The present study aims to study the expression of TNF-α among impaired glucose tolerant (n=35), diabetic subjects (n-35) and age matched healthy control (n=35), and to identify the relationship of inflammatory cytokines with insulin resistance and the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of atherosclerosis and hyperglycemia within the context of chosen pro atherogenic parameters including plasma glucose level, serum levels of insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α. Serum level of thrombomodulin was assessed as a measure of vascular damage. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, waist /hip ratio, B.P., personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Fasting glucose and HbA1c was done by chemistry analyzer. Fasting serum insulin, IL-6, TNF-α and thrombomodulin levels were assessed by ELIZA. Gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were high in IGT and diabetic group as compared to control. ANOVA revealed highly significant difference of mean among groups and between groups in IL-6, TNF-α, and thrombomodulin (P<0.01).TNF-α showed a strong and positive relationship with insulin and insulin resistance in all the three groups. The expression level of TNF-α was significantly higher in IGT p< 0.01 and diabetes subjects (p<0.01). It was2.44 fold higher in IGT group and 4.5 fold higher in diabetic group. Expression levels significantly correlated with serum values of TNF-α (p< 0.01). Thrombomodulin showed a strong relationship with insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic group (p<0.05).
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