Gregg D. Caruso

Science, Religion and Culture
...of life and of the human species), ethics, and the human mind (minds, brains, souls, and free will)? Do science and religion occupy non-overlapping magisteria? How do science and religion support, oppose, and/or inform each other? What is the relationship between religion and modern culture? What is the relationship between science and modern culture? How do the various faith traditions view the relationship between science and religion? What, if any, are the ...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...ut also many other avian species and mammals. Infections of humans were accompanied by mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein which improved the binding affinity to human receptors but simultaneously retained its specificity for avian-receptors. Vaccines were applied nationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic drift and the establishment of i...

David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 265 pp., ISBN 13: 978-1-4214-1326-6

Reviewed by Francisco J. Ayala, University Professor & Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, email: fjayala@uci.edu

Science, Religion and Culture

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

... identified from various species, including birds and mammals. H9N2 AIVs could spread through water, air, and live bird markets. Since the first isolate from 1994 in China, H9N2 AIVs have been prevalent over 20 areas of China, especially in South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian provinces. Vaccination is the predominant strategy to prevent and control H9N2 AIVs. There are three inactivated vaccines of H9N2 AIVs have been used in domestic poultry i...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...irus strain or bacterial species and being maintained free of unwanted microbiota in sterile isolators. The sterile surgical derivation and gnotobiotic status of the pigs allow studies of the infection, disease and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regulators, and intestinal and environmental microbes. Due to the similarities between pigs and humans in terms of genetics, phys...

Ozgur Koca

...perennial problem of our species and is in no way specific to one religion, ideology, or culture. A quick look at any history book would make this blindingly evident. It is also true that under specific circumstances the use of violence escalates among certain human collectivities. At this point in history particularly Muslims appear to be subject to this problem as evinced by the emergence of many militant and terrorist organizations like al-Qaeda, ISIL, Boko...

Ghazalah Yasmin1*, Mir Ajab Khan2, Nighat Shaheen3, Umbreen Javed Khan4


E-mail | ghazalahrizwan@yahoo.com

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 31, Iss. 1
...nd A. tortuosum) of five species distributed in Pakistan using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that Aconogonon is characterized by tricolpate pollen with microspinulose type of exine ornamentation. One distinctive pollen type was recognized on the basis of aperture number and sculpturing of exine under SEM. Based on analyses in the present study, diagnostic keys to the three species were pro...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culicoides newsteidi (2.21-2.72%). The rate of prevalence of these species was bi-phasic and higher from April to June, and October to November 2009. Interestingly, the infectivity rate of BTV was also higher during these periods indicating that high risk of infection is directly proportional to that of transmission vectors. Moreov...

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...portant cereal crop species since quite long time. Among the prominent techniques, traditional plant breeding has been on leading edge. The discovery of molecular genetics and biotechnological techniques, such as genome mapping, tissue culture, genetic transformation and in vitro regeneration offered new dimensions of research to improve important crop species including wheat. The tissue culture by i...

 Shubhada K Chothe, Bhushan M Jayarao and Suresh V Kuchipudi

... be conserved across the species. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about the role of lncRNAs in influenza virus infection and the exciting prospect of exploiting lncRNAs as targets to develop novel anti-viral therapies.

...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

... two green manuring crop species (guar and millet), their incorporation age (40, 70 and 100 days after sowing, DAS) and parts (whole plants incorporation and stubbles incorporation) under varying nitrogen levels (0, 75 and 100 kg ha-1) on physiology, yield and economic returns of Canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Findings of the expe...

Neil Levy

...tral to our success as a species, and AIs that rely on processing power alone, without the scaffolding of culture, are unlikely to outcompete us intellectually. There is, however, nothing to prevent AIs from having, and taking advantage of, a capacity for culture. AIs with such a capacity may have intellectual powers greater than ours currently are, but the collective deliberation that underlies the power of cumulative culture is more powerful when there is su...

Neil Levy

...tral to our success as a species, and AIs that rely on processing power alone, without the scaffolding of culture, are unlikely to outcompete us intellectually. There is, however, nothing to prevent AIs from having, and taking advantage of, a capacity for culture. AIs with such a capacity may have intellectual powers greater than ours currently are, but the collective deliberation that underlies the power of cumulative culture is more powerful when there is su...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

... and goats are important species for the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Within societies where PPR is now spreading, poverty is widespread and the disease is expected to have significant negative impacts on livelihoods. In resource-constrained marginalised societies, it is often difficult to collect disease data in conventional ways. Participatory epidemiology (PE) has been suggested as a particularly suitable research method to study...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...enetic diversity between species’ population. Two species were studied: Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA fragment primers- Cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and Cytochrome b (CytB). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calculate ha...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...here was total seven AMF species that were observed and recorded. The dominant genus was Acaulospora which was followed by Glomus, Sclerocystis and Gigaspora. The average AMF spore density ranged from 56-260 spores/100g soil while root colonization ranged from 32-100%. Mycorrhizal enhancement regarding AMF spores density and root colonization ranked asRP0>RP1>RP2>RP3 in all hybrids i.e 0%>25%>50%>100%.

...

Usman Ijaz1, Muhammad Sajid Tahir2, Khalid Abdul Majeed3*, Shahid Iqbal4, Iffat Huma5, S. Firyal6, Ijaz Ahmed7, Shahid Chohan8 and Aamir Riaz Khan9 

...i>Panthera pardus subspecies found in Pakistan by exploring the partial DNA sequences of mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Scat samples of 15 different known leopards were collected from Nathiagali, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. After amplification with specific oligos, the amplicons of partial region of COI were subjected to sequencing, and then observed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...

Paul I. Ankeli, Mashood A. Raji, Haruna M. Kazeem, Moses O. Odugbo, Nendir J. Umaru, Idowu O. Fagbamila, Livinus T. Ikpa, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Issa A. Muraina, Pam D. Luka and Nicholas D. Nwankpa

...y Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides (Mmm) from the ear canal of apparently healthy cattle in Plateau State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty six ear swab samples (n=166) were cultured from which eight (8) Mycoplasma species were isolated and characterized using conventional biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Six (6) were observed to ferment glucose, reduce tetrazolium chloride and hydrol...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

...es: Meropidae) is a bird species of family Meropidae with a very large distribution. The complete mitochondrial genome of Blue-throated Bee-eater M. viridis was determined. The mitogenome is a circular DNA molecule of 18,295 bp and comprises of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and two control regions CR and CCR, which was first reported in the order Coraciiformes. The overall A+T content for the mitogenome is 52%, and the GC and AT...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

...ete mitogenomes of three species (O. lacepedii, O. rebecca and

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...entify the urban blowfly species having forensic importance on Ankara University Medical Faculty Cebeci Campus in Ankara. Eight small liver bait traps were used for catching flies. Chicken liver was used in the study to attract blowflies. Eggs and larvae of the flies that oviposited on the liver were raised and identified. Six different indices were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity [S], Margalef ...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...tion between the two ant species in the field. Here, we investigated the interference of the fire ant S. invicta on the interactions between the ghost ant T. melanocephalum and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the field. The results showed that fire ant invasion significantly suppressed honeydew exploitation by ghost ant. Fire ant suppression markedly increased the ghost ant foraging activity both on plants and the gr...

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar*

...ied in Pakistan. Two new species, Oxyopes chenabensis new species, and Oxyopes bidentata new species are being reported from Punjab.

...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

...tric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were recorded from the study area of Indus River. Thirty two species were commercially important. Alpha Diversity Indices study showed that fish diversity of the River was quite rich (species richness, 70) and diverse, (Shannon’s index=3.66), (Simpson-D=0.96), Evenness was also high (Evenness (H/S) =0.55) and Cha...

Syeda Farzana Bibi*, Lal Badshah and Siraj-ud-Din

... A total of 30 different species ,which belong to 29 genera and 16 families, were recorded from the area.Poaceae was the most dominating family including 7 genera. Ecological characteristics like life form spectra indicated that Therophytes (53.33%) were the most dominating life form. Leaf size spectra showed that the most abundant leaf size was Microphyll (50%). This study not only gives information about the flora of motorway but can provide a baseline for f...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...is a rare and endangered species and also an important resource with high economic value. Somatostatin (SS) is a neuropeptide family which effects growth, development and metabolism. In this study, full-length of one type of SS cDNA from C. nasus was synthesized, cloned and sequenced. This SS cDNA encodes a protein with 114 amino acids that contains the SS14 sequence at its C-terminus. This putative peptide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in oth...

Ali Raza Awan*, Sehrish Firyal, Muhammad Tayyab, Lala Rukh, M. Zia ul Haq, Shagufta Saeed and Muhammad Wasim

... is sub-divided in 4 sub-species (P. krameri krameri, P. krameri parvirostris, P. krameri manillensis and P. krameri borealis). Identification of the sub-species is an intricate chore. This study aimed to genetically identify and classify the indigenous wild Rose-ringed Parakeet of Pakistan using Cytochrome b (Cytb) gene polymorphism. Mitochondrial DNA of 24 unrelated Pakistani wild Ring-rose Parakeets was isolated and utili...

Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

...nta anatina), a sentinel species in aquatic environment. Freshwater mussels were exposed to none (0µg L-1), low (120 µg L-1), medium (240 µg L-1) and high (360 µg L-1) levels of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) alone and in combinations (Pb + Cr + Cu) for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Gill cells of mussels were used to determine the DNA damage by comet assay. The tail DNA (%), comet tail length and olive tail moment (OTM)...

Abdullah Mart1* and Orhan Erman2

...n: justify;">Twenty nine species and 2 subspecies belonging to 10 genera of water scavenger beetles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) collected from Bingöl province between May 2003-October 2004 have been described.

...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...al composition, and fish species being used for producing fish meal. The overall production of single processing unit ranged from 40 to 500 metric tonns per month. Kampa Industry (Unit 1) was found to be the first largest contributor producing 100 metric tons in 24 h. The second largest producers of fish meal in this region were Abdul Baqi, Ghulam Hussain and Kampa Industry (Unit 2) which produced 300 to 500 metric tons per month. Proximate composition of fish...

Sabri Unal1, ASır Er2, Erol Akkuzu1* and Lubomir Salek3

Imed Ben Salem*, Aymen Ben Ibrahim, M’barek Chetoui and Said Nouira

...enetic analysis of eight species viz. Lemniscomys barbarus, L. bellieri, L. griselda, L. limulus, L. macculus, L. rosalia, L. striatus and L. zebra; which have practically similar external morphologies although they spread in completely different geographical areas. The approach adopted was to identify landmarks on the skulls of all specimens using the tpsDig software, and then analyzing them through the program MorphoJ. Our results show that L. griselda has t...

Abdul Sattar Baloch1*, Abdul Rasheed1,2, Rahmatullah Rind1, Jam Kashif Sahito1, Rehana Buriro1, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1 and Parkash Dewani1

...s a wide range of animal species including human beings and is more severe in human than in animals. It imposes a huge burden on human health due to its zoonotic nature. Our study involves the testing of 100 sera samples and 50 milk samples from camels of three districts of Sindh province of Pakistan. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) were used as screening tests, and overall seroprevalence of brucell...

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...affecting several animal species and human beings. It is caused by Brucella abortus in animals and Brucella melitensis in human. The current study aimed to find out the prevalence of Brucella and active brucellosis in the human population of district Swat. Total 300 individuals (both female and male of all ages, meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria) with informed consent were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and brucellosis was detected ...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...ial of native and exotic species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) was checked on Galleria mellonella larvae. The native species included Steinernema asiaticum and Heterorhabditis indica whereas exotic species were S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. G. mellonella larvae were exposed to 300 IJs of each species. After inoculation at different temperatures...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

...ization of H9N2 in avian species. However little is known about the impact of different strains on the innate immune response. In the present study, using quantitative real-time PCR, cytokines gene expression were examined in response to infection with two strains of Egyptian H9N2 (namely V3 and RSF/1) in chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Hemagglutinin gene sequence analysis of the two strains reveal high similarity with difference close to cl...

Noor Us Saher1, Zunaira Amanat2, M. Asif Gondal3 and Naureen Aziz Qureshi4,*

.... Male specimens of both species (M. planipes: χ2 = 245.4, P < 0.005) and (A. lunaris: χ2 = 99.4, P<0.005) were significantly more than females throughout the study period. There was a significant difference in size of male and female crabs within sexes; (M. planipes: t = -4.93, P < 0.005) and (A. lunaris: t = -2.92, P<0.005). Various morphometrical relationships were demonstrated that the males of M. planipes and A. lunaris were larger in ...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

...d fauna. The Penicillium species belongs to one of the most common and economically significant group of marine micro-fungi family. The study comprised isolation, microscopic observations and ribotyping, allowed discrimination of the marine fungal isolates as Penicillium viticola F1, Penicillium restrictum F2, Penicillium rubens F8, Penicillium implicatum F10, Penicillium piceum F11, Penicillium oxalicum F12, Penicillium sumatrense F15, and Penicillium vinaceu...

Nighat Sultana1,2,*, Shazia Iftikhar1, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif2 and Iffat Tahira2

...×103cfu/ml for all species in both fresh and ensiled maize fodder. Total aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) analysis showed that AFB1was present with high frequency in fresh (37.5%) and ensiled (41.66%) fodder, with an average concentration of 9.49 and 8.36ng/g respectively. Aflatoxin B2 was detected in only two samples (16%) (1.2 and 1.3ng/g), aflatoxin G1 and G2 were not found. Ochratoxin A was found more frequently in fresh ...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

... total of 76 zooplankton species were identified in the lake, including 17 protozoa, 36 rotifera, 12 cladocera and 11 copepods species, respectively. Zooplankton species richness changed slightly in the four seasons but varied a lot in different positions. Protozoa was absolutely dominated in zooplankton abundance and its mean value ranged from 2710.2 ind./L in winter to 4259.5 ind./L in s...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

...caused extinction of the species in the the Yangtze River. Therefore, it is very urgent to carry out genetic breeding to improve yield. In this study, we developed SSR markers by transcriptome, which could be used to genetic research. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of six libraries from hepatopancreas samples in E. sinensis. After removing low-quality reads, short reads and reads belonging to mitochondria, a total of 278,260,960 clean rea...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...hly resistant strains at species level. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic plant extracts of Camellia sinensis (Green tea), Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) was evaluated against identified isolates. Agar well diffusion assay was used to monitor the antimicrobial activity of these strains both in mono culture and mixed culture. Streptomycin sulphate (10 μgml-1) and Amphotericin B (5 mgml-1) were used as positive con...

Bin Wang, Bo Zhang, Nan Yang, Liang Dou and Jianghong Ran*

...e and demography of this species, however, have not been examined in natural populations. To determine if cooperative breeding occurs in populations unassociated with humans, we surveyed two natural populations in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in western China. We compared the demography of the natural populations with that of the habituated population. The results showed that facultative cooperative breeding occurred in the two natural populations, ...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...eening of various fungal species for antimicrobial natural products. During this study five different fungi, including Alternaria alternata, Acremonium sp., Alternaria brassicicola, Pythium sp. and Aspergillus flavus were screened against Wilt causing pathogens using the dual culture assay. Among them, Aspergillus flavus was found active fungus against the selected vascular Wilt causing fungus and bacteria, i.e. Fusarium oxysporum (87.50 ± 0.11% inhibit...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...f yeast to the genus and species level is necessary for effective antifungal therapy, and can also facilitate control of infections. A total of 50 isolates were isolated from 60 swab samples collected from two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and...
Muhammad Arshad1*, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2*, Faisal Hafeez3, Ravaid Sherazi1 and Naeem Iqbal4
...and four different aphid species (spinach aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli; coriander aphid, Hyadaphis coriandri (Das); cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L.;pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was evaluated in the laboratory in no choice and free choice feeding assays. In the no choice feeding assay, the stages of beetle (adults, 3rd and 4th instar) consumed more aphids than early stages (1st and 2
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
...ty among Fusarium species based on ITS showed that it is not enough to score diversity within species and isolates. Additionally pathogenicity of isolated Fusarium species was evaluated against nymph and adult of Bemisia tabaci. Under controlled conditions different species of Fusarium restrained the growth of B. tab...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...ntification of polydorid species. Our results demonstrate that not only did all COI sequences from the larvae show greater than 99% sequence identity to those from adults, but some larvae share the same haplotypes as adults. These findings clearly indicate that the larvae collected from sea waters around an oyster farm belong to P. websteri, the same species as the adult worms collected from the oyster Crassostrea ...
Mahanama De Zoysa1, Si-yun Ryu1, Hyeon-cheol Kim2 and Bae Keun Park1*
... with all Argulus species, isolated fish lice was identified as Argulus japonicus Thiele, 1899. A. japonicus is native to Asia, which also is a habitat for its typical hosts, such as goldfish and common koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). A. japonicus has not previously been described from goldfish from the ornamental facilities in Korean. This is the first report of A. japonicus morphology with light and scanning electron mic...
Syed Fazal Baqi Kakakhel*, Asad Ullah and Abdur Rashid
...tened’ Markhor sub species Flare-horned Markhor (Capra falconeri falconeri Wagner 1839) in District Swat covering an area of 5337 km² in 2013. The population survey was conducted in two phases i.e. December 21-24 in Kalam and December 26-29 in Mankial valleys. Vintage point count surveys revealed that the Markhor preferred habitats in Kalam and Mankial valleys in District Swat. Among the six sub valleys of Kalam, only Shahoo and Mahoda...
Muhammad Afzal1,Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi1,*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Irfan Hussain1
...ong the most devastating species causing significant loss annually in South Asia. Feeding deterrence of H. indicola among 10 different woods species were evaluated in choice and no-choice assays conducted under laboratory and field conditions. Visual rating according to (AWPA, 1997) scale, mass loss, wood consumption per termite and mortality rate were determined to evaluate resistance of wood against H. indicola
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...g the well-being of this species in the Ganges River. The WR was not significantly different from 100 for males (p = 0.298) and females (p = 0.650), indicating that habitat was still in good condition. Thecalculated a3.0 were 0.0120 and 0.0103 for male and female,respectively. The Lm for male and female B. dario were 7.32 cm and 7.90 cm in TL, respectively. Moreover, MW for t...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...g a wide range of animal species and humans. 18 Leptospira positive horses based on ELISA and 9 healthy horses were included in the study. Blood profile, serum biochemistry and mineral profile were analyzed at day 0, 7 and 21 of infection. Results showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelets while total leucocytes count (TLC), n...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...ere Streptococcus species (17.45%, 11/63), E. coli (3.17%, 2/63), and Bacillus cereus (4.76%, 3/63). Coagulase positive Staph. aureus (41 out of 47), and hemolysin producing Staph. aureus (39 out of 47) primed among Staph. aureus isolates indicating very pathogenic nature of infection in the area. Risk factors determinants were found significantly (P<0.05) associated with mastitis occurrence except frequency of milk...
Jiancheng Zhai, Li Gao, Yanling Xia and Heping Li*
...y;">Reindeer is the only species in which the females carry antlers in Cervidae, and the differences between the antler tips of the two sexes are one of the most interesting scientific mysteries. The objective of this study was to isolate preliminarily differentially expressed genes in antler mesenchyme of both sexes. The genes were detected with three anchored primers and ten random primers using differential display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR). Five...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
...tree. Eighteen different species were recorded under 16 genus and 07 families. Ceratina hieroglyphica, Halictus subauratus, Osmia caerulescens were reported first time from Pakistan.
...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
... visitation rate of both species was noticed during evening after 1800 h. High frequency of both speciesfound engaged in foraging during 20th and 25th day after initiation of blooms on sunflower due to more number of pollen and nectar. Minimum number of honeybees was recorded during initial and very last days of flowering due to less number of plants with blooms and less availability of pollens and nect...
Fermín Lopez-Uriostegui1, Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox2,*, Fabiola Lango-Reynoso1, María del Refugio Castañeda-Chavez1, Virgilio Eugenio Arenas-Fuentes3 and Fernando Vega-Villasante4
...letion index showed both species feed 24 h, but forage activity differs in intensity in the two species. In M. tenellum repletion index was greatest during the day and M. americanum in the night.
...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...orldwide. Among the many species of fruit flies, Bacterocera zonata is a serious pest of fruits causing severe losses to the fruit production and quality, in Pakistan. In the present experiment the population of B. zonata was monitored using methyl eugenol traps during the year, 2015. Occurrence and population dynamics of the fruit fly were compared with meteorological factors, such as temperature, relative humidity and sunshine. The highest mean...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...the daily habits of this species, such as dispersed foraging, collective maintenance and rest. Group size peaked in February (5.07 ± 4.166 individuals) and was smallest (2.91 ± 1.354 individuals) in December with significantly different group sizes in all months (F = 35.351, df = 3, P < 0.01). A total of 57.98% of all groups had a majority of females. A large difference in sex ratios was observed among different months. The actua...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...plant viruses from plant species containing various forms of PCR amplification inhibitors. In current study, IC-PCR was used for the detection of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from plant extracts of Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with ToLCNDV. To immunocapture the ToLCNDV, two antisera raised against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-coat protein (TYLCV-CP) and African cassava mosaic virus-coat protein (ACMV-CP) were used. Howev...

Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul M. Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa, Khurram Ziaf, Irfan Afzal and Muhammad Qasim

... mM KNO3 for both tested species. This was interpreted by reduced time to 50% germination (1.2 d for gerbera and 2.4 d for zinnia), higher final germination %age (11% for gerbera and 7% for zinnia), seedling vigor (83% for gerbera and 46% for zinnia), and fresh weight (0.95 g for gerbera and 2.29 g for zinnia) and dry weight (0.3 g for gerbera and 0.5 g for zinnia) of the seedlings. These halopriming treatments (25 to 50 mM CaCl2 or 50 to 100 mM KCl and KNO3&s...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...fect of size of two host species Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) and Spodotera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) was studied on larval competition, survival and development of a gregarious ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The number of adults, sex ratio and size of emerging adults were recorded. Smaller and larger host species were used to determine the su...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packing substances have been remarkable tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against disturbances, for instance fires in addition to windstorms, and start the bio-worsening of woody tissue. The females lay eggs on the bark surface of the stems and branches of trees as a result rotten wo...
Wali Khan*, Ghazal Mumtaz, Saima Bibi and Salma Afzal
...ith one or more than one species of parasites. Intestinal parasites Ascaris lumbricoides 26.7%, Trichuris trichura 19.6%, Taenia saginata 25 % and Entamoeba histolytica cyst 28.5% were detected. The highest prevalence was recorded for Entamoeba histolytica while Trichuris trichura was detected as the least parasitic infection. Coriandrum annum (Coriander) was found highly contaminated 14.2% with parasitic infection while Zingiber officinale (Ginger) with least...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
...aloes and cattle (60 per species) at Civil Veterinary Hospitals, animal markets and peri-urban livestock holdings in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). RBPT positive samples were subjected to a B. abortus specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Serum samples that were confirmed to be positive for B. abortus through serology were subjected to an rPCR in order...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...ences and Cyclops species in drinking water sources. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out using in-person questionnaire evaluation along with microscopic assessment of water samples for Cyclops species. Based on previous clinical records of dracunculiasis, five villages of Dera Ismail Khan including Kath Garh, Wanda Dost Ali, Chah Mundar Wala, Ketch and Gara Baloch were surveyed for a total of 206...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...mples, either one of the species or simultaneous infection. M. gallisepticum was found in 39/96 samples (40.62%) and M. synoviae in 32/96 samples (33.34%), whereas 25/96 samples (26.04%) were detected with simultaneous infection with both species. Altogether, it has been observed that multiplex-PCR is a sensitive tool for early and accurate diagnosis of Mycoplasma infections from samples collected from clinically sick and ap...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...ify;">The patterns of subspecies distribution, diversity and differentiation of the house mouse Mus musculus provide insights into past dispersal events in natural populations of this species. We investigated the molecular phylogenetics of Chinese house mice based on 466 DNA sequences from mitochondrial D-loop fragments. Our analyses revealed that Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus are older colon...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...f the root knot nematode species was identified based on observations on morphology of different life stages, beta-esterase phenotype and amplification of rDNA and partial sequence homology of ITS-1and ITS-2. Host differential tests confirmed the race 2 of M. incognita infecting passion fruit. Pathogenic relationship with the passion fruit was proved through inoculation studies and inoculated plants also produced almost similar above-ground symptoms and...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...table or poisonous weeds species. Furthermore, this crops encroachment effected the capabilities of pastoral communities to keep large herds containing more livestock for their livelihood dependency. It is concluded that unsustainable crops expansion has triggered pastures resource degradation and is threating the traditional pastoral system in HKH region. Integrated and collaborative approaches are needed for pasture resources management with efficient and su...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...r changes in fodder tree species composition caused by grazing pressure is critical since fodder trees form the base diet for browser such as goat as well as maintenance purposes for cattle in the dry season. Thus understanding the dynamics on rangeland response to grazing could prove worthy in finding an equilibrium point for optimizing animal productivity, with limited range degradation. Therefore, the current study was aimed at determining and comparing fod...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

...d 22 x 22ft (T3) of both species. Musambi showed best results as compared to Kinnow. So this study helped to optimize best planting distance in citrus adopted for high yield and good quality fruit with some extra care and management practices in orchard and proved to be the best planting distance for citrus under agro ecological conditions of Punjab province of Pakistan.

...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...viral molecule to strain/species level for accurate diagnosis.

...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...rvey in betelvine, a new species of Aleurocanthus (description under process) was recorded from West Bengal. This had also been found to occur on Piper longum L. Another species, A. nubilance (Buckton) which was recorded on betelvine in Bangladesh during 1900, was not recorded in this area. Detection of host resistance against insect pests is very relevant for genetic improvement programmes. Till date, scanty information is ...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...isting of 62 (sixty two) species records gathered by conducting a systematic survey of parasitoids on insect pests of crops in different localities of Manipur was developed by using MS-Access. The database is for academic purpose and it includes the taxonomic details of the parasitoid, host insect, host plant, morphological characters, geographical distribution, period of activity, parasitoid behavior and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Population proliferation and spread of Trichoderma spp. in soil under two different delivery systems
...pectively. Among the two species of Trichoderma, T. harzianum have spread faster than T. viride.

...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...and weeds. Globally 1034 species of arthropods and 82 species of nematodes are associated with tea plants. Among them 25 species of insects, 4 species of mites and 10 species of nematodes are recorded from Bangladesh. Enormous crop loss was incurred due to the attack of these pests and largely responsible for the decli...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
...nch gall is a univoltine species. Emergence of adults from gall could be found from 2nd week of February, which continued up to 2nd week of March. Incubation, larval and pupal period lasted for 3-5 days, 315 days and 30-45 days, respectively. Eggs were laid singly throughout the young vegetative shoots by puncturing the tissue. A full grown larva was yellow in colour with a clear dark brown constriction on head. Initially the pupa was creamy white in colour wh...

Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...irulence on above insect species. This study reported occurrence of a isolate of S. carpocapsae from ginger rhizosphere from India. This indigenous isolate could be investigated further for managing insect pests of ginger.

...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...tant root knot nematodes species of India belonging to the genus Meloiodogyne. Further, molecular markers like RAPDs, AFLP, SSRs and PCR–RFLP of rDNA have been employed to study the molecular genetic diversity in major root knot and cyst nematode species of India to assist the breeding program for developing resistant varieties and other purposes like regulatory and nematode diagnostics. Attempts have also been to made...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
...e application. The aphid species viz. Myzus persicae (Sulzur) and Aphis gossypi Glover were recorded first during third week of December and crossed the threshold limit (20 aphids/100 compound leaves) during first to second week of January in Kufri Chandramukhi whereas in Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Joawhar, the pest was observed first by fourth week of December and attained the critical level during second to third week of January. The pest initially occurred durin...

S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...lower. A number of aphid species were found infesting different ornamental plants viz. Myzus persicae on Carnation, gerbera and Anthurium; Macrosiphoniella sanborni on Chrysanthemum; Aphis gossypii on China rose. Other sucking pests infesting ornamentals included Bemisia tabaci on Gerbera, leafhopper on Gladiolus and scale insect (unspecified) on Anthurium. Amongst the thysanopteran pests Taeniothrips simplex was very much serious on Gladiolus and another
Nasreen Memon1,*, Rukhsana Parveen2 and Imtiaz Ahmad2, Nadir Ali Shah3
...tify;">Till to date nine species of the genus Halys are described from Asia. Of the nine species, five are described from Pakistan, including present two new species from Sindh province. These two new species are described, illustrated and compared with the allied species. Illustrations include dorsal view, scen...
Song Li1,* and Zuojian Feng2
... describe them as new subspecies P. a. muzongensis subsp. nov. Discussion on the relationships between the differentiation of P. albiventer and its environmental evolution in southwestern China are also provided.
...
Sohail Ahmed, Muhammad Arshad and Babar Hassan*
...s on woods of three tree species to ward off subterranean termites. Three resins types in three concentrations were applied by brushing and dipping on wooden stakes which were exposed to termites’ for a period of 4 weeks in the field. Weight loss before and after resin treatment was indicative of effectiveness. Highest concentration of all resins significantly reduced the chances of termites’ infestation as compared to other concentrations by dippi...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...nd in mid January. Three species of aphids: Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.) were found infesting the wheat crop. At the time of aphid invasion crops were at different growth stages such as 1st node (crop 1), at stem elongation (crop 2) and at end of tiller (crop 3). Maximum aphid infestation was recorded in all crops in the 3rd week of February when crops were a...
Yasemin Bircan Yildirim* and Hediye Tugce Vurmay
...cially important finfish species: saddled seabream (Oblada melanura), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), Bogue (Boops boops), horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), brushtooth lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), threadfin bream, (Nemipterus randalli), which were caught from the Iskenderun Bay at 6 different locations (local fishermen’s fi...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
...GST class from different species share more similarity than genes of different classes in the same species. Copy number of GSTs examining showed that five classes of GST genes in common carp have undergone the gene duplications, including MGST1, GSTK, GSTM, GSTA and GSTT. Comparative genomics and syntenic analysis provided new evidences for better understanding on gene fates post whole genome duplication (WGD) of common carp...
Viram Kumar1,*, Moolchand Malhi1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi2, Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani3 and Khushal Das Malhi1
...d conditions in the same species.
...
Ahmad Ali1,*, Sheikh Muhammad Azam2, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Mujahid Kaleem3
.... There are five big cat species in the genus Panthera and tiger is the biggest one. Data were collected by recording observations on breeding of Royal Bengal Tiger in captivity at Bahawalpur Zoo from June 2012 to July 2014 (two years) on prescribe sheets. Data from June, 2003 to December, 2011 (nine years) were collected from zoo management. In two years study Tiger breed once and produce four cubs (female) while in nine years it breed three times...
Muzafar Shah1,*, Mian Sayed Khan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Habib Ahmed3 and James M. Carpenter4
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...nomically important fish species, an herbivorous fish Schizothorax plagiostomus and a predatory fish Mastacembelus armatus, from three rivers of Malakand Division, Pakistan. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were determined in fish samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Highest Cu concentration of 4.52 ± 0.24 mg kg−1 wet weight was observed in muscles of M. armatus at Chakdara on River Swat while highest Zn conce...
Sogolo L. Lebelo1,* and Gerhard van der Horst2
...r, there also seem to be species differences among the mammalian group. The association of these cells with developing cells, and Sertoli cells was established. However, the association of Leydig cells with spermatogenic cells at different stages of spermatogenesis needs further investigation.
...
Saba Irshad1,*, Ayesha Ashfaq1, Ammara Muazzam1 and Abida Yasmeen2
...luence on Candida species and F. solani. These extracts fully inhibit growth of PC3 cells. Moreover, partially purified lectin, from Curcuma longa L. with a molecular weight of 17.3 KDa might be useful to treat patients as a considerably cheap herbal drug which can be prescribed to poor people efficiently at an affordable cost.
...
Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...asciatus is a unique species of China which is distributed in the estuary of the Yangtze River, and belongs to the same genus with Red fin puffer T. rubripes which has been used as one of human genome model animal since mid-1990s. In this experiment, we cloned a pair of DNA fragment sequence including complete ORF (921bp) of taste receptor candidate gene T2R1 of T. fasciatus and studied the differential expression spectrum of tissues i...
Muhammad Hanif1,*, Naureen Rana1, Muhammad Akbar Khan2, Muhammad Javed1 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1
...d molars. The identified species of hipparionines include Hipparion sp. small, Cormohipparion sp., Sivalhippus cf. nagriensis, and Sivalhippus cf. theobaldi. These specimens provide additional information about the recorded species and contribute to recent work of Perissodactyla from the Middle Siwalik Hills of Pakistan.
...
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
...xt-align: justify;">Many species of mammals have declined within the past two centuries due to human caused disturbances and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Molecular methods have an important role in phylogeny and diversity analysis. In Pakistan hog deer (Axis porcinus) is an important wild species belongs to the family Cervidae. The hog deer is one of the least studied species
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...ustify;">Brucella species are cause of abortions and other reproductive disorders in animals and human beings. In this project, prevalence and distribution of soil borne Brucella species in nine districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sargodha, D.G. Khan, Chakwal, Sahiwal, Gujranwala and Attock were determined. By using grid based sampling strategy, soil samples (n= 1280) were collected f...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
... importance. Among 6,000 species of coccinellids described worldwide, only 75 species have been reported from Pakistan so far. Keeping in view the limited work on these important beetles, an extensive faunal survey was conducted in the district Sargodha (32°05’02’’ N and 72°40’18’’ E), Pakistan to assess the species richness and distribution of c...
Fareeda Tasneem1, Farah Rauf Shakoori1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*

 

...ons found in the ciliate species. Thus a fragment of histone H4 gene (160bp) was sequenced in ten locally isolated strains of Paramecium species including a standing-alone on the basis of 18SrDNA gene sequence strain FT8. In order to readdress the relationships of FT8 strain with other strains of Paramecium species, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed on the basis...
Shazia Rasheed1,* and Javed Mustaquim2
.../i>, they belong to five species; namely Octolasmis angulata (Aurivillius, 1894), O. cor (Aurivillius, 1894), O. lowei (Darwin, 1851), O. tridens (Aurivillius, 1894) and O. warwickii Gray, 1825. The rate of infestation was found markedly low in P. pelagicus (2.9 %) and P. sanguinolentus (10.8 %) during present investigation. Octolasmids prevalence was significantly higher in female P. pelagicus (81...
Lu Liu1, Sher Khan Panhwar2, Tianxiang Gao3, Zhiqiang Han3, Chunhou Li4, Dianrong Sun4 and Na Song1,*
...tify;">Three Liza species exhibiting a dorsal keel have been identified based on morphology: Liza affinis, Liza carinata, and Liza klunzingeri. To confirm the validity of the species by molecular methods, we sequenced a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA of Liza affinis and Liza klunzingeri from coastal waters of China and Pakistan, respectiv...

Muhammad Amin1*, Khalid Mahmood2, Imran Bodlah3, Muhammad Rahim Khan2 

...: justify;">Twelve aphid species, inclusive of 6 new records to Pakistan’s aphidofauna, were found infesting Rosa species in study conducted during 2015-2016 in Poonch division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan. Chaetosiphon (Pentarichopus) fragaefolii (Cockerell), Chaetosiphon (Pentarichopus) thomasi Hille Ris Lambers, Chaetosiphon (Pentarichopus) tetrarhodum (Walker), Metopolophium montanum Hille Ris Lambers, Myzaph...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
...nd response of different species.
...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
...lation structure of this species.
...
Zuhao Huang*, Meifang Li, Rujue Ruan and Jiawei Qin
...ntrol region genes of 20 species were analyzed. All the Ardeidae species had duplicate control regions, except four species having only single region. The control region spans the region between the genes for tRNAGlu - tRNAPhe in the most Ardeidae species. The length of the control region sequences ranged from 1427 bp (Ixobrychus...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...tly. Though used in many species but the variability exists in technique. Therefore, the present study was aimed to optimize the steps of AO staining protocol for buffalo sperm which has not been explored yet. Semen was collected from two mature buffalo bulls, diluted in tris citrate egg yolk based extender and cryopreserved using standard protocol. The semen straws were thawed at 37oC and stained using different protocols as followed: Protocol 1 (w...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...enem resistant bacterial species; E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, were isolated and identified using VITEK 2 compact system. Carbapenamase and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production by these isolates was confirmed by modified Hodge’s test and disc potentiation method, respectively. The blaNDM-1genewas amplified by PCR and sequenced. MIC of different antibiotics were determined by VITE...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...nteric diseases in avian species, causing decreased growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Twenty-nine pools (29/59; 49%) appeared positive for AAstV, 6 pools (6/5...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...rious Ixodid tick species and risk factors associated with tick infestation and burden levels were studied in bovine from three distinct temporal zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Twelve hundreds ticks were collected from four hundreds animals comprising of two hundred and fifty cattle and one hundred and fifty buffaloes. Descriptive statistics with Pearson’s Chi-square test and regression model were applied to analyze the data. Th...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...e reintroduction of this species, the process of pairing, nest site selection, egg laying, incubation and brooding of the crested ibis in the wild was studied in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Luoshan County, Henan Province, China. From October 2013 to May 2015, a total of 78 captive-bred individuals have been released into the reserve and monitored through radio transmitters or satellite transmitters. Twelve nests of 10 pairs were recorded over three breed...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...found to protect several species of plants against environmental stresses by initiating different processes that are involved in the mechanism of stress tolerance. SA is part of an extremely complex signal transduction network’s part and it works differently in different systems. Drought stress is a major restraint for crop production in arid and semi arid states such as Pakistan. In this study experiments were conducted against the responses of strawber...
Rabia Arif*, Shahar Bano, Muhammad Ishfaq and Muhammad Saleem
...aria and the topmost species in this investigation was fimicola. Circular Phylogram showed close relatedness among the strains under study and potential association with the Ascomycetes. This study for the first time reports the variations at the molecular level between strains from two different environments. V3 and V4 regions showed genetic variations at two sites i.e., 212 A (C); 213 G (A) in strains isolated from the stressful environment...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...ction is less than other species due to its slow growth and high mortality due to unavailability of suitable diet especially at juveniles stage. This study focus on the healthy production with low cost by using sunflower meal to some extent replace fish meal. In this 3× 3 factorial and completely randomized design study 324 fish were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) whereas the phytase levels were (0, 500 and 1000 FTU). The addition of...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
...etermining the hard tick species and their abundance with respect to host-related risk factors in Bos permiginu s cattlewas conducted in farm houses at three main regions (Western by-pass, Spiny village, and Sariab region) of District Quetta from March, 2013 to March, 2014.   Around 1649 ticks were captured from six main body parts of 404 cattle. Of these 346 (65.96%) were observed to be plagued by one or more tick infestation. Compositions ...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...specimens belonging to 8 species, 6 genera of two subfamilies were collected, among which Episurphusbaltatus, De Geer, Eritalinus aeneus, Scopoli, and Ischiodon scutellaris, Fabricius were found to be most prevalent whereas; Eristalis arbustorum was found least in number during study period. The abundance of hoverflies fauna varied seasonally, the highest abundance was recorded in spring while lowest in autumn. Pearson’s correlation coefficient resu...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
... of other mycoplasmas (5 species from avian origin and 3 other mycoplasmas species) but it produced only the genus specific band. The optimized ratio of tPCR primers were 1: 1: 10: 1. For Outer F, Inner R, and Inner F and Outer R, respectively. MgCl2 concentration did not affect and added at 2.0 mM. Four different culture methods were compared for their efficiency for avian mycoplasmas culture. The B method (parts...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...nbach) is a cosmopolitan species who can cause direct damage to the plants by extracting the sap, and indirectly it is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romania. At the Aphis...
Saba Manzoor1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Abdul Wajid1, Sehrish Firyal1, Muhammad Tayyab1, Muhammad Mansha2, Asim Khalid Mahmood3, Abu Saeed Hashmi1 and Muhammad Wasim1,*
...ow any variation in both species. While expression of c-Myc gene was found to be up regulated in different canine (62.5% in mammary adenocarcinoma, 75% in oral squamous cell carcinoma, 66.6% in peri-anal sac adenocarcinoma, 80% in mast cell tumor and 100% in soft tissue sarcoma) and feline (60% in mammary adenocarcinoma and 100% in soft tissue sarcoma) tumors studied. These findings might support the established role of c-Myc in tumor pathogenesis but h...
Müge Aliye Hekimoğlu*, Cüneyt Süzer,Şahin Saka andKürşat Firat
...on of some aquarium fish species. The induction and recovery times were determined at five stages of melanistic and not melanistic clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) and different sexes of Swordfish (Xiphophorus helleri). Clownfish were tested with 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 ml/l phenoxyethanol and 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/l clove oil. Swordfish were tested with 1, 3 and 5 ml/l phenoxyethanol and 2, 4, 6 ml/l clove oil. For short-term application the safe dose for ...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...h of plants. Three aphid species were recorded i.e., Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). Mean seasonal aphid population (no. of aphids/tiller) on wheat plants during the whole season was the highest in NW-1-8183-8 and NW-3-3341-7 and the lowest in Faisalabad-08. However, grain yield was the highest in Galaxy-13 and the lowest was in Lasani-08 variety. Two applications of insecticide, (imidaclo...
Mubashir Hussain1,Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3 and Sohail Latif4
...uency, diversity of weed species and relative importance value. The input and output data was also collected to find out the socioeconomic feasibility of the techniques. The comparative analysis of seed bank extraction methods revealed higher weed seeds density, weed frequency with more diversity of weed species under sieving method in comparison to seedling emergence method. Therefore, sieving method was considered superior...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
...tions of coastal dolphin species indicate that marine mammal populations are susceptible to rapid decline. Yet, effective conservation efforts depend on population-level ecological data. To obtain principal baseline data that will inform management efforts, we characterized the habitat and recorded the behaviour of a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) population within one of the most well-preserved estuaries off southern Brazil. Monthly surveys were c...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
...ngered freshwater turtle species.
...
Minmin Chen1, Xiaoke Zhang1, Kexiong Wang2, Zhigang Liu1, An Wan3, Daoping Yu1,*, Hong Ji3 and Fangzhen Peng1
... a critically endangered species, as the whole population in the wild suffered sharp decline and fragmentation. Observations of the local spatial and temporal distribution dynamics can help establish better conservation strategies. In order to understand the characteristics of habitat chosen, a continuous 15 months observation on the distribution patterns of the Yangtze finless porpoise at the confluence of Yangtze and Wanhe rivers was conducted. The results s...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
...r, comparison with other species revealed three dramatic amino acid mutation areas. Our results also indicated that c-kit expression was higher in the white cashmere goat than in the black goat, and this significant difference was detected by q-PCR and western blotting. All cashmere goats of different colors examined by immunohistochemical analysis showed either weak (the black cashmere goat) or strong (the white cashmere goat) expression of the KIT pro...
Muhammad Khaled Siddiq1, Ayesha Riaz2, Muhammad Akbar Khan1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1, Khalid Mahmood1,* and Muhammad Akhtar1
...k Group. The Pleistocene species, Boselaphus cf. namadicus, was adapted to open and dry habitats of the Siwaliks.
...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
...ites. Seventy eight bird species were recorded that belonged to 34 families and 11 orders. Passeriformes was the dominant specie. The habitat destruction due to deforestation, agricultural activities, infrastructure and land sliding and disturbances by the increasing human population were major threats to the avian fauna of Rawalakot.
...
Sher Khan Panhwar1,2,3, Zhou Yong Dong1,4,*, Gao Tianxiang1,3, Wang Ping5, Han Zhiqiang1, Wang Zhongming1,4 and Wang Yang1,4
...d ecologically important species in the ECS.
...
Semra Benzer1,* and Recep Benzer2
...growth estimation of the species in biological systems. Another outcome of this study is that crayfish of Uluabat Lake well accommodates itself to the ecologic features of the environment and so its growth features are similar to the values of other water systems.
...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...e reintroduction of this species, the process of pairing, nest site selection, egg laying, incubation and brooding of the crested ibis in the wild was studied in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Luoshan County, Henan Province, China. From October 2013 to May 2015, a total of 78 captive-bred individuals have been released into the reserve and monitored through radio transmitters or satellite transmitters. Twelve nests of 10 pairs were recorded over three breed...
Medeni Aykut
...identified. In total, 40 species in 17 genera of family Dytiscidae were recorded, of which 37 were new to the study area. Eretes sticticus (Linnaeus, 1767) is the second record for Turkish fauna. Furthermore, Hydroporus inscitus Sharp, 1882 is new record for the Turkish fauna.
...
Ümit Kumbıçak, Zübeyde Kumbıçak* and Gülnare Huseynli
...karyotype formula of the species was 2n♂=35 (X1X2X30) which is the first record for the family Hersiliidae. Both autosomes and sex chromosomes were acrocentric. The lengths of the chromosomes indicated no significant difference between autosomal pairs, however, X3 was the smallest chromosome but X1 and X2 were intermediate in the karyotype.
...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...n seven extinct giraffid species to determine and compare stress periods during the early Miocene to Pleistocene ages of the Siwaliks of Pakistan. Enamel hypoplasia is a tooth malady which is caused by the deficiency of food/nutrients. The feeding deficiency is directly linked to the physiological or environmental stress. In this study occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in giraffids has been observed in species of all time inte...
Saswati Roy1, Rakesh Pashi2, S. Dey3 and Shantanu Jha
... Total 74 number of bird species were recorded which belonged to 18 orders. Out of 74 bird species 23 species (31.08%) were recorded as insectivorous, 16 species (21.62%) as omnivorous, 13 species (17.57%) as granivorous, 11 species (14.86%) as carnivorous, 7
Muhammad Siraj-ud-Din1,2, Riaz Aziz Minhas1, Usman Ali3,*, Mayoor Khan2, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Nuzhat Shafi1 and Basharat Ahmad1
...vation management of the species in the area. The habitat use of urial was determined on the basis of direct or indirect evidence (e.g. animal sightings, fecal pallets and hairs) in different habitats. Information on food consumption was collected by using scan sampling technique and also collected from local people, hunters and shepherds (n=78). During scan sampling, focused feeding animals were observed with the help of a telescope and spotting scope. Ladakh...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...mbawalei, Five plant species, commonly found to be host of P. solenopsis, were tested: hibiscus, potato, okra, eggplant and tomato. Under no choice test conditions, the results showed that the % parasitism did not differ significantly between different host plants in laboratory and field conditions. In contrast under multiple choice test conditions, the % parasitism (65.00±3.75, 60.00±2.83, 51.88±1.88, 69.38±2.54, 60.63&p...
Sayyed Ghyour Abbas1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1,*, Muhammad Akbar Khan1, Kiran Aftab2, Ayesha Riaz3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...age presents seven bovid species Pachyportax latidens, P. cf. nagrii, Selenoportax cf. vexillarius, Tragoportax punjabicus, T. cf. salmontanus, Elachistoceras khauristanensis and Gazella lydekkeri. The boselaphines are predominant at the type locality. The taxa are consistent with a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene age of the deposits. The findings expand our knowledge on the dental anatomic features of the described
Salma Javed, Saima Majeed, Nasira Kazi and Shahina Fayyaz*
...mus mubarakvilli new species is described and illustrated from specimens collected from sediments of Mubarak Village in Karachi, Pakistan. The new species is characterized by a cuticle bearing 20-22 longitudinal ridges, tail conical, tapering evenly to narrow terminus 116-128 µm long. Cellular body content extending 2/3 of the tail length. Heterodorus longidens (Jairajpuri and Loof, 1968) Andrassy, 2009 is r...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...ated nesting use of tree species by avifauna at Pabbi Range Forest Kharian (32.811°N and 73.865°E), District Gujrat, from September 2013 to June 2015. Data were collected from five selected sampling sites by searching and identifying nests of different bird species in various vegetation types and observing birds on the nest. The nests were monitored for breeding activity of the particular bird <...

Haji Muhammad1, 2, Zafar Iqbal1, Qamar Bashir2, Muhammad Amir Hanif3

...on factor of 18 cat fish species belonging to five families of Indus River in Taunsa barrage from Punjab, Pakistan. The value of length weight relationship (LWR) equation and condition factor (K) ranged W= -0.249 TL0.79 – W= -2.803 TL3.55 and 0.07 – 1.69 respectively. The objective of this study was to determine LWR and condition factor of cat fish species of Indus River that could help in
conservation and...

Naeem Iftikhar1, Qamar Zaman Qamar2, Usman Ali3, Muhammad Siddique Awan4, Syeda Shaista Bibi4, Riaz Aziz Minhas4*

... to the survival of this species in AJK. This study recommended the immediate formulation and implementation of Cheer pheasant conservation action plan along with declaration of its potential habitats as protected area to ensure the further survival of this important species.

...
Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
...e of different bacterial species shows that E. coli was the most prevalent bacteria with 48.77% as compared to Clostridium perfringens (18.56%) and Salmonella (17.9%). It was concluded that bacteria were the major cause of foal diarrhea in Punjab, Pakistan. 
...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Fakhra Fazal1, Faraz Akrim1, Hira Fatima1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...gt; 0.05).
...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2 and Lariab Zahra Faiz2
...re captured belonging to species of Nesokia indica, Mus musculus, Mus budooga, Millardia meltada, Tatera indica and Golunda elliotti. The maximum number of rodents was captured in loamy soil type with population density (53.3±19.8) per hectare. The lowest rodent population density was captured in silty clay loam soil type with population density (22.5±5.7) per hectare. The population density in other soil types differ significantly ...
Zahid Farooq1, Sufi Muhammad Akram2, Muhammad Saleem Khan3,* and Muhammad Wajid4
...milies, 16 genera and 25 species. Indian cobra (Naja naja)(8.83%; N = 46), Glossy-bellied racer(Coluber ventromaculatus)(7.87%; N = 41) and Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus)(7.49%; N = 39) were higher in prevalence. Northern wolf snake (Lycodon striatus striatus), Sind long-nose sand snake (Lytorhynchus paradoxus)and Afghan awl-head snake(L. ridgewayi)(0.38%; N = 2) were the least abundant. Snakes were more freq...

 Addishiwot Fekdu, Afework Bekele and Demeke Datiko*

...one recorded as observed species during both dry and wet season. They were identified into six species. Among these, 458 (99.1%) were rodents and 4 (0.9%) were insectivores. The trapped species were: Lophuromys melanonyx (242), Stenocephalemys albocaudata (126), Arvicanthis blicki (86), Mus Mahomet (3), Dendromus lovati (1), and Crocidura fumosa (4). Tachyoryctes macrocephalus was recorded...

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

...ater. A total of 37 fish species belong to 7 orders including prawns were found. Among the 37 species 5 were vulnerable, 7 endangered, 1 critically endangered, 3 exotic, 20 not threatened and 1 not evaluated according to IUCN, Bangladesh, 2000. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found highest (3.12) in June and lowest (2.9) in January. Margalef richness index was found highest (3.02) in July and lowest (2.70) in December...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
...ich was conserved in all species; however, there were no conserved regions flanking CcSox6. Numerous essential transcription factor binding sites (TFs) were predicted within the 2000 bp upstream of the 5’ end of these genes. These TFs include BSX, BRN4 and NGN–NEUROD, which have been shown to be involved in the early stages of neuronal determination and neurogenesis in vertebrates. Tissue distribution analyses by Quantitative real-time RT-PC...
Yunjun Yan, Zhenming Lü, Tianming Wang, Yongjiu Chen, Jingwen Yang, Baoying Guo, Lihua Jiang, Changwen Wu and Liqin Liu*
...ip with other cephalopod species. The results show that the mitochondrial genome of O. dollfusi composed of 15843 nucleotide pairs and encodes 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a major long noncoding region (LNCR) of the mitochondrion’s own protein synthesizing system. Seven of thirteen proteins, eight tRNAs are encoded by the plus strand, while the other proteins and tRNAs, as well as two rRNAs are encoded by the...
Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed*
...lity and conservation of species.
...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
...erve the year round bird species diversity from October 2014 to September 2015 at Safari Zoo Lahore (31°2257 N, 74° 12 47 E and elevation 208m) located in district Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. In total, 5456 birds belonging to 71 species, 40 families and 12 orders were recorded. Bird species distribution was: year round residents 50 (70.4%), winter ...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...urvival of several plant species. Agricultural productivity depends on population interactions of these pollinators. A field experiment was conducted at PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Research Farm, Koont, Gujar Khan during 2015 to compare the diversity and abundance of different insect pollinators on canola (Brassica napus L. Var. Chakwal Sarsoon) crops along with managed Apis mellifera. Thirty five insect species
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
Alptug Sari*, Ahmet Arpacik and Sagdan Baskaya
...observed.
...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...tly affected by nematode species. Significantly higher numbers of IJ were produced by Heterorhabditid species than Steinernematid species in the cadaver. The production of IJ was the maximum in the case of H. bacteriophora which was not statistically different form H. indica. Minimum IJ were produced by S. feltiae. The IJ produced by S. kraussei and S. carpoc...

 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

...lation of three nematode species associated with guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and the yield of guar were investigated. The chemical nematicides and plant extracts significantly reduced the population densities of all three nematodes. Carbofuran was most effective against all the nematodes. Apart from other three treatments, Tridax procumbens emerged as an effective phytonematicide. Helicotylenchus indicus, Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita h...

 Aly Khan* and S. Shahid Shaukat**

...anate. The most dominant species was Meloidogyne incognita. Species diversity (H’) was highest in Wadh while lowest in Ali Dasht. Equitability (J’) component of diversity was highest in Kork and lowest in Ali Dasht, while species richness (d’) component was highest in Alat. The soils associated with Pomegranate orchards were coarse-structured, alkaline with low maximum wa...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...ing. Traditionally these species are used for the treatment of fever and pain. Annual or German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), and perennial chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) are the most important species all over the world due to multipurpose uses. Field experiments were conducted at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta to evaluate the growth and production potential of Matricaria recutita. Two crops a year are possible in ...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

... present study different species of Ocimum (Ocimum basilicum and O. sanctum) were collected from different agro-ecological zones of the world and compared for their phenotypic (qualitative and quantitative) and biochemical trait. Comparatively high variation was seen for seed germination, canopy and spikes/plant, florets/spike and leaf area. A UPGMA cluster, grouped the 9 Ocimum genotypes into two major clusters on the basis of total seed protein and phenotypi...

 Rahila Nazli, Tehmina Sohail, Bushra Nawab and Zahra Yaqeen*

...as also extended to some species of fungi. Results showed that the activity was more pronounced against gram +ve organisms and fungi. Maximum inhibition activity was calculated against all the groups of organisms, which was between 0.5 and 1mg ml-1 against bacteria and 2.5 mg ml-1 against fungi. It is therefore concluded that G. sepium provide a lead towards the exploration of new antimicrobial agent.

...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
...ation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which ultimately leads to tissue damage and oxidation of biomolecules. Aquatic organisms possess antioxidant system to cope with the oxidative stress. This research was conducted to see the effect of lead on peroxidase activity (antioxidant enzyme) in the gills and liver of Labeo rohita. Experiment was conducted in the laboratory by exposing four groups of Labeo rohita to different doses of PbCl2 ...
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...ation of this endangered species.
...
Hina Safdar1,*, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1 and Muhammad Arshad2
...ded upto four days. Both species of entomopathogenic nematodes proved effective against all larval instars. Maximum mortality was observed in 2nd and 5th larval instar. After the fourth day 100% mortality was observed in all larval instar. Mortality was increased with an increase in exposure time. Nematodes were harvested using White Traps. Multiplication of entomopathogenic nematodes was also recorded in all larval instar. The maximum nu...
Naveed Akhtar,1,* Riaz Muhammad2, Kausar Saeed2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Muzaffar Shah3, Jehan Zeb2, Shahid Ahmad2, Azam Jan Afridi4 and  Aftab Hussain5
... this study 10 different species belonging to 9 families, 5 orders and 10 genera of mammalswere identified. The reported species are Naemorhedus goral, Panthera pardus, Sus scrofa, Lepus nigricollis, Macaca mulatta, Canis aureus, Vulpes vulpes, Myotis myotis, Herpestes edwardsii and Hystrix indica. During the research jackals and fox species were dominant in the area. ...
Xia-Lin Zheng1, Pan Wang2, Jun-Yan Liu1, Yu-Jing Zhang1, Jun Li1 and Wen Lu1,*
...wintering stages of this species in Wuhan City.
...
Lin Wang1,2, Ye Gong3, Kelin Chen1, Haitao Wang3 and Xianguo Lyu1,*
... is listed as vulnerable species by IUCN. For improving the research on conservation of this species, we tested the cross-species amplification of 90 microsatellite loci developed for eight other species. Eleven out of them were successfully amplified and polymorphic with 2-10 alleles. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.481 to 0.827 and the poly...
Qin Liu1,2, Feiwei Liu1, Xiuyue Zhang1, Nan Yang1 and Jianghong Ran1,*
...enyii) is an endemic species which is protected in first-grade state in China. Here, 22 polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers were isolated from T. szechenyii using a next-generation sequencing technology. The allele number of these loci ranged from two to six in genotyped 35 individuals. Polymorphism information content ranged from 0.2735 to 0.7717 with an average of 0.5149. Observed and expected heterozygosities at each locus ranged f...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah and Shahid Masood**

Corresponding author: shazia_rm@yahoo.com

PHENOTYPIC VARIATION AMONG MENTHA SPP.
...n 17 genotypes of mentha species. Different species of Mentha were collected from different ecological zones of the world. Great variation was observed in stem length with the coefficient of variation of 198.7% and standard deviation of 14.1. Among the 17 mint collection, nine special aromas was smelled including mint gum, strong camphoraceous, mint like, spicy, lemon, pungent, musky and acrid due to the presence of diverse ...

 Naheed Akhtar, Yasmin Ahmad, Muhammad Shakeel, Waseem Ahmad Gillani, Javed Khan, Tahira Yasmin and Irshad Begum*

RESISTANCE IN PEARL MILLET GERMPLASM TO GREENBUG, SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (RONDANI)
...laucum L.) against aphid species greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). It was determined by the ability of seedlings to resist for plant stunting caused by aphid's feeding at seedling stage. The results indicated that out of 135 pearl millet entries tested, 21 were resistant, 69 were moderately resistant and 45 were susceptible to greenbug feeding. The resistant entries were: C-591, Pak-75211, Pak- 75212, Pak-75219, Pak-75194, Pak-75227, Pak-75238 Pak-75272...

 Muhammad Zubair Anwar, M. Azeem Khan, Ikram Saeed, Akhtar Ali*, Shafique Zahid and Abdul Majid**

SMALL FARMERS PERCEPTIONS REGARDING IMPROVED FODDER AND FORAGE VARIETIES: RESULTS OF PARTICIPATORY ON FARM RESEARCH
...der varieties and forage species were introduced. About 52 % women were of the view that in rabi season 50% grain yield was increased and 44% said that the increase in dry stalk was about 50%. While in kharif 72% respondents pointed out 55% increase in grain yield and similarly majority of the farmers (68%) pointed out 50% increase in dry stalk yield. Majority of the respondents (83%) appreciated the newly introduced plant species
EVALUATION OF LEGUME HERBS NUTRITIVE VALUE AS A RUMINANT FEED AND NITROGEN SUPPLY ON SOIL IN WEST TIMOR, INDONESIA
...justify;"> The four species of legumes used as ruminant feed were Clitoria ternatea (CT), Centrosema pascuorum (CP), Dolichos lablab (DL), and Macroptilium bracteatum (MB). The study was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design. The research showed that the highest -l NO concentration after planting was in CP (5.72 mg ), followed by CT 3 -l -l -l (4.21mg ), MB (3.44 mg ), and DL (2.83 mg ). The species of legume wa...

 Shahid Ali*, Anjum Shehzad*, Muhammad Ather Rafi* and Ahmed Zia*

INSECT POLLINATORS OF LITCHI ( ) FROM DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
...llected which yielded 20 species under 16 genera of eight families belonging to orders Diptera and Hymenoptera. Family Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Syrphidae, represented the order Diptera, while families, Andrenidae, Apidae, Halictidae and Vespidae belonged to order Hymenoptera.

...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
...mised block design. Each species was planted on 2.5m x 3m plot, and repeated 6 and 4 times in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Parameters measured include plant height, tillage number, dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro digestibility and nutrient contents. Plant height and tillage number were monitored at week 4, 6 and 8 then harvested at week 8. Results revealed that the Brachiaria mutica (8 weeks old) had highest plant height (207 cm), but lowest tillage numbe...

 Nazir Ahmad*, Sultan Ayaz*, Sumaira Shams**, Karimullah*** and Riaz Ahmad****

PREVALENCE AND MORPHOLOGY OF HELMINTH PARASITES OF FISH FROM RIVER SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...g to five genera and six species were examined. The parasites collected were Diplozoon khyberensis, Bathybothrium rectangulum, Bothriocephalus, Nippotaenia, Cucullanidae, Proteocephalus, Rhabdochona charsaddiensis, Rhabdochona schizothoracis and Neoechynorhynchus devdevi. They were identified by morphological characteristics through microscopic techniques. Overall prevalence of the fish parasites was 58% (145/250). Among these Schizothorax plageostomus fish 93...

 Mian Sabahatullah*, Manzoor Ahmad Mashwani**, Qurratul Ain Tahira* and Mian Inayatullah*

NEW RECORD OF SUBFAMILY CHARMONTINAE (BRACONIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) IN PAKISTAN WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES
... A cosmopolitan braconid species, Charmon extensor (Linnaeus), is first time recorded from Chitral area of Pakistan. A new species, Charmon ovchinnikovi, is described, illustrated and compared with its closely related species Charmon extensor. The new species is different from C. extensor because of different sculpture of metasomal tergum 1 and shape of ...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...ative abundance of Culex species in different districts were: Peshawar (32.3), Nowshera (18.8), Mardan (20.3) and Charsadda (21.0). Higher numbers of Aedes mosquitoes were observed in Nowshera (19.3), Peshawar (16.4), Charsadda (13.1), and Mardan (9.8), respectively. Mean monthly positive ovitraps of species was high in May and October collected from Peshawar (32.5, 31.5), Nowshera (25.3, 26.8), Mardan (22.2, 16.8) and Chars...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
..., 25:75, along with sole species on their chemical composition. Samples were analyzed for proximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
..., 25:75, along with sole species on their digestibility in small ruminants. Goats fed II , HC II , HC II , HC II and HC had similar 100% 25% 75% 50% 50% 75% 25% 100% dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) consumption among all the treatments. The digestibility percentage of dry matter intake (DMI) varied among the treatments ranging from 68.25% to 41.66%. Mixtures of low palatable grass and Ipil ipil were in general more digestible with more ...

 Sameera Arshad*, Iftikhar Hussain*, Maqsood Anwar* and Sarwat Naz Mirza*

HABITAT SURVEY FOR RECOGNIZING BIRD ATTRACTANTS AROUND BENAZIR BHUTTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...fields that attract bird species, pose serious threat to aviation industry. Habitat survey for recognizing bird attractants and hazardous bird species was carried out at 8 selected study sites within 8 km radius of Benazir Bhutto International Airport (BBIA), Islamabad. Each site represented a different habitat and was ranked for the presence of bird attracting sites using Habitat Composite Index (HCI). Habitat representing ...

 Raja Zoq-ul-Arfeen*, Aamir Saleem*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Muhammad Akmal**, Hafiz Muhammad Tayyab* and Obaid Afzal***

BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM RIPARIAN AREAS OF PAKISTAN: SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TAUNSA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY AND KETI SHAH FORESTS
...which belong to 54 plant species with 18 different families. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 families. Similarly, in Keti Shah forest, total 3975 individual were recorded from 22 species

 Farid Asif Shaheen*, Sadia Parveen*, Ahmed Zia**, Ghulam Qadir*,
Mureed Husain*** and Rifat Ullah Khan****

PREDATORY APTNESS OF ANTS AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM HERBST (TENEBRIONIDAE: COLEOPTERA) IN WHEAT FLOUR
...in laboratory. Three ant species namely, Dorylus labiatus, Camponotus rufipes and Monomorium minimum were collected from forest and non-forest habitats and compared for their predation against different life stages of RFB. Results showed D. labiatus of forest habitat as an efficient pupal predator that consumed 91.66% pupae of RFB. It was significantly different from non-forest ant population and control with 73.33% and 11.66% pupal predation, respectively. C....

 Abdul Haq*, Anjum Shehzad**, Muhammad Ilyas**, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**, Abdul Rauf Bhatti** and Mian Inayatullah*

DIVERSITY AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF CITRUS POLLINATORS IN DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
...ts i.e., Diptera with 16 species, Hymenoptera with 14 species, Lepidoptera with 3 species and Coleoptera with 2 species. The calculated values of relative abundance showed that is most abundant species in ecosystem followed by sp. and . All calculated values of diversity indices except Shannon-H does not show significa...

 Dilawar Khan*, Abid Saeed*, Junaid Ahmad*, Imtiaz Qamar**, Fazal Yazdan**, Saleem ud Din** and Muhammad Tariq**

ASSESSMENT OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN DHRABI WATERSHED AND CHAKWAL REGION IN PAKISTAN
...t Chakwal. There were 88 species reported in the study area. The five plant communities recognized in the Dhrabi watershed on the basis of importance value (IV) by using line transect sampling method. On the basis of top three highest IV plant community were identified at western side of the Kallar Kahar Lake while plant community was observed in eastern side by using 1x1 m quadrat method.

...

 Syed Waqar Shah* and Muhammad Ather Rafi*

PIERID (LEPIDOPTERA: PIERIDAE) PESTS AND THEIR NEW CRUCIFERS HOSTS IN POTHWAR REGION OF PAKISTAN
... above reported Pieridae species is reported for the first time however, is also a new record from districts Rawalpindi and Chakwal and from Jhelum, Rawalpindi and Chakwal. However, the non-cultivated host plants in the region were , , and . Among noncultivated hosts was the new host for . C. was found common host for , and from the study area. Among non-cultivated host plants was found for and for and . All the non-cultivated host plants were new records from...

  Mohammad Umar Farooq* , Sarfraz Ahmad ** , Mohammad Islam and Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar ***

ASSESSING THE STATUS OF CARBON POOL IN TWO RANGELAND GRASSES ( ) IN POTHWAR, REGION, PAKISTAN
...nd response of different species.

...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...g in different livestock species and requires to develop prevention and control strategy, that hasn't been done in Pakistan. Active disease surveillance at door steps was conducted to collect blood samples from small and large ruminants of subtropical rural communities in the province of Punjab during January-March, 2015. Total 59665 sera samples from apparently healthy animals were collected and screened by Rose Bengal Plate test and confirmed by Complement f...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...lants but also with weed species before its introduction into agroforestry systems. During present investigation, allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract was investigated on seed germination and seedling development of L. Extracts were applied at 25%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 5% as seed soaking for 8 hours prior to sowing. Phenolics compounds were found in aqueous extracts and were higher in 25% extract (52.72 mg gallic acid eq. / gm of extract). Higher concen...
Dachuan Cheng1,2, Md Mahbubul Hassan3, Zhenhua Ma1, 2, 3,*, Qibin Yang1 and Jian G. Qin3
...geny and anomalies among species of the family Lutjanidae. This study describes the skeletal ontogeny and anomalies of crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus larvae and juveniles from hatching to 36 day-post hatching (DPH). Mandible, ceratobranchial, cleithrum and gill arches were the initial skeletal structures appeared at 3 DPH that supported the vital life functions such as feeding and respiration. Ossification of premaxilla and maxilla and dentary s...
Zheng Quan Jiang1,2, Feng Shan Li3, Jiang Hong Ran1,*, Chen Hao Zhao1, Man Zhang1 and Hua Li4
...is the only alpine crane species, whose distribution is restricted to the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau and the adjacent high altitude areas of China, Bhutan, Pakistan, and India. Study on nest type and size is useful for understanding the life history, evolution and adaptation of birds. A survey was conducted on nest size and the underlying regulatory factors of Black-necked Cranes from 25 March to 31 July in 2013 and 2014 at Ruoergai Internationally Important Wetl...
Yanxiao Meng1, Guihua Wang1, Dongmei Xiong1,*, Haixia Liu1, Xiaolin Liu1, Lixin Wang1 and Jianlu Zhang2
... on the validation of subspecies B. lenok tsinlingensis Li for a long time. Some ichthyologists thought that there should be two species (B. lenok and B. tumensis) in Amur River and a subspecies (B. lenok tsinlingensis) in the Qinling Mountains, while others believed no division of the subspecies. Thus, 169 specimens of...
 Nazia Qamar1, Sher Khan Panhwar1,* and Ralf Riedel2,*
...riance (permanova), with species, life stage (juvenile and adults), gender, and weather (rainy and dry season) as factors. Patterns of empty stomachs were investigated to estimate feeding intensity. Feeding intensity was estimated with logistic regression, using the same independent variables as above. Prey importance was also investigated. Prey importance was assessed using a Wilcox Rank Correlation analysis on the Index of Relative Importance (IRI) by
Burcu Onuk1,*, Murat Kabak1, Bünyamin Sahin2 and Nazan Gezer İnce3

 

...l difference between two species. Our findings suggest that the nasal structures of the two-different species have similar architecture, which may be linked to the same function in flying birds.
...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
...c potential of bacterial species is an essential feature to carry out a wide range of biological and physiological processes, particularly involved in the hydrolysis of complex organic materials. Several pathogenic microbial species utilize enzymes as virulence factors to cause diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate enzymatic activities of the bacterial strain Shigella dysenteriae IM using API-ZYM test...
Wei Dang1, Ning Xu1, Wen Zhang1, Jing Gao2, Handong Fan1 and Hongliang Lu 1,*
...expression in six lizard species to investigate the variation in Hsp70 response contributing to thermal adaptation. At first, we collected three lizard species of the genus Takydromus from different geographical locations. We found that either the constitutive expression pattern in different organs or the inducible expression pattern under higher ambient temperature were the same. The expression of Hsp70 was higher in...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
...ne the terrestrial snail species and associated helminth parasites in Ugwueme agricultural zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. The snails were collected from two communities. Light and teasing methods were used for recovery of parasites from the snails. A total of 618 snails belonging to 7 species (Achatina achatina, A. belteata, A. degneri, Limicolaria aurora, L. flammea, Lamellaxis gracilis and Orthalicus sp.) were...
Chuanpeng Zhou1, Heizhao Lin2,*, Zhong Huang2, Jun Wang1, Yun Wang1 and Wei Yu2
...metabolic burden in this species

...
Mubashar Hussain, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Sehreen Siddique, Muhammad Umar, Tamkeen Zainab, Fatima Zafar
...d a representation of 14 species, 6 genera and 3 sub families across all sites. Maximum abundance was noticed for Coccinella septempunctata (19.63 %) followed by Coccinella undecimpunctata (14.70 %), Coccinella transversalis (11.14 %) and Coccinella sexmaculata (10.29 %). Greater diversity (H´: 2.481), dominance (1-D: 0.8964) and evenness (J´: 0.7474) of coccinellid beetles were recorded from under-study sites. Ho...
Zahida Parveen1, Safdar Sidra1*, Bushra Nisar Khan2
..., most time spent by all species and varieties of peafowls was in walking around within the enclosure (20.6%), followed by litter pecking (13.8%), feather pecking (13.0%) and standing (12.7%). Feeding and drinking consumed approximately 4.6% and 2.1% of time, respectively. 
...
Olaniyi Alaba Olopade1,*, Henry Eyina Dienye1, Bosede Jimba1, Nathanael Akinsafe Bamidele2, Iyabo Olusola Taiwo2
...at the well-being of the species was slightly better in Buguma Creek than New Calabar River. Collectively these findings confirmed the ability of the species to thrive in brackish water and freshwater, and that these parameters support the assessment of the well-being of different fish in different locations.
...
Muhammad Arshad,1* Sajjad Ahmad1, Muhammad Sufyan1, Zain-ul Abdin1 and Sumaira Maqsood2
...ip intercropping promote species composition; richness and abundance in general and predators in particular.
...
Ligia Neves Scuarcialupi, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra, Julia Rosas Hochheim, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Fabio Gregori*
...is and diarrhea in avian species, resulting in negative impact on egg and poultry production. The objective of this work was to detect and characterize Rotavirus F (RVF) and G (RVG) found in Brazilian commercial avian farms. A total of 97 intestinal contents was collected between 2008 and 2015 from 10 Brazilian states, and submitted to two different RT-PCR, targeting a fragment of viral VP6-coding nucleotide sequence of each viral group. Amplicons were further...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
...us) is an endangered species and captive populations are important for conservation. Canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) are two infections threatening the survival of this species. Based on a limited number of animals, live attenuated vaccines have been suggested to provide protective immunity in the African wild dog; however, their use has been hampered by the fear of vaccine-induced disease. Kolm&...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
... amphibian and reptilian species attracted attention of the conservation biologists worldwide to monitor herpetofunal diversity for effective conservation planning and management. Different sampling techniques are applied during herpetofaunal surveys and some of them might be expensive, time intensive and their effectiveness in different regions of the world are still debatable. Moreover, data recorded from inappropriate designed surveys are not suitable for s...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
...ctices (Ducks), invasive species (Little egret and Night herone) and illegal hunting (Geese, Ducks, Siberian cranes and Bustards) have resulted in the decline of species abundance.. Regular conduct of surveys for important migratory birds to assess the population trend, abundance and patterns of their migration is another important step towards conservation of birds. To make an effective conservation of migratory birds, inte...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
...dentification of 94 bird species belonging to 12 orders and 35 families. Altogether 3,328 individuals were observed. Out of 35 Families, Sturnidae and Sylviidae hadthe highest number of species (5 species each).Six simple dietary guilds were observed during the present study; the maximum number of species belonged to insectivore group and minimum to nect...
Pei-Ying Peng1,2, Xian-Guo Guo1,2,* and Dao-Chao Jin2
...font-size: small;">A new species of gamasid mite, Laelaps jinghaensis sp. nov., was described. The new species was collected from the body surface of red spiny rat, Maxomys surifer Miller, 1900 in Jingha, Yunnan province of southwest China. The sternal shield of L. jinghaensissp. nov. is deeply concave anteriorly with serrate internal sides. There are many distinct transverse lines in the presternal area...
Nanjing Zeng1, Guanhua Liu1, Sibiao Wen1 and Feiyun Tu2,*
...imited checklist of bird species has been available. In order to investigate the bird diversity and avifauna of PLNNR, complete species checklist was strictly checked according to systematic analyses of species records from multisource. Fifty-seven species were newly recorded based on the previous study of 330 bird species...
Huma Ayub1,Iftikhar Ahmad2, Syed Lal Shah3,*, Muhammad Zafarullah Bhatti4, Nuzhat Shafi5 and Mazhar Qayyum1
...tribution of zooplankton species at Chashma Lake during June 2014 to May 2015. The samples were collected from three partially separated stations of the Chashma Lake on a monthly basis. A total 42 species of zooplankton were identified from the Chashma Lake belonging to three taxa viz.; copepoda, rotifera and cladocera. The diversity of the zooplankton species in the lake was determ...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...ld and domesticated bird species across Pakistan. During January-December 2013, in total 700 samples were collected from different species of non-vaccinated birds inhabiting diverse ecological zones of Pakistan. Altogether, 507 tissue and swab samples were screened for the presence of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Same samples were further processed for the isolation of virus by embry...
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1,*, Waseem Akram2, Sumi Lee3, Shakir Manzoor1, Syed Rajab Ayub1, Khalil Ur Rehman1, Shinawar Waseem Ali1, Muhammad Bilal Chattha1 and Sumaira Maqsood1

Mohammad Javad Golmohammadi1, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust Chamanabad1*, Bijan Yaghoubi2 and Mostafa Oveisi

...count existing genus and species of weeds. According to the results, the highest frequency was related to weed species of Echinochloa crusgalli (96.9%), Paspalum distichum (78.8%) and Eclipta prostrate (51.8%). Cyperaceae and Poaceae families showed the highest frequency with 13 species (20%) and 8 species (12%), respectively. The RC of E. crusgalli ha...

Mahwish Rehman1*, Sajjad Ahmad1, Maqsood Shah1 and Inamullah Khan

...o discovered Varroa mite species. Identification was done by using key developed byDe-Guzman and Fernandez and Coineau, (2007), i.e. body size (length and width), location of seta, shape, size (i.e. bristle hair, stiff) on dorsal shield, chaetotaxy and structure of the sternal, , metapodal, anal, and epigynal shields, periterme, morphology of setae on the legs and palps and its arrangement and number were observed. Results of the present study showed that the ...
Shuai Shang1,2, Honghai Zhang2,*, Xiaoyang Wu2, Qinguo Wei2, Jun Chen1, Huanxin Zhang1, Huaming Zhong2 and Xuexi Tang1,*
... been identified in many species, but the evolution and repertoire of Tas2r genes in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) was still unknown. As a true omnivorous mammal, the Tas2r genes may play a critical role in food selection of raccoon dogs. Thus, we explored the evolution of Tas2r genes in raccoon dogs. In this study, Tas2r genes including eleven intact genes and four pseudogenes from raccoon dogs were identified for t...
Muhammad Akbar Khan
...Hexaprotodon and the species Hex. sivalensis. Due to rarity of this taxon, its morphological characters are incompletely known. Hippopotamid material recently excavated in the middle Pleistocene locality of Bhimber (Azad Kashmir, Pakistan) includes an almost complete mandible that provides a better knowledge of the taxon morphology. Hexaprotodon sivalensis is reported for the first time from the Bhimber Pleistocene locality of Azad Kashmir, P...
Jiji Li*, Tianyang Zu, Xiangli Dong, Xiao Yang, Wei Liu and Changwen Wu
...immune responses in fish species. The current study reports on the gene expression and molecular characteristics of three members of the CC family of chemokines: 1) dual chemokine ligand CCL17; 2) homeostatic chemokines ligand CCL21; and 3) CCL24 in response to bacterial challenge in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The results revealed that the immunological effect of CCLs in the croaker is weaker than that of other fish, and revealed the in...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...plant parasitic nematode species that infects a huge number of crop plants. It also infects the ornamental plants resulting in a serious growth-limiting factor in ornamentals. In this study, the response of ten ornamental plants to M. incognita was assessed in pot experiments. All the ornamental plant species showed varying degree of infection of M. incognita. Rhapis excels and Ophiopogan japonicas

Muhammad Suhaib1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Masooma Munir3, Badar-Uz-Zaman1, Bushra Atta4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

... certain reactive oxygen species are produced that damage the vital plant organelles causing disturbances in the normal functioning of the plant and even may lead to death in severe cases. The results of this study conferred that there were genotypic variation found in two genotypes regarding salinity tolerance. SARC-4 was found to tolerate more salt stress as compared to Parwaz-94 and performed better at both salinity levels then Parwaz-94. Salicylic acid ind...
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...man being caused by multispecies of bacteria. Among the causative agents of dental caries, notable one is Streptococcus mutans, which is an obligate parasite. In this study eleven S. mutans strains were isolated from carious lesions on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar along with twenty potentially active Streptomyces strains were isolated from the soil of agriculture farmlands. The biochemical and physiological characterization along with ...
Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2,*, Khizar Samiullah3
...bitat structure of known species is also ambiguous. In this study, we report the scorpion Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) from several areas of Punjab, Pakistan. This scorpion species has not been previously documented from this part of the country, highlighting the wide distribution of this specie across the country. We identified that A. finitimus prefers dry sandy habitat with lower vegetation. T...
Muhammad Adeeb Babar1,*, Sayyad Ghyour Abbas1, Muhammad Akbar Khan1, Kiran Aftab2, Muhammad Hanif1, Muhammad Asim1 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...). The identified cervid species include Rucervus cf. simplicidens, Cervus cf. triplidens and Cervus cf. sivalensis. These specimens provide additional information about the recorded cervid species and contribute to recent work from the Middle Siwalik Hills of Pakistan.
...
Baoying Guo*1, Yu Chen1, Chuan Zhang2, Zhenming Lv1, Kaida Xu3, Hongling Ping4 and Huilai Shi4
...A genes of 37 cuttlefish species. S. lycidas have a close relationship with S. pharaonis, S. aculeata, and S. esculenta. This result confirmed the relationships of S. lycidas as being similar to the traditional taxonomy. This study plays an important role in the investigation of phylogenetic relationships, taxonomic resolution, and phylogeography for Sepiidae species.
...
Mehmet Aydın*

 

... the fiveDecapoda species (Pachygrapsus marmoratus, Carcinus aestuarii, Liocarcinus depurator, Liocarcinus navigator, and Eriphia verrucosa) living in the Black Sea. The crab samples were obtained between 2010 and 2016 by SCUBA, trawl, trammel net, and dredges at six locations (Kastamonu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, and Trabzon). Total carapace length (CL) and weight (W) of each individual were recorded with an accuracy of 0.01 cm a...
Muhammad Shahbaz1,*, Muhammad Anwar Iqbal1, Arshad Javid2, Abu ul Hassan Faiz1, Irfan3 and Muhammad Irshad Arshad4
...lus belonging to six species i.e. P. pipistrellus (n = 43), P. paterculus (n = 12), P. javanicus (n = 39), P. tenuis (n = 18), P. cylonicus (n = 40) and P. dormeri (n = 20) were captured. Out of these six species, four are reported for the first time from the study area, whereas, P. pipistrellus and P. paterculus has already been reported from other districts of Pun...
Ye Gong, Nehafta Bibi and Haitao Wang*
... Mandarin duck and other species over 11 breeding seasons (2004 - 2014). We monitored the frequency of occurrence and the fate of eggs in those nests and recorded fourteen cases of mixed clutches that contained Mandarin duck eggs. Nine cases were classified as successful nest usurpation: in six cases nests of other birds were usurped by Mandarin duck and in three cases nests of Mandarin duck were usurped by other birds. The remaining mixed clutches may be inco...
Zeqin Fu, Yunfang Tian, Yingying Ye*, Pengzhi Qi and Changwen Wu
...s one of the main mussel species in China, with a widely range of aquaculture markets and importantly economic value. In this study, we used one hundred and twenty primers pairs to screen all microsatellite loci and twenty-three polymorphic loci were identified. The number of alleles per loci ranged from six to twenty-one with an average of 12.913 and the allele size varied between 161 and 470 bp. The observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.143 to 1...

Xiangbin Meng1,Tianxiang Gao2, Chunhou Li3, Na Song1, Lu Liu1, Liqin Liu2 and Xiumei Zhang1,*

 

...the conservation of this species. We performed next-generation sequencing and de novo assembly to obtain potential useful microsatellite markers for S. esculenta. Among 80 tested microsatellite markers, 19 showed polymorphism among S. esculenta individuals. The allele number of all polymorphic microsatellite markers ranged from 6 to 10. Expected and observed heterozygosity varied from 0.260 to 0.904 and from 0.292 to 0.861, with an average...
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
...of formal studies on the species. A survey was conducted from June to December 2014 to document existence of the leopard in Abbaspur area, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Direct field observations (opportunistic survey) and indirect observations based on signs of the species were recorded. This was supplemented with information collected through questionnaire survey. Results confirmed the occurrence of leopard at six out of twelve s...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Shafqat Rasool1, Faraz Akrim1, Shaista Andleeb1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2 and Fiaz Nadeem3
...cording diversity of owl species inhabiting Margalla Hills National Park, Islamabad (MHNP). Three owl species viz., Spotted Owlet (Athene brama), Little owlet (Athene noctua) and the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) were recorded from the park at five different sampling sites, at elevations ranging from 615 m to 655 m above sea level. Only one of the three species Tawny ...
Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain and Tariq Mahmood*
...ence of different rodent species inside the crop fields and at field edges, associated with four major crops (wheat, groundnut, millet and maize) in the Pothwar Plateau. In all four crops, maximum number of rodent burrows was recorded at maturity stages of the crops. The maturity stage of wheat crop coincided with spring breeding season while the maturity stages of millet/maize and groundnut matched with monsoon/autumn breeding peak of the rodents in the study...
Adel A. Basyouny Shahin,1,* Amira M. Metwally Mohamed2 and Abd El-Reheem A. El Shatter2

 

...t from those of the same species occurring elsewhere. The means of expected (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity were 0.175 ± 0.503 and 0.124 ± 0.496, respectively, the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 29.42%, while the mean number of alleles per locus (A) was 1.30 ± 0.11. In addition, the mean levels of genetic identity (I) and genetic distance (D) were 0.932 and 0.070, respect...
Danyu Zhang1, Ying Liu1, Qinxin Shi1, Zhiwei Peng1, Yan Hua1 and Zhijun Hou1,2,*
...v>...
Zihong Chen1, Ling Xu2, Xiaona Yang2, Yaguan Zhang3* and Yuming Yang4
...ogical protection. A new species of the genus, collected from Taibao mountain, Baoshan City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, was described here as Metarhizium baoshanense. It was proposed and determined based on morphological characters combined with a multigene phylogenetics analysis involving 5.8S–ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, EF–1α, RPB1 and RPB2. In multilocus phylogeny, M. baoshanense was grouped as a sister clade to Metarhizi...
Wael S. El-Tohamy1,*, Russell R. Hopcroft2 and Nagwa E.M. Abdel Aziz3
...), the variations in the species data were significantly (P< 0.05) related to salinity, temperature, phosphate concentration and phytoplankton biomass. The main spatial gradients along the estuary were associated with salinity. The high salinity zone in the estuary downstream was dominated by the calanoid paracalanidae and the harpacticoid Euterpina acutifrons. In the lower salinity transects, the tintinnid Favella serrata dominated the estuar...
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
...hwa Pakistan contains 11 species of lizards (Calotes versicolor farooqi, Laudakia agrorensis, Eublepharis macularius, Cyrtopodion scabrum, Hemidactylus brookii, Hemidactylus flaviviridis, Ophisops jerdonii, Asymblepharus himalayanus, Eurylepis taeniolatus, Eutropis dissimilis and Varanus bengalensis) and 16 species of snakes (Eryx johnii, Amphiesma stolatum, Boiga trigonata, Lycodon striatus, Oligodon arnens...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
... healthy animals of each species and were divided into three equal groups (n=18). The antibody titers were evaluated with indirect haemagglutination test. The results indicated significantly higher (P< 0.05) immune titer in animal group vaccinated with toxoid vaccine prepared from pathogenic isolates and provide best protection against challenge infection.
...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...g to fowl adenoviruses C species and serotype FAdV-4. The similar viruses have been commonly isolated since late 1980s from the poultry flocks. In addition, seven genetically related FAdV isolates were from fowl adenovirus type 11 in D species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of FAdV-11 strains identified in poultry production facilities in Pakistan. This study reveals the presence of two distinct groups of FAdV-4...
Sahar Naz1, Farhan Rasheed2, Muhammad Saeed3*, Shagufta Iram4 and Ambereen Anwar Imran5
...30) Acinetobacter species were MβL positive, Pseudomonas species 38.5% (n=22), Escherichia coli 69.5% (n=16), Klebsiella species 37.0% (n=10), Proteus 66.6% (n=2) and 0% Citrobacter sppwere MβL positive. 32.5% MβL positive isolates were from ICU, 21.2% were from OPD, 12.5%were from Surgical Units, 12.5% were from Medical Unit, 17.5% ...
Ayesha Noreen1, Dilara A. Bukhari2 and Abdul Rehman1,*
...
The reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated by intake of environmental pollutants, smoke, tobacco, xenobiotic, drugs, medical materials, radiations, pesticides, industrial solvents and ozone. The processes running in the cell membranes, peroxisomes, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum also generate ROS. ROS can be activated by numerous external factors, and play an important role in cancer growth and metastasis. ROS and tumor cell interaction co...
Maryam Javed*, Farwa Saghir, Naveera Aziz, Maham Saeed, Asif Nadeem and Wasim Shehzad
...the four domestic bovine species of Pakistan, which are normally less aggressive. Selected animal species were cattle (Bos indicus), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Selected marker V158M is present in exon-8 of COMT gene. Each specie was subjected to blood sampling (n=20 each). DNA was extracted, purified, quantified and amplified through PCR by using specifi...
Xia Lin Zheng1, Zhen Hua Xian1, Zhen De Yang2, Xiu Hao Yang3 and Wen Lu1,*
...v>Damaging effect of two species of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) have been investigated on Castanopsis hystrix Miq. (Fagales: Fagaceae) in Pubei County of Guangxi, China were investigated from December 2012 to December 2013. Jaapiella sp. damaged leaves, while Contarinia sp. damaged stems and leafstalks. The damage ratio and the index of Jaapiella sp. in December 2012, March, July and December 2013 were 9.7±2.0%, 14.8...
Nuzhat Huma1, Fozia Ghaffar1, Saima Rafiq2,*, Imran Pasha1, Aysha Sameen1, Imran Hayat2 and Imtiaz Hussain2
...f whey proteins of these species, β-Lg was found to be the major protein in sheep and buffalo milks, while in goat it was the second predominant protein and it was absent in the camel milk. The concentration of immunoglobin was found higher in camel and goat milks as compared to other species. Moreover, the strength and mobility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was different in all milk species
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
... a cluster of six member species. However, literature is not available regarding the causative agents of CCPP in sheep and goats in Northern Pakistan. The current study was thus aimed to identify relative abundance of members of MM in small ruminants suspected of CCPP in Northern region of Pakistan. A total of 300 samples, (150 sheep and 150 goats) were randomly collected from nasal discharge, pleural fluid and lung tissues, and streaked into Pleuropneumonia l...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabayasachi Pal2, Amit Singh2, Ashok Dhananjaybhai Patel3, Bhagubhai Ambaram Patel3Tushar Manohar Ghule2 and Victor Phani1
...ecorded and the nematode species was authentically identified as Meloidogyne indica Whitehead, 1968 which was first time described on citrus from Delhi, India. The species is further characterized based on detailed morphological, morphometric descriptions and beta-esterase phenotyping. The present study elucidated information on M. indica for its easy detection, diagnosis, dimension of damages on citrus, and Bt...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...st-vaccination in target species and repeated host susceptibility. However, these genes are variable among ORFV isolates/strains as they are not located in central part of genome and some of them are either virus specific namely Viral interferon resistant (VIR) and GM-CSF/IL2 inhibition factor (GIF) genes and or host specific namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-E) and viral IL-10 genes. ORFV can cause high morbidity in adults along with considerabl...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

 

...eriment. Only the fungus species A. arthrobotryoides repelled the nematodes.
...
Zhu-Mei Ren1,*, Xu Su2, Carol D von Dohlen3 and Jun Wen4,1,*
...w Rhus gall aphid species Nurudea zhengii Ren, sp. nov. collected from the Mountain Qixing in Shangrao County, Jiangxi Province, China is described and illustrated from alate viviparous female. The new species differs from the other Nurudea species in the length and proportion of antennal segments, the structure of antennal secondary sensilla, and the flower-like shape...
Ayesha Aihetasham, Saira Shariq and Javed Iqbal Qazi*
...identification of fungal species from cadavers of notorious subterranean termite, Heterotermes indicola. Virulence of Rhizopus stolonifer isolate and resultant variations in food consumption of H. indicola workers were evaluated over a period of one month by employing surface culture method. Following different time exposures, R. stolonifer significantly produced epozootics on the tested insects, with resultant decrease in food cons...

Muhammad Khalid1,2 and Muhammad Naeem2* 

...ximate analysis for this species from farming system of southern Punjab, Pakistan is provided. 

...
Wei Meng1,3, Tianyan Yang2,*, Yunguo Liu1, Mahmut Halik1 and Tianxiang Gao2
...variation existed within species and the sample from Kaidu River in South Xinjiang might be a cryptic species or subspecies of G. dybowskii. The phylogenetic analyses from 12 concatenated H-strand-encoding protein genes were conducted by Neighbor-Joining method to reveal the evolutionary relationships within subfamily Schizothoracinae. Three different grades of schizothoracine fishe...
Ai Guo1,2,3, Jiaguang Xiao4, Binbin Shan4, Tianxiang Gao5 and Yongdong Zhou3,*
...tion among Coilia species was detected in length of the control region, mainly caused by the variable number of tandem repeats. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on 13 concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding genes from 8 Coilia mitochondrial genomes. The results supported that C. lindmani at first clustered with C. nasus and C. grayii which had close relationships (d=0.028), then clustered with C. mystus whic...
Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3,*
...te mito-genomes of three species (O. lacepedii, O. rebecca and Odontamblyopus sp.) were sequenced, their genomic structure examined, and their genome organization, arrangement and codon usage analyzed. Phylogenetic Bayesian and ML analyses were conducted, using a concatenated set of 12 protein-coding genes, and adding 16 other species of gobies (Gobiidae). The mitogenome sequences of O. lacepedii,...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
.... In a nutshell, several species of MBL-positive gram-negative rods are distributed broadly in different hospitals of Lahore region of Pakistan. The findings of the present study should be considered for planning strategies to treat and prevent the further spread of MBL-producing gram-negative rods infections.
...

Ashraf Khan1*, Suliman Shah2, Maid Zaman3 and Komal Habib2

...xious pest of almost all species and varieties of citrus and its infestation found throughout the world. It is becoming serious threat to the brightening future of citrus growing areas of Pakistan. Thirteen different insecticides were usedfor effective control against citrus psylla under field conditions. Population density of pest was recorded as number of adults per branch. Efficacy of the insecticides was evaluated as percent mortality (%) of citrus psylla....
Lamiaa Elsayed Mokhtar Deef
...Egypt (Gebel Elba). This species is greatly distributed across central and eastern Africa. The exact identification of species is fundamental for an efficient assessment of changes related to the appearance of non-native species in an environment. The biometrics and molecular markers were used to confirm the identification of A. albiventris at the species

Yasir Ali1*, Muhammad Aslam Khan1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Muhammad Hussain2

...tivars and related local species using different molecular approaches. This review provides a detailed discussion of the different aspects for controlling three rust diseases caused by P. recondita Rob. exdesm f. sp. tritici , P. striiformis West. f. sp. tritici, P. graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici and the importance of race specific and non-specific rust resistance genes in in global wheat varieties. This knowledge will help as basis for plant pathologist, plant...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
...he predominant genus and species, respectively. In addition, challenge tests demonstrated that 13 out of 70 isolates were strongly pathogenic and identified as V. harveyi. This study illustrated that V. harveyi could be considered as main pathogen. These investigation results would provide useful information for disease prevention in T. rubripes culture.
...
Ali Murad Rahoo1, Tariq Mukhtar2,*, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...y differ among different species of EPN and hosts of various sizes. Therefore, the objective of conducting the present study was to compare the productivity of two EPN (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) in G. mellonella larvae of different sizes. The size of G. mellonella had significant effect on the emergence of IJ. Significantly greater numbers of IJ both of H. bacteriophora and S. feltiae emerg...
Peng Xu1, Bin Liu1,2, Yongqiang Zhao3, Shicheng Lv3 and Changhu Lu1,*
...eat significance for the species protection and management. Here, based on the annual maximum population size of red-crowned crane wintering in Yancheng Nature Reserve (YNR) from 1981 to 2016, we tested the correlation between population size and the climate variables. The results showed that mean air temperature in wintering period showed a linear upward trend. Annual maximum wintering crane population was 623±33. Fitting the population size and the cl...

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

...y to identify the fungal species with their potent antifungal activity against the Fusarium wilt of tomato. Six distinct fungal species including Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria solani and Pythium aphanidermatum showed growth inhibition (%) against the pathogen. Penicillium sp. showed maximum growth inhibition (63.85 ± 3.26 %) and its extract showed 9.20 &plusm...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1*, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Dakwang Nalong1, Rengkat Jonah1 and Olabode Mayowa

...ence based on the animal species (P=0.023; odds ratio=7.688) screened in the study. In pigs, T. gondii seropositivity was found to be higher (46.2%) and about five times more likely to occur in males than in females (33.3%) (P=0.016; Odds ratio=5.15; 95%CI=1.040-1.844). The seropositivity was also found to increase with age. The prevalence was higher (44.1%) in animals older than 2 years than in those below 2years (31.3%) (P=0.022; OR=4.58). In sheep and goats...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
.... Among Pleurotus species (P. nebrodensis, P. sepidus, P. spodoecus), P. spodoecus expressed best statin formation i.e., 9.1±1.4 mg/g. Four physical parameters including temperature, pH, inoculums size and fermentation time (each at five levels) were optimized using central composite design (CCD) design in 30 triplicate experimental runs. The maximum statin formation (19 mg/g) was achieved at 25oC, pH 5.5, i...
Fehmeeda Fatima, Asif Nadeem* and Maryam Javed
...) is a vulnerable subspecies of wild goat (Capra aegagrus), which faced serious population threats. In the present study, HSP70.1 gene has been partially sequenced (1344 bp) to study genetic diversity and evolutionary characteristics of Sindh ibex. In this research, samples of Sindh ibex were collected from Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan, the gene of interest was amplified, PCR products were sequenced and data was analyzed. The results of ge...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
...ex. Two key conservation species were observed regularly in the Garaet: near threatened Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca) and endangered White-headed Duck(Oxyura leucocephala). Our results highlight the importance of preserving the Garaet Hadj Tahar as a water bird refuge. 
...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Ijaz Ahmad1, Faraz Akrim1, Abdul Hamid1, Muhammad Waseem1, Abid Hussain1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...t breeding season of the species starts from February: peak breeding months being March and April, during which frequent breeding calls were heard. The calling frequency ranged from 0.15 per minute to 0.3 per minute. Six active nests of Chukor were found at five different sampling sites; nest location was mostly on sloping areas under sanatha Dodonaea viscosa shrubs. Nesting material consisted of dry leaves of annual grass Poa annua, small twigs ...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
...commercially hunted fish species. In this study maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of Carangoides fishery from Sindh, Pakistan is estimated by using catch and effort data. For data analysis, two specialized fishery software CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were employed. Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz., Fox Model (FM), Schaefer Model (SM) and Pella-Tomlinson Model (PTM) were use...
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
...elonging to 10 different species were examined for parasitic, fungal and bacterial infection. The fish species studied were; Carassius auratus and its six varieties (shubunkin, comet, black moor, oranda, double tail and fantail); molly Poeciliasphenops; platy Xiphophorus maculates; sword tail Xiphophorus helleri; guppy Poecilia reticulata; tiger oscar Astronotus ocellatus; koi c...

Nadia Khan1*, Abdul Waheed1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Naveed Ahmed1, Zafar Iqbal2, Seemab Ali1, Madiha Bashir1 and Hina Gul3  

...hytopathogenic bacterial species (Clavibacter sp. and Xanthomonas sp.) and a human pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) in 2016. Experiment was carried out by using complete randomized design with three replications in vitro. Phytochemical analysis reveals that the methanolic fraction of oil possesses metabolites like carbohydrates, amino acids, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides. To test the antibacterial activity of the extracted seed oil, Agar well dif...

 Phong Huy Pham

Nesting biology of a spider wasp Auplopus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) in Vietnam
...ders were immatures of a species of the genus Heteropoda, family Sparassidae. Developmental time of egg, larva, pre-pupa, pupa, and pre-adult was 6 - 7, 13 - 14, 5 - 7, 41 - 43, and 3 - 4 days, respectively. The duration of egg to adult development ranged from 68 to 75 days.

...

 Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2*, Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1, Arshad Ali3, Zafar Iqbal Kahan4, Kafeel Ahmed4

Intra- and inter-specific foraging in three scorpion species
...aviour of three scorpion species: Mesobuthus tumulus (Fabricius, 1798), Odontobuthus odonturus (Pocock, 1897), and Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) inhabiting Punjab, Pakistan, was studied under laboratory and field conditions. Results of the study revealed that all three scorpion species were cannibalistic. Mesobuthus tumulus attacked and fed more upon juvenile and sub- adults (medium- sized), scorpions. They also cons...

 Hamda Azmat1, Waqas Ali2, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain2, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Zara Saeed1,Syed Shafiq Hussain Bukhari4

Chromium contamination in water, sediment and its bioaccumulation in Indian major carps in River Chenab, Pakistan
...Among all the three fish species, maximum metal concentration was accumulated by Cirrhinus mrigala followed by Catla catla and Labeo rohita. Among fish organs, maximum Cr concentration 4.75±0.78 (µg/g) was recorded from liver whereas minimum 1.10±0.21 (µg/g) from muscles of the fish.

...

 Haji Muhammad1, Zafar Iqbal1, Tanveer Akhlaq2

Length-weight, length-length relationships and condition factor of fishes of family cyprindae from the Indus River, Pakistan
...ng to 20 freshwater fish species of family cyprinidae. Fish samples were
collected on a monthly basis from August 2013 to July 2014 at Taunsa barrage from the Indus River, Punjab,
Pakistan. The values of parameter b for LWRs ranged from 2.16 – 4.10 suggesting the isometric and allometric
growth pattern in fishes of family cyprinidae. The results of K factors ranged from 0.645 – 1.836 also determine both
negative growth t...

Mohammad Salim1, Arshad Javid2*, Ali Hussain2, Faiz-ur-Rahman3, FarmanUllah4, Hamidullah5

Distribution records of fruit bats Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaultii from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...in identification of bat species and was applied
for species confirmation of R. leschenaultii. R. leschenaultia has been already reported while C. sphinx being
reported for the first time from the study area. Pteropus giganteus is another new record from the region.

...

 Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1

Effect of lunar cycle on active population density of scorpions, their potential prey and predators
...vities of three scorpion species, Hottentotta tamulus,
Odontobuthus odonturus, and Androctonus finitimus, and their potential prey and predators were observed in the
field. The result showed that H. tamulus and A. finitimus were more active during dark nights compared to moonlight
nights; however, there was no obvious effect of the lunar cycle on the activity of O. odonturus. Young (Immature)
individuals of all scorpion

 Mirfa Murtaza1, Sajid Abdullah1, Wardah Hassan1*, Khalid Abbas1, Huma Naz1, Muhammad Anjum Zia2

Studies on amylase and lipase activity in fishes fed with diet containing different feed ingredients
...s;2×2 ft) for each species and ten fish in each
aquarium. Fish in one aquarium were fed on rice polish and fish in second aquarium were fed on corn gluten @ 3 %
of their wet biomass for 70 days. Results showed that fish wet weight varied significantly between the rice polish and
corn gluten fed fishes. The corn gluten fed fish showed significantly better growth performance than fish fed with rice
polish. The activity of amylas...

 Muhammad Moosa Abro1, Ali Murtaza Dharejo2, Muhammad Munif Khan2, Nadir Ali Birmani2, Saima Naz2*

Description of first record of Petasiger exaeretus Dietz, 1909 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in avian host from Pakistan.
...us is a common parasitic species of Cormorants. However, it has not been reported from
Pakistan in Little Cormorant, Phalacrocorax niger prior to the present study.

...

 Saima Naz*, Adil Ali Rajpar, Abdul Hameed Chandio

New Records of some Phthiraptera (chewing lice) of birds from urban areas of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
...on, which reported eight species of
Menoponidae and eleven species of Philopteridae. These species were Campanulotes compar (Burmeister, 1838),
Colpocephalum turbinatum (Denny, 1842), Columbicola columbae (Linnaeus, 1758), Hohorstiella lata (Piaget, 1880)
on pigeons and doves; Brueelia subtilis (Nitzsch, 1874), Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister, 1838) and
Stur...

 Abbas Ali1, Muhammad Altaf2*, Muhammad Samar Hussain Khan3

Winter survey of birds at Keti Bunder, district Thatha, Pakistan
...of 49 winter season bird species belonging to 33 genera
and 21 families were recorded. A total of 4280 birds were recorded dedicated survey effort from the Keti Bunder.
Dominance (D), Shannon-Wiener diversity Index (H’), Simpson Index (S), Evenness (E) and Margalef (R) were
observed form the study area as; 0.06, 3.23, 0.94, 0.52 and 5.74 respectively. During the surveys noted that most
abundant species...

 Abir Ishtiaq, Muhammad Naeem*

Length-weight relationships and condition factor for farmed Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) from southern Punjab, Pakistan
...r /> management of this species in the farming system and can be used to fill a gap in the current knowledge in this area.

...

 Jhan Zeb, Muhammad Javed

Forecasting percentage contribution of plankton biomass towards increase in fish yield under composite culture conditions
...were five different fish species in
each of the triplicate group viz. Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the ratio of 27:10:10:07:13, respectively. Each triplicate group of fish T1 to T6 were fed
supplementary diets at varying protein level viz., 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32% digestible protein (DP), respectively @
2% of their wet body weight daily. However, control f...

 Zafar Iqbal*, Hafiza Madhia Imtiaz

Parasites of double tail goldfish, Carassius auratus L. imported to Pakistan
...(1x1cm). Eight different species of parasites were observed on the fish.
The gills showed 100% infection by Dactylogyrus sp. and mean intensity was 35.4. Fins of the fish also
showed high infection (68%) and mean intensity (13.82) by Gyrodactylus sp. Argulus foliaceus infection
on skin and fins was 40% and its mean intensity was found 4.2. Metacercariae of an un-identified
digenean were also found encysted on gill filaments (infecti...

 Hafiz Muhammad Awais Sarwar, Muhammad Tahir Waseem, Abdul Majid Khan*, Rana Manzoor Ahmad

Propotamochoerus hysudricus remains from late Miocene deposits of Hasnot, Pakistan
...ssil remains of the Suid species, Propotamochoerus hysudricus are described in this paper on the basis of
their morphometric characters. This is perhaps the only known species of the genus Propotamochoerus in the
Siwaliks. The specimens are collected from the outcrops of Hasnot type locality, Punjab, Pakistan. The present
findings will strengthen the previous records of the speci...

 Bushra Siyal1, Sanjota Nirmal Das1, Rafia Rehana Ghazi2, Aly Khan3

Heterotestophyes gibsoni sp.n. (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the bird little tern (Sternula albifrons) in Sindh, Pakistan
...arasites of birds, a new species of trematode genus Heterotestophyes gibsoni
sp. n. was recorded from the intestine of little tern (Sternula albifrons) collected from Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. The
new species is characterized by having small body, maximum width attained at the level of mid body region and
twisted at the level of pharynx. Oral sucker terminal, rounded and broader than long. Esophagus lon...

 Waqas Ali, Arshad Javid, Ali Hussain, Syed Mohsin Bukhari

Public attitude towards amphibian and reptiles in district Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan
...o unnecessary killing of species. Among all the
herpetiles, snakes are most disliked taxa and killed by the locales. Conservation
education and awareness campaigns are recommended to avoid unnecessary
killing of the amphibians and reptiles of the study area.

...

 Zafar Iqbal1, Muhammad Farooq Nasir1, Imran Bodlah1*, Rahmatullah Qureshi2, Ayesha Aihetasham3

Notes on three morphs of Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Northern Pakistan
...as well as pollinivorous species
on many plants. In this study, three morphs of B. lichatschovii are reported during
2015-2017 from different localities of Northern Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad
Jammu and Kashmir). Three food plants of the coccinellid are, Krascheninnikovia
ceratoides, Artemisia vulgaris and A. maritima, are documented. Notes on
diagnostics of the species are given wi...

Muhammad Asghar Hassan1, Imran Bodlah1* , Ayesha Aihetasham2 

First record of the oriental species, Saltella setigera Brunetti, 1909 (Diptera: Sepsidae) from Pakistan
.../p>...

 Halil Erhan Eroğlu

The comparison of the Felidae species with karyotype symmetry/asymmetry index (S/AI)
...symmetry, so that
species, genera, families and orders can be compared. Also the evolutionary
relationships of higher organisms can be determined. The symmetry/asymmetry
index is applied to the Felidae species. After a comprehensive literature search,
karyotype formulae, S/AI values and karyotype types of 23 species were
determined. According to the S/AI ...

 Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan1*, Muhammad Zafar2, Munazza Perveen3, Munir Ahmad3, Asia Iqbal4, Asmatullah3

Efficacy of malathion and carbosulfan against crop invadedaphid types Aphis craccivora (Koch) and Aphis gossypii (glover) on bean and brinjal plants
...ant crop infesting aphid species Aphis gossypii
(Glover) and Aphis craccivora (Koch) were reared on brinjal and bean plants
respectively. In the laboratory, the vegetable plant leaves being applied by residual
film technique with tested Aphid population. The most toxic insecticide was found
to be malathion with LC50 as 20.11 μg cm-2 for A. craccivora and 25.28 μg cm-2 for
A. gossypii while carbosulfan was found to be le...
Muhammad S. Waqas, Ali A.Z. Shoaib, Xinlai Cheng, Qianqian Zhang, Asem S.S. Elabasy and Zu-hua Shi*
...vasive, polyphagous pest species. Reproductive biology of this mealybug species is poorly known, which hinders the development of an effective management program. In this study, the reproductive mode, male’s mating capacity, influence of female’s age and density on male’s mating capacity, as well as the influence of copulation on female’s longevity were investigated under the laboratory condition. Our...

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed* and Muhammad Afzal 

...mic subterranean termite species in Indo-Pak region. Label-recommended dose rates of insecticides were tested against worker termites using modified filter paper disc method according to completely randomized design. All insecticides caused significant mortality of termites as compared to control treatment. Formulations of chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr and pyriproxyfen exhibited maximum termite mortality, ranging from 31.18±5.67, 28.33±7.03 a...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

...cing of DNA the pathogen species identified includes fungal Colletotrichum sp. These pathogens are involved in deterioration the skin of Citrus reticulate. They can either attack the healthy fruit leading to various infections or they can enter through various lesions caused by physical stress and worsen the condition. 

...
Aiguo Zhou1,3,4, Shaolin Xie1,4, Zhenlu Wang1, Lanfen Fan1, Yanfeng Chen2, QiaoYe1, Fang Zeng1 and Jixing Zou1,*

 

...to 0.248) with the inter-species genetic distances. The intra-species genetic distance ranged from 0.000 to 0.002. For the haplotypes of two color morphs of Channa argus, the mean pair-wise genetic distances were estimated as 0.002, which were within the intra-species genetic distance interval for Channa species, indicating that they belong...
Shagufta Nighat1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1,*, Syed Israr Shah1, Amber Khalid1, Tariq Mahmood2, Ayesha Aihetasham3 and Muhammad Asif4
...however within three bat species metal concentrations varied significantly. This study provides baseline data for future comparisons and management of bats and metal concentrations in environment.
...
Ajmal Khan* and Rehan Ullah
...ferent Plasmodium species in their blood smears. Male population accounts for higher prevalence rate (14.59%) than female (11.24%). The infection was more prevalent in November (21.4%), December (21.1%) and October (18%) and was lowest in the month of April (6.7%). The highest prevalence was recorded in autumn (36.8%) and summer (30.3%) and the lowest rate of infection was observed in spring (10.1%). Majority of the malarial cases were due to P. viva...
Faiz Muhammad1,2, Canfeng Dou1, Zhen-ming Lü1,*, Li Gong1, Xun Du1 and Muhammad Shafi3
...his study solely provide species specific information on its genetic structure and population variability in Chinese waters.
...
Jun Yan Bai1,*, Yong Gang Zhao2 and Yu Qin Wang1
...on. Polymorphism of goat species was tested by sequencing technology. Results demonstrated that there are two mutation sites (SNP loci) of the primer GHRL-2 in black goat and Yaoshan goat, which are G447C site and T498C site. At G447C site, gene frequencies of G and C in black goat and Yaoshan goat were detected 0.621/0.379 and 0.793/0.207, respectively. In black goat and Yaoshan goat, G is the dominant allele in G447C. At T498C site, gene frequencies of T and...
Qingling Hu1,2,3,* and Jinian Feng3
...div>In this paper, a new species Megalurothrips longus sp.n. from Hainan Island of China is described and illustrated. This new species is unique in this genus by the combinations of having 5 pairs of long setae on pronotum, the ultrashort chapped craspedum on posterior margin of abdominal tergites, and the shape and relative locations of setae on tergite IX.
...
Muhammad Ijaz1, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Rahmatullah2, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Sadaqat Ali3,*, Awais Ghaffar1, Ahmad Ali1 and Sehrish Saleem1
...n diarrheic foals of all species. The sodium, calcium, copper, iron and lithium concentrations significantly (p < 0.05) decreased while the potassium concentration significantly (p < 0.05) increased in diarrheic foals. Hence, this can be concluded that diarrhea in foals have significant correlation with PCV, serum electrolytes, and trace and ultra-trace elements.
...

Muhammad Salman Wazir and Mohammad Akmal 

...crop with other selected species. The study was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, during winter 2015-16. Treatments included cropping pattern viz. sole and intercrop of lines with 1:1 ratio i.e. one wheat row followed by one other crop species and 2:1 ratio i.e. two wheat rows followed by one other crops rows of Brassica (Brassica juncea), Fababean (Vicia faba) and Sunflower (Helia...
Abderraouf Chouaib Rebbah1, Mohcen Menaa2,*, Salah Telailia3,Menouar Saheb1 and Mohamed Cherif Maazi2
...oodlands). A total of 69 species were observed. One species was recorded only in mixed oak-pine forests, six were found exclusively in oak woodlands and 17 species were found only in pine woodlands. We noted 20 protected species, only one endangered species, and five endemic species ...
Xiao-Ying Ren1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...ys were the inherent species in Hengduan Mountains region, which had special status in Microtus, Arvicolinae. In order to investigate the geometric morphometrics of the craniums and mandible in nine species of Eothenomys (E. fidelis, E. melanogaster, E. chinensis, E. proditor, E. custos, E. cachinus, E. eleusis, E. miletus and E.olitor), ANOVA a...
Radek Aulicky1,*, Vaclav Stejskal1 and George Opit2
...m 0 to 100% depending on species. The most sensitive species was O. surinamensis whereas the most tolerant was R. dominica. At 1- and 4-h exposure periods, there were significant differences in mortality between repressive and preventive regimes. However, no differences between regimes existed for 24-h exposure. Our data show that short term exposure to DDVP strips have suppression effect for O. surinamensis...
Gangchun Xu1,2, Fukuan Du2, Yuyu Wang2, Yan Li2, Zhijuan Nie2 and Pao Xu1,2,*
...ly-important aquaculture species. In this study, two prostaglandin E synthase 2 (PTGES2) orthologs were identified. The full length ortholog PTGES2a was 1,575 bp and contained a 1,167-bp Open Reading Frame that encoded a protein of 388 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions were 269 bp and 139 bp, respectively. The full length ortholog PTGES2b was 1,457 bp and contained a 729-bp ORF that encoded a protein of 242 amino ...
Asim Faraz1,*, Muhammad Younas2, Abdul Waheed1, Muhammad Yaqoob2 and Kashif Ishaq3

 

...respectively). Available species for grazing/browsing were kikar, phulai, beri, siras, jand, khagal, dhaman, persain, khawi, bui, bhakra, kari, laana, phog, karir and khar laana. Regarding hair mineral status Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn concentrations were found to be significantly different (P<0.05) between calf groups being higher in IMS as (685.07±15.86, 595.67±15.86; 104.33±5.12, 101.17±5.12; 7.08±0.34, 6.73±0.34;...
Menderes Cenet
...enus level and 20 at the species level) belonging to 34 families were identified. Astragalus sp., Trifolium sp., Myrtus communis and Castanea sativa were the predominant taxa in the unifloral honey samples. Antimicrobial effects of eight honey samples proved the most effective inhibitors against Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus. Honey samples (H07 and H08) showed significant antifungal effects on Candid...
Shamesa Maryam1, Ajaz Ahmad Sandhu1, Imran Bodlah2*, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Ayesha Aihetasham3

 

...ince, Pakistan. Total 12 species namely; Aphis craccivora, Aphis fabae, Aphis gossypii, Aphis nerii, Rhopalosiphum padi, Lipaphis erysimi, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus persicae, Pentalonia nigronervosa, Sitobion avenae, Greenidea (Trichosiphumpsidii and Cinara (Cupressobium) tujafilina have been recorded for the first time from this area. General characters, measu...
Farheen Shaikh*, Saima Naz, Nadir Ali Birmani
... During the study, three species of chewing lice were reported from Common Quail. Their population density on host body was recorded in each month. The prevalence of chewing lice species of Coturnix coturnix was recorded as 44.47% Cuclotogaster cinereus (Nitzsh, 1866) belongs to family Philopteridae 32.64% Menacanthus abdominalis (Piaget, 1880) and 22.87% Menacanthus cornutus belongs to family Men...

Shamsher Ali1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Zahir Shah2, Naveedullah3 and Abdul Jalal1 

...lerant crop genotypes of species on salt affected lands is an effective tool for getting desirable productivity. A two-factor experiment using complete randomized design with three replications in pots having silt loam soil was carried out on April 03, 2016 to examine three maize genotypes (Iqbal, Jalal, and Azam) under different salinity levels i.e. 0.4, 2.7, 5.2 and 7.6 dS m-1 at Amir Muhammad Khan Campus, Mardan, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar. The...
Rahat Afza, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed and Muhammad Asam Riaz*
... both these coccinellids species. Imidacloprid is relatively safe for aphid control.
...
Pingping Cang1, Mingming Zhang1, Guo Qiao1,Qirui Sun1, Dehai Xu3, Qiang Li1, Xinghua Yuan4 and Wenbin Liu2,
...tive mudflat aquaculture species, was used to evaluate the effects of biofloc technology (BFT) on growth, nutrition and economic profitability in mudflat fish aquaculture. A 60-d experiment was conducted in zero-water exchange BFT system. The results demonstrated that weight gain (WG), specific growth (SG) and survival in BFT group were 133.94%, 1.20% day-1 and 90.0%, respectively. In control group with a 1/4-1/3 daily water exchange, WG, SG and sur...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

...ively aware of regarding species diversity; however, they do not know the modern techniques to uphold crop and species diversity. Biodiversity concept of farmers is at very basic level and they know only limited conventional ways to maintain it. The statistical analysis showed weak significant association between factors responsible for biodiversity loss and two types of biodiversity since χ2 (3) = 11.338, p = ...
Hamidullah1,*, Arshad Javid2, Basit Rasheed1,Jehan Zeb3, Abidullah1 and Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1
...length of skull of these species was 11.75±0.35mm, 13.69±0.25mm, 12.48±0.34mm, 11.83±0.30mm and 15.00±0.15mm, respectively while their total bacular length was 1.58mm, 3.81±0.01mm, 3.82±0.47mm, 2.11±0.707mm and 5.83±2.15mm, respectively. The shape and size of the bacula were the characters that helped in clear cut identification of these bat species.
...
Tongliang Wang1, Lele Jia1, Xiaofei Zhai1, Jianguo Cui2 and Jichao Wang1,*
...ed evidence, and in some species, this match is imprecise. Here, we analyzed the acoustic characteristics of male calls and both male and female hearing sensitivity in an explosive-breeding toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus to test the matched filter hypothesis.Male toads emitted a series of multisyllabic calls that were composed of single notes with a dominant frequency of 1494 ± 80 Hz. The dominant frequency reflected body size and was static bet...
Zhiwen Zou, Jianfei Xi, Fen Chen, Rui Xu, Tianrong Xin and Bin Xia*
... more than 1,500 nominal species. However, the relationships of this subfamily was confused. In order to improve the classification system of Amblyseiinae, the mitochondrial CO1 gene sequence of seven Amblyseiinae species, collected from four provinces of China, were sequenced, and another seven Amblyseiinae species mt CO1 gene sequenced were download from GenBank. And the phylogenetic rel...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Muhammad Jafir1, Muhammad Wajid Javed1, Sumaira Maqsood3 and Samina J.N. Ahmad1,2,*
...R fragments from all DCB species at 710 bp. The sequencing results and phylogenetic analysis with sequences submitted at NCBI database revealed that DCB have 99-100% similarity with Oxycarenus hyalinipennis OH1 (JQ342987.1), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis OH2 (JQ342988.1) reported from USA. This is the first report of molecular identification and DNA barcoding of Oxycarenus hyalinipennis infesting cotton from Pakistan. DCB is becoming alarming p...

Rafiullah1*, Abdur Rahman2, Khalid Khan1, Anwar Ali1, Arifullah Khan2, Abdul Sajid3 and Naimatullah Khan3 

...present study two animal species (cattle and buffalo) were selected. A total of 800 samples were collected from different areas of District Lakki Marwat and District Peshawar. All the samples were processed through different diagnostic techniques, including Microscopy, ELISA and Real-time PCR for diagnosis of Theileria parva at Veterinary Research Institute Peshawar. The overall prevalence for Theileriosis was 27.75% through Real-time PCR, followed by Indirect...
Liqin Liu, Maoting Wang, Zhenming Lü, Li Gong*, ChangWen Wu, Baoying Guo and Lihua Jiang
... in three closelyrelated species. Nineteen, fifteen, and thirteen loci were amplified in Sepia lycidas, Sepia esculenta and Sepiella japonica, respectively. 

 

...
Fariha Latif* and Muhammad Javed
...ure. Fish from different species has diverse ecological needs and respond differently to the environmental stress conditions. Thus, the sensitivity, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacities of three major carps Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala towards metals mixture (Cd+Cr+Cu+Pb) were determined during present research work. Sensitivity of the three fish species (120-day old) towards meta...
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zaheer1, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Shafique1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar1
...152 specimens, different species identified in order of their frequency were; Klebsiella pneumoniae (59; 38.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (46; 30.3%), Escherichia coli (36; 23.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca (4; 2.6%), Serratia marcescens (3; 2%), Enterobacter agglomerans (2; 1.3%) and Enterobacter cloacae (2; 1.3%). Out of 103 carbapenem-resistant isolates, 58 (55.1%) were positive by DDDT and 49 (46.7%) by MHT. Most of ...
Rishen Liang*, Meng Zhou, Zhenxiang Lin, Guozhang Li, Yuan Chen, Xuan Lin and Zaohe Wu
...us vittatus were two species of colorful coral reef sweetlips which distribute in the areas of Indo-Western Pacific. The two species have long been considered as a synonym (oriental sweetlips) in morphology. In order to investigate the validity of two species at the molecular level, complete mitochondrial genomes of the two species were first determi...
Liyan Zhang1,2, Zhidong Zhou1,3, Haiping Li1,2, Yanlong Qiao4, 5 and Yueping Zhang1,3,*
...eographical range of the species. However, no phylogenetic structure corresponding to geographic location was observed from the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree and haplotype network analyses, and gene flow and exact P test results revealed that a wide range of gene flow occurred among the four S. japonicus populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and Fst analysis showed that genetic variation was mainly derived from within...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
... disinfectant. Both tick species were susceptible to certain concentrations of Huwa-San TR50: 4,000, 8,000, 10,000, 12,000 and 14,000 ppm. A marked reduction in the movement of both tick species was observed 24h of applying Huwa-San TR50, at 10,000 ppm and above. This study recorded an increase in percentage mortality with increasing concentrations of Huwa-San TR50 and this resulted in mortalities of 66.5% for H. dromedar...
Tahira Moeen Khan* and Amat ul Mateen
...only known as dharaik) a species of family Meliaceae and Morus nigra (commonly known as Shahtoot) family Moraceae were used for bio reduction of copper ions to CuO nanoparticles in place of harmful and expensive chemical/physical methods. A cheaper, simple to perform method giving high yield without by products is employed here. The leaf extract act both as reducing and capping agent. The atomic absorption shows a linear curve between concentration...

John Ogunsola1*, Richard E. Antia2, Benjamin O. Emikpe2 and Olajumoke A. Morenikeji

...n or hatching of various species of captive animals were obtained. The animals included reptiles, amphibians, aves and mammals, with both sexes placed in the same enclosure with some degree of access to one another. Among mammals, survival rates of neonates ranged from 0% in Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas; n=2) to 100% in Green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus; n=2) and Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas; n=3), and crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus; n=32). Muscovy ...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...nt of the insect’s species has been recorded and authenticated by various scientists reporting that these acts as the carrier of the fungal spores and produce tunnels in the bark of the trees. Since, many extensive filed surveys of forests, avenues, road sides and canal banks has been made to calculate the total losses and mortality of the sheesham trees in Indian sub-continent. Up-till now billions of shisham trees have been destroyed because of decline...

 Syed Turab Raza1,*, Zhu Bo1,*, Zulfiqar Ali2 and Tang Jia Liang3

...stem using the earthworm species (Eisenia fetida) and treating it with cattle dung, pig manure and biochar with crop (wheat straw and rapeseed) waste was established in upland areas of China. It was monitored for two months. Four treatments (T1 to T4) were prepared using crop residues i.e. wheat straw, rapeseed and cow manure in different concentrations. Vermicomposting through biochar (Biochar 50%, rapeseed residues 20% and Biochar with earthwor...

Shafique Ahmed Memon1,6, Arif Ali1*, Mehar-un-Nisa Narejo2, Ghulam Khaliq3, Imran Ali Rajput4, Muhammad Adeel1, Khalil Ahmed Memon5, Dzolkhifli Omar6, Muhammad Rashid7 and Abdul Rasool

...itability of three aphid species on the pre-imaginal development of three species of green lacewings. Developmental stages of three different species of green lacewings, Chrysoperla nipponensis, Plesiochrysa ramburi and Apertochrysa sp. were provided with three different prey species, Aphis craccivora, Rhopalosiphum maidis and Corcyra cephalonica under t...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...s aligned with different species and observed that MPS16 belongs to M. phaseolina isolate. The sequence showed high identity with sequences with Macrophomina sp. from the NCBI database (100%); In contrast, alignments among the same genera and species demonstrated 91–98% identity. We then predicated that isolated encoded culture (MPS16) predetermine with Macrophomina sp. 

...

 Zhi Yijin and Shao Mingqin*

...ined for this endangered species. The Xiuhe, Fuhe and Raohe river systems exhibited large steady populations, with the maximum size ranging from 25 to 68 individuals for each river. Restoration and maintenance of suitable habitats for the scaly-sided merganser is imminent as the species is at risk of extinction due to its small population size. The total sex ratio of the merganser during the study period was 0.397 (n = 790) ...

 Xu Lijie, Obaid Ullah, Liu Haixing, Ihsan Ali, Zhongshu Li* and Nan-Zhu Fang*

...ation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the reasons for the slow growth of mammalian preimplantation embryos. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) functions in the nuclear regulatory factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathways by binding to the promoters of antioxidant genes and regulates the expression of genes that associate with NADPH oxidase. To understand the role of PPARγ in the development of early embryos and define t...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

...ty of root-knot nematode species associated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, prevalence of 85% and severity of 4.1 in terms of the galling index was recorded throughout the province. Differences in the incidence of root-knot nematodes were recorded from all the districts ranging from 11% to 70%. The incidence was found to be the maximum (70%) in districts of Bahawalnagar and Ra...

Huma Khalil1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Sajjad Khalil1, Farghama Khalil2 and Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel1 

...iinae), 12 genera and 16 species were collected. Out of them, two genera and 12 species were recorded for the first time from this area. Aphidiinae contains 1,107 individuals which showed that it’s a dominant braconid subfamily while Opiinae (209) was the least dominant. The richness of braconid parasitoids in different localities of Sargodha was also investigated. Braconid parasitoid populations were higher in the mon...
Iram Maqsood1,2,3 and Ke Rong *1,2
...ly two crocodile’s species has been enjoying this universe, and one of them is Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) who is at the edge of extinction in nature. Approximately, 130-150 individuals left in wild. Habitat loss is considered as a major source of population decline of this precious species. Consequently, for the sake of A. sinensis conservation, China took steps with the top priority of habita...
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
...of bovine) may cross the species barrier to infect the small ruminants which may complicate the control measures of brucellosis because most of the control programs rely on serological screening of brucellosis rather than molecular assay which could confirm the particular species circulating in ruminants. In this study 960 and 471 serum samples of goats and sheep were collected, respectively. After screening with Rose Bengal...
Guo-hai Wang1, Zai-xi Yang1, Pan Chen1, Wei-ning Tan2 and Chang-hu Lu1,*
...g behavior of local bird species to examine their role in dispersing seeds of Kmeria septentrionalis, an endangered tree species in a karst habitat in southwest China. Twenty-seven bird species were recorded feeding on its seeds, and fourteen bird species were confirmed as seeds dispersers. The chestnut bulbul (Hemixos castanonotus), striat...
Zhaochao Deng1, Jingchen Chen1, Na Song2, Yongzhen Li3 and Zhiqiang Han1,*
...d a stable model in this species in the South China Sea population. To reveal its population structure within the large-scale geography distribution, we added 169 sequences of the mitochondrial control region already genotyped from northern Australia. The South China Sea and northern Australia groups were successfully distinguished by the NJ tree with significant genealogical branches of haplotypes. These results indicated that there might have only one fisher...
SiRui Wang1,2, Fekede Regasa Joka1,2, XiaoLong Wang1,2,* and SuYing Bai2,*
...wild birds, 10 wild bird species, including Anas formosa, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Mergus squamatus, Accipiter nisus, Buteo hemilasius, Buteo lagopus, Passer montanus, Psittacula roseata and Emberiza elegans, were selected.The sequences of the GTPase effector domain (GED) of the Mx gene were determined by PCR sequencing. The haplotypes were analysed by DNA SP software. The Datamonk...
Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1,*, Shahina Fayyaz2 and Nasira Kazi2
...dentification of one new species of soil nematode viz., Acrobeloides gossypii n. sp., along with three new record species viz., Tylenchorhynchus ewingi Hopper, 1959; T. crassicaudatus Williams, 1960 and Pratylenchus pseudofallax Café-Filho & Huang, 1989. Description, measurements and illustrations of these species are incorporated herein...
Tianlong Cai1, Falk Huettmann2, Kisup Lee3 and Yumin Guo1,*
...cha) is a vulnerable species. However, its stopover habitat receives little attention and is not well known or protected even. Here, we present the spatial distribution of the stopover habitats for hooded cranes in the East Asia. A machine learning modeling algorithm of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) weas applied and evaluated with Stochastic Gradient Boosting and Random Forests based on 115 every year used occurrence points (1990-2013) and 14 environmental laye...
Fukuan Du1,2, Yongkai Tang1, Juhua Yu1, Shengyan Su1, Fan Yu1, Jianlin Li1, Hongxia Li1, Meiyao Wang1 and Pao Xu1,2,*
...a commercially important species. However, eco-environment deterioration and overfishing have almost caused extinction of the species in the Yangtze River. Therefore, it is very urgent to perform genetic research on C. nasus to protect the wild population. In this study, we sequenced the brain transcriptome of C. nasus using Illumina Hiseq 4000 platform. We obtained 123,764 unigenes with an average length of 10...
Muhammad Khalil Nawaz, Sayyed Ghyour Abbas, Muhammad Akbar Khan, M. Adeeb Babar*, Muhammad Asim, Rabia Shahid and Muhammad Akhtar
...ledge about the recorded species.
...
Fakhra Soomro1,*, Riffat Sultana2 and Muhammad Saeed Wagan2
...iv>Nymphal stages of two species of genus Sphingonotus Fieber viz. S. savignyi Saussure and S. rubescens rubescens (Walker) were studied exclusively form Sindh during the 2014-2016. Both species passed through six instars larvae. Emergence of larval instars in both species was started from the month of July just after monsoon rainfall, whereas, S. savignyi

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

... environmental bacterial species. In Pakistan, it is the major disease of different dairy animals including bovines. However, only a little information is available about bacterial profile of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 120 quarter samples were collected from suspected buffaloes...
Bushra Siddique1,*, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Naeem1 and Muhammad Ali2
...ween prey and host plant species. Recent studies exhibited that the use of natural enemy is an ecofriendly measure to control pests. The Seven spotted ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata play a prominent role in aphid management. It exploits several different cues released by plants to increase the efficiency of foraging. Aphid endoparasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) have an ability to locate itshosts by res...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

...portant disease of avian species and continuously cause outbreaks in commercial poultry throughout the world. Despite intensive vaccination, ND is endemic in Pakistan and locally known as Ranikhet. Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and some common resident or migratory wild birds are associated with outbreaks of ND in commercial poultry in Pakistan. Continuous isolation of new genotypes in Pakistan shows the evolving...

Fraza Ijaz1*, Umair Riaz2, Shazia Iqbal3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Muhammad Furqan Ijaz5, Hina Javed1, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi1, Zuhra Mazhar3, Ahmad Hassan Khan6, Hassan Mehmood7 and Ijaz Ahmad8 

...application of Rhizobium species and Tryptamine performed better by improving growth and yield and quality parameters. It is concluded that precursor-inoculum combination is an effective approach and should be tested in different ecologies. 

...

Muhammad Sohail1*, Asad Sultan2, Said Sajjad Ali Shah3, Muhammad Sajid1 and Adnan Khan4

...igher than other poultry species particularly broilers.

...
Muhammad Ahmad, Zohaib Noor*, Karim Johar Khan, Waqar Younas and Ajmal Hussain
...ith three different fish species at the rate of 800/Acre in the semi intensive polyculture system by supplementing inorganic and organic fertilizers in the ponds. Fish were stocked at the ratio of 35:40:25 in both the ponds designated as group 1 and group 2. Group 1 pond was stocked with Catla catla (C. catla) a surface feeder, Labeo Rohita (L. rohita) a column feeder and Cirrhinus mrigala (C. mrigala) bottom feeder, respecti...
Faraz Akrim1,2, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem3, Siddiqa Qasim1, Shaista Andleeb1 and Hira Fatima1
...breadth of two carnivore species; Indian grey mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) and small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) occurring in the north-eastern Himalayan region (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) of Pakistan with a view to compute the niche overlap between the two species. The Indian grey mongoose was recorded at 15 different sampling sites within the elevation range 699-1559 m above mean sea level (AMSL). Th...

Hassan Naveed1,2, Kamran Sohail2 and Yalin Zhang2* 

...t-align: justify;">Three species in the leafhopper subfamily Deltocephalinae, Changwhania terauchii Matsumura (1915) n. rec., Linnavuoriella arcuata Hamilton (1980) n. rec. and Paralimnellus cingulatus Dlabola (1960) n. rec. are reported for the first time from Pakistan. All species are described and illustrated with habitus photographs. 

...
Bingbing Gao1, Na Song1, Zhonglu Li2, Tianxiang Gao3 and Liqin Liu3,*
...nservation. The ponyfish species Nuchequula mannusella is a dominant species along southern coast of China with important economic and ecological value, and little of its population genetic structure has been known. We use mitochondrial DNA markers to investigate the genetic structure of the species along southern coast of China. The complete sequences of Cytochrome b (Cyt...
Sagir Hussain, Erum Iqbal* and Shahina Fayyaz
...cius comprised of 17 species that based on the characters of the total body length, stylet, ratio of a, b, c, c’, V%, head annules, tail annules, lip region and tail terminus. The allometric and morphometric characters were derived from the original descriptions. An up to date list of valid species of Quinisulcius along with illustrations and diagnostic key is provided. Detailed surveys of cereals, fruits an...
Abdur Rauf Nizami*
...y a wide range of faunal species. The documented species are comprised of: foraminifers, gastropods, pelecypods, bryozoans, echinoids, sponges, brachiopods, and corals.
...
Jun Yan Bai*, Shuai Yang, You Zhi Pang, Xiao Hong Wu and Guang Lu Li
...er than those of ret two species (P<0.05). Based on comprehensive evaluation, the egg quality of Korea quail is better than those of other two species, egg production and laying rate of China yellow quail are significantly higher than those of Korea quail and Beijing white quail (P<0.05). The average egg weight of Korea quail is significantly higher than those of China yellow quail and Beijing white quail (P<0.05). ...
Songhao Zhang1, Yiwen Gong1, Jian Xu1, Mou Hu2, Peng Xu3 and Yanliang Jiang1,2,4,*
...ecular selection of fish species with consumer-favored skin color and body shape.
...
Zhengfei Wang*, Dan Tang, Xuejia Shi, Huayun Guo, Xiuping Chen, Daizheng Zhang and Boping Tang*
...most common and abundant species and predators at the top of food chain in the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. However, the genetic basis for the adaptation of hydrothermal vents crabs to the harsh environment remains poorly explored.The objectives of this study were to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of hypoxia adaptability in vent crabs and to confirm if there is a correlation between mitochondrial protein coding genes (PCGs) and adaptation to the ...
Xiaohui Yu, Shuai He, Liqiang Wang, Mengyang Kang, Yanjiao Zhu, Shuhui Wang and Xiuzhu Sun*
...zhong donkey, a precious species. The objective of this study was to reveal the effect of different antioxidants on the semen cryopreservation in Guangzhong donkey by testing indices of sperm motility, mitochondrial activity, membrane integrity and arosome integrity. The results illustrated that compared with controls, above-mentioned indices of sperm were significantly improved under concentrations of Vitamin C (400 mg/L) and Vitamin E (600 mg/L) (P < <...

Muhammad Yasin1, Romana Shahzadi1, Muhammad Riaz2, Mahideen Afridi2, Wajya Ajmal3, Obaid Ur Rehman2, Nazia Rehman3, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1,3, Muhammad Ramzan Khan1,2,3* 

...SHP2 homologs from other species conglomerated BnSHP1-like and BnSHP2-like into their respective clades. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed overlapping expression of both the BnSHP1-like and BnSHP2-like transcripts in flower and siliques while no expression in the leaf tissues was observed. A strong expression for FUL gene was detectable in mature silique and silique from upper portion of plant as compared to other tissues of “Pakola” and “Pun...

Tahira Jatt1, Ghulam Sarwar Markhand1, Lane Rayburn2, Ray Ming3, Mushtaque Ahmed Jatoi1 and Ameer Ahmed Mirbahar1,4* 

...ocot and dioecious plant species having uncertain diploidy levels because of scarcity of cytogenetic knowledge. Khairpur district in Sindh is known as the biodiversity center of date palm. Investigations were carried on the chromosome number and karyotype one of the seven indigenous commercial date palm varieties and four wild type date palm of Sindh province, Pakistan by using the traditional Fuelgen squash method. Results indicated that all seven commercial ...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...ned samples of different species and sectors in Egypt, with a prevalence rate 4.4% by the year 2015/2016. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive cases were recorded in 26 governorates., the positive samples were distributed in 783 farms with the highest prevalence rate (76.5%), Also, the most of positive cases were detected in chicken as the highest prevalence (90%) among all the e...
Hafiz Abdul Ghafoor*, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Asam Riaz and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed
...f eight indigenous plant species for their insecticidal potential against 2nd instar D. mangiferae individuals. Standard twig-dip method was used for toxicity bioassays according to Completely Randomized Design. Mortality of mealybug individuals varied with plant materials and increased along with the extract concentration and exposure time. Botanical extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) and Gardenia jasminoides (gardenia) were...
Mohammed Anas Chowdhury1, Md. Abdul Karim1, Md. Tayfur Rahman1, Shoaibe Hossain Talukder Shefat1, Ashikur Rahman1, Mohammad Amzad Hossain2*
...e present status of fish species diversity of Surma River at Sylhet Sadar, Northeast Bangladesh. A total of 51 fish species belonging to 16 taxonomic families has been identified. The most abundant family was recorded as Cyprinidae covering 36%, while the least abundant family was Gobidae and Plotosidae comprising 1%. A Shannon-Weaver diversity index was fluctuated between 2 to 2.5 with mean value 2.30±0.14, which rev...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

...poultry sectors and bird species which are distributing all over the Egyptian governorates for examination of LPAI (H9N2) virus by real time RT-PCR. The results confirmed positive samples from 1026 for H9N2 with prevalence rate 4.4%. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive samples were recorded from 26 governorates. Totally, the positive samples were distributed in 783 farms with th...
Fatima Tufail1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3
...ffects. Fresh water fish species such as Channa striata serve as important bio-indicators for aquatic contamination to access the changes caused by human activities effectively and reliable monitoring bio-system to recognize and predict hazardous effects of pollutants. Therefore, this study was done to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan (END),deltamethrin (DM) mixture on hepatic catalase (CAT) activity of fish, Channa striata exposed to the...
Sehrish Ashraaf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Muhammad Akram Qazi2, Shaukat Ali1*
...d as a marker to delimit species. Based on morphological identification and sequencing of CO1 gene, a total of 22 species of spiders belonging to five families were investigated and compared within each species and among families for nucleotide frequency distribution of all species collected. We had found non-significant difference in frequen...
Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny1,2,*, Reny P. Devassy1, Erinn M. Muller3, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani1 and Ali M. Al-Aidaroos1
...tal of 138 phytoplankton species (80 diatoms and 57 dinoflagellates) contributed to the phytoplankton diversity during the study. Zooplankton exhibited clear diel variation in distribution with higher abundance during night. Among the thirty-zooplankton taxa observed, Copepoda formed the dominant taxa. Of the total 70 copepod species observed during the study eight species are new records ...
Jie Zhang1,2,*, Baradi Waryani3,4 and Qihai Zhou2,*
...ahkeii is an endemic species in East Asia. It has a wide range of distribution in Chinese waters including coastal waters, inland lakes, and outflowing rivers south of the Yangtze River and its delta. In order to maintain stable high production of salangids, fertilized eggs from native or introduced populations of icefish were frequently introduced to various types of water throughout China mainland except for Tibet Plantae. The genetic diversity and ...
Jing Hu1,2, Yan Liu2,3, Gang Yu1,2, Changping Yang2,3, Binbin Shan2,3, Shengnan Liu2,4 and Dianrong Sun2,3,*
...i and other relative species.
...
Jingchen Chen, Zhaochao Deng and Zhiqiang Han*
...to other Perciformes species. Our results clearly demonstrate that the high-throughput sequencing method is the methodology of choice for generating complete mtDNA genome sequences.
...
Lusha Liu1,*, Lei Cheng2, Xingqi Zhang3, Yulong Li1 and Jianping Jiang1,*
...tly very limited in this species and the genus Microhyla. A total of 17,339 potential microsatellites were identified in 15,385 unigenes which were generated by Illumina paired-end sequencing in M. fissipes. Within all microsatellites, AG/CT, AAG/CTT, and AAAG/CTTT are most prevalent motif in each repeat class. We randomly selected 61 unigenes with the microsatellite to design primers and do genetic analysis in the Sichuan basin population of ...

Yasir Ali1,2*, Bashir Ahmad1, Naqeebullah Jogezai3 and Adil Hussain

.... which makes it a novel species. Both of the strains were non-pathogenic and potentially industrial strains for the production of thermolabile protease and alkaliphilic lipase 

...

Usman Zubair1*, Anjum Shehzad2, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Khalid Mahmood1 

...on records presented for species of fruit flies from Poonch Division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Taxonomic issues with specimen are discussed. The specimens were collected from seven localities including Rawalakot, Banbake, Jandali, Pakhar, Kakuta, Mandhol and Bagh (Harighel) using McPhail traps during the years 2016-2017. Specimens were identified up-to species level using taxonomic key by Mahmood and Hassan (2005) and picto...
Wen-Feng Li1, Rong-Yue Zhang1, Chun-Hua Pu2, Jiong Yin1, Zhi-Ming Luo1, Xiao-Yan Wang1, Xiao-Yan Cang1, Hong-Li Shan1 and Ying-Kun Huang1,*
... predators. The dominant species include Apanteles flavipes (Cameron), Sturmiopsis inferens Townsend and Trichogramma sp., which parasitize the sugarcane borer; Synonycha grandis (Thunberg), Lemnia biplagiata (Swartz), Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) and Thiallela sp., which prey on Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner; and Euborellia pallipes Shiraki, Orius (Heterorius) minutus ...
Nazia Qamar* and Sher Khan Panhwar
...Sagitta otoliths of five species Scomberoides commersonnianus (414), S. lysan (15), S. tala (8), S. tol (344) and Megalaspis cordyla (277) were collected from the commercial catches from July 2013 to March 2015. Fish length and otolith length for five species recorded as S. commersonnianus TLcm = 16.3−88.4, OLcm = 0.3−0.9; S. lysan TL=23.2&min...
Naheed Ikram and Nafisa Shoaib*
...ave isolated 5 different species of fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. from 14 different genera of commercially important marine fishes Acanthopagrus sp. Parastromateus niger, Nemipterus sp., Pampus argenteusIlisha sp., Alepes djedabaEpinephelus sp., Teraponjarbua, Terapon puta, Scomberomorus koreanus<...
Aly Khan1,*, Khalil A. Khanzada1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2
...ne locality. Most common species in maize fields was found to be Pratylenchus zeae that occurred in 5 out of eight localities, one-way of variance was performed for those nematodes that occurred in two or more localities. With one exception, the density differed significantly among the localities.
...
Hui Wang1, Lin Wang1, Xuanlu Li1, Shanshan Li1, Yongqiang Zhao2, Shicheng Lv2, Xinrong Xu1, Guang Yang1 and Bingyao Chen1,*
...s a result, 34 protected species among the 4975 individuals were sighted, including 127 red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) and 868 common cranes (Grus grus). The overall density of protected species, winter migratory species, and resident birds was 1244.60 individuals/km2, 396.88 individuals/km2 and 758.94 individuals/km2 respectively. The w...
Raja Imran Hussain* and Iqra Yousaf
...i> was the most abundant species. High adjusted trapping success in cropland and low in human dwellings were observed during the spring season. Trapping influenced by 4.63% decrease in wheat damage. Non-agricultural land and human dwellings provide good shelter and food resources for rodent dispersal. Controlling one habitat of the landscape, either human dwellings or cropland, might not allow effective results because rodents still have alternative habitat fo...

Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Gul Bahar Khaskheli2, Allah Jurio Khaskheli3, Arshad Ali Khaskheli4, Abdul Samad Magsi5, Ghulam Shabir Barham2, Arab Khan Lund5 and Maqbool Ahmed Jamali4 

Nida Zia1, *, Ayesha Maqbool2, Muhammad Safdar3, Umm-I-Habiba1, Altaf Mehmood4, Muhammad Usman5, Zahid Iqbal6, Javed Iqbal6, Shahid Mehmood6, Amanullah Khan7 and Sajid Umar8
... belonged to the FAdV- C species and serotyped as FAdV-4 and showed close proximity at the nucleotide level. The other cluster containing three strains belonged to the FAdV-D species and serotyped as FAdV-11. Furthermore, the sequencing analysis of detected field strains revealed the high similarity and close clustering with FAdV-4 and FAdV-11 strains isolated from neighboring countries, suggesting geographic and temporal re...
Emre Barlas1 and Elif Yamaç2,*
...of the cave-dwelling bat species are under threat, because of destruction of caves such as filling or converting for other uses, human disturbance and loss of foraging habitats. In this study, cave-dwelling bat species and habitat preferences were investigated in Northwest of Central Anatolia in spring, summer and winter. Investigations were performed in 26 caves hosting (15) and not hosting (11) bats. Temperature, humidity,...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad Imran Hamid, Mubashar Raza, Waqas Raza*, Misbah Iqbal Qamar 

... type of soils and their species promote growth of the plants and commercially used as bio-fungicide against soil borne plant pathogens. The present study was conducted with the aim to determine the efficacy of Trichoderma species using dual culture and pot assays against Phytophthora infestans (late blight) and Fusarium oxysporum (wilt) of tomato on different compost including carbon rich compost, nitrogen rich compost and ...
Qiuxia Lei1, 2, Haixia Han1, 2, Jinbo Gao1, 2, Yan Zhou1, 2, Wei Liu1, 2, Chunlei Wang3, Jie Liu1, 2, Dingguo Cao1, 2, Huimin Li1 , Baohua Huang1,* and Fuwei Li1, 2, *  
...teria comprising several species; and the third kept as the control without adding any bacteria. The results showed that decomposition started earlier in the treated batches than in the control group. During the fermentation period, there was no influence between the internal temperature of the plies and the addition of bacteria. After adding strains, the time to reach the fermentation temperature was advanced by 1 to 2 days. The content of ammonia and hydroge...

Muhammad Amin1,2*, Khalid Mahmood2 and Imran Bodlah3 

...kistan, yielded 24 aphid species in 14 genera, representing subfamilies, Aphidinae, Lachninae, Calaphidinae, Hormaphidinae and Chaitophorinae, infesting 28 tree species in 22 genera, 17 families and 12 orders. Genera Aphis, Cinara and Myzus had 7, 3 and 2 species, respectively. Hoplochaitophorus quercicola (Monell, 1879) and Pterocomma beulahense (Cockerell, 1904) are new records for Paki...
Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Shahid Yousaf1, Salman Khurshid1*, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Nasreen Fatima2 and Ali Murad Rahoo3
...achi. Some of the fungal species viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternata have been identified in citrus samples. However, major incidence was recorded for Aspergillus niger (41.6%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (27.7%). Infected samples (5.9) had high pH as compared to the healthy samples (3.1). Total soluble solids were decreased from 14 to 8.5% due to fungal inf...
Tahir Iqbal1, Umer Rashid1*, Naveed Shahzad2, Amber Afroz1Muhammad Faheem Malik3 and Muhammad Idrees4

 

...hohepevirus B species. However, Pak aHEV strains were highly divergent from other known members within Orthohepevirus B suggesting as novel aHEV strains circulating in the population of layer chickens in the country. Detection of HEV in layer chickens may pose public health risk in context of zoonosis and food borne transmission if aHEV emerges as zoonotic HEV. 
...
Maliha Ayub1, Muhammad Javed1, Fariha Latif 1*, Faiza Ambreen2, Komal Sabir1
...inst the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their harmful effects. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of manganese on antioxidant activity in the fish, Labeo rohita. Fish were acclimatized for two weeks in the cemented tanks prior to the start of experiment. Four groups (n=10) of one year old fingerlings of Labeo rohita were exposed to 96-hr LC50 and sub-lethal concentrations (2/3rd,1/4<...

Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi1*, Ibtasam Riaz2, Syed Muneeb Haider2, Arfan Ahmed Gilal3, Anjum Shehzad4, Ahmed Zia4 and Abdul Rauf Bhatti4
 

...ults confirmed that both species of coccinellid showed feeding potential against eggs and nymphs of P. minor. Comparatively, M. sexmaculata showed higher feeding than C. septempunctata on various immature stages of M. minor. Moreover, both the species showed relatively more preference on eggs of P. minor than nymphs. Therefore, both the species can be exploited in field conditions against ...
Fiza Asif1,*, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Nasra Ashraf1, Nuzhat Shafi1, Abdul Rauf1, Khizra Bano1, Muhammad Razzaq2 and Naeem Iftikhar Dar2
...que. A total of 23 plant species were observed during summer and 15 plant species during winter season. During both the seasons Indian or Himalayan Chestnut Aesculus indica was found as the dominant plant species in the diet having relative importance value (RIV) 8.36 and 10.92 in summer and winter, respectively. Diet breadth of all the plant species<...

Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad2 

... root medium, while each species has a critical threshold value where it was started showing negative response. Leaching fractions may help keeping salt concentration low in the root zone when irrigation water is saline. In this experiment three types of water (canal, EC = 2 and 3 dS m-1) were used as such and with leaching fraction of 10 and 20 %. This experiment was conducted in the field and RCBD design was used to make its layout. All the treatments were r...
Huaisheng Zhang1, Pengfei Li2, Huajun Wen2, Guangming Tian1, Hui Chen1, Lu Zhang1 and Jianqiang Zhu1,*
...nus). It is a unique species in China, which has been extinct in China for nearly 200 years. In 1980, the Milu was reintroduced into China and has now become a first-class protected animal in the country. Moreover, research on the Milu has begun. After 30 years of breeding and development, the Milu population has formed stable captive or wild populations in Beijing, Dafeng, Shishou and Dongting Lake. It has become a typical example of the successful reintr...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1,*, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2, Irshad Ahmad3, Ikramul Haq4, Kashif Prince1, Asad Ullah5, Muhammad Shoaib2, Shahid Zaman6, Amjad Islam Aqib7, Ghazunfar Rashid1, Mahboob Ali1, Imdad Ullah Khan4,Imad Khan5, Naimat Ullah4 and Muhammad Shahid8
... rabbits and goats. Each species was divided randomly into three equal (n=6) groups. Group A was supplemented vitamin E and group B was without vitamin E supplementation in both species. Animals of both groups were vaccinated with enterotoxaemia vaccine. Group C was kept as negative control in both rabbits and goats. The immune titer against C. perfringens type D was evaluated on 0, 7, 14, 28th and 60t...
Yacheng Hu1,2, Xueqing Liu1,2, Jing Yang1,2, Kan Xiao1,2, Binzhong Wang1,2 and Hejun Du1,2,*
...we report 17 novel cross-species microsatellite markers for Dabry’s sturgeon via next-generation sequencing from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis). The 17 microsatellites were polymorphic with 3 to 6 alleles per locus and the total number of alleles is 80. The mean expected heterozygosity (HE, 0.506 to 0.781), observed heterozygosity (HO, 0.542 to 1), Hardy-Weinberg departure value (d, -0.042 to 0.427...
Uzma Rafi*, Asmat, Muqaddes Niaz, Syeda Shazia Bokhari and Aisha Waheed Qurashi*
...div>Many  bacterial species are harbored by cockroaches on the external and internal surfaces. These harbored species have great public health concern. There is a variable tendency of these microbes to adhere to various abiotic and biotic surfaces showing chances of infection. Present study aims to check biofilm formation and auto aggregation potential of the bacteria associated with cockroaches. For this purpose, cockr...
Irfan Irshad1, Asim Aslam1,*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Kamran Ashraf2, Beenish Zahid3 and Abdul Wajid4
...ry and non-poultry avian species. In this study, five AAvV-1s have been pathotyped and genetically characterized from vaccinated birds collected between 2013-14. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi with high similarity of 97.9 to 99.8% with similar viruses in this clade. Analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of the two AIV was performed and phylogenetic analysis reveals genetically closely-related to...
Min Li1,2, Jingjing Wang3, Suxian Hu3, Philip Stott4, Baoqing Lin5, Lianshan Li5, Hui Liu1, Heng Bao1, Duoying Cui6 and Guangshun Jiang1,* 
...ked cover types to avian species richness, evenness, and Shannon’s diversity using a stepwise linear regression model and regressions of proportions of cover types at different spatial scales. We recorded 109,026 sightings comprising 94 species, and found that avian diversity indices were positively influenced by the presence of open water, farmland, and alkaline marsh, and negatively by human settlement; and in additi...
Shanshan Cai1, Tianxiang Gao2, Binlun Yan3, Aiyi Zhu1 and Xiumei Zhang1,2,*
...a commercially important species in Chinese fishery industry. However the natural resources of swimming crabs are declining and enhancement programs are being conducted for resources restoration for decades. In this study, 524 female broodstock from 10 hatcheries and 547 recaptured crabs from 6 investigations were used to assess the proportion of released individuals and evaluate the effect of the program in Shandong Province in 2014. Parentage determination b...
Muhammad Waseem1, Ahmed Raza1, Hamera Aisha1, Muhammad Naeem Awan1, Tariq Ahmad2, Rabia Nazir2 and Tariq Mahmood2,*
...the rampant trade of the species, and has been listed as endangered since 2014 and also included in Appendix-I of CITES. The IUCN estimates indicate a decrease of ≥ 50% in the global Indian pangolin population over the next 21 years, highlighting the need for protecting the species against illegal trade. In the current study, we investigated the scale of its poaching and illegal trade in the country. Results revealed that...
Sabbah M. Allam, T.M. El-Bedawy, M.H. Bakr and A.E.M. Mahmoud*
...i> and Salmonella species, and on antioxidant biomarkers.
...
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
...r finding association of species, gender, body weight, age and body condition score (BCS) with prevalence of antibodies against MAP. Seropositivity against MAP was significantly (P<0.05) detected. Male and female animals were equally susceptible to the disease (OR: 0.908, 95% CI= 0.6111-1.350). Age groups were not found associated with chances of being seropositive. Seropositivity was significantly (P<0.05) higher in animals under 300kg body weight. Chan...
Muhammad Raza Khan1, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim2, Shaista Andleeb1 and Abdul Hamid1
...n, is one of the largest species of Canid family; it occurs in various parts of the country including upper Swat area. Reportedly, species population is declining in its range, however, data on its ecological aspects are scanty in the country. In the current study, we investigated distribution and diet of grey wolf and the level of its human conflict in Mahoodand valley of Swat District. Results revealed the occurrence of gr...
Mubasshir Sohail1,2,*, Raza Muhammad1 and Qadeer Ahmed Soomro1
...realella. Both aphid species were significantly good in performance when fed to C. carnea larvae with S. cerealella eggs than their solo effect. Results depicted that mortality factor and life parameters of C. carnea larvae are influenced by its prey type which they fed on. These results of the study could be used to improve the rearing and conservation strategies to increase C. carnea population and their predatory activities.<...

Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas1,2*, Adewumi Moses Olubusuyi1, Olayinka Olaitan Titilola3 and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,3 

Himanshu Mishra, Vikas Kumar and Ashish Kumar*
...o March 2018. Thirty two species of birds were observed during the field investigation. The line transect method was employed for population estimates. During the field survey, we recorded a significantly higher number of migratory birds at the end of early winter (December) and at the commencement of middle winter (January). Red crested pochard (Netta rufina), Common coot (Fulica atra) and Gadwall (Mareca strepera) were the most populated...
Muhammad Khaled Siddiq1, Fatima Yousuf Dar1,M. Akbar Khan1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1,*, Sayyed Ghyour Abbas1, Asra Ghaus1, Musdassir Iqbal1 and Muhammad Akhtar2
...igraphic position of the species. Sivatragus bohlini, previouslyrecovered from the Upper Siwaliks, and difficult to date. Moreover, antelopes are documented for the first time from this locality. 
...
Tasleem Akhtar1,2,Ghazanfar Ali1,*, Nuzhat Shafi2 and Abdul Rauf2
...oracinae containing four species distributed in the north and north-east Himalayas was investigated based on the complete mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequences. The average nucleotide length of 16S rRNA in 45 samples ranged from 1527 to 1552 bps. Five haplotypes (h) were observed, with haplotype diversity (Hd) 0.5323±0.080. Among 5 haplotypes, 2, 2 and 1 haplotype were detected in S. plagiostomus, S. niger and S. esocinus, respectively. Ha...
Zahra Eftekhar1, Morteza Naderi2,*, Mohammad Kaboli3, Hamid R. Rezaei4 and Nematollah Khorasani3
... of patterns of arboreal species adaptation to the glacial oscillations. Ancient Hyrcanian forests, as one of the old-growth relicts of the temperate deciduous forests, have been recently documented as an important refugium during the last glacial maximum (LGM). More investigations based on skull and mandible morphological assessments revealed considerable intraspecific evolutionary divergence among the local populations settled in the Hyrcanian forests of nor...

Ahmed Zia1*, Iqtidar Hussain2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Muzaffar Shah3 and Abdul Rauf Bhatti1 

... richness, abundance and species complex of Odonata. It revealed four families, fifteen genera and twenty-six species. Among recorded fauna, family Libellulidae appeared to be a dominant group representing 19 species, followed by family Coenagrionidae with 5 species and family Calopterygoidae and Aeshnidae representing single spe...
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ghulam Yasein2 and Ghulam Abbas1 
...conserved region amongst species. IGF-1 have not been studied before in camel. The DNA samples of Marecha camel were collected from the Camel Breeding and Research Station at Rakhmani Bhakkar, Pakistan. Four polymorphic sites were detected in the IGF-1 gene. A significant finding was the occurrence of a T→C polymorphism in exon 5 that causes a substitution of an amino acid from Cysteine to Arginine.That Cys/Arg polymorphism may serve as authoritati...

Muneer Abbas1*, Muhammad Ramzan1, Niaz Hussain1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Khalid Hussain1, Sohail Abbas2 and Ali Raza3 

... made with >26 insect species including 4 species of bio control agents. Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera litura, Agrotis Sp., Bemesia tabaci and Microtermes Spp. were major pests of gram and mungbean attracted in light traps. May, June and July were hottest months of the year with highest population captures of 2892, 2789 and 2475, respectively. Temperature had significant impact of 80.7 % on per unit population attracti...

Mazhar Habib1, Aamir Saleem1, Arshad Mahmood Malik2*, Sarfraz Ahmed3 and Sameera Arshad4 

... advanced plant maturity species, its herbage yield increased (P<0.05). However, phonologically, proportion of its plants with vegetative stage declined. This decline of plants with vegetative stage can cause distraction to livestock depending on the species for grazing purposes. It is suggested that two month clipping stage should be applied on Blue panic grass to get sustained grass vigor and optimum herbage yield. ...

Ahmed Zia* 

..., potentially threatened species whose habitat and ecology was never known. To date, there is no information available for its male and immature stages. It is second species for the genus to be recorded from Pakistan. Distributional details along with important taxonomic characters and habitat information is discussed in detail to facilitate readers of this document. A key to the known species...
Hanif Ullah1, Muhammad Inayat Ullah Khan2, Suleman3, Sawar Khan1,Salma Javed4, Abdul Qadeer1, Mohsin Nawaz1, Sardar Azhar Mehmood4
...alciparum are common species. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence of malaria infection in District Lower Dir Pakistan. A total of 1750 blood samples were collected from seven tehsils of District Lower Dir (January to December 2013). The data were analysed tehsils wise, month wise, gender wise, age wise and species wise. Thick and thin smear were prepared and examined under microscope. The data wa...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

...t was isolated from many species of domestic and wild birds. Infection in commercial poultry flocks causes important economic losses, related to high mortality, decrease in animal performance and aggravation of infection by other pathogens. Although H9N2 is endemic in many regions of the world, such as Middle East and North Africa, where the first outbreaks were described since the end of 1990s, many features about epidemiology and genetic characteristics are ...

Shwe Yee Win1, Lat Lat Htun1, Myint Myint Hmoon1, Hla Myet Chel1, Yu Nandi Thaw1, Nyein Chan Soe1, Htet Lin Oo3 and Saw Bawm2* 

...was 60.5% (121/200). Six species of gastrointestinal parasites were observed as Capillaria spp. (30.0%, 60/200), Ascaridia galli (24%, 48/200), Eimeria spp. (20.5%, 41/200), Raillietina spp. (17%, 34/200), Strongyloides spp. (2.5%, 5/200) and Subulura brumpti (2.0%, 4/200). Mixed infection rate was 54.5% while single infection rate was observed as 45.5%. The highest occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites (66.0%) was observed in Nyaung U Township followed by ...
Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan1, Maria Altaf1, Zeemal Seemab Amin1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Anum Shahzadi1, Hina Mudasser1, Iqra Maqsood1, Nazia Gulshan1, Saira Naseem3
...ation of reactive oxygen species can disturb the body’s defense mechanism which cause potential oxidative injury to tissues and lead to cartilage degradation in RA patients.
...
Nadia Saeed1, Mian Sayed Khan2, Habib Ahmad3, Muzafar Shah4*
...us avenae, Tylenchus species, Pratylenchus species, Psilenchus species, Meloidogyne species and Trichodorus species. Carbofuran (inorganic) and poultry manure (organic) in recommended amounts were used for management and results showed that both were effective against phytonematodes. Val...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2, Mehboob ul Hassan3 and Lariab Zahra Faiz1
...ermine abundance of each species. The study, documented 10 species of mammalian pests, 13 species of pest birds of maize crop and their population density differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) at study sites. The habitat analysis of study sites and correlation of species with habitat were done through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by using software (X...
Muhammad Shoaib1,3*, Arif Ismiyev2,Khudaverdi Ganbarov3, Aygun Israyilova3 and Sajid Umar4
...rmined against bacterial species by using resazurin microplate assay. All the tested compounds exhibited variable antimicrobial properties against various test cultures. All the compounds showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria as compared to Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Compound III was found to be the most effective compound. These results demonstrate the potential antimicrobial properties of mono and spiro cyclohexa...
Shahid Sherzada1,2,4,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan4, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Idrees3, Abdul Wajid2, Muhammad Nauman Sharif3, Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal3, Iram Amin3 and Muhammad Shahid3
...amily, Indian major carp species (Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla)are very suitable fish species for culture in Pakistan. However, the identification and phylogeny of these fish species are of much interest today. DNA barcoding is used as a bio-identification tool for the organism globally. The current study was also conducted for the fast and accurate identification of...
Peng Chen1,2, Zuhao Huang3,Chaoying Zhu1, Yuqing Han1, Zhifeng Xu1
Guanglong Sun1, Zhen Zhang1, Dongqin Zhao4, Gang Ge1 and Luzhang Ruan1*
...t; C > T > G in 73 species complete mitochondrial sequences in Gruiformes and Charadriiformes. The total AT content in the 73 species was larger than that of GC. The start codons in protein-coding genes (PCGs) included ATG, GTG, ATT, ATC and ATA, while its stop codons included TAA, TAG, AGG, AGA and the incomplete cipher T. In PCGs, the highest frequency of codon was CTA (Leu). The highest frequency of amino acids was ...
Javeria Zafar1, Asif Nadeem1*, Maryam Javed1, Fehmeeda Fatima1, Wasim Shehzad1, Ghulam Abbas1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Muddassir Ali1
...ionship with other capra species. Blood samples were collected from Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan. PCR product was sequenced bi-directionally using dideoxy chain termination method after mitochondrial ATPase8/6 genes amplification. Polymorphism, Genetic diversity and Phylogenetic analysis were carried out by the MUSCLE, DnaSP and MEGA6 tools. Total of 20 variations at different positions were found in aligned sequence results. Sequence conserva...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan2*, Ayesha Iqbal2, Amtur Rafeh2, Muhammad Tahir Waseem2 and Muhammad Ameen2
...extinct Siwalik tragulid species including; Dorcabune anthracotherioides, Dorcatherium majus and Dorcatherium minus. To assess habitat stability for the Neogene tragulids, dental remains from the middle Miocene-early Pliocene, ca. 13.5-4.0 Ma outcrops of the Siwalik of Pakistan were analyzed for the occurrence of linear enamel hypoplasia. According to our results there was a lower occurrence of enamel hypoplasia (13%) in the tragulid fossi...
Qamar Zeb1*, Silvia I. Rondon2, Hayat Badshah,1 and Arsalan Khan1
...re the predominant aphid species (Homoptera: Aphididae). Two species of parasitoids Aphidius ervi L. and Aphidius colemani Viereck were recorded. Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Chryoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysomelidae), and several species of Hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) were the most common predators. In general, aphi...
Zübeyde Kumbıçak1,* and Hatice Poyraz2
...The two Drassodes species had karyotypes comprising 10 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which were X1X20 (♂) type. All chromosomes including sex chromosomes were telocentric and relative lengths of autosomal pairs were decreased gradually in size. All male meiosis was chiasmate and during the first meiotic division stages, 10 autosomal bivalents and generally one chiasma per bivalent (rarely two chiasmata) were obtained, t...

Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry2, Muhammad Irfan3, Muhammad Khan1, Shaukat Ali4 and Saima Shahzad Mirza5 

...ens, comprised of 3 fish species (Catla catla (thaila), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Cirrhinus mrigala (mori)) from river Ravi during two flow seasons at four sampling locations including upstream Lahore Siphon = A, Shahdera = B, Sunder=C and downstream Balloki headworks = D. All the metal contents in fish scales were highly significantly different (P<0.001) among sampling locations and flow seasons. Location-wise metal accumulation pattern was C > D > B &...
Asima Rani1,*, Syed Kashif Nawaz2 and Muhammad Arshad3
...on the Plasmodium species responsible for the infection. Allele specific PCR was employed for the amplification of rs8177400 polymorphism. Results of genotyping were confirmed via PCR-RFLP strategy. Presence of GG genotype decreases the susceptibility of malaria (OR: 0.544, CI: 0.331 to 0.894, p=0.053), mild malaria (OR: 0.472, CI: 0.274 to 0.815, p=0.024) and P. vivax infection (OR: 0.362, CI: 0.211 to 0.622, p=0.000). AG heterozygosity increase...
Hazrat Ali1,2,*, Ezzat Khan1,* and Muhammad Jamal Nasir3
...ments and different fish species of River Shah Alam, a tributary of River Kabul in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The different environmental samples were collected from the river, downstream the city of Peshawar, and analyzed for the selected heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Heavy metal accumulation was studied in muscles of six fish species collected from the river. Heavy metal accumulation was also stud...
Ammara Blouch1, Ata ul Mohsin2, Muhammad Naeem2 and Rashid Mahmood1*
...Dipel with Bt sub speciess kurstaki and Turex with Bt sub speciess kurstaki and aizawai were tested against three early larval instars of S. litura under laboratory conditions using leaf dip method. Mortality was recorded after three and seven days of exposure. The results indicated that larval mortality increased with time and Turex (Bt sub spe...
Chiping Kong1,2, Yongheng Wu1,2, Shangling Lou1, Benping Chen3, Simon D. Dowell4 and Yiqiang Fu1*
...search of this secretive species.
...
Huanxin Zhang1,2, Hongshuo Tang3, Jun Chen1, Yu Zang1,2, Xuexi Tang1,2,* and Ying Wang1,2,*
...on the evolution in many species, but the evolutionary characteristics of African hunting dog TLR genes are scared. The available genome sequence of African hunting dog offers us the way to examine the innate immunity of this endangered carnivore. 10 TLR genes (TLR1-10) were initially identified from the African hunting dog and lesser panda. The results showed that most of the TLR genes were very conservative in the African hunting dog. We found 6 of ten TLR g...
Erum Iqbal*, Nasir Mehmood, Nasira Kazi and Shahina Fayyaz
...plant parasitic nematode species viz., Paratylenchus manilkarii n. sp., P. sindhicus n. sp.,and Pratylenchus kralli Ryss, 1982 as a new record species. P. manilkarii n. sp., is characterized by the lateral field with four incisures; stylet 28-29 µm long; vulval lips protruding with vulval flap; lip region rounded or truncated without submedian lobes, tail ventrally curved with pointed or acu...
Romaan Hayat Khattak1,3, Hussain Ali1, Ejaz Ur Rehman1 and 
Muhammad Ali Nawaz1, 2*
...
Blue sheep is a key species and found in Tibetan Plateau and the bordering massif through Central Asia. In Pakistan the distribution range of species is restricted to higher altitude areas of Northern Areas including Khunjerab and Shimshal. The present study was conducted from 25 September 2014 to 23 October 2014, to estimate the population size of blue sheep in Shimshal and Socterabad Community Controlled Hunting Areas...
Hafrijal Syandri1*, Ainul Mardiah2, Azrita3 and Netti Aryani4

 

...estication in 2018. This species is freshwater fish native in Indonesia and has a high price in the markets. This study investigated the effect of stocking density on growth performance, body carcass composition and biometric indices of juvenile gurami sago in the synthetic sheet pond. Fish were stocked at densities of 10, 15 and 20 fish/m3 in synthetic sheet pond with three replicate. Fish were fed with commercial feed containing 29% crude protein...
Nurlybay Kazhgaliyev1*, Talgat Kulmagambetov2, Dulat Ibrayev1, Saule Bostanova1 and Zhanat Titanov1
...s among different animal species.We describe here the rationale and economics of adaptation of Aberdeen Angus and Hereford beef-producing animals brought from Canada and the Netherlands to Northern Kazakhstan. In order to investigate common zootechnic methods, daughters of imported Aberdeen Angus and Hereford cows were grouped at the age of 18-19 months with a live weight of no less than 350 kg. Groups were constituted using the analogue-pairs method and consi...
Abdul Samad1, Raheela Asmat2, Muhammad Naeem1, Hamida Ali3, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa1, Ferhat Abbas1, Jannat Raza1,3 and Muhammad Tauseef Asmat1*

 

...o identify the prevalent species and genes associated with virulence. Only 10 (1.25%) samples were found contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Milk samples were the most contaminated as 4 samples collected from retail shops or dairy farm were found positive for Listeria. While 2 samples of each beef, chicken meat and salad were contaminated with Listeria. The virulent genes inlA, inlB, prfA, hlyA, ...
Jun Zhang, Kui Zhang, Zuozhi Chen*, Yane Jiang, Yancong Cai, Yuyan Gong and Wenming Yu
...dominant coral reef fish species in the South China Sea. The specimes were collected by hand-line in the lagoons of five representative coral reefs during June 2013 to September 2018. According to FishBase, this study provides first report on LWR of six studied species and practically available parameters on LWR for three species. The estimated b values ranged between 2.218 (Para...
Haroon1,2, Yu-Feng Meng1, Zahid Khan1, Farzana Perveen2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Sayed Waqar Shah4, Xiao-Hong Su1 and Lianxi Xing1,*
...F 31 and D3 0.2) of each species. The Shannon diversity (H’) is high in union council (UC) Koaz Bahram Dheri (H’= 6.05) followed by UC Dhaki (H’= 4.38), while Simpson diversity (1/D) is more significant in UC Koaz Bahram Dheri (1/D= 0.1), and Ghandheri (1/D= 0.14). While the minimum Simpson diversity (1/D) recorded from UC Tangi (1/D= 0.41) and UC Hisara Nehri (1/D= 0.31). The maximum individuals were collected from UC Koaz Bahram Dheri (n=14...
Tong Feng, Zilu Zhang, Minghao Qu, Chan Luo, Laiba Shafique, Qingyou Liu and Kuiqing Cui*
...ved type among different species. The goat MC1R protein has a molecular mass of 34.65 ku, an isoelectric point of 8.70, which is weakly alkaline, and contains seven transmembrane domains typical of cell membrane receptor proteins. Sequencing analysis of the black, brown and white different color MC1R genes of Nubian goats revealed that there are three SNPs in the gene sequence, which are 219, 712 and 1160, respectively. The C/T mutation did not cause amino aci...

Anwar Ali1*, Muhammad Irfan Ashraf2, Saeed Gulzar2 and Muhammad Akmal2

...roxberghii) an important species of subtropical pine ecosystems in the Himalayas. Data was collected through destructive sampling of 32 sample trees growing in subtropical pine forests of Hazara Forest Region, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) of the selected sample trees ranged from (12-93 cm) and height (H) varied between 9.50-40.10 m. Allometric equation was developed through testing different allometric models. The best fit...

Hamoudi Naoual1, Alloui Nadir2*, Barberis Abdelhak2 and Boudaoud Amine2 

...nd areas, migratory bird species, known to carry the AIV. The Anatidae population peaked in January 2017 with a total of 8064 birds. The 6 frequent species observed are: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian teal (Anas crecca), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) and Common shelduck (Tadorna tadorna). Our observations confirm the diversity of migratory bird species, p...
Muhammad Asif Gondal, Qazal Waheed, Sana Tariq, Waseem Haider, Aisha Khan, Qudsia Rasib and Haroon Ahmed*
...tributes like diversity, species richness and equitability of freshwater gastropods are important due to various reasons like intermediate hosts for many trematodes and bio-indicator. Snails are cosmopolitan in distribution and diversity of habitat to perform ecological performance is abosolute. The freshwater malacological information is sparse within Pakistan specifically in the foothills of Margalla hills. Therefore, the present study was designed to evalua...
Erum Yawar Iqbal1*, Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1, Shahnaz Dawar2 and Shahina Fayyaz1
...e supernatant of new EPB species Xenorhabdus steinernematis n.sp. strain PAK. CB10 (KU097324) and the other X. indica PAK. S.B.56 (MF521953) resulted in both the highest mortality rate [(94.33±2.05, 100.00±0.00)%] @ 300µl/10ml at 30ºC and the lowest fecundity [(65.00±3.00) eggs/gravid female] in green house condition after 5 days of treatment. Crude cell extract of all bacterialfractions were found to be lea...
Bhandari Jyoti1,2, Yasen Shali3, Zhang Zehua4, Yao Xiaoho5, Deng Jiang3, Zhang Yaling5, Wang Cuiling5, Li Yang5, Lei Xueping5, Wang Wenfeng5, Mohammad Farooque Hassan6 and Li Can1,*
...ear understanding on the species traits is necessary. In this study, the population dynamics, life history and spatial distribution pattern of L. m. tibetensis Chen were explored on meadow and farmland of the Tibetan plateau during 2012. The first objective of this study was to investigate the population dynamic and life history of this pest on their outbreak sites. The second objective was to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of L. m. tibeten...
Ramazan İlgün1*, Nilgün Kuru2, Ferhan Bölükbaş3 and Fatih Mehmet Gür4
... tongue of other poultry species were investigated.
...
Nihat Yeşilayer*
... conducted on three fish species to investigate the relationship between total carotenoid concentration (TCC) and flesh colour, determined by visual and colorimetric methods, of three fish species. Linear relationships were observed between CIELAB colour measurements (lightness-L*, redness-a*, yellowness-b*, hue-H°ab and chroma-Cab), DSM SalmoFan card scores and TCCs. The redness (a*) was mostly correlated with TC...
Nadeem Munawar1,2*, Tariq Mahmood2, Paula Rivadeneira1, Ali Akhter2 and Saqib Mehmood2
...e of habitats for rodent species in agricultural landscapes
...
Ju Zhang1,2, Dong-Sheng Jia3, Shi-Hao Zhao1,2, Xiao-Liang Xie3, Hong Chen4 and Hai-Feng Li4,*

 

...ermining reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, paraquat-stress survival rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities.We observed that HGQ exerted little effect on the growth of wild-type N2 nematodes at concentration < 0.6 mg/ml, and 0.05 mg/ml of the HGQ significantly prolonged the lifespan and reduced the lipofuscin level in N2 nematodes. However, the HGQ failed to inf...
Abdurakhim Kuchboev1, Mehmonjon Egamberdiev2, Rokhatoy Karimova1, Oybek Amirov1 and Mitsuhiko Asakawa3,*
... it was confirmed that 2 species of terrestrial snail, X. candacharica and A. gereliana, act as the first intermediate hosts of D. dendriticum, and P. sogdiana snail play a role of intermediate host of Brachylaima sp. in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan.
...
Mounir R. Abi-Said1, Mohammad Al Zein2, Mohammad A. Abu Baker3 and Zuhair S. Amr3,4*
...g at least eleven rodent species, unidentified bird(s), at least one scorpion, and other unidentified insects. Prey items were dominated by rodents (91%) which were found in 96.4% of the pellets. Birds, scorpions, and other insects constituted 2.46, 5.91, and 2.96% of the diet, respectively. Rodents contributed the most in terms of biomass, with the black rat, Rattus rattus, and desert jirds dominating the remains. The results suggested that the Desert ...
Muhammad Younis Laghari1,2, Zixia Zhao1, Yiwen Gong3, Punhal Lashari1,2, Shangqi Li1, Jian Xu1 , Ateeque Rahman Khooharo4, Jiongtang Li1,* and Yan Zhang1*
...st important aquaculture species in the world. In China, due to the geographical isolation of Hainan island from the mainland, the genetic diversity in Hainan island is different to that in the mainland. One of fifty sequences isolated from SINE element was polymorphic, including six haplotypes with an average sequence divergence of 11.03% (SE = 0.78%). Four haplotypes (MF177501-MF177504) were shared in these four population. However, two specific haploty...
Amna Shoaib*, Zoia Arshad Awan and Naureen Akhtar
... morphologically similar species that belong to the Aspergillus section Flavi. A. minisclerotigenes and A. flavus were isolated from soybean and okra seeds, respectively. The isolated species were first identified morphologically. ITS1–5.8S–ITS4 primers sequence and amplification of ISSR nucleotide sequences using three primers [P01 (AGAG)4 G, P02 (GTG)5, and P03 ...
Fatima Hashim Abbas1,2* and Alaa Tareq Shakir Al-Hassnawi1
...TAC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in the serum of all studied groups. MDA levels were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in aborted women with T. gondii compared to negative control. MDA levels were also significantly higher (p≤0.05) among aborted women with Cytomegalo virus compared to negative and positive control groups. All aborted women had significantly higher levels of TAC levels (p≤0.05) compared to the control groups. How...
Nazia Qamar1,2*, Sher Khan Panhwar2 and Wang Ping1
...cs of high valued shrimp species Exopalaemon styliferus (112), Metapenaeus monoceros (265), Parapenaeopsis stylifera (688) collected from September 2017 to April 2018 by Estuarine Set Bagnet are discussed. High linearity (>0.8) among parameters was estimated by fitting a liner model and a negative allometric growth pattern in E. styliferus, P. stylifera and slight positive growth was calculated for M. monoceros. A m...

Reda Mohamed1, 2 

...irectly according to the species. The right ruminal artery originated either from the splenic, left gastric or celiac arteries. The epiploic branch detached either from the splenic, celiac or right ruminal arteries. The left ruminal artery arose either from the celiac, splenic or left gastric arteries. The reticular artery originated either from the left ruminal, splenic, celiac or left gastric arteries. The left gastric artery originated either from the celia...
Riffat Sultana1, Nuzhat Soomro1,*, Santosh Kumar2, Ahmed Ali Samejo1 and Samiullah Soomro1
...all;">The egg-pods of 04 species viz: Oxya hyla hyla Serville, 1831, O. velox (Fabricius, 1787), O. fuscovittata (Marschall, 1836) of genus Oxya and Oxyina bidentata (Willemse, 1925) of Oxyina were examined under laboratory conditions. Significant differences were found in the sizes and shapes of the pods. Beside this, number of eggs in each egg pod, distribution pattern and weight, length and width of eggs in the pods...
Anila Naz Soomro1*, Hiroshi Suzuki2, Sadaf Tabassum Qureshi3 and Wazir Ali Baloch1
... and its co-existing species C. typus. Entire continuum of stream was divided into five stations (St.1, St. 2, St. 3, St. 4 and St. 5). Monthly sampling was carried out using a scoop net (1 × 1 mm) via the sweep method, sweeping efforts were counted. The results revealed that C. sakishiemnsis was restricted atSt. 1 only, a few juveniles of C. sakishiemnsis were recorded at St. 3, St. 4. The length frequency histograms showed the ...
Daniel Cocan1, Vioara Mireşan1, Florentina Popescu1, Radu Constantinescu1, Aurelia Coroian1, Călin Laţiu1, Romulus Valeriu Flaviu Turcu3, Alexandru Ştefan Fărcăşanu3 and Cristian Martonos2,*
...efence mechanism of this species. The presence, topography and structure of venomous glands made brown bullhead one of the top invasive species spreading its habitat worldwide. The specimens were collected from Stejeriş Lake, Cluj County. MRI investigations were conducted within the National Center for Magnetic Resonance (NCMR), Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics. For anatomical investigations, RARE (Rapid Acquisi...
Zhi Yi Jin and Shao Ming Qin*
...oraging habitats of this species include woodlands and farmlands. The largest proportion of woodland in the habitats was 88.70%. Proportion of shoals in foraging habitats at 500-m, 1000-m, 1500-m and 5000-m scales were larger than that in control plots, indicating that the presence of shoals is an important factor determining habitat selection of this bird. At micro-habitat scale, water flow speed (P=0.044), and distance to road (P=0.018) and vil...
Syed Basit Rasheed*, Ahmad Yar, Farrah Zaidi and Qaisar Jamal
...ck method. A total of 19 species representing 11 genera and three subfamilies namely Formicinae, Myrmicinae and Dolichoderinae were identified during the present study. Myrmicinae was the most diverse subfamily with five genera (Crematogaster, Meranoplus, Messor, Monomorium and Pheidole) and 11 species (Crematogaster subnuda, Meranoplus bicolor, Messor instabilis, Monomorium aberrans, Mo. dichroum, Mo. indic...
Jiantong Feng, Xueping Wen, Yahong Guo, Yingying Ye*, Jiji Li and Baoying Guo
...d economically important species in the coastal regions of China. In order to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of M. lamarckii, a 750 bp region of mitochondrial COIII gene and an 822 bp region of 12S rRNA gene were sequenced and analyzed for 118 and 105 individuals from five populations (ZS, WZ, ZP, ST and ZJ) in the Southeast coastal areas of China, respectively. Results revealed that 33 haplotypes were defined in COIII gene,...
Gulnaz Afzal1, Ghulam Mustafa2*, Shakila Mushtaq3 and Amer Jamil4
...y, we distinguished five species of spiders using their CO1 gene sequences and compared them with 40 earlier published sequences, retrieved from GenBank on the bases of maximum similarity index. The sequences of gene encoding CO1 of all five spider species were deposited in GenBank. Out of five spiders in this study, three species i.e. Leucauge decorata, Oxyopes jav...
Muhammad Waseem, Tariq Mahmood*, Abid Hussain, Abdul Hamid, Faraz Akrim, Shaista Andleeb and Hira Fatima
...p;m above sea level. The species, in many areas of its range, is in conflict with humans, however, data on its population and economic losses are scanty in the country. We investigated its occurrence, population and human conflict in Mansehra District during 2016-2017. A total of 66 indirect signs of Asiatic black bear were recorded with an altitudinal variation of habitat ranging from 1511m to 2570m elevation including 17 dens and 44 scats of the bear from 10...
Yunfang Tian, Zeqin Fu, Jiantong Feng, Yahong Guo, Yingying Ye*, Jiji Li and Baoying Guo
...an important aquaculture species in the coastal regions of China. However, the previous studies of genetic information about M. meretrix were vague. None integrated research to reveal the population genetic and structure of M. meretrix in China from north to south. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation of seven location samples distributing the China coastline from north to south by mitochondrial DNA (COI and Cytb gen...

Amit Sharma1* and Pankaj Sood2 

...vation compared to other species which is mainly attributed to the compositional variation of the sperm plasma membrane. Different factors affect affects the semen cryopreservation viz. species, breed, semen collection technique, collection season, extender composition, type of cryoprotectant used, cooling rate, equilibration time, freezing and thawing rate. All these factors should be given due credit for achieving better ...
Lei Gao1, Gong-xue Jia2, Zheng-yuan Huang1, Ming-xing Yue3, Chao Zhang1, Shi-en Zhu1 and Xiang-wei Fu1,*
...cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH). DNA DSBs were examined by immunostaining of pi-H2AX, the marker of DNA DSBs. The results showed that the GVBD rates were similar in oocytes of young and aged mice. Polar body extrusion was significantly delayed in aged mice (P < 0.05), however the rate of polar body extrusion was similar to that of young mice at 16 h of IVM. Moreover, PN formation of parthenogenetic embryo was significantly delay...

Hamza Rehman*, Nida Ahmad Khan, Asad Ali, Warda Batool and Kanwal Razzaq 

...categorized as notorious species, an extended standing species around the world and at the same time it is perceived among the world’s 100 most essential intrusive species. Thiamethoxam and imidacloprid are Neonicotinoids with a minute toxicity and they have no teratogenic effects on grains, therefore both are used as cereals protectant against stored grain pests world widely. The re...
Muhammad Rizwan Ashraf1, Asif Nadeem1,2, Eric Nelson Smith3, Maryam Javed1, Utpal Smart3, Tahir Yaqub4, Abu Saeed Hashmi1 and Panupong Thammachoti3
...ous animals with over 40 species of venomous snakes found in Pakistan. One such group of snakes belongs to genus Echis is saw scaled viper (Ehcis carinatus). Molecular techniques have made it easy to elucidate phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary histories of different groups of organisms. This study is the first attempt to find the phylogenetic relationship and diversity through mitochondrial genes in saw-scaled viper from Pakistan. Tail tip bio...
Peimin Yang*, Zongyun Hu, Yixin Liu, Guanghai Jin and Lei Wang
...is a remarkable invasive species in Euroasia, is natively distributed in Northeast Asia and has been recognized as a candidate for aquaculture in northeast China. To investigate the genetic variability and population structure of this species in its native range, we analysed variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) for 94 specimens collected from five locations. Sequence analysis showed that there were 50 p...

Hina Maryam1, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Ahmed Zia1, Ghulam Rasul3, Muhammad Kamal Sheikh3*, Muhammad Qasim4 and Gulnaz Parveen

...gar and Skardu. Total 18 species of 14 genera under seven families of orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera were identified. Order Diptera was represented by family Syrphidae with four species under three genera. Order Hymenoptera represented four families i.e. Apidae with six species under four genera; Halictidae with two species under two genera;...

Shilong Chen1,2, Shifeng Xiao1,2, Shao Wang1,2, Fengqiang Lin1,2, Xiaoxia Cheng1,2, Xiaoli Zhu1,2, Dandan Jiang1,2, Shaoying Chen1,2* and Fusong Yu3* 

...esis mechanisms of cross-species transmission, retardation and beak atrophy are still needed to be elucidated. 

...
Gong Ga1,2 and SuoLang Sizhu2,*
...bsp;farming of different species of domestic animals are consumed traditionally. In this study, 173 serum samples of Tibetan swine were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies by the ELISA. HEV RNA were measured in feces (n=173), serum (n=173) and tissue ((including liver, spleen, kidney and intestine, n=21) by nested RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. HEV antigens were detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry analysis. Overall, we found that that eight serum samp...
Xuhui Zhang1, Zhiyuan Sun2, Jinfeng Cai1, Guibin Wang1, Zunling Zhu1, Linguo Zhao3 and Fuliang Cao1,*
... hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in FR groups were significantly decreased compared with the control or NF group at 42 d of age. Furthermore, serum total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity of birds from group FR3 was significantly increased (42d) compared with NF group. Additionally, the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GP...
Celalettin Gözüaçik1,*, Mustafa Güllü2, Ayda Konuksal3, Reşat Değirmenci3 and Ercan Akerzurumlu3
... Tobias (Braconidae) species from Hymenoptera order were obtained. Bracon stabilis (93.4%) was determined as widespread and in higher level. A. gracilenta was identified for the first time as larval parasitoid of S. temperatella and also for Northern Cyprus and Cyprus Island. The average parasitism rate in cereal fields was 34.8-18.1% in Güzelyurt, 31.8-12.2% in İskele, 21.0-8.4% in Girne, 16.2-5.4% in Lefkoşa and, 9.5-1.8% in G...
Dongping Liu1, Guogang Zhang1, Chao Wang2, Baoping Qing2 and Jun Lu1,*
... considered a monogamous species, and breeding pair is solitary and territorial. However, 3.4% of breeding females exhibited polyandry and 43.1% of nests were observed colonial in single tree in the reintroduced population, probably due to male-biased sex ratio and better nesting conditions. First nest failure in reintroduced population occurred much earlier than that in wild, which resulted in significantly higher probability of re-nesting. The phenotypic pla...

Pushpa1, Nighat Seema Soomro1, Shahla Karim Baloch2, Mehmooda Buriro1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Muhammad Tahir Khan3, Qamar Uddin Jogi1*, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1 and Farheen Deeba Soomro1 

...elopathic effect of weed species on germination and seedling traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat varieties Amber and TJ83 were subjected to powder of Chenopodium album, Convolvulus arvensis and Avena fatua under three different treatments i.e. 25, 50 and 75g. The effect of these weed powders on seed germination (%), shoot length (cm), root length (cm), shoot fresh weight (g), root fresh weight (g), shoot dry weight (g), root dry weight (g), and seed ...
Mohammad Ejaz1, Salma Javed2, Muhammad Hamza1, Sadia Tabassum2, Muhammad Abubakar3, Irfan Ullah4*
...ferent fungal endophytic species produce various other types of anticancer compounds like camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, torreyanic acid, vincristine, and vinblastine. This review is organized to describe the general study of natural bioactive molecules or secondary metabolites secreted by fungal endophytes as novel sources of anticancer drugs. The main purpose of this review is to organize the effective compound of the fungal endophytes for cancer treatments....

Adewumi Olubusuyi Moses1,2*, Faleye Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas,1,3, Ope-Ewe Oludayo Oluwaseyi1, Ibitoye Ibipeju Henrietta1, Arowosaye Abiola Opeyemi1, Adelowo Oluwatosin Deji1 and Adeniji Johnson Adekunle1,2,4 

Waqas Ahmad Shams1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1, Ibrar Ahmad1, Saima Bibi1, Saif Ul Islam2, Dawood Safi1, Saba Gul Ayaz1
...that there were two crab species yawi and Smalley. These species belong to Allacanthos. They have gonopod with a distal portion of mesio laterally flattened. They have a cephalic sub distal portion which is concave. There is a narrow marginal process with an almost straight distal end and a sharp tip lateral part with an apex. Periodic and corporal aspects inclined the abundance of Allacanthos. The dominant
Mubashar Hussain1*, Misbah Younas1,Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Muhammad Umar1, Maimoona Kanwal1, Moazama Batool2
...d pitfall traps. Sixteen species representing three guilds i.e. Paracoprid (10 species), Endocoprid (4 species) and Telecoprid (02 species) were recorded. Onitis excavatus (27.68 %)and Onitis crassus (9.59 %)showed maximum relative abundance whereas Helocopris bucephalus (0.15 %) and Onthophagus bonasus (0.15 %)were the least ...
Maria Khalid1, Tanveer Hussain1*, Zahid Farooq2, Kamran Abbas1 and Masroor Ellahi Babar1  
...other different reported species as well. The study gave us useful genomic information about genetic diversity in A. chukar and its phylogenetic relationships with related taxa, emphasizing on need of execution of conservation strategies to protect this unique genetic resource of Pakistan.
...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...most prevalent bacterial species in mosquitoe’s midgut. This observation may lead  towards the confusion that the outbreak is either of Dengue or Chikunguna virus. In conclusion, confirmatory molecular characterization of the viral genome remains controversial and further studies are needed in this respect.
...

Asad Ullah1*, Umar Sadique2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2 and Farhan Anwar Khan

 Muhammad Rafay1,*, Ghafoor Ahmad1, Tahira Ruby2, Muhammad Abdullah3, Fahad Rasheed4, Muhammad Abid1, Sohail Akhtar5, Zulfiqar Ahmad6 and Riaz Hussain7

...bbler on Albizzia species having an average clutch size of 4 eggs. Average peripheral and core diameter, depth of nest was 13, 9 and 7 cm, respectively. Breeding completed in 36 days including incubation, nestling, post nestling and fledgling stages of 13, 5, 4, and 14 days, respectively. Overall predation during these stages was 57%. Adults consumed grains, insects, termites and flies during morning and evening frequently while providing insects, flies...
Saeed Fatima1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Usman Atique2,3*, Arshad Javid4, Noor Khan2, Sonia Iqbal2, Hamid Majeed5, Hamda Azmat2, Bakhat Yawar Ali Khan6, Irfan7, Muhammad Tausif Shahid1, Gulnaz Afzal1
...e investigated five fish species are Ctenopharyngodon idella, Oreochromis niloticus, Eutropiichthys vacha, Rita rita and Sperata sarwari. The results divulged the pattern of metals concentration in fish in the order of Cd > As > Hg. However, R. rita, O. niloticus and C. idella showed higher accumulation of the metals that clearly alluded to species-linked metal bi...
Ahmad Osman Mal1 and Mohamed Hosny Gabr1,2,*
...er-exploitation for both species. The current fishing mortality is recommended to be decreased to the target reference point F0.1 = 0.453 year-1 for H. harid and F0.1 = 0.466 year-1 for S. ferrugineus after increasing the age at first capture to be 3 years for both species.
...
Salahud Din1,*, Saima Masood1, Hafsa Zaneb1, Habib ur Rehman2, Saima Ashraf1, Imad Khan3, Muqader Shah4 and Syed Abdul Hadi1
... it possible to identify species specific skull and use clinical measurements during practical application.
...

Muhammad Safdar Hussain1*, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz2, Muhammad Ayyoub Tanvir2 and Noor-E-Hira

...n in root length of both species was 19% and 9% respectively at 50 % drought. High drought stress (50%) resulted in a reduction of 49% and 38% dry matter in E. camaldulensis and T. aphylla respectively. The relative water contents (RWC) were more (71.5%) in E. Camaldulensis at the control level but significantly reduced (40%) at 50% stress while in T. aphylla less difference (52%-44%) was found in RWC. There was no significant difference found in diameter in b...
Ali Uzun* and Bilgenur Yasa
...grouping behavior of the species (p>0.05). Temperature and security are the primary effective factors for these subjects (p<0.01). Behaviors related to security developed simultaneously and became normal in a short time after threats disappeared. However, persistent temperature, although it varied from time to time, played an important role during the study (p<0.05).
...
Muhammad Asim1, Zaheer Ahmad2, M. Akbar Khan1, M. Adeeb Babar1, Sayyed Ghyour Abbas1,*, Muhammad Khalil Nawaz1, Kiran Aftab3 and Muhammad Akhtar4
...salmontanus. This species is well represented in the Middle Siwaliks but has not been previously reported from the Middle Miocene Chinji Formation of the Lower Siwalik Subgroup. The present evidence of T. cf. salmontanus in the Middle Miocene Chinji Formation of Pakistan extends the time range for the species from the Middle Miocene to the Late Miocene of Pakistan.
...

Riffat Sultana*, Nuzhat Soomro and Muhammad Saeed Wagan

...font-size: small;">A new species Oxya kashmorensis (Oxyinae: Acrididae: Orthoptera) from Kashmore, Sindh, Pakistan is described and illustrated. We provide a comparison of Oxya kashmorensis sp.nov. and O. nitidula which is recorded from Pakistan for the first time. Comparative information on the female genitalia of both species is provided. Further, a note on the ecology and distribution of bot...
Mahvish Rajput1, Abdullah G. Arijo1, Muhammad Bachal Bhutto1Rehana Shahnawaz Buriro2, Javaid Ali Gadahi1, Muhammad Naeem3 and Zubair Ahmed Laghari1*
...orphologically identical species indicating the only species infecting rumen. Further, it was found that the infection was prevalent in all months sampled but the highest infection rate was observed in November (56%) followed by October (38%), September (34%) and was observed lowest in August (22%). While, the infection rate in both sexes varies but the statistically non-significant difference in the prevalence among females...
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
...fection of cultured fish species is in an alarming trend, due to the possible emergence of antibiotic resistant strains. The bacteria was responsible for the disease outbreak that caused massive mortality of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) in 2016. We isolated the pathogenic bacteria (HNM-1) from the infected A. sinensis and identified its identity by conventional physiological, biochemical, and molecular techniques. Virulence and pathogene...
Omer Draz1, Xijun Ni2, Khizar Samiullah1,*, Riffat Yasin1, Rana Mehroz Fazal1, Sakeela Naz1, Saleem Akhtar1, Mahpara Gillani1 and Muzammil Ejaz1
...imens belonging to seven species of order artiodactyla which are Selenoportax vexillarius, Pachyportax latidens, Dorcatherium minus, Dorcatherium majus, Gazella lydekkeri, Hippopotamodon sivalense and Propotamochoerus hysudricus. The bovids are more prominent here as compared to all other artiodactyls. The suggested age of recovered species is Late Miocene to early Pliocene (7-5 Ma). The discovered specimens co...

Hasnain Alam1*, Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak1 and Taoufik Saleh Ksiksi

...towards using indigenous species for sustainable landscaping. In this study, we evaluated the germination response under osmotic stresses for four native species i.e. Atriplex leucoclada, Senna italica, Tetraena mandavillei and Tephrosia apollinea. Two osmotic agents (OA) i.e. NaCl and PEG 6000 and four osmotic levels (OL) i.e. 0, -0.2, -0.4 and -0.6 MPa were tested for each species. Data ...

Abdur Rehman1*, Sajjad Ahmad1, Ahmed Zia2, Asad Ali3, Kiran Shahjeer4, Abdul Latif1 and Taimur Khan

...6. The study revealed 23 species from 15 genera under 3 families. The abundant family was recorded as Libellulidae that was comprised of 19 species belonging to 11 genera, family Gomphidae included 3 species belonging to 3 genera and family Aeshnidae included one species belonged to one genus. Detailed description of each species...
Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Imran Bodlah1*, Ammara Gull e Fareen1,2, Muhammad Shakeel Khokhar1
...twood (1840) is a species rich genus in subfamily Myrmicinae. Many species of this genus are reported from various parts of the world including neighbouring countries of Pakistan. Members of this genus are considered as generalized foragers and cryptic in nature. Collected material was verified using most recent and available literature provided by Bharti and Akbar (2014). H...
Dil Afroza Khanom1, Amirun Nesa1, Muhammad Abu Sayed Jewel1, Muhammad Ayenuddin Haque1, Alok Kumar Paul1, Sonia Iqbal2, Usman Atique2,3*, Lubna Alam4
...mmercially valuable fish species viz. Gudusia chapra and Eutropiichthys vacha, for the muscular tissue bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Mn) and their human health risks. A total of 50 fish species (25 individuals each) were examined from the Padma River, Bangladesh, and subjected to heavy metals presence and loads by detection after wet digestion of samples. ...

Abid Khan*, Mukhtar Alam and Yousaf Jamal 

...ent in this culture were species of photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter spaeroides), lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus lactis), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida utilis), actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces griesus) and fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor heimalis). Farm yard manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) were used as organic sources of nitrogen. Bio-...

Muhammad Medrar Hussain*, Asad Jan* and Sayyar Khan Kazi 

...essed in Oryza sativa subspecies indica variety Swat-1. Through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, OsTZF8 gene (pBIG-Ubi-OsTZF8) was successfully transferred to rice calli. From these rice calli transgenic plants were regenerated and established in greenhouse. For the evaluation of OsTZF8 gene role in drought stress tolerance, two weeks old rice seedling were subjected to drought stress. OsTZF8-OX transgenic indica line A and B displayed 69% and 64% surviv...

Bilal Saeed Khan1*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Asif Qayyoum1, Imran Ali3 and Abdul Ghaffar

...unknown) of the new mite species Pseudostigmaeus sorghumus sp. nov was collected from city Dera Ghazi Khan on Sorghum bicolor (L.) and described. Fifteen paratypes were also collected from same collection data and seven were from Muzaffargarh. 

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Fehmina Ashraf1*, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Shaukat Ali3, Muhammad Khan1
...been depicted in various species of bacteria, plants and in different genera of fungi. Laccases have been purified by various methods. It involves in di-oxygen to water reduction and 1e- oxidation of phenolic and its allied parts. Laccases are mostly used in different industries like food, paper and pulp, pharmaceutical and textile etc. Both laccases and mediators have been used in different process like delignification of pulp. Laccases from bacterial
Ayesha Iqbal1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Abdul Majid Khan1*, Muhammad Tahir Waseem1, Ayesha Iqbal1, Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Muhammad Ameen1
...te between the different species of wild and domesticated suids. The studied material comprises of the three skulls. The straighter snouts and slenderer crania manifests that specimens under study were wild while the sex of species was determined by the permanent canine teeth morphology, as in females the upper canines extend in ventrolateral directions and continue to grow in lateral direction while in males the upper canin...

Korkmaz Bellitürk1, Zubair Aslam2, Ali Ahmad2* and Sami ur Rehman2

...senia fetida (an epigeic species), were used as the test species. The samples were collected from prepared vermicompost and raw material for chemical and physical examination. For these samples, the pH, EC, organic matter, C:N ratio, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, nitrogen, sulfur and heavy metals i.e. tin, cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and chromium parameters were evaluated. The experimental design was Co...

Nasrullah1*, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso1, Jamila Soomro2, Ilahi Bakhash Marghazani1, Masood-ul-Haq Kakar1, Abdul Hameed Baloch1, Sarfaraz Ahmed Brohi1 and Muhammad Asif Arain1* 

...ment. All groups of both species were fed maize, millet and sorghum randomly. Results indicated that goat spent more time to eat than sheep while sheep rumination time were noted significantly (P<0.05) higher in sheep compare to the goat. Meanwhile, drinking time was noted higher in sheep than goat. Moreover, goat exhibited higher resting, playing and other activities compared to sheep. Findings of dry matter intake (DMI), crude protein (CP) natural deterge...

Abdul Raqeeb1,3, Syed Moazzam Nizami2,4*, Aamir Saleem3, Lubna Ansari3, Saeed Gulzar3, Basit Ali3, Masooma Saleem5
 

...rical data of particular species for a specific forest ecosystem is of utmost importance. In the present study volume and biomass allometric of naturally growing Cedrus deodara tree in dry temperate regions of Himalaya has been developed from the empirical data collected from four different locations with three sites each as representative of its naturally growing area. Destructive sampling including excavation of roots was carried for overall 60 trees. The re...

I. Erum, K. Nasira, H. Sagir, S. Raza and Firoza, K.

Description of Discolaimus miniodontii n.sp. and Laevides hunderansis n. sp. with notes on Discolaimoides spatilabium (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from District Ghizer, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
...new and a known nematode species of the order Dorylaimida viz., Discolaimus miniodontii n. sp. and Laevides manilkarii n. sp.; and a new report of a known species Discolaimoides spatilabium from District Ghizer, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Discolaimus miniodontii n. sp., is characterized by having smallest odontostyle (9-10µm); relatively smaller and slender body (L=1.0-1.14mm; a= 38.5-45.8); sclerotized odontostyle, i...

A.N. Ashfaque1, F. Shahina1 and S. Dawar2

 

Diversity of nematode fauna associated with cotton fields of high temperature areas of Sindh, Pakistan
...der to estimate nematode species diversity, richness and evenness, the data has been submitted for calculating the diversity parameters such as Dominance (D), Simpson’s diversity index (1-D), Shannon diversity index (H’), Evenness (e), Brillouin Diversity Index (HB), Menhinik Diversity , Margalef's richness index, Equitability (J) and Fisher's alpha. All estimated parameters of diversity has interrelation among all nematode genera in particular but...

H. Soofi†1 , N. A. Birmani1 , A. M. Dharejo1 , A. R. Abbasi2 , G. S. Ghachal1

Description of new nematode species Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) sindhicus of genus Rhabdochona (Railliet, 1916) from Indus River Pakistan
...ify;"> New nematode species of genus Rhabdochona collected form host catfishes Rita rita of Indus River, Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. Collected nematodes were processes with standard method for feature research. New species Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) sindhicus differs from other species of genus with body shape and size, buccal capsule shape, prostomal teeth arrangement, nerve ring posit...

Parsa Riaz and Muhammad Naeem*

Digestive Enzymes Activity with Gut Morphometric Parameter of Carnivorous Fish Wallago attu (Siluridae, Siluriformes)
...terature behalf of their species feeding habits. Gut morphometric parameters included first time in relation to Wallago attu morphology as Relative gut mass, length and Zihler’s Index are basically explored as potential indices to identify habits.

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Mumtaz Shah*, Hashim Nisar Hashmi* Naeem Ejaz* Abdul Razzaq Ghumman*

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AQUATIC MACROPHYTES FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
... aquatic macrophyte species used for the performance comparison were Water Hyacinth, Duckweed and Water Lettuce. Forperformance comparison four parameters including BOD5, COD, Nitrogen and Phosphorus were selected. These parameters were monitored for both the influent and effluent sewage samples. During the entire study, the average reduction of 51% for BOD5, 47% for COD, 19% for phosphorus, and 41% for nitrogen were found with water h...
Sitara Nawaz1, Shamaila Irum1, Haroon Ahmed2, Shazia Shamas1, Sadia Roshan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi4, Irfan Ullah5*, Gulnaz Parveen3*
...asis and the most common species in Pakistan.
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Sumaira, Ali Mujtaba Shah*, Ghulam Asghar Solangi, Ifra Anwar, Qudratullah Kalwar 
... obtained from different species including sheep, ass, horse, yak, goat, bison and camel while the 80 % milk is produced by cows. Milk of camel plays an essential part in the diet of human. Additionally, camel milk comprises numerous fatty acids and enzymes. Hence camel milk has many beneficial effects, such as antiviral, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-ageing. Besides, camel milk contains abundant proteins which are conductive to impr...
Zarish Yaqoob1, Saleema Bashir Shams2, Gaitee Joshua2 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza2,3*
... Overall, seventeen fish species were recorded in the study areas indicating a decrease in the number of species in Ravi. The results have shown that the water of Ravi is unsafe for aquatic life and irrigation. Metal concentration in the fish meat is higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) parameters indicating a serious health threat to both, the fish and human population.
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Muhammad Riaz1*, Naureen Akhtar1, Salik Nawaz Khan1, Muhammad Shakeel1,2 and Ateeq Tahir1

Neocosmospora rubicola: An Unrecorded Pathogen from Pakistan Causing Potato Stem Rot
...tic relationship of this species with other reported species of this genus. Pathogenic potential of the isolate was verified by artificially inoculating the spores of pathogen in healthy plants. Appearance of same symptoms and re-isolation of N. rubicola from infected tissue confirmed Koch’s pathogenicity postulates. Association of N. rubicola causing stem rot in potato is never reported before in Pakistan.

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Muhammad Khalid1,2, Samrah Masud2, Zara Naeem2, Muhammad Munir Shahid3, Ammar Danyal Naeem2, Abir Ishtiaq2 and Muhammad Naeem2*
 
Length-weight and Length-length Relationships of Farmed Catla catla during Winter Season from Muzaffargarh, Pakistan
... TL for the studied fish species. Mean condition factor value was found 1.49±0.04 in the present work. Results of this work will be useful for fishery biologists and fisheries management. 

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Roni Koneri1*, Meis Nangoy2 and Pience V. Maabuat1
...research, 7 families, 20 species and 1,750 individuals belonging to 2 suborders, Anisoptera and Zygoptera, were identified. Libellulidae was the family with the most number of species and individuals being found. Th especies with the highest abundance was Orthetrum pruinosum, followed by Libellago xanthocyana. The highest dragonfly species ...
Faruk Çolak1 and Ferhat Matur2,3,*
...head drumming, to convey species-specific information. The lesser blind mole rats (Nannospalax sp.) are obligate subterranean rodents known for their remarkable chromosomal variation. In the present study, we investigated whether the structure of seismic signalling is different between the two species found in Turkey, Nannospalax leucodon and the N. xanthodon and whether it is associated with ecological,...
Magbolah Salem Helal Alzahrani
...There are many different species of chamomile, the two most common being German chamomile (Marticaria chamomilla) and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The use of chamomile has been associated with calming and anti-inflammatory properties. The plant’s healing properties come from its flowers, which contain volatile oils including bisabolol, bisabolol oxides A and B, and matricin as well as flavonoids. This study aims to elucidate the po...
Cheng Zhao1,2, Jianghong Ran2*, Bin Wang2,3, Qin Shi4 and Marwan M.A. Rashed1
...ammals in the world. The species has experienced declines in its habitat and population due to human disturbance. To protect this species, we investigated the relationship between giant panda habitat use intensity and human disturbance density in the Daxiangling Mountains. The results indicated that, among multiple kinds of disturbances, roads affected the giant panda habitat use significantly. In addition, roads caused the ...