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Ionophores: Their Effects on Ruminal Fermentation, Animal Performance and Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality

Ionophores: Their Effects on Ruminal Fermentation, Animal Performance and Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality

Ahmed M. El-Waziry1,2*, Saeid M. Basmaeil1, Ibrahim A. Alhidary1, Gamaleldin M. Suliman1,3, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Maged A. Al-Garadi1 

1Department of Animal Production, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, El-Shatby, P.O. Box 21545, Alexandria, Egypt; 3Department of Meat Production, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, Sudan.

*Correspondence | Ahmed M El-Waziry, Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, El-Shatby, P.O. Box 21545, Alexandria, Egypt; Email: aelwaziry@yahoo.com 

ABSTRACT

As a result of the increased human population and increased demand for food consumption, there is a need to improve the nutritional value of animal feed. Among the available methods of increasing production is using feed additives. One class of these additives is ionophores, a type of antibiotic that increases the nutritional value of the feed, thereby increasing production by reducing of feed intake, and decreasing the degradability of protein in the rumen, which increases its by-pass to the small intestine and decreasing the ammonia concentration in the rumen. Moreover, ionophores increase propionic acid in the rumen, which is used as an energy source; hence, ionophores increase muscle growth by enhancing the daily weight gain due to the improved feed conversion rate. Studies indicate the effect of ionophores on the characteristics and quality of the carcass have been limited. Ionophoers may be enhanced the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The benefits of these acids with respect to human health include lower cholesterol and blood pressure and a reduced incidence of diabetes. There have been few studies on the use of ionophores in the diet of goats. Therefore, more research are needed concerning the influence of ionophores on ruminal fermentation, performance and characteristics of carcass of goats.

Keywords | Ionophores, Ruminal Fermentation, Animal Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality  

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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

1

Vol. 11, Iss. 1, Pages 1-188

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