were found seropositive by RBPT and 19 (4.76%) by SAT, however real-time PCR showed 13 (3.25%) samp...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
...i>Brucella abortus in cattle and buffaloes in the districts of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A total of 120 serum samples were randomly collected from buffaloes and cattle (60 per species) at Civil Veterinary Hospitals, animal markets and peri-urban livestock holdings in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). RBPT positive samples were subjected to a

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

... maintenance purposes for cattle in the dry season. Thus understanding the dynamics on rangeland response to grazing could prove worthy in finding an equilibrium point for optimizing animal productivity, with limited range degradation. Therefore, the current study was aimed at determining and comparing fodder tree species composition along grazing gradient in fenced and unfenced grazing area in the Gaborone North Region. For each study area, two parallel trans...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...tion of the government to cater with the climate change on agriculture and particularly on maize. Fertilizer management and crop variety choices according to the changing climate will address this serious concern expected in the future.

...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...is in mind, the rats were categorized into five groups. The study groups were given saline, 0.2 % dimethyl sulfoxide, D-GaIN, EA plus D-GaIN and D-GaIN plus EA, respectively. In the group given D-GaIN, the following transmission electron microscopic and light microscopic results were found: degenerative changes in the liver tissue, significant decreased in the number of activated Bcl-2, while increased in the number of Bax and caspase-3-positive hepatocytes, a...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...transmitted geminiviruses categorized as begomoviruses are reported since long. During the last two decades, whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses have emerged as serious pathogens of several agricultural and horticultural crops (like tomato, chillies, cotton, pulses, papaya, cucurbits, okra etc.) causing enormous losses in the tropics, which provide ideal conditions for the perpetuation of viruses and the insect-vector. Despite concerted efforts to contain begom...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...rpa armigera, Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua, plant hopper of Pentatomorpha group, termite Odontotermes spp, and cut worm Agrotis ipsilon in chickpea whereas Campoletis chlorlidae was recorded as natural enemy feeding on H. armigera larvae. In pigeonpea crop, mainly H. armigera, leaf webber Grapholita (Cydia) critica, Myllocerus spp, spotted pod borer Maruca testulalis, plume moth Exelastis atomosa, tur pod bug Clavigralla gibbosa, jassid Amrsca b...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
.... The population of aphid catches was quite lower in yellow pan trap than yellow sticky trap. Aphids were first observed in traps during third week of December and the population of pests gradually increased to reach the peak in second week of February in the first year of study (2006-07) while in second year of study (2007-08) the aphid population appeared in second week of December and attained its peak by the end of February. The abiotic factors viz., tempe...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...eir potential as trap and catch crops of the parasite. Twelve crops, selected on the basis of germination induction test of A. pedunculata seeds on root exudates as compared to that of three germination inducing chemicals (viz.; NaOCl, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and GR24-a strigol analogue) and growth of the parasite on excised root pieces of prevalent crop cultivars including sugarcane, were evaluated in A. pedunculata infested sugarcane field...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers

Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...hes punctiferalis), hairy caterpillar (Euproctis sp.) and greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) was found under in vitro condition. Further this isolate displayed high virulence on above insect species. This study reported occurrence of a isolate of S. carpocapsae from ginger rhizosphere from India. This indigenous isolate could be investigated further for managing insect pests of ginger.

...

Shekharappa

Biological control of earhead caterpillar, Helicoverpea armigera Hubner in sorghum
...he management of ear head caterpillar (H. armigera) in sorghum ecosystem of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The mycoinsecticide N. rileyi was highly infective at both the dosages 1x108 conidia per litre & 2x108 conidia per litre against H. armigera as compared to Ha NPV 250 LE per hectare and chemical control in mitigating the pest population as well as in obtaining the higher yield.
 

 

...

S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...n the leaves. The tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) was serious on Gladiolus and Anthurium. Cutworm (Agrotis segetum) damaged the seedlings of Gladiolus. Among the Coleopteran pests, the Blister beetle (Mylabris p) was the most important feeding on the flowers of Gladiolus and China rose. The steel blue beetle, Altica p. and white spotted flea beetle (Monolepta signata) was found infesting Gladiolus and Chrysanthemum respectively. The serpentine leaf min...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...-Sephadex C-25 was a good cation exchanger for recovery of lactoferrin. Camel raw milk produced 2.4 mg/mL of lactoferrin. The lactoferrin isolated from camel milk exhibited promising antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Concentration of lactoferrin i.e. 4,000 ppm (4 mg/mL) showed the best results against both the pathogens. The E. coli was more susceptible to inhibition than S. aureusin disc diffu...
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...ymorphic sites in Sahiwal cattle. Samples from Sahiwal cattle breeds were sequenced using six set of primers. A total 15 polymorphisms; 12 in intronic and 3 in exonic region, were identified. The sequences of the amplified Pit1 gene fragments were aligned with the help of BLAST for SNPs identification. This is a first report toward genetic screening of this gene at molecular level in Sahiwal c...
Ayesha Zahid,Ammara Muazzam, Sidra Mustafa, Saba Irshad*,Malik Siddique Mahmood and Rehman Shahzad

 

...ve ways to the genesis of cataract.
...
Rauf Ahmad1, Karam Ahad2 and Aziz Ullah Shah3
...s of fine and coarse rice category, were tested for their performance against the respective standards. In hybrid category, 58% candidates milling quality found excellent or good (head rice yield– HRY 51-70%), 23% marginal (HRY 40 – 50%) and 18% below limit (< 40%). Physically, 60% samples were extra-long size, slender shape and coarse type. Nineteen percent samples were long or medium size but slender shape a...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...ally important disease of cattle and is caused by the LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is endemic in most countries of Africa and Middle East and can be transmitted either by mechanical as well as intrastadial and transstadial routes. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of two LSDV isolates from Ix...
Süleyman Kök*
...n: justify;">Turkish grey cattle (TGC) are facing the danger of extinction. Intensive breeding program has mainly been used for purebred TGC that are under the conservation of Bandırma Livestock Research Institute (BLRE) ex-situ program. This study aims to compare 3 SNP of the genetic features of purebred TGC that are under the conservation of ex-situ (51 cattle) program with the ones raised by the smallho...
Ahmad Ali1,*, Sheikh Muhammad Azam2, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Mujahid Kaleem3
...1758). There are five big cat species in the genus Panthera and tiger is the biggest one. Data were collected by recording observations on breeding of Royal Bengal Tiger in captivity at Bahawalpur Zoo from June 2012 to July 2014 (two years) on prescribe sheets. Data from June, 2003 to December, 2011 (nine years) were collected from zoo management. In two years study Tiger breed once and produce four cubs (female) while in nine years it breed three ...
Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
...enol-A, juvenile Catla catla was exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol-A (10,100,1000μg/l) for 14 days. BPA exposure strongly elevates vtg mRNA level in fish exposed to 100μg/l but at 1000 μg/l exposure of BPA, vtg level decreased compared to 100µg/l exposed fish. These results showed that BPA has estrogenic action and cause endocrine disruption in juvenile C. catla at envir...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

...the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the broiler blood was increased as the citrus waste level in the feed of the broilers was increased. The citrus waste addition in the feed of the broiler have non-significant effects on the growth parameters, however it has positive effects on the antioxidant enzymes profile of the broilers.

...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...were classified into nine categories: resting, feeding, moving, excreting, parental behaviour, embellishing, rutting, vigilance and social behaviour. This study analyzed the time-allotment and behavioural rhythms for resting, feeding, moving, and excreting categories. The result showed that before 9:00 and after 18:00 hours, the Miluwere almost always resting. Resting behaviour was exhibited and maintained at a high frequenc...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...milk composition of Achai cattle. A total 24 lactating Achai cows of first parity were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups viz. A, B and C on the basis of physiological and productive status (n= 08). Experimental animals were allocated to diet containing zero (control), 12 and 18 percent MSC. All the three rations were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogeniuos. Each cow was given a daily feed ration according to NARC standards. Milk yield of each experimental a...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
... of two hundred and fifty cattle and one hundred and fifty buffaloes. Descriptive statistics with Pearson’s Chi-square test and regression model were applied to analyze the data. The results of study found Rhepicephalus the most prevalent genus followed by Heamaphysalis, Hyalomma, Dermacenter and Amblyomma with the prevalence of 78.50%, 10.33%, 10.08%, 0.67% and 0.42%, respectively. On species basis, R. (Boophilus) annulatus, ...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...dy composition of striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The experiment was conducted in fiberglass tank having capacity of 18 L water with a stocking density of 25 fish fry per aquaria. There were two treatment groups; T1, T2 and a control (T0) each was replicated twice. Fenugreek as an additive was added in experimental feed at the rate of 0.5% in T1 and 1.0% in T2 while control T0 wa...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...nclude compost @5 t ha-1, cattle manure @ 5 t ha-1, compost + cattle manure each @ 2.5 t ha-1, NPK @ 150:120: 90 and control (without amendments), replicated four times. The results revealed that organic and inorganic amendments, irrespective of their kind and combinations, exerted significant (p≤0.05) variation in plant growth, yield parameters of wheat and water use efficiency. The inorganic fertilizer gave significantl...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
...ine. Thirty-five pregnant cattle were selected and seven groups were made consisting five cattle. Group A was controls: Animals in Group B and C were at 45 days prepartum with and without VES: animals in D and E were at day 60 prepartum with and without VES: animals in F and G were at 75 days prepartum stage with and without VES: respectively. At day 0 of experimental trial VES was given to animals in group C, E and G. All g...
Habibun Nabi1, Saher Islam2, Amna Arshad Bajwa2, Imran Rashid1,*, Haroon Akbar1, Wasim Shehzad2, Kamran Ashraf1, Nisar Ahmad1 and Aneela Durrani3
...water. Fecal samples from cats at Pet center of UVAS (Lahore, Pakistan) were screened for coccidian parasites through microscopy examination. DNA was extracted from positive fecal samples for coccidian parasites and a T. gondii PCR was performed. Five sets of primers were designed using PrimerSelect tool for PCR to amplify SAG2 gene 5’ and 3’ regions. Sequences of 5 fragments of SAG2 were annotated and analyzed using DNASTAR Lasergene. After...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
...os permiginu s cattlewas conducted in farm houses at three main regions (Western by-pass, Spiny village, and Sariab region) of District Quetta from March, 2013 to March, 2014.   Around 1649 ticks were captured from six main body parts of 404 cattle. Of these 346 (65.96%) were observed to be plagued by one or more tick infestation. Compositions of tick species captured from the host were Hyalomma anatolicum...
Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
...s produced to explore the catch-up like growth from diallel cross-breeding due to its similarity with high growth speed in the later period for common carp Cyprinus carpio L cross-breeding. A compensatory index matrix for 3×3 full diallel cross combinations used for selection was built to investigate compensatory like growth of each combination. Yes/No(Y/N) effect was determined for specific combination dyads, which there were significant differen...

 Zeenat Bano1,*, Sajid Abdullah1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Anjum Zia3 and Wardah Hassan1

...peroxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in vital organs (gills, liver and kidney) of fish, Cirrhina mrigala. The 3 different representative water samples and 60 fish samples (20 fish from each site) were collected from three sites i.e. fish-farm, hatchery and Indus River of Punjab, Pakistan. The results showed differences in physico-chemical parameters of water samples collected from all the sites. The concentrations of Zinc...
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
... protein and showed to be catalyticly active towards the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The results of the present study provide new information into camelid evolution and give further insights into the diversity and complex enzymatic functions of GST superfamily.
...
Sher Khan Panhwar1,2,3, Zhou Yong Dong1,4,*, Gao Tianxiang1,3, Wang Ping5, Han Zhiqiang1, Wang Zhongming1,4 and Wang Yang1,4
..., 2004, 2009 and 2013 and catch and effort data from 2000~2012. Length frequency data for 8,350 individuals were collected using pair trawl nets. The predominant size classes in the catch comprised of 130−374 mm in 2001, 83−360 mm in 2004, 53−355 mm in 2009, and 23−389 mm in 2013. Growth parameters of asymptotic length ranged from 515.6 to 768.6 mm in 2004 and 2009, growth coefficients ranged from 0.2...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
... identified proteins were categorized into 16 classes, which are mainly including energy metabolism, gene expression regulation, oxidation-reduction reaction, cellular component and stress responses, and the stress proteins including Mn-superoxide dismutase and thaumatin-like protein. The results means that mulberry young fruits can regulate the expression levels of multiple proteins to reply popcorn disease and these pathogenesis-related proteins provide...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...mong the livestock types, cattle were the major one followed by goats and sheep. Livestock was found significant at household level in two aspects of income provision and of lowering household and farm budget. Livestock income was derived from the sale of milk, milk products (such as yogurt, butter and butter oil), other products (like farm yard manure and dung cakes) and animals which included calves, goats and sheep mainly. The major share of livestock incom...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Yue-Hui Ma2, Ming-Xing Chu2, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Hui-Jiang Gao2, Huai-Zhi Jiang3, Di Liu4, Li Liu5, Yan-Bin Zhu6, Wang-Dui Basang6, Luo-Bu Danjiu7, Tian-Wu An8, Xiao-Lin Luo8, Shi-Cheng He7 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...The DEGs related to 56 GO categories, and pathway analysis revealed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in 41 of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including signaling pathways regulating the pluripotency of stem cells, the p53 signaling pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation. The results of the present study confirmed that the selection of the dominant follicle involved the regulation of various physiological systems. These r...
Ibrar Muhammad Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan1,*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Tahir Usman2, Adnan Khan1, Zakir Ullah1 and Hamid Rehman1
...r compared with the other cattle bulls. High dead sperm percentage (51.87 ± 0.50%), deterioration of plasma membrane integrity (38.29 ± 0.45%), pH (6.83 ±0.01) and DNA integrity (92.45 ± 0.28%) were observed in frozen semen in cross-bred bulls, which showed significant (P < 0.01) differences with the other cattle bulls. The results imply that Sahiwal bulls showed the best semen qualitati...
Quang Minh Dinh
...be increased and avoiding catch fish during the recruitment period for sustainable fishery management.
...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
...eration.
...
Saswati Roy1, Rakesh Pashi2, S. Dey3 and Shantanu Jha
...classified into two major categories: agricultural fields and non-agricultural areas. Observations on birds were taken twice a week, at early morning, starting from just after the sunrise around 7a.m and till before sunset up to 5.30 pm. Data were collected by using the line transect method. Total 74 number of bird species were recorded which belonged to 18 orders. Out of 74 bird species 23 species (31.08%) were recorded as insectivorous, 16 species (21.62%) a...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...d-White Holstein-Friesian cattle. The analysis included 1024 cows and 3663 calves of the Polish Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian breed (phf). The study included an analysis of one polymorphic place PIT-1 (c.1178G>A). The source data used to calculate the indicators of reproduction were collected from cows inseminated by semen of Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian bulls and giving birth to single calf. The following information was taken from each animal: ag...

Haji Muhammad1, 2, Zafar Iqbal1, Qamar Bashir2, Muhammad Amir Hanif3

...nd condition factor of 18 cat fish species belonging to five families of Indus River in Taunsa barrage from Punjab, Pakistan. The value of length weight relationship (LWR) equation and condition factor (K) ranged W= -0.249 TL0.79 – W= -2.803 TL3.55 and 0.07 – 1.69 respectively. The objective of this study was to determine LWR and condition factor of cat fish species of Indus River that could help in
conser...

Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain1, Farhat Jabeen1, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain 2,Sajjad Ahmad3, Abida Ashraf4,Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1

Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Khanum Zahra2, Arooj Zaheer2, Khizar Samiullah3

... justify;">Spider silk is categorized as fibrous protein. Spiders produce several types of silk. Spider silk is important because of its maximum mechanical strength, biocompatibility and biodegradability, pore filling ability and very low immunogenicity. In this review structure and types of silk producing gland, spinning process, chemistry of spider silk fiber, mechanical properties and applications of silk in health, military industry and many other fields i...

Soraya Khosravian Dehordi*, Abdolnaser Mohebbi and Kahin Shahanipour

...ione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) values in spleen were measured. An increase in TBARS and PC levels was obtained in rats' spleen of the Cd-group than controls and nano-Se decreased this effect close to the control. The CAT values of all groups did not differ significantly. The values of SOD and GPx were reduced in splenic tissue of Cd-intoxicated rats, but the nano-Se was able impr...

Phong Huy Pham*

...egment. The total time of catching the prey is about four minutes. A green worm, one of mainly insect pests on sesban, is one of the preferred prey of D. esuriens. 

...
Syed Kashif Nawaz*, Faiza Zubair and Sidra Kanwal
...apping genes were further categorized on the basis of their orientation. It was found that the human genome has 62% embedded genes, 17% convergent genes, 16% divergent genes and 5% uni-directional genes. These categories may further be differentiated as coding vs. coding, coding vs. non-coding and mixture of both types on the basis of overlapping gene structure. Our analyses revealed that human genome has various types of ov...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...e analysis performed with cathegorical (cage and line) and continuous (hatch, age at sexual maturity and body weight of sexual maturity) predictors and a continuous response variable (EP). The Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients among all predictor variables were significantly changed from 0.88 to -0.65. Age of sexual maturity was found the most predictor variable that affecting EP and it was followed by hatching period. Lower values for goodness of ...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
... heavy economic losses in cattle and buffalo. So rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMD is uttermost need of this time. Several lab.techniques are developed for rapid detection of FMD but these are expensive and time consuming. Elisa, cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase (RT-PCR) and real time PCR need specific high quality equipments in lab. Whereas Lamp PCR is simple and accurate test for the rapid diagnosis of FMD. This study has been done initially with FMD kn...
Jo Ik-Hwan1, Choi Kwang-Won1 and Muhammad Fiaz2,*
...h legumes under different cattle manure levels for optimum forage yield and organic Hanwoo cattle carrying capacity from 2012-13 to 2014-15. Experiment was conducted under split plot arrangement having 3 main plots (Sole Rye, Rye with hairy vetch and rye with pea) and 4 sub-plots (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha). Findings showed if rye was mixed cropped with hairy vetch, dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) yield ...
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
...on of its risk factors in cattle and buffaloes of district Kasur, Punjab. Selenium status was evaluated by Atomic Absorptions Spectrophotometery (AAS) with respect to sex of animals, geographical area, age of animals, herd size, stage of animals, production level and concentrate feeding. Selenium deficiency was also evaluated as a risk factor of mastitis and repeat breeding. About 48.43% cattle and 72.39% buffaloes were foun...

Naheed Akhtar, Azra Nasim*, Ata ul Mohsin**, Muhammad Ashfaque, Shaheena Yasmin, Ghulam Jilani, Afzala Tashfeen, Waseem Ahmed Gilani, Irshad Begum* and Muhammad Munir***

...dy was grouped into three categories i.e., resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible. Data from seedling bulk tests showed that five wheat lines namely V- 01078, V-00055, KT-7, V-01180 and DN-47 were resistant with damage rating of 2- 3. Twelve wheat lines/varieties, 99B4012, 99B2278, V-9021, V-002493, Wafaq 2001, PR-84, TW0135, CT-00062, 7-03, PR-86, V-02192 and Chakwal 97 were found moderately resistant. Three wheat lines/varieties namely RWM-9313, V-0...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...m size and tenancy status categories.In conclusion, despite that major proportion of total sugarcane area was planted under recommended varieties, the varietal diffusion process among sugarcane growers all over the country was taking place on informal grounds and was extremely slow. Therefore, strong institutional efforts from agricultural extension department as well as sugar mills are needed to rapidly diffuse the more recently released varieties among the f...

 Mazher Abbas*, Muhammad Waqas Akram**, Ikram Saeed*** and Arshed Bashir*

...mpared to other farm size categories. There is sharp increase in input prices from year to year basis while output prices remained same over the year. The Government should effectively control the input prices to avoid the exploitation of farmers. Extension efforts are required to disseminate suitable canola technologies including high yield, short duration varieties to maximize the returns of canola growers. Public efforts are urgently required to ensure time...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
... alternative controls for cattle ticks. Soil cores from grasslands were baited with last instars of the great wax moth (GWM), Galleria mellonella L., and an EPN isolate was obtained, it belonged to the genus Heterorhabditis and identified as JMO71. The nematodes were cultivated in GWM larvae, and the emerging infective juveniles (IJs) were collected from White traps, and pooled in canted neck vented plastic flasks. The susceptibility of an import...
Umair Riaz*1, Zafar Abbas1, Qamar uz Zaman2, Muhammad Mubashir1, Mahwish Jabeen2, Syed Ali Zulqadar1, Zeenat Javeed1, Saeed-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Muhammad Javid Qamar1
...12.85% sample lies in the category of marginal fit waters for irrigation purposes after comparison with the standard values used for irrigation water for agricultural crops. The values of EC, SAR, and RSC were ranged from 0.031 to 15.39 dS m-1, 0.02 to 52.66, and 0 to 43.3 me L-1, respectively. Overall, in southwest areas the majority of water samples were found to be fit for irrigation while in northwest area majority of the water sample...

 A. N. Naqvi and K. Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF LIVESTOCK DISEASES IN NOMAL AND NALTAR VALLEYS GILGIT, PAKISTAN
...leys, Gilgit. The data on cattle, goat, sheep and donkey were collected from the Animal Husbandry Department from 2003 to 2007. In total 19259 animals were found affected with various diseases. The disorders reported in the area were digestive diseases, infections, mastitis, reproductive diseases, endoparasites, ectoparasites, wounds, hematuria, respiratory diseases, emaciation, hemorrhagic septic-emia, tumour, blue tongue, cow pox, enterotoxaemia, tetanus, pa...

 Mazher Abbas*, Tahir Mehmood**, Arshed Bashir*, Muneeb Zafar*** and Aneela Afzal****

ECONOMICS OF LALLEMANTIA ROYLEANA (TUKHAM-EBALANGOO) PRODUCTION IN THE LOW INTENSITY CROPPING ZONE OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...mpared to other farm size categories.

...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Nadeem Akmal*, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Ayesha Tahir*

EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS OF PAKISTANI HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS
...tage as compared to other categories for the whole period under analysis. Onion export has revealed comparative advantage with some fluctuations over time. The research indicates that Pakistan's comparative and competitive advantages have been increasing in all the selected commodities during period under analysis which indicates the potential of horticulture exports for foreign exchange earnings. There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advanta...

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Akhter Ali**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi**, Naveed Jehan*, Imran Ullah* and Majid Khan*

ASSESSMENT OF POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF PLUM IN SWAT, PAKISTAN
...on of data from different categories of respondents and tehsils. Post harvest losses were estimated through percentage method. The most important reasons were poor harvesting methods, over maturity, insufficient cold storage facility, poor grading, low-quality packaging materials and poor infrastructure. Total post harvest losses in the marketing channel of the plum were 21.51% of which 5.12% occurred at farm level, 1.44% at wholesale level, 6.31% at retail le...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, A. K. Azad**, Leon O. Namuco***, Teresita H. Borromeo***, Maria Lourdes O. Cedo*** and Edna A. Aguilar***

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF A MAKAPUNO COCONUT POPULATION IN U.P. LOS BANOS
...tion in crown shape, bole category, color of young fruit, petiole and inflorescence pigmentation, shape of stem base, fruit characteristics, and leaf structure was observed in the population of 52 palms. Yield of makapuno was estimated as 88%. Simultaneous occurrence of male and female phases allows self-pollination, which favors higher yield of makapuno. The principal component analysis revealed that fruit, nut and husk weight accounted for 99 % of the observ...

 Hassnain Shah*, Nadeem Akmal*, Waqas Farooq*, Muhammad Azeem Khan* and Shahid Munir**

SHIFT FROM SITE DEVELOPMENT TO SKILL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF WATER HARVESTING THROUGH MICRO CATCHMENTS
...towards adoption of micro catchments as a useful tool for rainwater harvesting. The assessment of acceptability and compatibility of the intervention through farmers' perceptions, feed-back, practices and intentions regarding up-scaling the technology would develop the up-scaling and sustainability options for wider area. Under Watershed Rehabilitation and Irrigation Improvement Project besides other technologies, rainwater harvesting through micro

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...rinkler irrigation, micro catchment, rooftop rainwater harvesting and irrigation scheduling. Therefore, the project activities also include the training of the professionals from the line departments for the demonstrated technologies to foster the process of adoption. For this purpose Climate and Alternate Energy Water Resources Institute, NARC, organized a professional training on “Water Rehabilitation and Irrigation Technology Improvements” in Ap...

  Sohaib Arshad*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar** and Maqbool Shahbaz**

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC RHODES GRASS ACCESSIONS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...t source of nutrition for cattle as it provides them with metabolizable energy, carbohydrates, proteins and other important minerals. As global warming is increasing, overall water scarcity is resulting in deterioration of natural resources, and it is need of the hour to find fodder crop resources which are more accustomed to change climatic conditions. Hence, different exotic and indigenous varieties of Rhodes grass were tested for quality and yield parameter...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Khuda Bakhsh**, Sultan Ali Tariq*, Mahmood Nasir***, Rashed Saeed**** and Muhammad Ather Mahmood****

FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT YIELD IN POTHWAR REGION OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ivation compared to other categories of farmers. The gross margins were also significantly higher at large farms. Ploughing frequency, seed rate and labor mandays have positive relationship with groundnut productivity. Therefore, the provision of improved groundnut production technologies package and improved seed to groundnut growers may enhance the productivity and area under this crop.

...

 Dilawar Khan*, Abid Saeed*, Junaid Ahmad*, Imtiaz Qamar**, Fazal Yazdan**, Saleem ud Din** and Muhammad Tariq**

ASSESSMENT OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN DHRABI WATERSHED AND CHAKWAL REGION IN PAKISTAN
...as. Dhrabi watershed is a catchments area of Dhrabi reservoir and lies in district Chakwal. There were 88 species reported in the study area. The five plant communities recognized in the Dhrabi watershed on the basis of importance value (IV) by using line transect sampling method. On the basis of top three highest IV plant community were identified at western side of the Kallar Kahar Lake while plant community was observed in eastern side by using 1x1 m quadra...

 Hafiz Sultan Mahmood*, Tanveer Ahmad*, Zulfiqar Ali*, Munir Ahmad** and Nadeem Amjad***

FIELD EVALUATION OF A WHEAT STRAW CHOPPER
...ry, which saves chaff for cattle feed and increases the benefit of the farmer.

...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...all ruminants (5.84%) and cattle (2.05%). Being a subtropical region, geographically significant (P<0.01) variation was observed in burden and pattern of brucellosis i.e., the highest prevalence was in Central (14.81%) followed by South (0.5%) and northern (0.4%) Punjab. Considering the high mean prevalence and its zoonotic importance it can be devastating if not controlled because of bad management practices, lack of awareness and close contact of farmers ...
Ali Haider Saleem1,*, Khalid Javed2, Masroor Ellahi Babar3, Tanveer Hussain3, Asad Ali2, Afzal Ali2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Zahid Farooq1 and Muhammad Dawood2
...month body weight etc. in cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep worldwide. LEP gene polymorphism and associations have not been extensively reported in Lohi sheep of Pakistan, so this study aimed to find any variations in gene sequence and possible association with growth rate to explore meat potential of this breed. A total of 18 Lohi animals were selected from the flock. After the DNA extraction from blood samples, a 1486 bp fragment of exon three was amplified an...
Shireen Ihsan Izzaddeen1 and Ali Kaygısız2,*
...al of 24 calves, randomly categorized into two groups of 12 (6 males and 6 females) however, it was completed with 23 calves because of dying a female at the 8th week of the trial. Addition of Laurel essential oil into whole milk did not cause any significant change in weekly live weight gain (kg), total weaning live weight gain (kg), weekly chest girth measurements (cm), weaning chest girth (cm), dry matter, roughage and concentrate feed consumptio...

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

...ment of small dams in the catchments plain. 

...
Sherin Reda Rouby
... as an emerging hazard to cattle, sheep and goat. Diseases caused by capripoxviruses are transboundary in nature and are regularly spread into neighboring, non-endemic regions with significant economic implication. Capripoxvirus isolates are extremely conserved with genome identities of at least 96% between SPPV, GTPV and LSDV. The LSDV is similar in antigenicity and in cultural characteristics to SPPV. The current study was delineated to identify capripo...
Shagufta Andleeb*1, Fariha Zahid1, Noor-ul-Ain1, Yousra Nisar1, Chaman Ara2
..., micrognathia, agnathia, cataract, ectopiacordis, omphalocoel, axis distortion, anencephaly, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, phocomelia with reduced body weight and crown- rump length in all dose groups were obtained. Adverse histological changes appeared in the form of disrupted and malformed visceral organs, vertebral bone and spina bifida as compared to control. The findings of this study clearly indicate that permethrin is potentially toxic to developing ch...
Muzafar Shah1,*, Mazhar Ali2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Khushi Muhammad3, Israr Alam1, Kausar Saeed1
...rea and divided into four category of age i.e. (1-15), (16-30), (31-45), (46-onward), gender wise, union council (Kota, Barikot, Shamozo and Ghalegi) and month wise. It was concluded that out of 997 samples, 204 (20.46%) were found positive, in which mostly under positive, under 15 year of age (23.36%), whereas less cases were recorded in adult (46 and above) 22.64. Most of the positive cases were found in the month of November, 24 out of 67 (35.82%) an...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
...e study, listed under the category ‘Near Threatened’ in the IUCN Red List, is a matter of concern.The findings of the present study would provide the baseline information about the composition of the avian community and its distribution in the Suranaree University of Technology, which is an important ecosystem for the conservation of avian biodiversity. Many other areas adjacent to the campus also require attention for the inventory of avian commun...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
...> infestation on sundried catfish, Clarias gariepinus was studied. Ethanolic extracts of P. guineense and C. annum fruits were prepared using Soxhlet extractor. In a split-plot design comprising the two extracts in different concentrations, a total of 63 sundried adult C. gariepinus of mean weight 111.47 ± 2.34g were randomized into three treatment groups A – C for each extract and a control D. The treatment groups were...

Murad Khan1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

...re. The sample farms were categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, profit function and multiple regression model, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t test were used. The average profit of large size farm was Rs. 85228 followed by medium and small farm that were Rs. 58049 and Rs. 36090 respectively. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is no significant difference between the profit ...

Mehran Ali, Inamullah*, Sajjad Ahmad and Arsalan Khan 

...itrogen sources (control, cattle manure, poultry manure, sheep manure, mushroom spent, mungbean residue and urea) in subplots. The results exhibited that, higher plant height (200.4 cm), grains ear-1(351), seed index (228.8 g), grain yield (3522 kg ha-1), and biological yield (10799 kg ha-1) were observed with nitrogen sources incorporated with mould board plough. In case of nitrogen sources; poultry manure (3507 kg ha-1), sheep manure (3468 kg ha-1) and mushr...

Madeeha Alamzeb1, Shazma Anwar1, Asif Iqbal1,2*, Song Meizhen2, Mazhar Iqbal3, Sara4, Muhammad Ramzan2 and Afza Tabassum1
 

... as compared to sheep and cattle manure. Application of nitrogen at the higher rates (125 to 150 kg N ha-1) enhanced dry matter partitioning at heading and physiological maturity than lower N rates and control. Likewise, wheat sown with deep tillage system resulted in increased dry matter partitioning into different plant parts than conventional tillage system. We concluded from this study that integrated use of inorganic nitrogen (125 kg N ha-1) and poultry m...
Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2, Sarfraz Ahmed Mian2 and Atta Ullah Khan2
...bles especially tomato to cater the increasing demand due to gigantic population increase. This study has been designed to analyze the hydroponics production system and productivity improvement option in Pakistan and its future prospects. Study is based on primary data collected by the researcher. Sample firm was Farmers Market Pvt. Ltd which is unique entity involved in commercial production of hydroponic products in Pakistan. Data on various production and e...
Yakup Erdal Erturk1, Adem Aksoy2 and Mohammad Masood Tariq3,*
... enterprise for crossbred cattle reared in beef cattle enterprises in North East Anatolia region (comprising Erzurum, Igdir, Kars and Agri provinces) of Turkey. For this goal, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), a-non parametric regression technique, was used to develop a respectable prediction equation that can denote interaction effects of influential predictors in the definition of the influential factors on ...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Sidra Naz3, Sidra Abbas2, Wardah Hassan2, Shakeela Perveen2, Moazama Batool1, Laiba Shafique2
...t, behavioral changes and catalase activity in liver, kidney, gills, brain and muscle of the fish were also studied. The mean 96 h LC50 and lethal value for C. mrigala was determined as 47.56±0.04 and 93.89±0.07 mgL-1, respectively. The selected concentration of Fe+Ni+Pb+Zn concentrations showed strong and direct relationship with, fin movement followed by mucous secretion, hyperactivity and swimming rate for C. mr...
Tayfun Karataş
...t decrease in the hepatic catalase and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.05). In muscle tissue, the TBARS levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05). Whereas, antioxidant enzyme activities remained unchanged (p>0.05). The results obtained from this study showed that the short-term starvation leads to significant changes on serum metabolites, antioxidant enyzme activities and endogenous reserves of rainbow trout.
...
Yakup Erdal Ertürk
...variable at domestic beef cattle enterprises from the Eastern part of Turkey. Multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as a non-parametric analysis technique was preferred in the description of the influential factors and their interaction effects for each gender. Some probable factors such as age, province, education level, experience, social security, lands, and the reason at performing animal production were recorded on breeders. Also, first fattenin...
Guifen Liu1,2, Xiaomu Liu1,2, Khuram Shahzad3, Wei You1,2, Juan J. Loor3,* and Fachun Wan1,2,4,*
...the genetic background of cattle. Therefore, we analyzed the transcriptome changes within adipose tissue in beef cattle at different stages of growth. Microarray analysis of data at 12 vs 18 months, 12 vs 24 months, 12 vs 30 months, 18 vs 24 months, 18 vs 30 months and 24 vs 30 months uncovered a total of 10625 differentially expressed genes (P ≤ 0.05; no fold change). The dynamic impact approach (DIA) bioinformatics tool...

Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Muhammad Rizwan2*, Muhammad Akram1, Jaffar Hussain1 and Fiaz Ahmad1 

...s. The diversity analysis categorized fifty-eight genotypes into four clusters. Clustering pattern did not show any relation to the geographic origin. Cluster-I with three genotypes (Thailand: 2; Sri Lanka: 1) and Cluster-II with seventeen genotypes (Thailand: 12, Pakistan: 3, India: 2) showed the highest values for yield and yield contributing traits. Three distant genotypes were identified;a genotype, VC3012B was found high yielding, NIMB-101 had high biolog...
Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,2, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2,*, Farhat Jabeen2, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain3, Arshad Javid4, Muhammad Asrar2 and Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan2
...s composition of Catla catla fingerlings fed MOSM based diets. Phytate in plant by-products decreases the bioavailability of minerals and deposition of nutrients in fish body, resulting in poor fish growth. Results demonstrated that phytase supplementation showed significant (p<0.05) improvement in ADC% of minerals and carcass composition of fish. Maximum digestibility of minerals and improved carcass composition of C....
Naveed Rashid*1, Muhammad Aamer2, Uzma Malik3, Nimra Arif4, Muhammad Waqar Akram5 and Ayesha Irshad6
...edge of ESRD patients was categorized into poor (<50%), average (50-70%) and good (> 70%). 
Results: Out of 138 patients, 94% had good knowledge about AVF self-care and 99% had good attitude about AVF access care. However a few practices like daily AVF thrill checkup, pre-hemodialysis AVF site washing and pre and post hemodialysis disinfection were not in correspondence with the level of knowledge representing a discrepancy betwee...
S. Jalbani1, N. T. Narejo2,*, P. Khan2 and Y.M. Jalbani3
Maryam Javed*, Farwa Saghir, Naveera Aziz, Maham Saeed, Asif Nadeem and Wasim Shehzad
...ected animal species were cattle (Bos indicus), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Selected marker V158M is present in exon-8 of COMT gene. Each specie was subjected to blood sampling (n=20 each). DNA was extracted, purified, quantified and amplified through PCR by using specific primer set. Then Sanger’s method of DNA sequencing was used. Multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that sheep ...
Irshad Ali1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Abdul Waheed2, Ferhet Abbas Yousafzai1, Farhat Abbas Bokhari1, Majed Rafeeq1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Adnan Attique1, Shahid Amin3 and Tahir Hameed1
...ied out on Bhag Nari (BN) cattle breed to explore morphological, biometric parameters, its production system, and survival in the existing habitat. The data on morphology and performance of 1020 Bhag Nari (BN) cattle were collected from Bhag Nari cattle Farm, Usta Mohammad Baluchistan during 2015-16 and its surrounding areas. Some distinct characteristics have been found exclusively i...
Tanveer Hussain1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar1, Marcos De Donato2, Abdul Wajid1, Asif Nadeem3, Zahoor Ahmad3, Waqas Ahmad Khan4, Sunday O. Peters5 and Ikhide G. Imumorin6
...d diffusion of modern day cattle. To better understand the origin and genetic diversity of native cattle breeds (Bos indicus) in Pakistan, partial sequencing of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (339 bp) was done in 136 individuals from 10 different breeds. Analysis of the Cyt b gene showed high conservation in Pakistani cattle as expected, with only 26 individuals showing nucleot...

Muhammad Amir Maqbool1*, Muhammad Aslam1, Waseem Akbar2, Muhammad Waheed Anwar3 and Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar

...ying 36 ZmMIPs which were categorized into 12 ZmPIPs, 13 ZmTIPs, 8 ZmNIPs and 3 ZmSIPs. Phylogenetic trees were constructed separately for every sub-families of barrel medic, chickpea and maize. PIPs were consisted of two main groups for all of three crops which were named as PIP-A and PIP-B. NIPs clustered into six subgroups which were named as NIP-1, NIP-2, NIP-3, NIP-4, NIP-5, and NIP6. TIPs and SIPs were scattered in four groups and entitled as TIP-1, SIP-...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Abdul Wasay2, Tariq Ali1,*, Muhammad Iqbal1, Khisrao Kalim1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3, Muhammad Mobashar2, Nazir Ahmad2, Abid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1
...the growth performance of cattle calves to reduce ECM. Nine calves (Achai crossed Jersey) were randomly distributed into three weaning age groups viz., A = 90, B = 70, and C = 110 days. In group A, calves were fed with whole milk at 10% of live body weight (LBW) for 4-7 days after initial colostrum feeding at 10% of LBW. From 8-30 days they received milk at 10% LBW + calf starter ration (CSR). During 31 to 63 days, milk at 10% LBW + CSR + green fodder (...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Ecevit Eyduran3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...ht (FFW) on cultural beef cattle enterprises from Eastern region of Turkey. Predictive performances of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Chi-Square Interaction Detector (CHAID) were evaluated comparatively in the definition of significant factors and interaction effects between the factors. Before the definition process, the data on socio-economic (age, province, educational level, experience, social security, lands and the reason at ranching...
Majid Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Razia Iqbal2, Arshad Javid3, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,4 and Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1
...h performance of Catla catla fingerlings. MOLM based diet was sub-divided into one control diet (0% CA) and five test diets, each supplemented with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% CA, respectively. Chromic oxide as an inert marker was added in the diets to determine nutrient digestibility. The fingerlings were fed twice daily at the rate of 5 % of live wet body weight on their respective diets. Supplementation of CA in MOLM based diets significantly (p<...

Iqbal Javed1*, Amar Razzaq2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Ali Imran4, Haroon Javaid5, Iftikhar Nabi6, Anum Sardar1 and Shahbaz Ahmad

...hand internal markets are categorized into three categories of with high potential markets, low potential markets and markets with no potential. First Category of markets with no potential include Afghanistan, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar, Vietnam and Malaysia. Second Category of markets for low potential includes Saudi Arabia. Third category for high potential markets in current circumstances incl...
Dilara A. Bukhari1,*, Naureen Fatima1 and Abdul Rehman2

 

... soil containing decaying cattle waste, dry waste animal dung and leaf litter soil, respectively. So, these isolates have a great potential to grow into a biopesticidal formulation for control of mosquitoes.
...

Safina Naz1, Khushbo Hussain1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2* and Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3
 

...l min-1 mg protein-1) and catalase value was 2159.90. Similarly, SA application promoted total phenolic content up to 157.84 (mg g-1), while total protein content were 26.66(mg g-1), SOD 199.33(IU min-1 mg protein-1), 811.13 POD (mmol min-1 mg protein-1) and catalase value were 2272.72. Combination of NAA and Salicylic acid promoted total phenolic content up to 167.33 (mg g-1), while the total protein content were 29.80(mg g...

Anish Shrestha* and Samata Baral 

...eat and vulnerability are catastrophic mainly to marginal and remote areas. No sector, person or region is free from impacts of climate change and neither is livestock sector. This study was carried in Banke district to find out impacts of climate change on livestock and its productivities. Result showed that farmers perceived the climate change as change in rainfall pattern, rainfall duration, onset of the monsoon, and changes from summer and winter etc. Some...

Sana Rana1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...endoslfan(END) mixture on catalase (CAT) activity in gills of carnivorous fish Channa striata was observed. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentration (1/3rd of LC50) of DM+END mixture for 14-day. CAT was partially purified by using ammonium sulphate precipitation technique and kinetic characterization was also performed against different pH and temperature.

Shamsher Ali1, Zakir Ullah Jan1*, Zahir Shah2, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Farmanullah Khan2, Inayat ur Rahman3 and Shah Fahad3 

... which was collected from cattle barnyard. A total of six fertilizer treatments were used viz T1 = control (no application of inputs), T2 = 130 kg N ha-1, T3 = 130 kg N ha-1 + 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 T4 = FYM @ 20000 kg ha-1, T5 = 130 kg N ha-1 + 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 + FYM @ 20000 kg ha-1 and T6 = 65 kg N ha-1 + 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 + FYM @ 20000 kg ha-1. The results indicated that both maize varieties (hybrid and local) showed different responses to different fertilizer treatm...

Sajad Ali1*, Syed Asghar Ali Shah2, Jaffar Ali3, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal4, Arshadullah Jadoon5 and Farmanullah

...ated promoting rehearses, categorize the scenario of socio-economic, methodical and marketing restraints faced by the farmers in augmenting and stimulating export of the country. The pea’s cultivators and also market agents were quizzed by using structured questionnaires in two related districts that is Haripur and Mansehra in the year 2013-14. The data were analyzed by using SPSS Package version 22 for calculating marketing marginal analysis and cross-t...

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 

...all in the severity scale category. Soil structure degradation index was moderate (0.44) followed by salinization degradation of moderate (0.53) index value. The study concludes that the LD existed in the area in all the dimensions and its sub-indicators having different value severity on the measuring scale, which may be overcome by taking different sector-specific adaptive and preventive measures at the farm, institutional and policy level 

...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou1, Qi-bin Yang1, Jian-hua Huang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1*
... oxide (NO) concentration catalyzed by NOS. Based on biochemical analysis of the above, results showed that O2- production could be induced significantly after cold stress at 15°C and heat stress above 30°C. SOD activity showed a similar changing profile as the concentration of O2- after thermal stress between 15°C and 30°C, and GSH concentration increased significantly under both high and low tempera...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor Paio Khan1, Naveed Afsar2 and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah3

...were involved in buffalo, cattle, goats and sheep rearing with higher possession of small ruminants (goats and sheep), while men were found dominant in large ruminants’ possession (buffalo and cattle). Women’s higher time allocation to livestock management activities depicted their higher level of participation in livestock management was found high as compared to their male counterparts. Women’s participat...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

...ent study, a total of 600 cattle and buffalo were selected from three different topographical locations of Punjab on the basis of clinical biomarkers. Blood and mosquito samples were collected. Blood samples were processed through complement fixation test and RT-PCR, while mosquito samples were processed through RT-PCR. Overall prevalence of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) in indigenous breeds of bovine was 63.33%, lower, than exotic breeds 64.66% which were foun...
Ashraf M. Mounir, A.N. El shahat* and A.M. Abdul Azeem
...(ISO) is one of synthetic catecholamine that can be used as a model to produce myocardial infarction (MI). Frankincense is a gum resin that possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Gamma-irradiation is used for decontamination of Boswellia tears to achieve satisfactory microbiological quality and public health safety. Hence, examining the effect of gamma-irradiation on the contents of Boswellia oleo-gum resin and also investigating t...

Umair Riaz1*, Muhammad Ali Kharal2, Ghulam Murtaza3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Sana Javaid4, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Humera Aziz3 and Zafar Abbas1 

...thylation of caffeic acid catalyzed by O-methyltransferase. It has been concluded that exogenous application of cafeic acid may be a best option to cope with salinity, ion toxicity, drought and heavy metal stress. 

...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
...tan is estimated by using catch and effort data. For data analysis, two specialized fishery software CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were employed. Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz., Fox Model (FM), Schaefer Model (SM) and Pella-Tomlinson Model (PTM) were used in CEDA along with three error assumptions (EAs) viz., normal error assumption (NEA), log-normal error assumpti...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
... the clinical isolates to categorize them into Coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). A questionnaire was used to record risk factors associated with occurrence of SCM and results were analyzed using non-probability statistical analysis. Results indicated that an overall 63.28% (243/384) of goats were found positive for SCM, of which 58.85% (143/243) revealed Staphylococcal growth among them 69.9...

 Hamda Azmat1, Waqas Ali2, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain2, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Zara Saeed1,Syed Shafiq Hussain Bukhari4

Chromium contamination in water, sediment and its bioaccumulation in Indian major carps in River Chenab, Pakistan
...r) in the bodies of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala was conducted from January through May, 2015. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected on monthly basis from upstream and downstream of head Trimmu, river Chenab. Throughout the study period, mmaximum Cr concentrations from upstream and downstream were recorded as 23.54± 3.43 mg/L and 21.12 ± 3.47 mg/L, respectively. Average metal concentration detected from sediment sampl...

 Mirfa Murtaza1, Sajid Abdullah1, Wardah Hassan1*, Khalid Abbas1, Huma Naz1, Muhammad Anjum Zia2

Studies on amylase and lipase activity in fishes fed with diet containing different feed ingredients
...lmichthys molitrix, Catla catla and Cyprinus carpio fed
with different feed ingredients. There were two glass aquaria (3×2×2 ft) for each species and ten fish in each
aquarium. Fish in one aquarium were fed on rice polish and fish in second aquarium were fed on corn gluten @ 3 %
of their wet biomass for 70 days. Results showed that fish wet weight varied significantly between the rice polish and
corn gluten fed fishes. T...

 Abbas Ali1, Muhammad Altaf2*, Muhammad Samar Hussain Khan3

Winter survey of birds at Keti Bunder, district Thatha, Pakistan
...y area were little egret, cattle egret, greater flamingo, greater egret, and common coot. It
is concluded that bird species number are decreasing with passage of time when the data were compared with the
previous research due to anthropogenic impacts especially pollution impact.

...

 Abir Ishtiaq, Muhammad Naeem*

Length-weight relationships and condition factor for farmed Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) from southern Punjab, Pakistan
...major carp, thaila (Catla catla) from farming system. Mean±S.E. total
length (TL) and body weight (W) of studied samples have been calculated as 39.29±0.23 cm and 827.43±14.55 g,
respectively. For LWRs, specimens of C.catla were collected from fish ponds and grouped into three categories on
the basis of the feed offered to them which contained 15%, 20% and 25% crude protein (CP). The...

 Jhan Zeb, Muhammad Javed

Forecasting percentage contribution of plankton biomass towards increase in fish yield under composite culture conditions
... viz. Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the ratio of 27:10:10:07:13, respectively. Each triplicate group of fish T1 to T6 were fed
supplementary diets at varying protein level viz., 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32% digestible protein (DP), respectively @
2% of their wet body weight daily. However, control fish (T7) although had an access to plankton; but were devoid of
...

Faheem Ali1*, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1, Abdul Basit2, Muhammad Kashif Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad1 and Muhammad Amir

...tural industry is broadly categorized into shaft power and process heat power, and could be used for planting, cultivating, pumping, harvesting, drying, cooking, baking, woodworking, forging and smelting etc. This results in lagging Volt-Ampere-Reactive (VARs), which must be balanced by the same number of leading VARs in order to ensure unity power factor, thus avoiding penalties on agricultural industry. Switched Capacitors and Voltage Regulators are used to ...
A.M. Abdul Azeem, A.N. El Shahat* and Ashraf M. Mounir
...de dismutase activity and catalase activity of the liver and testes of lead-intoxicated rats. In conclusion GPE could ameliorate the damage and apoptotic effects occurred by exposure to toxic dose of lead.
...

Neelum Andaleeb1*, Munir Khan1, Syed Attaullah Shah1 and Rahmat Ullah2 

...to be in the upper income category. Based on the findings, study recommends that the significance of women participation for growth in livestock industry should be recognized in government plans and policies. Non-government organization, working for rural development, should be involved in provision of credit and livestock training facilities to rural women and encourage them to participate in livestock production and management. Access to credit will empower ...

Fouzia Tabssum1, Qamar uz Zaman2*, Yinglong Chen3,4, Umair Riaz5*, Waqas Ashraf6, Ambreen Aslam2, Nusrat Ehsan2, Rab Nawaz2, Humera Aziz7 and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah8 

Mehran Ali1*, Inamullah1, Muhammad Bilal2, Salman Ali1, Farooq Nawaz1 and Muhammad Owais Iqbal1 

...r and N sources (control, cattle manure, poultry manure, sheep manure, mushroom spent, mungbean residue and urea) as subplot. The results exhibited that, improved bulk density, grain yield, harvest index and soil total N (STN) were observed when N incorporated with MB plough. In case of N sources poultry manure, sheep manure and mushroom spent gave at par yield with urea. However, STN and other soil physical properties were significantly higher in organic fert...

Muhammad Amin1, Aftab Ahmad Khan2, Abida Perveen1, Zareen Rauf1, Sher Shah Hassan2*, Muhammad Arif Goheer2 and Muhammad Ijaz2 

... years 2000 and 2002 were categorized as moderate drought years for the area have Precipitation Anomaly of -37% and -31%, respectively whereas Precipitation Anomaly values of -11.5, -15.6, -10.2 and -16.2 were found in years 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2009, respectively and categorized as slight drought years. The coefficient of determination between NDVI and Precipitation is 0.69 whereas between NDVI and Soil Moisture is 0.68. To...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

...n this balance may result catastrophic effect on the environment including impact on plant, animal and human life. Hence, efforts to maintain a healthy biodiversity through conservation are needed. Since the life is passing through the time of global warming and climate variation, new issues for farming community are on the rise. These issues are related to protection of natural environment and biodiversity which is one of the critical problems encounter by fa...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...iate level. Similarly, in category of family size the number in above 15 category was found more than the other categories followed by 8-15 category. The Cob Douglass Production function result indicate the constant value 5.434 and found significant which shows that if other variables remove from the model then production of rice will be 5.434 Kg per acr...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...cant mortality in various cattle, sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have developed multiple resistances against the synthetic anthelmintics. Hence, various biological controls, vaccines and local medicinal plants are being explored to control the parasitic worms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of two loca...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

Juan Augusto Hernández-Rivera1, Jaime Molina-Ochoa2,*, Luis Jorge García-Márquez1, Omar Francisco Prado-Rebolledo1, Rafael Julio Macedo-Barragán1, Arturo César García-Casillas1 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah3
...fects in organisms. Dairy cattle is susceptible to suffer behavioral, physiological and reproductive damages due heat stress. Breeding searching for tolerant heat stress genes and their incorporation in crossbreeding programs has gained interest in dairy cattlemen concerned by the global warming and greenhouse effect in the environment. This review shows and update of the crossbreeding in dairy cat

Rafiullah1*, Abdur Rahman2, Khalid Khan1, Anwar Ali1, Arifullah Khan2, Abdul Sajid3 and Naimatullah Khan3 

Nasira Khatoon1, Aly Khan2,*, S.S. Shahid3, Z.S. Saify4, M. Arshad Azmi1 and Wali Khan5
...ty were grouped into five categories based on their age at the first visit. The diagnosis was based on detailed history and clinical examination which included scraping of papillae or burrow to confirm the diagnosis. To test the incidence in various age groups and body parts a chi-square (χ²) test of association (R × C contingency test) was performed. The association of body parts and age groups was significant. Most of the patients above...
Fariha Latif* and Muhammad Javed
...hree major carps Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala towards metals mixture (Cd+Cr+Cu+Pb) were determined during present research work. Sensitivity of the three fish species (120-day old) towards metals mixture was measured in term of 96 h LC50 and lethal concentration. These acute toxicity tests were performed at constant temperature (30oC), pH (8) and total hardness (250 mgL-1). All the three f...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...ith one exception in each category, no significant differences were observed regarding area, moisture, thickness of leaves and fruit length of okra varieties. The leaf area was slightly greater in comparatively resistant varieties. Similarly, fruit was found to be significantly more in case of comparatively resistant varieties as compared to intermediate resistant and comparatively susceptible varieties. It was also observed that fruit and shoot infestation wa...
Abdul Wahaab1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Umair Iqbal2, Abdul Tawaab1 and Iahtasham Khan3
...drug of all three in both cattle and buffaloes with efficacy of 97.92% and 100%, respectively; Oxyclozanide was 2nd most effective with efficacy of 96.87% and 97.05% % whereas Nitroxynil remained at last with efficacy of 93.47% and 92.15% at 21st day post-medication. A slight increase of egg counts was observed in positive control groups of both animal categories. Blood parameters of healthy and Fasciol...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
... dromedarii Koch) and cattle tick (Hyalomma impeltatum Schulze & Schlottke), to replace the widely used traditional acaricides. Huwa-San TR50 is a formulation of hydrogen peroxide, stabilized by the addition of a small quantity of silver and is extensively used as a disinfectant. Both tick species were susceptible to certain concentrations of Huwa-San TR50: 4,000, 8,000, 10,000, 12,000 and 14,000 ppm. A marked reduction in the movement of both t...

 Sasha S. Euler

...as East-West splits along categories such as highly expressed affect vs. quiet affect, self-assertion vs. conformity to social norms, independence vs. interdependence and the like. However, it is the overall goal of this article to show that whatever the normative content of a culture’s or subculture’s view of happiness may be, it involves the same basic psychological needs beyond how people may choose to report or express resulting emotions. In pa...

 Syed Turab Raza1,*, Zhu Bo1,*, Zulfiqar Ali2 and Tang Jia Liang3

.../i>) and treating it with cattle dung, pig manure and biochar with crop (wheat straw and rapeseed) waste was established in upland areas of China. It was monitored for two months. Four treatments (T1 to T4) were prepared using crop residues i.e. wheat straw, rapeseed and cow manure in different concentrations. Vermicomposting through biochar (Biochar 50%, rapeseed residues 20% and Biochar with earthworms) gave maximum increase in soil fertility with max...

 Şaban Çelebi

...oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver, heart, breast and thigh tissues of laying hens were determined in present study. A total of 96 White Lohman laying hens, aged 24 weeks, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=24), each of which was composed of 6 subgroups. The control group received the basal diet (T-1), treatment groups were fed on the the basal diet plus the three experimental diets included one of the followings: 125 mg/kg vitamin E + basal...
Jie Yang
...nnot be replaced by other cations, but for killing of Gram-positive bacteria, Zn2+ can be partially replaced by Ca2+, which have been proved. Then, the effect of human PGLYRP1 on several human diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, skin melanoma and renal carcinoma) have been reviewed. Taken together, these results indicate that human PGLYRP1 encodes an innate immun...
Fazal Abbas1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Zunaira Akhtar1, Khalid Mehmood2, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder3 and Umair Iqbal4
...lly affected calves (n=60 cattle calves; n=60 buffalo calves) under one month of age irrespective of cause of diarrhea was selected from different livestock farms located in the outskirts of Lahore. The result showed that there was increased in packed cell volume (%) in their blood profile. The sodium and potassium concentration in ppm significantly increased (P< 0.001) while the calcium, copper and iron concentration in ppm significantly decreased (P< 0...

 Mahroze Fatima1*, Muhammad Afzal2 and Syed Zakir Hussain Shah3

...peroxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, which were increased by feeding high vitamin dosages. Supplementation of vitamin E decreased the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monoenes while increased the poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to control group. Similarly, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexanoic acid (DHA), total n-3 PUFA and total n-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (ARA)/EPA, EPA/DHA, n...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Khalid Abbas2, Wardah Hassan3, Moazama Batool4, Shakeela Perveen5, Sadia Maalik4 and Sajida Mushtaq4
...de dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase in different organs (liver, gills, kidney, brain, heart and muscle) of fish, Labeo rohita. The LC50 of chlorpyrifos+endosulfan mixture was calculated as 1.95±0.02 μgL-1 for 96 h with the 95% confidence limits. The fish expose to the mixture (1:1) for 96-h. The results obtained from this study showed that superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione S-tra...

Shahid Ali1*, Asim Khan1, Aftab Khan1 and Bakhtawar Riaz

...cy of tomato farms and to catch factors if any causing technical inefficiency in tomato production. 90 farmers were selected through multi-stage proportional allocation sampling techniques. Data was collected by using a well-structured interview schedule. Cobb-Douglas production function was employed to assess technical efficiency. Maximum likelihood estimation techniques were employed for estimation. Results showed that all explanatory variables except pestic...
Ailing Huang, Lingyu Meng, Wei Zhang, Junyan Liu, Guangyao Li, Huihua Tan, Wen Lu and Xialin Zheng*
...and bisultap; Activity of catalase (CAT) was promoted by beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos and bisultap, inhibited the influence of promotion by thiamethoxam. Results suggested that P. flammans larvae could be effectively controlled by beta-cypermethrin 10 mg/L and abamectin 25 mg/L with alternate spray, which could prevent the resistance to pesticides in this pest.
...
Muhammad Ahmad, Zohaib Noor*, Karim Johar Khan, Waqar Younas and Ajmal Hussain
...was stocked with Catla catla (C. catla) a surface feeder, Labeo Rohita (L. rohita) a column feeder and Cirrhinus mrigala (C. mrigala) bottom feeder, respectively, while, in group 2 only (C. catla) was replaced with (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) H. molitrix as a surface feeder keeping other species the same as in group 1. At the...

Kubra Siddique*, Ghaffar Ali, Irfan Ullah, Atta Ullah Shah and Muhammad Fayaz 

...omplementary. Others meat category, chicken and fish in both the rural and urban regions are price inelastic confirms that they are having important role in the balanced diet and sustenance of Pakistani household therefore this study recommends promoting of chicken and fish production in both the rural and urban regions of Pakistan.  

...
Hayat Zada and Ahmad-ur-Rahman Saljoqi*
.... pomonella mean moth catch (1.46) through traps and maximum percent parasitism of Ascogaster quadridentata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Hyssopus pallidus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were 40.11 and 30.09%, respectively, in the said cropping system. Likewise, highest yield (kg/ plant) were produced by the plots having Apple + Trifolium intercrops (76.62±1.11), whilst minimum yield were attributed to Apple + Wheat (61.47±1.11) foll...
Iqra Jaffar, Zainab Sehzadi, Muhammad Adeel, Khalid P. Lone and Mehwish Faheem*
...ione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO). Catalase activity increased significantly in liver and gills of fish exposed to 10μg/l of DBP. Level of GSH and LPO increased significantly in gills while a non-significant decrease was recorded for GSH and GST in liver. These results showed that exposure to low concentrations of di-n-butyl phthalate are capable of inducing oxidative stress in vital organs...

Anam Sardar1, Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehaman2*, Mudassar Yasin3, Raheel Saqib4, Allah Bakhsh3, Haroon Javaid5 and Muhammad Luqman

...ings internal markets are categorized into four categories of existing potential markets, future potential markets, low potential markets and markets with no potential. First category of beef markets with no potential includes Afghanistan, Qatar and Viet Nam. Second Category of beef markets for low potential includes Bahrain, Kuwait and Oman. Third categ...
Mohammed Anas Chowdhury1, Md. Abdul Karim1, Md. Tayfur Rahman1, Shoaibe Hossain Talukder Shefat1, Ashikur Rahman1, Mohammad Amzad Hossain2*
...lue 6.99±0.86. The catch per unit effort ranged from 0.15 to 0.48 with an average value of 0.34±0.11.
...
Fatima Tufail1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3
...n (DM) mixture on hepatic catalase (CAT) activity of fish, Channa striata exposed to the sub-lethal concentration (1/3rd of LC50) for 14 days. The CAT was partially purified by using ammonium sulphate precipitation technique. Results of partial purification demonstrated that the exposure of insecticides mixture decreased the hepatic
Huma Naz1*, Sajid Abdullah2, Khalid Abbas2, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq3, Laiba Shafique4, Ghazala Nazeer5
...CPF) mixture for Catla catla was computed. The genotoxicity of END+CPF mixture in RBCs of fish was also evaluated by comet assay. To check the genotoxicity of END+CPF mixture, blood of fish was sampled after 24-hr of intervals. Some fishes were also kept in clean water known as negative control (NC) and for positive control (PC) cyclophosphamide was injected into fish. The tolerance limits of C. catla against E...
Muhammad Naveed Sheas1, Haris Rasool2, Muhammad Nouman Rafique2, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Abid Muhammad1, Khubaib Ali1
Zeynep Soyer Sarıca1*, Meryem Eren2 and Meryem Senturk2
...peroxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes were estimated in the brain tissues of the Sprague Dawley rats. Compared to the control groups, a significant increase in the brain tissue MDA level of the group which received only 10 mg/kg K2Cr2O7 was observed, whereas no statistically significant change was detected in SOD, CAT
Tuncay Ateşşahin1,* and Mehmet Cİlbiz2
...our and fishing season on catching efficiency in angling for rainbow trout in Karakaya Dam Lake (Malatya, Turkey). Field studies were conducted monthly for a total of 48 fishing operations between May 2013 and April 2014 and again from January 2015 to December 2015. Fishing activities were carried out using fishing gear with three spinner colours (yellow, blue or red), three hook sizes (No. 2: 2 cm; No. 3: 3 cm; or No. 4: 4 cm) and in different seasons (spring...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1*, Nisar Ahmad1, Azhar Rasul1, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad2, Muhammad Latif3, Muhammad Zubair Ul Hassan Arsalan1, Muhammad Umair1  and Hafiza Hina Shafqat1
...gical parameters of C. catla fingerlings fed nano- Cr particles supplemented sunflower meal based diets. The experiment was consisted on seven test diets on the basis of supplementation of nano Cr graded levels (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 mg Kg-1). Chromic oxide was used as an inert marker. Fingerlings were fed at the rate of 5% of their live wet weight. Maximum improvement in the growth performance (weight gain 197%, FCR 1.49, SGR 1.21 and...
Nazia Qamar* and Sher Khan Panhwar
...ected from the commercial catches from July 2013 to March 2015. Fish length and otolith length for five species recorded as S. commersonnianus TLcm = 16.3−88.4, OLcm = 0.3−0.9; S. lysan TL=23.2−73, OL = 0.2−0.7; S. tala TL = 48.5−55.5, OL = 0.6-0.9; S. tol TL =18.9−68, OL =0.3− M. cordyla TL= 18.4−47, OL = 0.3−0.9. The otolith dimensions such as lengt...
Qudrat Ullah1,8,*, Huma Jamil1, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Shakeeb Ullah1, Tariq Jamil2, Iahtasham Khan3, Shahbaz Bashir4, Qudratullah5, Inamullah Wazir6M. Abdus Sallam1 and Muhammad Zubair7
...ted from cross bred dairy cattle at three different private farms located in Gujranwala, Pakistan. The samples were analysed by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and by indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA). The overall seroprevalence was found to be 28.90 and 27.86% by RBPT and iELISA, respectively. Previous history of animal reproductive disorders was found to be significantly associated (P=0.0056) with seropositivity of the infection. Age, ...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,*, Khalid Medmood3, Irfan Shaukat2, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem1,5, Ashar Mehfooz1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Zia-ud-Din Sindhu1, Shahid Ali Rajput4, Mubashar Hassan1,4, Saqib Umar1, Muhammad Ali Jamil1, Rao Zahid Abbas1 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi1

 

...) were studied in Sahiwal cattle and crossbred cattle of the district Faisalabad of Punjab province, Pakistan. Therapeutic efficiency of Oxytetracycline-Imidocarb dipropionate combination was compared with Enrofloxacin-Imidocarb dipropionate against Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). For this study, the blood samples of three hundred and sixty nine cattle were collected. Gie...
Zakirullah1, Hamayun Khan1, Ali Gohar2, Haq Amanullah1,*, Muhammad Younas1, Muhammad Tarique Tunio3, Muhammad Saleem Khan4, Ibrar Muhammad Khan1 and Noushad Khan5 

Chukwuemeka Calistus Okolo1*, Ikenna Onyema Ezeh2, Chinelo Nnenna Uju3 and Nwakaego Ernestina Nweze1 

...serum malondialdehyde and catalase levels were similar in groups A--D. Therefore, treatment with the probiotics, while enhancing clearance of trypanosomes did not improve the antioxidative and clinical outcome of the infection. 

...

Muhammad Amin1,2*, Khalid Mahmood2 and Imran Bodlah3 

...of the related aphids and catalogue of host plant-tree species in the studied area from Pakistan are given herewith. 

...
Nouf Alharbi*, Mai Elobeid and Promy Virk
... and hair, blood profile, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver and serum, and histopathological evaluation of liver and kidney. Results showed that low dose of quercetin was significantly (p≤0.05) more effective than the high dose. Low dose was more efficacious in reducing Cd accumulation in the tissues, reversing the effects of Cd toxicity on blood profile, and on the

Abir Ishtiaq and Muhammad Naeem* 

...ein requirement for Catla catla (Thaila) in a polyculture system was conducted. Four experimental diets containing graded levels of protein (15, 20, 25 and 30%) were tested. Triplicate groups of C. catla stocked in outdoors earthen ponds at 2000 fish/acre were fed at 4% of body weight, 2 times a day, for 180 days. The investigation was spread over three different sites, each providing four earthen ponds. The results revealed...
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
...ne major problem of dairy cattle industry is the high prevalence of mammary gland infection. Despite significant technological developments in animal husbandry, udder infection is still widespread; particularly in large herds that causes high production losses to the dairy industry of Pakistan. Identification of molecular marker sequences that are directly related to immunity against mastitis might be helpful for animal selection trait and prevention of t...
S. Jalbani1, N.T. Narejo2,* and P. Khan2 
 

 

...p>...
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
...s is a chronic disease of cattle and buffaloes, causing progressive weight loss, persistent diarrhea and finally death. Due to zoonotic nature of the disease, workers in slaughterhouses are at a high risk of infection. In this study, the status of paratuberculosis was assessed in a slaughterhouse located in district Faisalabad, Pakistan. A total of 455 blood samples were collected from slaughtered cattle and buffaloes at ran...
Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Afia Muhammad Akram1, Arshad Javid3, Majid Hussain5, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah4 and Asma Chaudhary1
...stibility of the Catla catla fingerlings fed Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) based diet. The phytic acid’s presence in plant by-products decreases the bioavailability of nutrients to fish, resulting in poor fish growth and low nutrient digestibility in the body. Experimental diet was divided into six groups and were supplemented with graded levels (0, 300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 FTU kg-1) of phytase. Cr2O
Muhammad Raza Khan1, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim2, Shaista Andleeb1 and Abdul Hamid1
... wolf Canis lupus, categorized as “Endangered” in Pakistan, is one of the largest species of Canid family; it occurs in various parts of the country including upper Swat area. Reportedly, species population is declining in its range, however, data on its ecological aspects are scanty in the country. In the current study, we investigated distribution and diet of grey wolf and the level of its human conflict in Mahoodand valley of Swat Distric...
Ambreen Leghari1,2, Asghar Ali Kamboh2,*, Shakeel Ahmed Lakho1, Faiz Muhammad Khand1, Kanwar Kumar Malhi2,3, Iqra Bano Chandio4, Seema Baloch5 and Jan Mohammad Shah4
...BTB) in randomly selected cattle (n= 160) was carried out in Hyderabad and Tando Allahyar districts. The animals were first screened through single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT) and both positive and negative reactors of SITT were further investigated through rapid test. Attempts were also made to isolate the Mycobacterium bovis organism from the milk and nasal secretions of cattle using the Lowenstein-Jensen med...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Rehan Khalid1, Muhammad Yahya1 and Khurram Shehzad2
...ferent land-use types and categories in different localities of District Sargodha (Punjab, Pakistan). Moreover, the quality status of soils under these land-use types or categories was also determined by working out the soil biological quality (QBS) index. Extensive soil sampling was done in different randomly selected land-use types for four consecutive seasons from spring 2017 to Spring 2018. Results showed that the collec...
Yating Cheng1, Wenlong Shi1, Xue Xiao2, Qirong Zhang2, Qihao Zhang1, Zhijian Su1, Qi Xiang1,2* and Yadong Huang1,2
...a;2 tetramer contains the catalytic site, whereas the β subunit (PDI) maintains the solubility and activity of the α subunit. In this study, two plasmids were used to produce an active human P4H tetramer (rhP4H) in Pichia pastoris. The P4Hα was cloned into pPICZαA, and PDI was cloned into PHIL. Real-time PCR showed that the P4H gene was expressed at the mRNA level. SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis showed that the secreted ex...
Azra1* and Shaukat Hussain2
...y scale 14 genotypes were categorized as moderately resistant, 14 moderately susceptible and the remaining eight genotypes were grouped as highly susceptible. Significant differences were recorded for grain yield among all tested genotypes during kharif season 2015 and 2016 as well as data pooled over two years. Moderately resistant genotypes CS-2Y10, EVY-1 and EHY-2 scored highest yield. Conversely, the lowest yield was observed for the highly susceptible gen...
Tahsin Razzaq*, Muhammad Fareed Khan and Shahid Iqbal Awan
... susceptible and moderate categories on the basis of 0-5 disease severity scale. The percent disease incidence ranged from 20-60% and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC) 22-362dsu (Development stage unit). On the basis of disease rating scale and pathological traits, it was reported that three parental genotypes Karamat-Bar-25, SZP-13200, NCEV-1530-11 had lowest values for all pathological traits and severity rating of 5R, 5R and 10R and marked as hig...
Shou-Hong Zhang1*, Ying Zhang1, Kun-Ming Wen2, Wei Wu3 and Wen-Yan Li3
...obubbles plus biotinlated cationic nano-liposome composites (Bio-MB+Bio-CNLP) in bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats. In addition, we investigated the staging of hepatic fibrosis by using Perfusion-Weighted Imaging (PWI). We established a BDL rat model of hepatic fibrosis. HGF carrier was administered through tail-vein injections. The gene therapy efficacy was evaluated in vivo. Before and after treatment the rats were examined with MR-PWI. The perfusion param...

Asma Hassan*, Zuhair Hasnain, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz, Muhmmad Ansar, Muhmmad Rasheed, Ajaz Ahmad, Lubna Ayub Durani and Muhmmad Bilal Ali 

Memis Ozdemir
...roduction traits in dairy cattle, because prolactin has an important regulatory role in the development of the mammary glands, the secretion of milk and the expression of milk protein genes. It has been seen many studies about Prl/RsaI polymorphism found in the exon 3 or exon 4 region of bovine prolactin gene in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether the DNA sequence of the Prl gene exon 3 or exon 4 in

Nosheen1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...t and brain of fish Catla catla exposed for 4-day. After each sampling (24-hr interval) fish were dissected and required organs were obtained. Results showed that the POD activity was augmented in all selected organs of Pb+2 exposed fish in relation to control. The POD activity in organs of fish followed the order: brain>liver>gills>kidney>heart>muscle. Regression analysis showed a positive relationship between POD activity and duration of expos...

Riaz Hussain Pasha1*, Muhammad Zubair Anjum2, Imran Ullah2, Muhammad Akram Khan3, Adnan Ali4, Saif-Ur-Rehman5, Sana Batool2 and Arslan Emmanuel

...is economically important catfish in Pakistan. 

...

Muneer Abbas1*, Muhammad Ramzan1, Niaz Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Khalid Hussain1, Sohail Abbas2 and Ali Raza3 

...=0.029). Increasing adult catches trends of H. armigera and S. litura had significantly reduced larval populations in the field. Temperature had 12.3, 11.3, 10.5, 7.1 and 6.3 % impact on per unit population change of Agrotis Sp., Microtermes Spp., H. armigera, S. litura and B. tabaci respectively. While humidity had 25.6, 6.3, 1.6, 0.9 and 0.7 % impact on population change of Microtermes Spp., S. litura, H. armigera, Agrotis Sp. and B. tabaci respectively. MCB...
Shaukat Ali1,*, Sadia Batool2, Fatima Javed Butt2, Sundas Nasreen1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1
...f which cancer remained a catastrophe for humanity. The present review article devised the modern cancer treatment paradigm which proposed directions towards probiotics or biotics-cancer treatment strategy. The probiotics are present in the human gut region and acting as a health promoter; as they have antioxidative, immunomodulatory, antipathogenic and anti-cancerous properties. Review based on the futuristic and modern aspects of cancer treatment, we believe...

Ankur Abrol, Madhumeet Singh, Akshay Sharma* and Pravesh Kumar 

...n of condition and can be categorised into 3 successive stages i.e. stage of positive prognosis, stage of less positive prognosis and stage of negative prognosis. Body condition assessment of the dam is of paramount importance as it can provide a snapshot about the possible prognosis of the animal diagnosed with uterine torsion. 

...
Shahid Sherzada1,2,4,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan4, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Idrees3, Abdul Wajid2, Muhammad Nauman Sharif3, Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal3, Iram Amin3 and Muhammad Shahid3
... Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla)are very suitable fish species for culture in Pakistan. However, the identification and phylogeny of these fish species are of much interest today. DNA barcoding is used as a bio-identification tool for the organism globally. The current study was also conducted for the fast and accurate identification of Indian major carp species. The fishes used in this study were captured from four geographically isolated districts of Pun...
Chaman Ara1*, Asmatullah1, Sehrish Kanwa1, Asma Chaudhary2, Ayesha Siddiqua1
...als. Forty mice, randomly categorized into four groups (N=10) were administered orally with different concentrations of levofloxacin (0.00, 9.37, 18.75 and 37.50µg/g BW of mice) for 30 days consecutively. Mice were sacrificed on 31st day (24 hours after last dose administered) under deep chloroform anaesthesia. Blood was extracted through cardiac puncture and viscera were dissected out for further analysis. Levofloxacin induced reduction in bo...
Fariha Latif1*, Muhammad Javed2, Hammad Ahmad Khan2 and Khalil-Ur-Rehman3
...peroxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD). The Pb exposure caused a significant time and dose dependent increase in the SOD and POD activities in selected tissues of C. mrigala while a significant decrease in the CAT activity was also observed. Liver showed a significantly higher activity of all the three enzymes that could be due to its actively metabolic nature...

Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry2, Muhammad Irfan3, Muhammad Khan1, Shaukat Ali4 and Saima Shahzad Mirza5 

... of 3 fish species (Catla catla (thaila), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Cirrhinus mrigala (mori)) from river Ravi during two flow seasons at four sampling locations including upstream Lahore Siphon = A, Shahdera = B, Sunder=C and downstream Balloki headworks = D. All the metal contents in fish scales were highly significantly different (P<0.001) among sampling locations and flow seasons. Location-wise metal accumulation pattern was C > D > B > A. The hig...

Awais Ahmed Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal1 and Muhammad Atiq2 

...d (30.33 mmol/ mg FW) and catalase (CAT) was higher (91 U/min g protein) in fruit treated with ascorbic acid as compared to control (22.67 U/min g protein) treatment. These results indicated that application of organic elicitors could increase the disease resistance by H2O2 elevation and by induction of antioxidant enzymes. This study was planned to evaluate the organic elicitors and to determine the biochemical changes in citrus fruit. 

...
Hu Liu1,2, Qifang Yu1,2, Xiaopeng Tang1,2, Chengkun Fang1,2, Sijia Chen1,2 and Rejun Fang1,2,*
Honghua Wang1,2, Summia Perveen1,2, Shucheng Shao1,2, Kun Wang1,2 and Fei Yin1,2,*
... identified proteins were categorised using a bioinformatics approach. The results showed that 3,472 proteins were identified with a theoretical molecular weight of 11.53–610.90 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.13–11.77. A total of 63.07% or 50.09% proteins were annotated by Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) or Gene Ontology (GO) terms, respectively. These results highlight that mass material is transported and<...
Sameh S. Tawfik, Ahmed A. Elkady* and Ehab T. Mohamed
...uced alleviation in renal catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (PGx) activities and reduced-glutathione (GSH) content and significantly limited the elevation in serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels when compared to irradiated rat group. The histopathological-findings of renal tissues in the irradiated-group, showed nephrotoxicity; the renal cortex showed massive necrotic change...
Nurlybay Kazhgaliyev1*, Talgat Kulmagambetov2, Dulat Ibrayev1, Saule Bostanova1 and Zhanat Titanov1
...ethod and consisted of 30 cattle/group. Observations during the present study showed that the average live weight of Hereford heifers of the second generation at the age 18-22 months was 378.5 and 375.2 kg which was 8.7 and 20.6 kg (2.2-5.4%) higher than that of Aberdeen-Angus herd-mates. Chemical analysis of feedstuff was carried out in Altyndan LLP and AKA whereas physiological and clinical indicators of second-generation heifer calves were within the normal...
Monica Paula Marin1, Elena Narcisa Pogurschi1*, Iuliana Marin2 and Carmen Georgeta Nicolae1
...rrheal gastric disease of cattle. By adding zeolite in the cow ration during the precalving period has determined a significant increase in blood serum calcium during the last week of precalving period, as well as in the calving and postcalving periods, having as consequence fewer recorded milk fever cases. The results obtained can convince the farmers to use volcanic tuff as a food additive in the feeding of dairy cows during the precalving, postcalving and l...
Doulat Khan1, Hamayun Khan1, Nazir Ahmad2, Muhammad Tarique Tunio3, Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Saleem Khan2 and Rifat Ullah Khan1*
...egnancy identification in cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep. A total of 120 blood were taken from jugular vein of different breeds of cattle (Achai, Achai x Jersey, Holstein Friesian and Jersey), buffalo (Nilli Ravi, Aza Kheli and non-descript), goats (Beetal, Teddy and non-descript) and sheep (Bulkhi, Karri and non-descript). In cattle, the average sensitivity, specificity, false pregnancy...
Ahsan Anjum1, Asim Aslam1, Raheela Akhtar1, Tahir Yaqub2,  Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Rizwana Sultan3, Saba Usman1Aneela Zameer Durrani4 and Muhammad Usman4*
...us respiratory disease of cattle, characterized by anorexia, fever, dyspnea, polypnea, cough, and nasal discharges and caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. This study was carried out in abattoirs of Lahore, Kasur and Jhang districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Different tissue samples were collected from 560 cattle showing respiratory signs at slaughter. Lung samples were used for detection of CBPP through P...
Imdad Ullah Khan1, Shehla Gull Bokhari2, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Ikramul Haq3*and Naimat Ullah Khan4

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...eases of sheep, goats and cattle. They are endemic in most parts of the globe associated with significant production losses due to high morbidity, high mortality rate and animal trade restrictions. Though several diagnostics including molecular tools are available, recombinant protein based diagnostic assays namely ELISA is safer and robust to handle large sample size and also to minimize labor/time. However, the genus Capripoxvirus encodes putative 147 protei...
Dilara Abbas Bukhari*, Mehwish Faheem, Shamoona Arshad and Khalid P. Lone
...lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined to evaluate oxidative stress while urea and creatinine, was used to evaluate kidney function. It was found that there was an increase in weight (p<0.05) of both males and female mice fed with diet containing ghee. Kidney LPO and CAT were significantly increased in both ma...

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Farhana Khaliq1, Amar Razzaq3, Mudassar Yasin4, Ghulam Mustafa5, Allah Bakhsh6 and Raheel Saqib7 

...stan. Basmati markets are categorized into three types. First category of high potential markets include UK, Canada, and USA. The 2nd category include middle potential markets which include Oman, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Third category include the low potential markets which has low competitiveness are Yemen, Poland and Qatar....
Ju Zhang1,2, Dong-Sheng Jia3, Shi-Hao Zhao1,2, Xiao-Liang Xie3, Hong Chen4 and Hai-Feng Li4,*

 

...peroxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities.We observed that HGQ exerted little effect on the growth of wild-type N2 nematodes at concentration < 0.6 mg/ml, and 0.05 mg/ml of the HGQ significantly prolonged the lifespan and reduced the lipofuscin level in N2 nematodes. However, the HGQ failed to influence the pharyngeal pumping rate in N2 nematodes or to affect the lifespan of sir-2.1 mutant nematode VC199, in...
Derya Kocamaz* and Elif Oruc
...at acetyhcholin-esterase, catalase and estradiol/testosterone levels decreased, while the amount of etoxyresorufin-O-deetylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) and protein carbonil (PCO) increased in comparison to the control. After the recovery period, EROD, GST, malondialdehyde, estradiol/testosterone levels were found to be lower than the control. In the pesticide mixture group, the activity of antioxida...

Stanley Uchenna Onwudike* and Vivian Chizoba Edoziem 

...le Ca and ECEC (effective cation exchange capacity), saloid bound P with BS (base saturation), moisture content as well as organic carbon, Al–P with available phosphorus and moisture content while Ca–P and Fe-Al–P had significant relation with available phosphorus and effective cation exchange capacity. As a result of different concentrations of inorganic phosphorus forms within these roots zones, appropria...

Mahfooz Khan* and Himayatullah Khan 

...urpose which was the base category. The study concluded that the use natural gas for cooking was less expensive as compared to other alternative energy sources such as firewood, electricity and animal dung cakes. The study also concluded that family size has negative relationship with the use electricity and firewood while income of farm households and education level of household head has positive relationship with the use of electricity, natural gas and fire...
Muneer Abbas1*, Muhammad Ramzan1, Khalid Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Niaz Hussain1, Muhammad Irshad1, Mudassar Khaliq1 and Sohail Abbas2
...t traps had maximum adult catches of 706/ cropping season, which reduces the larval population by suppressing the egg laying of adults. Maximum adult catches were recorded during the month of July with 9.36/night having positive and significant correlation with temperature.
...
Fatima Hashim Abbas1,2* and Alaa Tareq Shakir Al-Hassnawi1
...peroxidation (MDA level), catalase activity (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in the serum of all studied groups. MDA levels were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in aborted women with T. gondii compared to negative control. MDA levels were also significantly higher (p≤0.05) among aborted women with Cytomegalo virus compared to negative and positive control groups. All aborted women had significan...
Mubashra Salim1, Omeira Ibrahim1, Hugo Vilhena2,3,4, Carla Maia5, André Pereira5, Maria Shahzeen1, Shabana Kalsoom1, Asim K. Mahmood6 and Furhan Iqbal1*
... range of hosts including cats, dogs, domestic ruminants, pigs, rodents and humans. The present study was designed for the molecular detection of Mycoplasma haemofelis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum in feline blood samples collected from various pet clinics in Pakistan, by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), using 16S rDNA as the target sequence. Clinical and epidemiological data was collected in all animals included in the study. M. haem...
Mustafa Boğa1, Kerim Kürşat Çevik2* and Aykut Burgut3
...f insemination (ratio) on cattle milk yield (last seven days in average). For this purpose, the milk yields of 156 Holstein Friesian cattle were investigated according to different age, lactation, calving and insemination associated parameters. Optimum values in literature were organized by an expert in establishing classification data. The expert determined the classes of the outputs data (average milk) through the input da...
Muhammad Yahya1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Khurram Shehzad2, Muhammad Luqman3 and 
Sher Muhammad Shahzad2
... under different land-use categories (i.e. agricultural crop land, orchard land and natural uncultivated land) and different land-use types (i.e. sugarcane, fodder and rice-wheat fields, intercropped and non-intercropped citrus and guava orchards, natural grassland, bare land and wetland peripheries) using population abundance and dynamics of edaphic springtails (collembola) and mites (acari) as bioindicators. Using metallic soil corer (10 cm len...

Hamza Rehman*, Nida Ahmad Khan, Asad Ali, Warda Batool and Kanwal Razzaq 

...fy;">The khapra beetle is categorized as notorious species, an extended standing species around the world and at the same time it is perceived among the world’s 100 most essential intrusive species. Thiamethoxam and imidacloprid are Neonicotinoids with a minute toxicity and they have no teratogenic effects on grains, therefore both are used as cereals protectant against stored grain pests world widely. The recent study was planned to evaluate the efficac...
Mubashar Hussain1*, Misbah Younas1,Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Muhammad Umar1, Maimoona Kanwal1, Moazama Batool2
...ected by hand picking and cattle dung baited pitfall traps. Sixteen species representing three guilds i.e. Paracoprid (10 species), Endocoprid (4 species) and Telecoprid (02 species) were recorded. Onitis excavatus (27.68 %)and Onitis crassus (9.59 %)showed maximum relative abundance whereas Helocopris bucephalus (0.15 %) and Onthophagus bonasus (0.15 %)were the least abundant species. A. contaminatus, A. fossor and

Ahmad Naeem Shahzad1, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi2, Samee Ullah1, Muhammad Latif3, Shakeel Ahmad1 and Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari1* 

...dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) in plant leaves were increased in response to salt stress. Treatment of stressed plants with trehalose considerably improved the growth attributes and reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, indicating its ameliorative role in salt stress alleviation. However, no improvement was noted in K+ and Na+ dynamics by trehalose application. In conclusion, trehalose plays a key role in survival of plants under elevated saline ...

Asad Ullah1*, Umar Sadique2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2 and Farhan Anwar Khan

...n in lactating indigenous cattle/buffaloes raised on different commercial dairy farms and exposing the hazards linked with milk-born tuberculosis infection in the area where unpasteurized milk is normally used in the central zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. A total of 1225 cattle and 1175 buffaloes of more than one year were studied for the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. A total of 1608 milk samples (793 from
Qingzhan Ma1, Bo Wu1, Jianping Jiang2 and Zhaobin Song1,3*
...ic populations of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in Sichuan Province, China were studied to determine their genetic background and provide essential data for its artificial breeding. Eight microsatellite markers were used to analyze genetic characteristics of eight channel catfish populations (POPA, POPB, POPC, POPD, POPE, POPF, POPG, and POPH). The average polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.52...
Quratulain1, Ata-ul-Mohsin1, Muhammad Naeem1, Ghulam Shabir1, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2 and Rashid Mahmood2*
... development. Considering categorization of ten onion accessions against thrips, Red Imposta was found as highly resistrant, early red, Chiltan, Nasar puri as resistant cultivar whereas Swat 1, Virio7 and 8, Phulkara, Saryab red were found susceptible while Hazara grouped in highly susceptible category due to maximum thrips infestation. Visual assessments depicted that all resistant cultivars had yellowish-green leaf color w...

Rabia Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem*, Samrah Masud and Abir Ishtiaq 

...abeo rohita ♀ and Catla catla ♂) by feeding them at three graded protein feeds (15%CP, 20%CP, 25%CP). Eighteen days old fry of hybrid (L. rohita ♀ and C. catla ♂) of 0.12±0.08 average weight(g) and length(cm) 1.63±0.21 were acclimatized and shifted in hapas (8x6x3 ft.), fed at the rate of 5% of their wet body weight. Ten samples from each hapa were randomly selected at the end of three months (90 days t...
Şükrü Önalan1*, Muhammed Arabacı1and Haşmet Çağırgan2
...molytic (BA), oxidase and catalase negative and were reproduced under 21, 37 and 45 °C temperatures with 0–6.5 % NaCl salinity. As a result of the examination of biochemical properties with API Rapid ID 32 Strep test, it was observed that 2 L. garvieae isolates were different from other isolates in respect of sucrose utilization. 1 and 19 number isolates were negative for sucrose whereas other isolates gave positive results. 1 number isolate w...
Aamir Mushtaq1,2, Rukhsana Anwar1 and Mobasher Ahmad1,2,* 
...7.36 ± 0.49 U/mg), catalase (1.42 ± 0.05 U/mg) glutathione (37.56 ± 1.89 μ mol/mg) and reduction in malondialdehyde (7.83 ± 0.21 n mol/mg) level was observed in group receiving 800mg/kg of mep.a as compared to amnesic group. Pimpinella anisum thus improved memory in mice by preventing oxidative stress in brain.
...
Ke Zhang1, Shuai Liu2, Qiu Chen1, Yu Wang1, Li Liu1, Bingjie Li1, Kai Ma1, Xiaoya Wei1, Aijun Li3 and Junyan Li2*
...: 4 from ticks and 8 from cattle. Among the the 4 ORFs, Tropomyosin, Elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) and Protein Disulfide Isomerase-2 (PDI-2) have been reported as antigens and even vaccine candidate proteins in ticks or other pathogens but not in H. longicornis. Few reports have described dual specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP-3) in parasites as an antigen. We successfully screened four potential antigens and found that DUSP-3 is a potential nov...
Shaista Abbas1,Imtiaz Rabbani1, Hafsa Zaneb2, M. Shahbaz Yousaf1, Saima Ashraf2, Abid Hussain Shahzad3, M. Afzal Rashid4 and Habib Rehman1,*
...l (P = 0.05) and elevated catalase levels (P = 0.19) were observed in yeast-supplemented goats. Nevertheless, the treatment and treatment into time interaction for serum cholesterol and catalase levels remained insignificant during the transition period. A lower (P = 0.006) serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and higher (P = 0.05) thyroxine was found in yeast-supplemented goats with insignificant treatment into day interactions duri...
Tehreem Usman1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3 and Qaisra Siddique1
...was to see the behaviour, catalase (CAT) activity and total protein contents (TPC) in Ctenopharyngodon idella under binary mixtures of insecticides viz. endosulfan(ES)+chlorpyrifos(CPF) and endosulfan(ES)+bifenthrin (BIF). The fish behaviour was observed from both treated and control groups. Fish under exposure of insecticides mixtures exhibit abnormal behaviour and tried to jump out from water, come to surface and gulp air, showed increased opercular m...

Shah Nawaz Khuhro1*, Irshad Ali Junejo1, Muhammad Haroon Hullio1, Sultan Ahmed Maitlo2, Javeed Shabir Daar3 and Shahjahan Rajput

...nd the number of whitefly catches at traps on different observations on brinjal. Results of field trials confirmed that yellow sticky trap attracted more number of whiteflies as compared to the green, pink and light green, so yellow color traps may be used in methods of insect population monitoring. The other colors were less attractant so this study found that using yellow-colored sticky-traps as an alternative for Brinjal crop for the monitoring and manageme...

Md. Zubael Islam, Rukhsana Amin Runa and Md. Mahmudul Alam* 

...lence of foot diseases in cattle and also to explore the risk factors having a promoting role in developing foot affections in three unions (Potazia, Jalalpur, and Kaijuri) of Shahjadpur Upazila. Foot affections were physically investigated and examined from May to October 2019 and a total of 257 surgical affections were recorded, among them 46 cattle were diagnosed as different foot diseases. Among different surgical affect...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

...al population to curb the catastrophic cost of managing the epidemic. However, the diagnosis of HCV infection is faced with several challenges, therefore there is a demand for development of easy to use and inexpensive molecular methods for accurate diagnosis. The sub-Saharan Africa HCV genotypes distribution are diverse, but genotype I is the most common. This review highlights the need for more robust surveillance studies with introduction of opt-in testing ...

Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Humayun Saleem

... solanaceae family and is categorized as tuberous crop. Potato is ranked 4th all over the world after rice, wheat and maize. Nutritionally potato is rich in vitamins (B1, B2 and B6), minerals (potassium, phosphorus and magnesium), pantothenic acid and riboflavin. Major potato producing districts in Punjab are Okara, Sahiwal, Kasur, Sialkot, Sheikhupura, Narowal, Lahore, Pakpattan, Jhang, TobeTek Singh and Gujranwala. Potato is attacked by a number of diseases ...

H. Soofi†1 , N. A. Birmani1 , A. M. Dharejo1 , A. R. Abbasi2 , G. S. Ghachal1

Description of new nematode species Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) sindhicus of genus Rhabdochona (Railliet, 1916) from Indus River Pakistan
...chona collected form host catfishes Rita rita of Indus River, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. Collected nematodes were processes with standard method for feature research. New species Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) sindhicus differs from other species of genus with body shape and size, buccal capsule shape, prostomal teeth arrangement, nerve ring position, 18 pairs of caudal papillae, spicules shape curved and broad anteriorly and pointed posteriorly, female genital str...

Naseem Ahmad1, Sahar Noor1, Rehman Akhtar1*, Misbah Ullah1, Khizar Azam2 

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF COMPRESSOR TO RECOVER FLARE GAS USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT TECHNIQUES
...
of compressor are categorized and pertinent information is togethered from various resources. The information is
thoroughly studied to enhance factors performance and the factors were set up according to the modified compressor
compression system. The suggested equipped factors guide to enhance the recuperate of low pressure burn gas and
the proposed approach of the performance parameters guide to cost effective taking out the low ...

Ebtisam Mirza1, Nadeem Ehsan1 

DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECT EXECUTION COMPLEXITY INDEX
...lexity Index) for various categories of projects
considering varying levels of complexity, i.e. PECI(R) for R&D/Technology projects, PECI(I) for Infrastructure development
projects and PECI(O) for Other projects. A complexity scale starting from 0 = least complex to 10=highly
complex has also been proposed in order to rank and compare the projects. This ranking will help the decision makers
to decide which projects to include in...

Anwar Ullah*, Sabir Islam*, Sikandar Bilal Khattak*, Safi Ur Rahman**, Shahid Maqsood*, Misbah Ullah*, Rehman Akhtar*, Rashid Nawaz* 

MAINTENANCE SYSTEM FOR HEAVY EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT
...tive life cycle. To avoid catastrophic
losses in production and, market share, a maintenance model for such equipment is developed. Heavy equipment
availability is mandatory on site. Their movement is critical and usually limited. The data collected includes both
manufacturer and operator requirement. Usually such equipment is treated as normal machine irrespective of the
rough environment it works in. The analysis includes segregat...

Parsa Riaz and Muhammad Naeem*

Digestive Enzymes Activity with Gut Morphometric Parameter of Carnivorous Fish Wallago attu (Siluridae, Siluriformes)
...go attu is a fast growing catfish that belongs to family siluridae under the order siluriformes. It has good market demand as a food fish having high nutritional value, and high protein content in its flesh, Carnivorous in nature. Descriptive data of the studied traits included total body weight, total body length, gut weight, gut length, condition factor, standard length in Wallago attu. Fish body weight showed positive Pearson’s correlation with total ...

Muhammad Usman Shafi*, Syed Muhammad Ali**, Syed Akhtar Ali Shah***, Kamran Ahmed****

DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE OF HEAVY TRUCK LOAD DATA IN PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN
...div>
are put in one category and trucks are divided into two, three, four, five and six axles to give clear interpretation
of each type of truck. To determine load data, a portable weighing station was designed keeping in view the size of
each truck tire, the maximum deflection and economy. Weighing plates were made of steel which is easily available,
cheaper as compare to the aluminum plates that are being employed in...

Shahida Nasreen Zakir*, Samina Siddiqui**, Nasreen Ghaffar*

MAJOR ELEMENTS CONCENTRATIONS IN CALCAREOUS SOILS
...n loess soils is 12% thus categorized in calcareous soils whereas alluvium and piedmont alluvium soils with Ca content ranged from 0.9 to 5.2% hence are classified into moderate and non-calcareous. There was an inverse relationship between Ca and P concentrations in calcareous soils. Calcium content is around 12% whereas P content is 0.000012% in calcareous soils of this study. The low content of P than Ca in calcareous soils of this study revealed the content...

Hazrat Hussain*, Muhammad Ibrahim**, Navid Ahmed***, Zia ul Haq**, Bashir Alam***

ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT LOAD FROM GOAML RIVER AND ITS IMPACT ON THE GOMAL ZAM DAM LIFESPAN
...sp;rate of erosion in the catchment of the Gomal River since no generalized model has so far been developed to explain the nature of such weathering activities and all such works are situation specific. Relation between the water discharges to sediment load that it carries has been developed to signify the Gomal River catchment’s erosion. The analysis shows that the cat
Sumaira, Ali Mujtaba Shah*, Ghulam Asghar Solangi, Ifra Anwar, Qudratullah Kalwar 
..., minerals, nutrients and catalysts. A total of 20 % milk is obtained from different species including sheep, ass, horse, yak, goat, bison and camel while the 80 % milk is produced by cows. Milk of camel plays an essential part in the diet of human. Additionally, camel milk comprises numerous fatty acids and enzymes. Hence camel milk has many beneficial effects, such as antiviral, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-ageing. Besides, camel ...
Muhammad Khalid1,2, Samrah Masud2, Zara Naeem2, Muhammad Munir Shahid3, Ammar Danyal Naeem2, Abir Ishtiaq2 and Muhammad Naeem2*
 
Length-weight and Length-length Relationships of Farmed Catla catla during Winter Season from Muzaffargarh, Pakistan
...ps (LLRs) of farmed Catla catla, thirty fish specimens were collected from a fish farm located at Muzaffargarh, Pakistan during January, 2019. Total length (TL), standard length (SL), fork length (FL) and body weight was taken of each fish specimen. Mean TL and body weight (W) of studied fish specimens of C. catla was found 49.14±1.58 cm and 1775.29±191.18 g, respectively. Results of regression analyses reveale...

Shahida Nasreen Zakir*, Samina Siddiqui*, Nasreen Ghaffar* and Zia Ul Haq**

WATER QUALITY INDEX OF SHALLOW AND DEEP GROUNDWATER DURING WET AND DRY SEASON OF PESHAWARBASIN
... groundwater samples were categorized as good water and considered suitable for drinking apart from a few exceptions. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio of all groundwater was less than 10. Some of the groundwater showed more than 2.5 meq L-1 of Residual Sodium Carbonate. This suggests that groundwater is suitable for irrigation purpose in all seasons.
...

 Muhammad Naeem Khan Khattak1, Hamidullah1, Shehryar2

PROBLEMS, ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE AUTOMOTIVE VENDOR INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN—I
...e divided into five major categories: processes/ operations, supply chain, resources, testing & quality control, and poor technology climate. It includes both the vendors who are working for Japanese and local motorcycle assemblers. The analysis of the findings of survey interviews, expert’s discussions, and media releases has unveiled some daunting facts pertinent to automotive vendor industry of Pakistan. The salient outcomes of...

 Usman Ali Naeem*, Hashim Nisar*, Habib-ur-Rehman** and Naeem Ejaz*

DEVELOPMENT OF FLOOD DISCHARGE MODELS USING GIS
...curate information of the catchment areas, so that in coordination with concerned departments, modeling and predictions of futuristic results is possible which will yield better decision making leading to fructifying outcome. Physical hydrologic models for drainage areas are significant utensils to hold water assets management and foresee diverse hydrologic contacts and risks. Indus River is considered as salvation of Pakistan and it is als...

Rafi Javed Qureshi* and Iftikhar Hussain**

INTERNATIONALIZING MANUFACTURING SMEs IN A DEVELOPING REGION: AN EXHAUSTIVE CDA-BASED EXPLORATORY APPROACH
...rsquo;s characteristic is categorical, single methodology to analyze factors influencing exporting are far from sufficient. A multi-method and exhaustive approach is necessary to explore the adequacy of factors in question. The three methods relevant to categorical data analysis (CDA) in this paper highlights the enabling role of the exploratory factors in understanding the relationship with SME’s export...

Rashidullah*, Irshad Ahmad**

SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS OF ISLAMABAD
...stic approach. Earthquake catalogue compiled by National Engineering Services Pakistan (NESPAK) for the period of (1505-2006) has been used. All Quaternary faults in the vicinity of Islamabad have been considered for deterministic hazard analysis. Seismic zoning map of NESPAK has been utilized in the research. Earthquake catalogue contains total of 11,149 events. Earthquake events of moment magnitude (Mw>4....

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
... transboundary disease of cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is characterized by fever and the appearance of nodular lesions in the skin covering all parts of the body. LSD is currently endemic in many African countries and causing significant economic losses. LSD has recently spread out of Africa into the Middle East region, and still continuing to spread other territories of the world. In September 15, 2019 the first occurrence of LSD outbreak in Banglad...
Dibyendu Biswas1*, Shib Shankar Saha2, Shankar Biswas3 and Md. Abu Sayeed4
Outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease of Cattle in South-West Part of Bangladesh and its Clinical Management
...eruptive viral disease of cattle, caused by LSD virus (LSDV) under the family Poxviridae and transmitted by direct contact or through biological vectors such as mosquitoes, flies and ticks. Sporadic cases of LSD have been observed in cattle elsewhere. The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the present scenario of LSD and its clinical management at different house-holds at south-west region of Bangladesh. A s...

Markus I. Francis1*, Paul I. Ankeli2, Clara N. Kwanashie1, Jibril Adamu1, Lushaikyaa Allam1, Mashood A. Raji3, Godwin O. Egwu4, Flavio Sacchini5 and Massimo Scacchia5

Detection of Mycoplasma bovis from Cattle Presented for Slaughter in Adamawa and Taraba States, Northeastern Nigeria
... a variety of diseases in cattle worldwide. This study was aimed to report the PCR identification of M. bovis from slaughtered cattle in northeastern Nigeria. Four hundred and eighty (480) samples of lung tissues (180), nasal swab (180), ear swab (60) and pleural fluid (60) were collected from 190 heads of cattle at slaughter in Yola and Jalingo abattoirs in Adamawa and Taraba States, resp...

Uzma Arif1, Sadar Uddin Siddiqui2, Muhammad Fareed Khan1, Muhammad Arshad3 and Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi

...of other crops of similar category. 

...

Zahid Hassan Tarar1, Muhammad Salik Ali Khan2*, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi3, Raza Salim4, Irfan Ahmad Saleem1, Saima Nazar5, Munir David2, Tahir Majeed6, Muhammad Sufyan Mughal7, Muhammad Saleem8, Umer Iqbal9, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal10 and Muhammad Khalid Shaheen

...w, marginal, and adequate categories according to plant available micronutrient status. Digital maps thus developed using Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) would help to apply micronutrients more precisely and site-specifically.  

...

Zakeer Ahmed Khan Abbasi* and Allah Nawaz 

...ture is vulnerable to the cataclysmic transformations in the climate system; causing productivity loss, soil degradation, water scarcity, resource depletion etc. Climate change awareness empowers the farming communities to take appropriate measures to mitigate the negative consequences of this phenomenon but the responses are not necessarily identical in scale and forms . In developed countries, climate change awareness is much advanced therefore, their climat...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2, Irshad Ahmad3, Kashif Prince1*, Ghazunfar Rashid1, Mahboob Ali1, Imdad Ullah Khan4Asad Ullah5, Naimat Ullah4, Muhammad Shoaib2 and Said Sajjad Ali Shah2
...otypes (A, B, and C) were categorized into two groups healthy and diseased to compare the hematological and biochemical parameters. Hematobiochemical analysis indicated that mean erythrocyte count (RBC) and hemoglobin levels decreased while the mean leukocytes (WBC), platelets, packet cell volume (PCV) and total bilirubin levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in sheep infected with Clostridium perfringens type A. Sheep infected with Clostridium ...

Olga Mikhailovna Blinnikova1*, Vadim Anatolyevich Babushkin1, Lyudmila Gennadievna Eliseeva2 and Galina Severyanovna Usova3

Modeling a Formulation and Assessment of the Consumer Properties of the Special Purpose Starch Drink
...nts for 226.9%, including catechins for 82.6%, and for 200% in collagen. The benefit of the drink is due to simultaneous presence in the kissel of a high dose of data vitamins of natural origin. P-active connections enhance biological effect of vitamin C, and the high content of ascorbic acid in turn collagen. The designed fruit drinking kissel is the source of food fibers, macro and minerals.

...

Mazhar Abbas1*, Kishwar Jam1, Rashid Iqbal Khan1, Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye2, Tariq Rafique3 and Zahid Mahmood

...o;mol min-1 g-1 protein), catalase activity (37.81 nmol-1 g-1 protein) and protein (6.28 mg g-1 fresh weight) contents. These commercial plant products based on amino acids enriched macro and micronutrients as well as acetyl-salicylic acid combined with ascorbic acid can be used carefully for expecting efficient productivity with high quality produce. 

...
Mahak Fatima1, Memoona Syed1, Rabia Zeeshan2, Farah Rauf Shakoori3, Naveed Shahzad4, Moazzam Ali1 and Zeeshan Mutahir1*
...man MutT homolog 1 (MTH1) catalyzes the conversion of oxidized purine nucleotides to their monophosphate forms, thus preventing their incorporation into DNA and subsequently to oxidative damage. The present study explores the relationship between MTH1 gene silencing and its outcome on the growth of gemcitabine resistant breast cancer cells named MCF7-R. For this purpose, we transfected MCF7-R cells with MTH1 specific validated siRNA. Successful t...

Ali Hazrat1*, Mohammad Nisar1, Khan Sher2, Jehandar Shah2, Tour Jan1 and Abid Ullah1

Taxonomic and Medicinal Study of Papilionaceae of District Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...ncea forage for goats and cattle and also toxic alkaloids, particularly in the seeds and pods, Lathyrus cicera is used as a green manure, soil cover for preventing erosion and in breeding program for the plant species, Medicago minima is rich source of vitamins A, C, and E, green manure and fixes atmospheric nitrogen, Robinia pseudo-acacia is astringent, diuretic, emetic, emollient, laxative, poison, purgative, sedative, tonic, emetic and for toothache, Sophor...
Zhi Yijin, Shao Mingqin* and Li Quanjiang
...orded in each water depth category. Both spotted redshank Tringa erythropus and common greenshank Tringa nebularia have high water depth niche breadth (> 0.7), with high tolerance to water level variation; both species segregate spatially to reduce competition. Of mid- and large-sized wading birds, the Eurasian spoonbill prefers V-grade waters and has a narrow water depth niche breadth. The water depth overlap of these mid- and large-sized wad...
Ishrat Perveen1, Yasar Saleem2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3* 
...ion of HCAs/day which may catch the level up to 1.4 mg/d. To the best knowledge of the authors, it is the highest known dietary consumption value of HCAs worldwide. This study presents a plausible positive association between the high temperature cooking methods and higher quantities of HCAs in RTE Chicken kabab commercially available from Pakistani markets.
...
Aamir Khan1, Rabia Noushin2, Mohammad Attaullah3, Shahid Naiz Khan1, Rafiqe Hussain4, Farman Ullah Dawar1, Faiz Ur Rehman1, Muhammad Ijaz1 and Kalim Ullah1*
...babesiosis among domestic cattle of Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Blood samples (1500) were collected from clinically suspected cattle in span of one year. All blood samples were examined through microscope. Overall incidence of babesiosis was 54.80%.B. bovesshowed high prevalence (35.46%) than B. bigemina (19.33%). Females were more prone as compared to male cattle for...

Israr Yasin1, Ismail Qureshi1*, Shahjahn Qaimkhani1, Gulam Mustafa Solangi3, Ismail Qaimkhani1, Ismail Brohi1 and Abdul Ahad Soomro2

A Perspective on Household Dairy Farming in District Naushahro Feroze, Sindh, Pakistan
...of the household reported cattle with average number of 4.38 heads per household. Small numbers of buffalo and cattle bulls were recorded. Average number of 5.55 goats per households was reported by 35% of all the households. On an overall basis, 2,365 liters of buffalo milk was computed from 600 households, while 1,033 liters (43.7%) was used in households and 1,332 (56.3%) liters was sold. About 1,868 liters of cow milk we...

Shereen Zulfikar1, Zulfikar Ahmed Maher2, Attaullah Khan Pathan4, Imran Ali Rajput3*, Din Muhammad Soomro1, Muhammad Akbar Lashari1, Arsalan Memon3, Sibghatullah5 and Mir Zehri Khan5

Population Fluctuation and Weight Losses Caused by Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts on Different Wheat Varieties
...sses caused by pests were categorized on the basis of grain weight loss (%), powder weight (mg) and population of pests emerged. In results, it was observed that the attack of T. granarium was present more or less on all wheat varieties. However, the performance of Marvi and Mehran varieties was found to be resistant against T. granarium and thus recommended for future plantations. The present study will be useful to provide the information for controlling T. ...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
...ive cases were more among cattle (16.0%) than goats (6.0%) (P=0.001). Seropositivity was also higher among the animals from Yan-shanu market, with 90.9% of the seropositive animals purchased from the said market. The mean duration of stay of animals at the abattoir/slaughter slab before slaughtering was not associated with the infection. The infection was more in females than males, though with no statistical significance. This study revealed high prevalence o...

Moazam Ali1, Wajid Ali2, Ayhan Ceyhan2 and Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta3*

Pigmentation Genome Influence in Animals and Human Interventions in its Course of Action
...s in many species (sheep, cattle, horses, camels, dogs, cats, pigs) new variants of coat pigmentation are achieved by generating mutation in MC1R and ASIP allele. A row of scientists is working on genome sequences and mutations for getting a better and healthier pigmentation besides animal welfare. This review article contains a complete elaboration about the worth of pigmentation in animals, natural pigmentation process and...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Dorcas Yilger Gotom1, Noble Allison Chiehiura1, Julius Ocheme Okojokwu1, David Ochola Amanyi2, John Otumala Egbere1, Joshua Adetunji1, Otobo Innocent Ujah3 and Onyemocho Audu4

The Seroprevalence of Zika Virus Infection among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Pregnant Women in Jos, Nigeria
...iation was found with age category among the HIV negative pregnant women p=0.012, and in the history of blood transfusion among the HIV positive participants, p=0.013. No association with educational level, employment, marital and resident, gestational trimester, fever, yellow fever vaccination, rashes and parity was found for anti-ZIKV IgG positivity in the groups. Our results showed high seroprevalence among the pregnant women, an indication that the ZIKV an...

Mehnaz Safdar and Urooba Pervaiz*

Constraints in Accessing Agricultural Extension Services by Rural Women: Evidence from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...ndents were in middle age category (31-40 years), 59% were illiterate, 91% women respondents were married and 75% households were headed by male. It was observed that local famers/colleagues were the main source of information for 41 % respondents, while no female extension worker was available to be accessed for taking agricultural information. Only 14% respondents attended trainings. This situation is very alarming and shows negligence of extension departmen...

Ashraf Ismail Afia1 and Ahmed Soliman Mohmed El-Nuby2*

Soybean Genotypes Response to Root-Gall Nematode
...moderately resistant (MR) category was achieved by seven genotypes (G21, CV2, Carford, Katler, G35, C11 and AG in which RF values varied between 76.01-91.72%). Two genetic resources (Tano and A10) reacted as low resistant (LR) their RF were 65.22 and 72.20%, successively. Susceptible (S) reaction was possessed by two genotypes (G82 and A11), also highly susceptible (HS) response was registered by the rest two genotypes, L2b3 and Holiday which were the most sui...
Hong Hu1, 2, Li Qian1, Yuanlang Wang1, Chaodong Wu1, Xiaodong Zhang1, Yueyun Ding 1*, Li Wang1, Xudong Wu1, Wei Zhang1, Dengtao Li1, Jian Ding1, Min Yang1 and Zongjun Yin1*
...ology (GO) terms included catalytic activity, binding, cell, cytoplasm, positive regulation of multicellular organismal process, biological regulation, cellular process, etc. There were 54 significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways including cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid metabolism, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, glycerolipid metabolism, etc. The results of different...
Kui Zhang1,2, Ping Geng1, Sher Khan Panhwar3, Khadim Hussain Memon4 and Zuozhi Chen1,2,*
...yield (MSY) and allowable catch, a situation that hinders effective fisheries management. A Catch–MSY model based on statistical catch data and prior information on population parameters was applied to assess the total allowable catch (TAC) and MSY values for 24 commercial marine fish groups, and thereby assess the status of the fisheries. The results showed an overall MSY of 40.53&t...
Muhammad Aamir Naseer1, Amjad Islam Aqib2*, Ambreen Ashar3Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Muhammad Shoaib4Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar1, Khurram Ashfaq1, Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta1 and Shagufta Nighat5
...Milk samples (n=250) from cattle (n=90) and buffalo (n=160) were aseptically collected from various dairy farms and put to biofilm detection and antibiogram. Based on collected data with statistical inferences, the study found 61.60% of S. aureus from subclinical samples, while 72.73% of S. aureus were positive for biofilm with uniform hike in samples from cattle (77.55% bpSA) and buffalo (70.48% bpSA). Udder c...
Babar Zahoor, Basharat Ahmad*,Riaz Aziz Minhas and Muhammad Siddique Awan
...(n=304), goats, sheep and cattle were reported killed between 2013 and 2015. The total estimated cost of livestock killings during 2103-2015 was $38260 and estimated cost ($25180) during 2015 was significantly different from 2013 and 2014 (χ2=19463.28; df=2; p≤0.001). During the study period livestock (n=8) and human (n=3) injuries, and one case of human killing by black bear were also reported. People of the area had negative perception abou...
Mushtaq Ahamd Khan1, Ziaul Islam2, *, Amin Ullah Jan3, Kamran Khan2 and Abdullah Shah3
..., pregnancy, contact with cat and soil are the major risk factor of T. gondii infection.
...

Masoud Hassani1* and Omid Madadgar2,3

Serological Evidence of Bluetongue in Iran: A Meta-Analysis Study
...vine, goat, caprine, cow, cattle, bovine, buffalo, camel, Iran and prevalence alone or in combination in both English and Farsi language. After reviewing 82 published articles, a total of 48 studies from 29 articles were eligible to be included in this meta-analysis study. The total seroprevalence of bluetongue in apparently healthy sheep, goat, cow and camel at animal level based on ELISA test was 50.4% (95% CI= 43.5–57.2), 79.2% (95% CI= 70.7–85....
Yaqiu Liu1, Zhijian Wang 2, Xinhui Li 1*, Jianrong Zhao2 and Weitao Chen 1
...ther 3 d acclimation. The catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gill and gut in P. dabryanus were examined in all three groups after the 7 d stress acclimation, 1 d later, and after a 3 d recovery. It was found that CAT and SOD activity in the gill, foregut, and midgut in the air-exposed group were much lower than in the control group. After recovery for 1 d,...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Yin Hengbin2,* and Zhang Luyao3
..., 2006-2016, comprised of catch and effort figures was statistically analyzed to know maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of this resource and its ongoing regime. In total, three surplus production models (SPMs) were used in this study, viz., Fox (FM), Schaefer (SM) and Pella-Tomlinson (PTM) with the help of two famous fishery statistical routines, viz., catch and effort data analysis (CEDA) and a stock production ...
Inga Kowalewska-Łuczak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
... Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle (black and white variety). Analysis of genotypes of individual species was carried out using the PCR-RFLP. The frequency of the most occurring alleles for the individual polymorphisms studied was the following g.18174 A>G NCF4 gene A-0.807;...
Jin-Juan Wan, Mei-Fang Shen*, Hui Xue, Hong-Yan Liu, Mei-Qin Zhang, Xi-He Zhu and Chong-Hua Wang

 

...um lysozyme (LZM), lowest catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in crayfish fed 3 times/day. However, there were no significant differences in cortisol, glucose (Glu), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) among all groups (P>0.05). The cumulative mortality in F3 was significantly lower than that of the other groups at d4 after challenge (P<0.05). In conclusion, both low and high feeding frequencies could cause stress of juvenile ...
Saima Yaqub1, Tahir Yaqub1*, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir2, Asif Nadeem3Aziz-Ul-Rahman1, Muhammad Furqan Shahid1, Zarfishan Tahir4 and Nadia Mukhtar4
... subtyping classification categorized the under-study sequences representing subtype A (n = 12; 46.15%), CRF02_AG (n = 6; 23.08%), subtype C (n= 5; 19.23%) and subtype G (n = 3; 11.54%). Subsequent to genotyping resistance interpretation algorithm, one major (M46L) and two accessory (N88D, L89V) PIs mutations in the protease region while four NRTI (D67T, K70R/Q, M184V and T215F) and four NNRTI (V108T, E138A, V179I and Y181C) mutations in the reverse transcript...
Adnan Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2Muhammad Mobashar3, Ali Gohar4, Shakoor Ahmad1, Kamran Khan5Hamayun Khan1 and Shabana Naz6*

 

Said Sajjad Ali Shah1*, Muhammad Ilyas Khan1, Aziz Ullah1, Hayat Ullah2 and Faisal Ahmad2

Coprological Examination of Small and Large Ruminants in Central Zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...ed as highly prevalent in cattle followed by amoeba (10.2%) and Fasciola (6.1%), while in buffaloes fasciola was recorded higher followed by amoeba (19%) and Trichostongylus (5.35%). Haemonchus contortus was the most prevalent intestinal parasite in the study area followed by Trichostrongylus in small ruminants, whereas mixed infection in goats was recorded as 21%. Different predisposing factors studied in the current study were season, location, age and sex. ...
Muhammad Shafiq1,2,*,Rajwali Khan1, Ilyas Ali3, Sadeeq Ur Rahman4, Saif Ullah3Shah Jan Mohammad2, Mohammad Jan2 and Jinhu Huang2
...o determine the effect of cattle breed type on (a) cow serum IgG and serum total protein concentration (b) colostrum immunoglobulin level and (c) their respective calves’ serum immunoglobulin and serum total protein concentration. Three breeds of cattle were observed: Jersey, Holstein Friesian (HF) and local Pakistani cow breed Achai. To assess serum IgG, sodium sulphite precipitation technique was used while Ig...

Muhammad Tariq Mahmood1*, Muhammad Akhtar2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Saleem2, Ali Aziz2, Irfan Rasool2, Zeshan Ali3 and Muhammad Amin2

An Update on Biology, Extent of Damage and Effective Management Strategies of Chickpea Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera)
...larvae (4th to 6th instar caterpillars) shift to developing pods by making holes/bores and consume entire developing seeds. Pod borers can cause yield losses up to 90 percent depending upon the insect density and susceptibility of cultivars. Sustainable management of chickpea pod borer involves use of resistant cultivars, manipulation of sowing dates, maintaining low crop density, management of nutrition, use of trap crops (maize, sunflower, sorghum, safflower...
Muhammad Shoaib1, Imran Rashid1*, Haroon Akbar1, Ali Ahmad Sheikh2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi3, Muhammad Asif3, Mumtaz Ali Khan4, Shakeel Mahmood5 and Farhan Anwar Khan6
...otal of 434 tick infested cattle from three districts were examined conveniently. The genus Rhipicephalus was the most prevalent (68.4%) followed by Hyalomma (19.6%) and mixed tick infestation (12%) in all study districts, respectively. The difference in prevalence of tick infestation was non-significant among the breeds with the exception of crossbred cattle in which it was found significantly (p<0.0...
Maria Syafiqah Ghazali1, Azlan Che’ Amat2 and Nor Azlina Abdul Aziz1*
...ur nematodes (Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma spp., Toxascaris leonina, and Oxyuris sp.), a cestode (Spirometra sp.), and a protozoan (Isospora sp.). Half (n=5/10) of the large felines had mixed infections with Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma spp.
...
Luka Anthony*, Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi, Elizabeth Samuel Ebukiba and Vandi Gamba
...: Fire outbreak, thieves, cattle herdsmen attack, flood occurrence, transportation problem, poor storage facility, inadequate capital, lack of land/ tractor, poor price, high cost of chemical, inadequate fertilizer, lack of improved seed, inadequate extension officers, and lack of credit facilities. This study recommends that new innovations and technology that targets increased productivity should be promoted, provision of adequate extension officers is neede...

Hafiz Muhammad Wasim1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Muhammad Aftab2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1, Imran Shehzad1, Aneela Riaz3, Abid Niaz2, Khurshid Ahmad Mufti4 and Muhammad Arif2

Deleterious Impact of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Toxicity on Chemical Properties of Soil and Ionic Composition of Rice
... was observed for various cations like Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ when analyzed in soil samples. In plant samples of rice, concentration of Na was enhanced in all treatments when compared with control while trend of K was in contrast to Na which decreased with the increasing level of Na. Injurious impact of NaCl was more pronounced as the concentration of salt increased in the treatments. All the data were subjected to statistical analysis for the assessment of signif...
Muhammad Umar1, Muhammad Arshad2, Mubashar Hussain1*, Moazama Batool3 and Muhammad Faheem Malik1
...onitoring of the lake and catchment area is suggested in order to address the threats posed by heavy metals.
...

 Shuanping Zhao, Lei Xu, Hai Jin and Yutang Jia*

...n Chinese Dabieshan (DBS) cattle. By DNA sequencing and (forced) PCR-RFLP methods, three polymorphisms (g.1500G>A, g.1694T>A and g.2213C>G) were identified and genotyped in our population (n=298). Genetic diversity analysis showed that g.1500G>A and g.1694T>A belonged to an intermediate level of genetic diversity (0.25<PIC<0.5), and SNP g.2213C>G belonged to a low polymorphism level (PIC<0.25). LD (Linkage disequilibrium) analysis sh...
Muhammad Hamayoon Khan*, Niaz Hussain Khuhro, Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Usman Asif and Raza Muhammad
 
 
...o decline with the lowest catches (122.5 and 152.8 flies/trap, respectively) in January and February, 2019. In mango orchard, peak population of B. zonata (4062.8 flies/trap) was recorded in May, 2019. Abundance of B. dorsalis in guava orchard reached to its peak (394.625 flies/trap) in August, 2018. However, in mango orchard, an increasing trend in population was observed from April onward with the highest cat...
Syahruddin Said1*, Widya Pintaka Bayu Putra1 and Dani Nur Arifin2
... 0.37 and was of moderate category (0.25<PIC<0.50). The Chi-square value (χ2) was 5.71, which reveals that studied population is under the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (χ2<5.991). The number of effective allele (ne) was 1.92. It showed that Pasundan bLHR/HhaI had two common alleles. Based on the sequ...
Muhammad Rashid, Mahmood Ahmad Sajid, Nosheen Noor Elahi, Sibgha Noreen and Kausar Hussain Shah*
 
...OD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities were improved in all wheat varieties in a water shortage. The variety F23 exhibited higher antioxidants levels which are positively associated with its potential of drought stress tolerance. This study provided a helpful understanding of the significant role of the antioxidant defense system of wheat crop especially the variety F23 in drought stress tolerance. 
...

Natalija Grittner1, Radomir Mandić2,* and Milivoje Urošević3

...reeds of horses, donkeys, cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens, geese, turkeys, ducks, guinea fowls, dogs and bees were analyzed. The number of populations these indigenous breeds in Serbia has been shown in this paper. It is proposed that 15 breeds (13 breeds and 2 strains), which are not protected by the Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture of Serbia on animal genetic resources, be included in the Decree in the future, in order to preserve and impr...
Rao Muhammad Ramiz1, Arfan Ahmad2*, Aamir Ghafoor2, Muhammad Avais3, Qurat-ul-Ain1 and Muhammad Zahid Iqbal3
...netic diversity of BLV in cattle of two districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Blood samples (n=400) taken from local (n=200) and exotic (n=200) breeds of cattle were processed for complete blood count. Based on lymphocyte counts, samples were divided into two groups (A, lymphocytosis, B, normal lymphocytes) and tested through ELISA and nested PCR for serological investigations and molecular characterization respectively. In this st...
Tanveer Hussain, Masroor Ellahi Babar*, Akhtar Ali and Fiaz Hussain
... sheep, water buffalo and cattle for biological positioning of dromedary camel. The results reconfirmed the classical biological classification.
...
Rahmat Ullah Khan, Asif Sadam and Sajid Mahmood*
...s were divided into three categories: 1) vertical barren rocks 2) rocky vegetation slopes and 3) grassy mountainous slopes near agricultural fields. The average monthly population density was 0.198±0.04/ha by line transect method. During the period June, July, September and October 2017, significantly (P<0.05) high population density was recorded as compared to the population density recorded during May, August, November and December 2017and J...

Dabesa Wegari and Fikiru Temesgen Gelata*

 

 

...ifying actors of the beef cattle value chain and their value addition activities in Toke Kutaye and BakoTibe Districts, West Shewa Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. For this study, both primary and secondary sources of data were collected. The primary data were collected from 376 producers, 30 fatteners, 20 traders, 10 butchers, 12 hotels, 10 consumers and other ...
Yongyun Zhang1, 2, Xinyang Fan1, Fangting Zhou1, Weizhen Li3, Yina Ouyang1,4 and Yongwang Miao1*
...n widely studied in dairy cattle, but the polymorphisms of the CSN1S1 gene have not been fully understood in buffalo. In this study, the polymorphisms in coding sequence (CDS) of the CSN1S1 gene for river and swamp buffalo were detected using PCR product direct sequencing. The CDS for both types of buffalo was the same in length, which contained 645 nucleotides and encoded a peptide composing of 214 residues. A total of 5 single nucleotide polymo...
Roland Eric Yessinou1*, Alain Richi Kamga Waladjo2, Nestor Noudeke1, Ignace Dramou3, Justin Adinsi1, Victorien Tamègnon Dougnon4, Elsie Yélognisê Sangnidjo5, Razack Osse5, Alfred Dansou6 and Souaïbou Farougou1
...1 countries. Studies were categorized by host and country, and analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category Analysis was done using the metaprop command in STATA version 15 and MetaXL software. A total of 18.111 individual samples from 11 countries, described in 34 articles were studied. Analysis of twenty-six studies indicated that the pooled prevalence was 19.0% [95% CI (15.0-23.0 %), I2&th...

Hosts and Viruses

December

Vol. 7, Iss. 6, Pages 129-146

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