Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...rld, and is maintained in avian reservoirs and amplified by pigs. The occasional spill-over of the virus into humans results in more than 60 000 clinical cases of Japanese encephalitis annually, with high case fatality rates. The main vectors preferably feed on livestock and breed in rice fields, and the majority of cases subsequently occur in rural areas. This review lists the risks of emergence of diseases due to the on-going urbanization, with especial foc...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...nced endemic outbreaks of avian influenza viruses (AIV) of subtype H5N1 in poultry since 2008. Since then, these viruses continue to evolve. In 2006-2008, outbreaks were reported mostly during the winter season, but in 2009-2012 they occurred year round. H5N1 AIV succeeded in infecting not only domesticated birds but also many other avian species and mammals. Infections of humans were accompanied by mutations in the hemagglu...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...a.

...

Qin Zhao1,2, Yani Sun1,2, Gaiping Zhang1,3, Frederik Widen4, En-Min Zhou1,2,*

zhouem@nwsuaf.edu.cn

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...s diseases including avian influenza (AI). Biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movements and inactivated vaccines were devised to combat the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1. HPAIV are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significa...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...clinical manifestation of avian influenza. Serum collected from 120 birds was tested for antibodies against H9N2 by using Haemagglutination Inhibition assay. Calculated geometric mean titers of 5.37 revealed the infectivity of the flock with H9N2 Influenza virus. To investigate the presence of virus in the study population, trachea, lung and intestine tissue samples were processed for RNA isolation and subjected to molecular detection of H9 gene of H9N2 subtyp...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

... negatively affecting the avian immune response facilitating the secondary infection. Many reports take into account the genotypic and pathogenic characterization of H9N2 in avian species. However little is known about the impact of different strains on the innate immune response. In the present study, using quantitative real-time PCR, cytokines gene expression were examined in response to infection with two strains of Egypt...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...text-align: justify;">The avian lymphoid leukosis is caused by various avian retroviruses which induce a variety of benign and malignant neoplasm in domestic chickens with subsequent economic losses to poultry industry. Effected birds show lymphocyte tumor, abnormal proliferation and series of tumors in connective tissues and other visceral organs. To evaluate the status of lymphoid leukosis virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...tify;">The low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) subtype H9N2 are highly prevalent in the Middle East and are causing economic losses in the commercial poultry production sectors. Due to potential of H9N2 infections in human, LPAI H9N2 poses serious public health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...e disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza viruses (AIVs) H5N1 are endemic in Egypt and extensive vaccinations are being applied for chicken flocks, which have maternal derived antibodies (MDA) for these viruses. To understand the interference of maternal derived immunity impact of maternal derived immunity interference in vaccination regimen in poultry, a total of one hundred day old commercial broiler chicks were vaccinated with LaSota. A group of chicks (n=4...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...stify;">A surveillance of avian influenza viruses in Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan was carried out from April 2013 through September 2014. Pooled morbid material and fecal samples from 600 different locations across the region were analyzed for isolation. Isolation was carried out on embryonated chicken eggs. Identification of H protein was undertaken through hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test while N typing was done using reverse transcript...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...sion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain H5N1 in 2006 in Egypt caused severe economic losses for both commercial and backyard poultry production sectors. Owing to public health risk, effective control of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombina...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...ign: justify;"> H9N2 avian influenza viruses are currently endemic in Pakistan and outbreaks are continuously being reported with high morbidity, drop in egg production and reduced weight gain. Besides economic losses to the poultry industry, these viruses pose a significant threat to public health. Owing to significant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating virus entry and release, the present study was conducted to de...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

... with enteric diseases in avian species, causing decreased growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and ana...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...ding in host responses to avian viral infection and their impact in health and disease. 

...

Rabia Tahir1*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muti-u-Rehman Khan2, Farah Khan1, Hassan Bin Aslam1 and Arslan Mehboob

...e transmission pattern of avian adenovirus serotype 4 (AAV-4) causing hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) by transovarian route. For this purpose, liver and spleen samples (n=90) were collected from day-old-chicks derived from breeders at 14, 21 and 30 days of post-infection with AAV-4. The presence of AAV-4 DNA was detected through PCR. Chicks from virus-challenged breeders failed to show a clear and expected PCR positivity. The connotations derived from these fi...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...coplasmas (5 species from avian origin and 3 other mycoplasmas species) but it produced only the genus specific band. The optimized ratio of tPCR primers were 1: 1: 10: 1. For Outer F, Inner R, and Inner F and Outer R, respectively. MgCl2 concentration did not affect and added at 2.0 mM. Four different culture methods were compared for their efficiency for avian mycoplasmas culture. The B method (parts of trachea)...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
...bution and habitat use of avian fauna of Rawalakot city and its surrounding was studied from March 2006 to February 2007. The study area is situated in the center of district Poonch. For the convenience of data collection the study area was divided into six study sites; systematic surveys were conducted at each site. Direct sighting and indirect evidences were collected from all these sites. Seventy eight bird species were recorded that belonged to 34 families...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...i> West Nile Virus (WNV), avian pox virus (APV) etc. in rural and urban areas. To mitigate these problems study was conducted by using binary mixtures of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (isolates Bb-01, Bb-10), Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (isolate Ma-11.1, Ma-2.4)and Isaria fumosorosea (isolates If-2.3, If-02) and chemical insecticides i.e., bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, triazophos, spino...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
Saba Rafique1,2,*, Khalid Naeem1, Naila Siddique1, Muhammad Athar Abbas1, Aamer Ali Shah2, Akbar Ali1, Abdul Rahim1 and Farooq Rashid1
... from a suspected case of avian infectious bronchitis from commercial poultry. Initially the isolated IB-virus was characterized by RFLP using enzymes Alu I, Hae III, BstYI and XcmI. On the basis of its distinct RFLP pattern from other known IBV vaccine strains, the isolate was named as KU145467_NARC/786_Pakistan_2013 (also named as Pak-786) was subjected to Spike gene sequencing covering the amino-terminus region of 01 to 974 base pairs. The S protein sequenc...
Ligia Neves Scuarcialupi, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra, Julia Rosas Hochheim, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Fabio Gregori*
...enteritis and diarrhea in avian species, resulting in negative impact on egg and poultry production. The objective of this work was to detect and characterize Rotavirus F (RVF) and G (RVG) found in Brazilian commercial avian farms. A total of 97 intestinal contents was collected between 2008 and 2015 from 10 Brazilian states, and submitted to two different RT-PCR, targeting a fragment of viral VP6-coding nucleotide sequence ...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...oonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 has recently diversified into two distinct genetic subclades (2.2.1.1 and 2.2.1.2) in Egypt. This study was conducted as part of routine surveillance activities in Egypt; 5202 cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from live/dead birds, including commercial and backyard flocks, in five different locations in Egypt between the years of 2015 and 2016. All samples were screened us...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
...es diversity index of the avian community (H’)during the study period was 3.88. Using the Berger-Parker dominance value, we found the most abundant species was House sparrow (Passer domesticus), followed byOriental turtle dove(Streptopelia orientalis), Peaceful Dove (Geopelia striata), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)and Red collared dove(Streptopelia tranquebarica).The threatened status of birds given in the checklis...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...termine the prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes (AIV H9, AIV H7 and AIV H5) in non-vaccinated wild and domesticated bird species across Pakistan. During January-December 2013, in total 700 samples were collected from different species of non-vaccinated birds inhabiting diverse ecological zones of Pakistan. Altogether, 507 tissue and swab samples were screened for the presence of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PC...
Hongqun Li1, Xiaoli Liu2,*, Zhenmin Lian3,RenheWang4, Yongbin Wang4, Yongyao Fu1 andDingyi Wang5
... for the survival rate of avian nests. We monitored nesting attempts of the “Vulnerable” brown-eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) to compare microhabitat characteristics of successful and unsuccessful nests in the Huanglongshan Nature Reserve, Huanglong County, Shaanxi Province, China, from 2006 to 2014 except for 2008. Forty (62.5%) of the 64 nests that we monitored were successful. Successful nest sites had greater tree cover, incr...
Fazul Nabi1,2, Hui Zhang1, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal1 , Mujeeb ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahzad3, Khalid Mehmood1,3 and Jiakui Li1,* 
...ve stress and toxicity in avian TD. One hundred and fifty broiler chicks were equally distributed into three groups: Control, Thiram (50 mg/kg/d) and SM (10 mg/kg/d) treated. Results showed that thiram caused lameness, decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum along with decrease in level of antioxidant enzymes and significantly increase in the MDA...
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
...sero-prevalence report of avian influenza (H5) in broilers in these districts of the province. Necessary measures are required to overcome the situation and improve vaccination and hygiene.
...

 Muhammad Moosa Abro1, Ali Murtaza Dharejo2, Muhammad Munif Khan2, Nadir Ali Birmani2, Saima Naz2*

Description of first record of Petasiger exaeretus Dietz, 1909 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in avian host from Pakistan.

 Abbas Ali1, Muhammad Altaf2*, Muhammad Samar Hussain Khan3

Winter survey of birds at Keti Bunder, district Thatha, Pakistan
... Keti Bunder. To know the avian dominance and
diversity of Keti Bunder; we carried out at dawn and dusk in winter season (November, 2015 to February, 2016),
using direct and indirect methods. During the survey, total of 49 winter season bird species belonging to 33 genera
and 21 families were recorded. A total of 4280 birds were recorded dedicated survey effort from the Keti Bunder.
Dominance (D), Shannon-Wiener diversity Index (H&r...

 Ihsan Ali1#, Asim Aslam1*, Habib-ur-Rehman2, Beenish Zahid3, Ishtiaq Ahmed1

Effect of fish oil on growth performance and immune response in experimentally infected broiler chicken with avian influenza virus H9N2
... broilers chicken against avian influenza virus infection.

...
Abderraouf Chouaib Rebbah1, Mohcen Menaa2,*, Salah Telailia3,Menouar Saheb1 and Mohamed Cherif Maazi2
...s, and the NMDS plot, the avian assemblages of Sidi Reghis Mountain varied significantly between different habitats. Further, SIMPER test indicated that six of the seven species were responsible for the mean of 50% of dissimilarity between sampled habitats. The dissimilarity between pine woodlands and mixed oak-pine forests was about 50%, in general, and produced by differences in abundance of Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, European Serin Serinu...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

... for NDV and negative for avian influenza virus and infectious bronchitis virus. Seven positive samples were subjected for genotypic characterization based upon partial F gene sequencing. Partial F gene sequencing revealed that all tested isolates harbor a cleavage site with multi basic amino acid 112KRQKR/F117 characteristic of velogenic strains. However, phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of all tested strains within sub-genotype VIg. Three isolates w...
SiRui Wang1,2, Fekede Regasa Joka1,2, XiaoLong Wang1,2,* and SuYing Bai2,*
...evention and treatment of avian influenza. Currently, this gene is more studied in poultry, and studies in wild birds are rare. To understand the antiviral site of the Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) protein in the evolution of different wild birds, 10 wild bird species, including Anas formosa, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Mergus squamatus, Accipiter nisus, Buteo hemilasius, Buteo lagopus, Passer montanus, Ps...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

...e disease (ND), caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) is an important disease of avian species and continuously cause outbreaks in commercial poultry throughout the world. Despite intensive vaccination, ND is endemic in Pakistan and locally known as Ranikhet. Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and some common resident or migratory wild birds are associated with outbreaks of ND in...
Sheng Niu1, Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Fa-jie Jia1, Xin Li1, Guan-bao Ning1, Ding Zhang1, Hai-li Ma1, Wei-fang Hao2, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Shi-min Gao1, Jian-hui Li1, Gui-lan Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Huan-chun Chen1,3 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
...rs (TLRs), cytokines, and avian β-defensins (AvBDs). Host defense peptides (HDPs) are important effector molecules in innate immunity. In this study, thiram has been used to induce tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and the chickens were injected with different doses of recombinant glutathione-S-transferase A3 (rGSTA3) proteins. We explored the responses of HDPs in erythrocytes to thiram-induced TD and rGSTA3 protein by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...f the H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus in 2011, the virus has distributed rapidly and widely in different poultry sectors in Egypt causing severe economic losses and the problematic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, 1026 confirmed positive H9N2 cases by RT-PCR out of 23182 different examined samples of different species and sectors in Egypt, with a prevalence rate 4.4% by th...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

...f the H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) in 2011, the virus has been distributed rapidly and widely in different Egyptian poultry sectors causing severe economic losses and the problematic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, a total of 23182 cloacal and tracheal samples were collected from suspected cases between 2015 and 2016 and submitted to the Reference laboratory ...

Wesam Mady*, Nahed Yehia, Mohammed Hassan Elhussieny, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Moataz Mohamed El Sayed, Neveen Rabie Bakry, Asmaa Shaaban, Abdel Satar Arafa, Afaf Abdel Baset Mahmoud and Wafaa Mohammed Hassan 

...sion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 in November 2016 in Egypt, it caused severe economic losses for both the commercial and backyard poultry production sectors. The aim of this work is to study the Situation and molecular characterization of HPAIV (H5N8) in backyard poultry production sector in Egypt. In this study, a total of 7505 samples of tracheal swabs representing 1180 backyard poultry flocks were collected based on the surveilla...
Irfan Irshad1, Asim Aslam1,*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Kamran Ashraf2, Beenish Zahid3 and Abdul Wajid4
...s and low-pathogenic H9N2 avian influenza viruses are presently endemic in Pakistan and repeated outbreaks are continuously being reported with high mortality in poultry and non-poultry avian species. In this study, five AAvV-1s have been pathotyped and genetically characterized from vaccinated birds collected between 2013-14. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi with high simi...
Min Li1,2, Jingjing Wang3, Suxian Hu3, Philip Stott4, Baoqing Lin5, Lianshan Li5, Hui Liu1, Heng Bao1, Duoying Cui6 and Guangshun Jiang1,* 
... We linked cover types to avian species richness, evenness, and Shannon’s diversity using a stepwise linear regression model and regressions of proportions of cover types at different spatial scales. We recorded 109,026 sightings comprising 94 species, and found that avian diversity indices were positively influenced by the presence of open water, farmland, and alkaline marsh, and negatively by human settlement; and in...
Muhammad Furqan Shahid1*, Tahir Yaqub1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu2, Asim Aslam2, Saima Yaqub1, Aziz-ul-Rahman3, Muzaffar Ali1
...rticularly low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H9N2, which can bring exceptional abatement in trade of poultry products in endemic countries such as Pakistan. The current study was conducted to evaluate the infectious and antigenic potential of three different AIV (A/H9N2) variants isolated from commercial, backyard poultry and fancy birds (partridge). Commercial broiler birds were infected experimentally at the dose of 106 EID50...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

... justify;">Low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 subtype virus is considered among important respiratory pathogens in poultry worldwide. It was isolated from many species of domestic and wild birds. Infection in commercial poultry flocks causes important economic losses, related to high mortality, decrease in animal performance and aggravation of infection by other pathogens. Although H9N2 is endemic in many regions of the world, such as Middle East and North Af...

Hamoudi Naoual1, Alloui Nadir2*, Barberis Abdelhak2 and Boudaoud Amine2 

...d the first source of the avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction. In 2016, following the first official detection of the H9N2 subtype circulation in broiler flocks in Eastern Algeria, a preliminary descriptive study is conducted to identify and enumerate in wetland areas, migratory bird species, known to carry the AIV. The Anatidae population peaked in January 2017 with a total of 8064 birds. The 6 frequent species observed are: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos),...

Md. Sahidur Rahman

Origin and Spillover of Coronaviruses: Prospects of One Health Action
...acoronavirus originate in avian species. Domestic animals also play a critical role in disease transmission as they are found seropositive against different coronaviruses. At least seven coronaviruses are known to have been spilled over from animal to human. SARS-CoV-2 is the recent one that showed pneumonia-like syndrome named COVID-19. It was assumed that SARS-CoV-2 was initially a spillover from bats due to its genomic similarity with Bat-CoV-RaTG13, where ...

Christian Marco Hadi Nugroho1 and Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan2,3,4*

Production of Antibody for Direct Fluorescence Antibody Assay against Avian Influenza H9N2
...hickens, and we discussed avian influenza H9N2 virus, immunogens, various H9N2 antibody production, and principle of DFA assay.
...
Sukhpreet Kaur Sidhu*, Gurkirat Singh Sekhon, Randeep Kaur Aulakh and Tejdeep Kaur Kler
... ponds was carried out on avian diversity and its services of composition in relation to vegetation distribution to understand their biodiversity. Four natural ponds and one man-made pond were surveyed at three locations viz. Ludhiana (location I), Ropar (location II) and Ferozpur (location III) falling in three agro climatic zones. A total of 51 bird species belonging to 31 families and 15 orders were recorded from studied locations. A diverse range of vegeta...
Rabia Riaz1, Khushi Muhammad1*, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Amjad Iqbal2, Aamir Riaz Khan2, Sadia Sarfaraz1, Mudassar Naseer3 and Khalid Majeed1
...isepticum (MG) causes avian mycoplasmosis and is only controlled through mass vaccination. Antibody response of birds to inactivated MG vaccine is poor. On 7th day of age (broilers: n=40) each bird of group A, B, C and D (n=8) was vaccinated (subcutaneous: 0.3ml) with G-MG, O-MG, G-MG+NDV (New castle Disease Virus) and O-MG vaccines, respectively. Serum samples were collected on 21, 28 and 35 days post vaccination for anti-MG-ELISA antibody titer. Cumulati...
Muhammad Bilal Anwar1, Mirza Azhar Beg1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1*, Syed Israr Shah1, Sajida Noureen2
Muhammad Mushtaq1 and Tariq Mahmood3
...) are different sized avian predators coexisting in the Wildlife Park Lohi Bher, Rawalpindi district of the Punjab province of Pakistan. These crepuscular and nocturnal owls are the least studied group of birds in northern regions. In this study, we compared seasonal differences in the diet of three owl species in an uncultivated area with rapid urbanization all around to better understand their ecological significance. Regurgitated pellets of three owl sp...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 53, Iss. 3, Pages 801-1200

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