Scavenger receptor class B type I protein (SCARB1) plays an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis. The effect of the polymorphisms in the gene have varying influences on lipid levels and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in different populations. In this study, we investigated the association of rs5888 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and CVD risk in an Indian population. A total of 412 samples which included 148 myocardial infarction survivors, 162 Normolipidemic healthy controls and 102 patients with hypercholesterolemia in a Indian Tamilian population were included in the study. Genotyping of SCARB1 genetic polymorphisms was done by PCR-RFLP combined with gel electrophoresis. The genotype distribution in the population was found to be consistent with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Through logistic regression analysis, it was observed that, in Tamil population the CC and CT genotype carriers have higher odds of developing myocardial infarction (OR – 1.64 and 2.04 respectively) and for developing hypercholesterolemia (OR – 2.02 and 2.13 respectively). In the total population, the CC genotype carriers have significantly lower HDL-C (0.82 ± 0.04 mmol/L Vs, 0.9 ± 0.05 mmol/L (p<0.05)) and higher LDL-C (3.7 ± 0.2 mmol/L Vs 3.5 ± 0.14 mmol/L, (p<0.05)) than TT carriers. The TT carriers have lower risk of developing MI and Hypercholesterolemia with OR – 0.6 and 0.49, respectively. SCARB1 rs5888 polymorphism is associated with the development of myocardial infarction and CC genotype influences LDL and HDL cholesterol levels significantly, whereas TT genotype has atheroprotective function in the Indian Tamil population
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