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Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) with Special Reference to Pakistan: A Review on its Different Aspects

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) with Special Reference to Pakistan: A Review on its Different Aspects

Sahar Mubashar*, Tariq Mukhtar and Nasir Ahmad Khan

Department of Plant Pathology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan

*      Corresponding author: sahar_mubashir@live.com

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus took the whole world by storm and in no time spread across the globe and claimed many lives. The most affected countries of the world are USA, Brazil, India, Italy, Iran, Spain, Russia, South Africa, United Kingdom and Peru. In Pakistan, the pilgrims from Iran became the major source of spread of the virus in the country, as the Government did not impose quarantine measures to restrict their movement. In Pakistan, the most affected province was Sindh followed by Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. According to WHO, the most common symptoms are fever, dry cough, sore throat, fatigue and diarrhea and shortness of breath in severe cases. The virus attacks throat, lungs and trachea converting them to virus factories to infect more cells. It attacks not only lungs but also other vital organs of the body like kidneys and heart. It is spread from human to human through respiratory droplets or direct contact. Moreover, there have been reports of the mixed infection of coronavirus with other bacteria, fungi and viruses. Various methods are used for the detection of the virus such as nucleic acid and immunological methods but RT-PCR is considered as the most reliable. Some antiviral drugs have shown to be effective against the virus like Favilavir, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, hydroxy-chloroquine, Tocilizumab etc. but further clinical studies are required to confirm their efficacy. In Pakistan, blood plasma therapy is in high demand but involves the risk of transmission of blood borne pathogens. As Pakistan lacks medical facilities. the government has to get testing kits and primers from other countries. Only few quarantine centers are available and there is shortage of drugs, beds, trained doctors and paramedical staff. Unfortunately, no vaccine is available yet so the only management strategy is the prevention of infection by wearing masks and following social distancing. Cleanliness, hygiene and quarantine measures are the key to stop any epidemic to pandemic and is known to human being throughout the history and it becomes more critical when global travelling is a norm.
 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 53, Iss. 5, Pages 1603-2000

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