Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...IVs could spread through water, air, and live bird markets. Since the first isolate from 1994 in China, H9N2 AIVs have been prevalent over 20 areas of China, especially in South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian provinces. Vaccination is the predominant strategy to prevent and control H9N2 AIVs. There are three inactivated vaccines of H9N2 AIVs have been used in domestic poultry in China. But H9N2 AIVs occurred frequently and caused severe economic...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...ontrol eggs treated with water. The parasitism rates by female parasitic wasps emerged from host eggs treated at x dose when parasitoid was during egg, larval, and pupal stages were 21.6, 26.5, and 25.1%, respectively; the 2x dose resulted in parasitism (mean) of 23.1, 27.6, and 26.1 when parasitoids were treated in egg, larval, and pupal stages, respectively, while, 0.5x dose led to 21.0, 25.9, 27.7, mean parasitism, respectively. The percent reduction in bot...

Raja Waqar Ahmed Azad, Tahir Sarwar

...ent Concrete (PCC) lined watercourses on conveyance losses/efficiency in district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kash- mir. Three watercourses namely, Sarai, Derkot and Mera Dadu were selected randomly on aging basis. Watercourses Sarai, Derkot and Mera Dadu were constructed in 2000, 2006-07 and 2011, respectively. Conveyance losses in the selected waterco...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Salman2, Shah Alam Khan2, Alamzeb1, Inamullah Khan1

 

...hloride 75g + Lime 3kg + water 10L) in reducing borer infestation (exit holes/ gum points) in the month of January.

 

...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

... of yield reduction with water deficit depends not only on the magnitude of water deficit but also on the stage of plant growth at which it develops. A pot study was conducted during 2011-12 at College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan, to assess the effect of induced water stress on performance of different wheat varieties at critical growth stages. Three wheat varieties viz. Faisalabad-200...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

... breeding plan. Relative water content, cell membrane stability, osmotic adjustment and grain yield per plant were major contributors towards variability. Grain yield per plant was closely linked to relative water content, cell membrane stability and specific flag leaf area. Eight clusters were formed through cluster analysis, and greater genetic distance was detected among the members of cluster 6 and cluster 8 and cluster ...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...griculture consumes more water than any other human activity. In Pakistan, the contribution of irrigated agriculture is more than 90%, thus the sustainable water supply to meet the food and fibre demand of the ever increasing population is a big challenge. Increase in crop water productivity (CWP) is one of the most important options for sustainable use of

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...ferent treatment such as water, salt and lye solution which were coded as RW1, RW2 and RW3 respectively. During treatment process the bitter glucoside level such as oleourepean leached out from the fruits to the solvents by osmosis process which alters the composition of olive fruit. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins which are the major components of olive fruits degrades significantly during four weeks of treatment process. Result...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...) @ 2.50 L ha-1, sorghum water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice) and sunflower water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice), sorghum water extract @ 15 L ha-1+1.25 L ha-1 Dual Gold and sunflower water extract @ 15 L ha-1+1.25 L ha-1 Dual Gold. In interculturing the land space in between two ro...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...virus is a foodborne and waterborne virus commonly transmitted faecal-orally and through the transplacenta. Hepatitis E virus is one of the viruses that causes acute and self-limiting infection with a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised individuals usually leading to liver cirrhosis. Individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus have a greater risk to the virus due to their impaired immunity. The study was carried out to deter...

Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye1, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji1, 2 *

...2013 sewage contaminated water samples were collected from two sites in Lagos, Nigeria. Samples were concentrated and inoculated into MCF-7 and RD cell lines. Isolates from MCF-7 were passaged in RD and L20B cell lines while isolates from RD cell line were passaged in L20B cell line. Subsequently, all isolates were subjected to panenterovirus 5l-UTR, partial VP1 and EV-C-3Dpol/3’-UTR PCR assays, amplicons sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis....

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

... and sensory parameters (water activity, ash content, percent acidity, pH, moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, taste, texture, color and overall acceptability). Statistically minimum decrease was observed in water activity, pH, moisture content and organoleptic characters. While, stable increase was noted in percent acidity and ash content during storage. It was concluded and recommended on the basis of menti...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

... WF with BRF. Similarly, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI) and swelling power (SP) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease as the concentration of wheat flour in the blends increases. The values for WAI, WSI and SP were 4.73–6.18 g/g, 1.98–3.99% and 5.35–6.81 g/g, respectively. The blending of WF with BRF had substantially improved the proximate compositions and functional propert...

 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

...nd inorganic sources for water eroded lands during 2007-08. The combination of nutrient sources tested were; control, NPK50 (50% NPK), NPK75 (75% NPK), NPK100 (100% NPK), FYM10 (10 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM10, NPK75+FYM10, NPK100+FYM10, FYM20 (20 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM20, NPK75+FYM20, NPK100+FYM20. Results revealed that NPK75FYM20` significantly (p<0.05) improved the yield. As regards soil properties, NPK20FYM20 reduced bulk density, increased WHC, saturation ...

 Arif Khan, Abdur Rahman, Shoail Akhtar, Siraj Uddin, Zahid Ullah and Nazir Ahmad

 
... animal age on marbling, water holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness and sarcomere lenth of the two buffalo breed beef samples were investigated. A two x three factorial design was used to analyze the beef quality characteristic data in Genstat software. Breed and animal age had significant and their interaction has significant (P < 0.05) effects on marbling. Animal age group and their (breed x age) interaction had significant effect on the

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

... (untreated), eucalyptus water extract at 10, 20 and 30 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 10 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil and eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 30 ml kg-1 soil. Data showed that all the ...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...ed for sustainable waste water treatment as a coagulant-flocculent due to its ability to coagulate various ionic substances such as metal ions as well as dyes. In the current study novel polymer composites were prepared using natural polymers chitosan and starch in molds. Structure of composites was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The physical parameters such as weight and swelling degree of composite were studied. Chitosan starch based composites...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

... owing to owing to their water retention properties. The melt-ability, flow-ability and yield of cheese decreased significantly (p < 0.05) on reducing the fat level, as anticipated. However, the addition of gums gradually improved these aspects with higher values for cheese containing guar gum as compared to xanthan gum. The full fat cheese showed the minimum (1270g) while the negative control had the maximum (1604.64 g) hardness. The hardness decreased gra...

Muhammad Aslam

...on, improving irrigation water management and improving reclamation and drainage.

...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...d hypoglycemic effect of water based infusion of Withania somnifera was investigated in broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty (120) day-old broiler’s chicks were alienated into four treatment groups namely WST-0, WST-I, WST-II and WST-III with three replication. Group WST-0 was kept as a control, while WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were treated with W. somnifera water based infusion @ 10, 20 and 30ml/lit respectively. The...

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

... farms, which exacerbate water logging and salinity and reduce the water productivity of major crops. Addressing these issues, a long term experiment (2000 to 2009) under wheat-maize (9 seasons each) cropping pattern was conducted on raised beds (with furrow spacing of 65 cm (Narrow Bed-NB), 130 cm (Medium Bed- MB) and 180 cm (Wide Bed-WB)), with controlled traffic regime emplaced, in comparison with traditional intensive cu...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...imal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propagation. Influential habitats would serve as key targets for interventions. To achieve this aim, we have designed a pseudo-longitudinal survey to be undertaken for two years in Kibera slums in Nairobi city Kenya. Human and animal blood and urine samples will be collected at the household level whereas soil and water samples will be collected at the commun...

Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

...ls on gill cells of freshwater mussels (Anodonta anatina), a sentinel species in aquatic environment. Freshwater mussels were exposed to none (0µg L-1), low (120 µg L-1), medium (240 µg L-1) and high (360 µg L-1) levels of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) alone and in combinations (Pb + Cr + Cu) for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Gill cells of mussels were used to determine the DNA damag...

Abdullah Mart1* and Orhan Erman2

...elonging to 10 genera of water scavenger beetles (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) collected from Bingöl province between May 2003-October 2004 have been described.

...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

...agricultural fields near water bodies should be strongly monitored in view of the observed effects on this catfish fish physiology. The use of aluminium phosphide near water bodies should therefore strongly be monitored so that the health of aquatic organisms will not be impaired.

...

Noor Us Saher1, Zunaira Amanat2, M. Asif Gondal3 and Naureen Aziz Qureshi4,*

...rch 2007 in Sonmiani Bay waters (Miani Hor lagoon). M. planipes was found abundantly in Sep. 2005, Nov. - Dec. 2005 and Dec. 2006 (93.3%, 94.7%, 92.3% and 87 % respectively). A. lunaris was found in abundance during May 2005 (85.7%) and Aug. 2005 (81.8%). Male specimens of both species (M. planipes: χ2 = 245.4, P < 0.005) and (A. lunaris: χ2 = 99.4, P<0.005) were significantly more than females throughout the study period. There was a significant...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...ysis (CCA) revealed that water temperature, Secchi disk depth (SD), total phosphorus and phytoplankton biomass were the most significant factors that influenced zooplankton. Strong correlations between SD and Brachionus leydigi, Chrysophyta and Diaphanosoma leuchtenbergianum, Cryptophyta and Theopilium, Ascomorpha ovalis, Hexarthra mira were observed during the CCA. These zooplankton species may be used as indicators of relevant variables. Results in this...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

...resources from Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data (1994 – 2009) were analyzed by CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) consists of Fox, Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models and ASPIC (a surplus production model incorporating covariates) contain Fox and Logistic models. The average annual landings of S. longiceps stocks were 38 353 t while the highest and lowest 65 050 t in 1994 and 26 937 t in 2009 was recorded correspondingly. The MSY was estima...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...ailability of irrigation water, the current fallow in both the Rabi (winter cropping) and Kharif (summer cropping) has decreased with matching increase in area net sown. The study suggests that mouza has capacity for further increase in cropping intensity and cultivated land, if innovatory irrigation and agriculture practices were adopted which can surely raise the agricultural productivity and socio economic condition of the residents.

...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...wed statistically higher water use efficiency (WUE) of 4.56 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.02 kg ha-1 mm-1 for both wheat and maize, respectively. However, similar WUE of wheat and maize was recorded for F2 and F3. Soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium after wheat-maize cropping rotations significantly responded to tillage, residues and organic and inorganic fertilizers. These results suggest that deep tillage has the potential to incr...

Zaffar Malik, Moazzam Jamil, Ghulam Hassan Abassi, Muhammmad Nafees, Muhammad Rafey and Muhammad Kamran

...ips biochar (WCB), waste water sludge biochar (WSB). The physical and mechanical parameters of vertic soil like soil consistency limits like plastic limit (PL), liquid limit (LL) and plasticity index (PI), tensile strength (TS), shear strength (cohesion (C) and angle of friction (φ)) were studied. Results showed that amendments had improved soil physico-mechanical properties. No specific trends were observed for consistency limit, however, PI decreased for...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...ificant reduction in the water content of the leaves of overexpression lines was recorded compared to 33.87% reduction in leaf water content of WT plants as a result of heat stress. Furthermore, overexpression lines accumulated significantly higher amounts of proline compared to WT, both at room temperature and at 42°C. The above results showed that HsfA1d positively regulates thermotolerance in tobacco plants and can be...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...arvae collected from sea waters around an oyster farm belong to P. websteri, the same species as the adult worms collected from the oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis in that locality. Two polydorid-specific primers were successfully designed, for the first time, to amplify target fragments of the COI gene. This study is the first to molecularly validate unidentified larvae from the aquatic environment through the known COI sequences of adults.
Mahanama De Zoysa1, Si-yun Ryu1, Hyeon-cheol Kim2 and Bae Keun Park1*
...-align: justify;">A freshwater ecto-parasitic crustacean was isolated from the naturally infested goldfish (Carassius auratus) purchased from commercial aquarium in Korea. Based on the morphological comparison with all Argulus species, isolated fish lice was identified as Argulus japonicus Thiele, 1899. A. japonicus is native to Asia, which also is a habitat for its typical hosts, such as goldfish and common koi carp (Cyprinus ca...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...ate syrup and a control (water)] were used with different solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was observed that honey fed wasp pair produces significantly more number of eggs, adults and also lived significantly longer than other treatments. Highest fecundity and longevity of parasitoid was recorded in case of parasitoids feeding on 50% honey solution followed by 25% sugar and date syrups solutions respectively. It has provided useful information for ...
Sidra Ilyas1, Abdul Rehman1* and Qasim Ilyas2
...ted from industrial wastewater showed tolerance to Pb (upto 35 mM), As (upto 29 mM), Cu (upto 23 mM), Cd (upto 11 mM) and Cr (upto 8 mM). Exposure to heavy metals at 0.1 mM for 2 days showed a remarkable increase in glutathione (GSH) level after As and Pb treatment in contrast to Cd, Cr and Cu exposure. GSH: GSSG ratio declined after As, Pb and Cr treatment, whereas non-protein thiol levels were higher after Cd and As treatment followed by those of Pb, Cr and ...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...ontaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mosseae (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) were applied as protective treatment. The roots of eggplant were inoculated with 1000 second stage juveniles of M. incognita...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...was examined in brackish water ponds. Fish were stocked @ 1500 individuals per pond (2 treated and 2 control) of approximate dimensions, 13.72 m × 10.97 m × 1.52 m (229 m3). In treated ponds, fish were fed with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in three equal meals. On the other hand, control ponds remained without additives. During the whole study period, wat...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...e may be related to high water temperature stress and play important roles in high water temperature environment of crucian carp.
...
Mürşide Dartay*, Tuncay Atessahin and Erdal Duman
...ment and multifilament), water temperature, and water depth. CPUE values were found to be higher at 24.5 °C water temperature and 13.7 m water depth with multi-monofilament gillnets with a result of 15.23 g/m, and the lowest was with multifilament gillnets with a result of 3.95 g/m (0.5); however, multi‑monofilament gillnets had a result of 23....

Tuli Dey, Sonnet Poddar and Mukti Barua

...as managed with lukewarm water and manual pressure replacement in non-raising condition of hindquarter. Vulvar Retention Suture (modified Bhuners suture) was given for not to recurrence of the condition. Proper postoperative treatment with antibiotic, antihistaminic and hormonal drugs were given. This case as well as the condition of the animal were followed up and gave the result of successful recovery without any complication.

...

Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul M. Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa, Khurram Ziaf, Irfan Afzal and Muhammad Qasim

... solutions and distilled water for 24 h and 12 h, respectively, and germinated at 25 ± 1 °C with 40-60% R.H. in 16/8 hours day/night conditions. Results revealed that pre-sowing seed treatment particularly halopriming with CaCl2 was the most effective for invigoration of gerbera and zinnia seeds. For Gerbera jamesonii, 25 mM CaCl2 and for Zinnia elegans, 50 mM CaCl2 proved best priming treatments followed by 100 mM KCl and 50 to 100 mM KNO3 for both...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...e amount of high quality water for processing, cleaning and cooling. Contamination of water at any point in the processing stage is likely to affect meat hygiene. Waste water generated during these activities typically has high presence of organic material such as blood, fat, flesh and excreta. In developing countries like Nigeria where access to portable water
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...enic coronavirus causing watery diarrhea and high mortality in piglets. This post-viral syndrome results in severe economic losses in the pig industry. However, limited information on the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus-infected pigs is available. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify transcriptomes with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) of piglets, Large White x Landrace crossbreds, infected with live strain PE...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
... species in drinking water sources. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out using in-person questionnaire evaluation along with microscopic assessment of water samples for Cyclops species. Based on previous clinical records of dracunculiasis, five villages of Dera Ismail Khan including Kath Garh, Wanda Dost Ali, Chah Mundar Wala, Ketch and Gara Baloch were surveyed for a total of 206 randomly selected h...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...roadsides, wasteland and water ways resulting in loss of local biodiversity. Field survey of district Swabi (Peshawar Valley) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, was carried out during May-June, 2013-14 to study the distribution of Parthenium weed. Five villages were selected and thirty locations were randomly selected from each village. The data revealed that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 63.4% among all weeds, followed ...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
...y deficits in the Morris water maze test. Pathology analysis of treated animals showed obvious gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral hippocampal area. These results suggest that the tree shrew can recapitulate the major features of AD pathogenesis. To provide the basis for further studies with this new animal model, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze changes in the hippocampal transcriptome induced by injection of the three AD agents. ...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
... contents (SV), relative water content (RWC), leaf hairiness (HL), leaf color (LC) and yield related traits i.e. boll weight (BW), number of seeds per boll (NS), number of locules per boll (NLB), seed index (SI) and seed volume (SEV). Twenty cotton genotypes were grown using randomized complete block design with three replications. Significant variation among the genotypes was observed for studied traits by analysis of variance. Pearson correlation analysis de...
Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3
...eads to insufficiency of water in arid region. To investigate the effect of soil pulverization (P) and sowing methods (S) on Water Use Efficiency (WUE), wheat yield and economics, a field experiment was carried out at Arid Zone Research Center, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwah Province, Pakistan, during rabi season of 2014-15 and 2015-16. The experiment was laid in randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot ...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...000 m radiating from the water points (borehole) were established. Sampling plots of sizes 10m x 10m were systematically placed along each transect at intervals of 50m for the first 500m and the last 500m the spacing interval was increased by 100m. The botanical composition (P<0.05) of fodder trees along grazing gradients was composed of 20 and 12 species for fenced and unfenced areas, respectively. The grazing gradient in fenced area recorded the highest m...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
...another experiment, cold water dip treatment in carbendazim solution @0.05 and 0.1 percent was given for 10 min to a separate lot of fruit having no pre harvest spray. Dissipation of carbendazim in whole fruit again followed first order rate kinetics with 0.92 and 2.06 mg kg of the fungicide recovered after 10 days of storage from 0.05 and 0.1 percent doses, respectively. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after same days of storage were 0.51 and 1.05 mg k...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...ngal. It spreads through water-and soil-borne seeds. With the objective of developing location-specific integrated management schedule of the parasite, crops, other than sugarcane, grown in the target area were evaluated for their potential as trap and catch crops of the parasite. Twelve crops, selected on the basis of germination induction test of A. pedunculata seeds on root exudates as compared to that of three germination inducing chemicals (viz.; NaOCl, T...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Population proliferation and spread of Trichoderma spp. in soil under two different delivery systems
...l) clay loam soil at 50% water holding capacity (pH 6.5) was studied both under laboratory and field conditions following two types of delivery systems, through organic based (vermicompost + neem cake (90% + 10% w/w)) and seed based (sterilized wheat seed) inocula. The population proliferation and spread of the antagonists were faster when they were applied through organic based inoculums over that of seed based inoculums from the point of application. Similar...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...iphos 20 EC @ 2.5ml/L of water on appearance of pest (T5) was found most effective in decreasing the incidence of cutworm and molecricket followed by soil treatment at planting with phorate 10 G @15kg ha-1 with addition drenching the ridges with imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.004% (2ml/10L of water) on the occurrence of the pest (T6 ) than other treatments as well as control. Both the treatments (T5 and T6) were more or less equal...

D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal and G. Saha

Bioassay of some agricultural chemicals, human drugs and disinfectants on Phytophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd
...porangia did not form in water containing 0.0125g/L chloroquin phosphate - an antiprotozoal drug. 

...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...and environment friendly water based formulations. These formulations not only replace toxic, non-degradable ingredients/adjuvants of the conventional formulations but also increase the bio-efficacy of the products through incorporating latest technologies including size reduction (WP to SC, SL to ME), increased coverage of applied surface area (EC to ME/Nano-formulations), reduced wastage (Dust/WP to Con-trolled Release Formulations) and dose rates of same pe...

Anjan Bhattacharyya, Suhrid Ranjan Barik & Pritam Ganguly

New pesticide molecules, formulation technology and uses: Present status and future challenges
...modern formulations like water emulsifiable gel, floating granules, drift less dust, macro and micro encapsulated suspension, hollow fibers, monolithic matrix, laminated structures etc can avoid these problems. The prime motto for these developments is to give protection to the crops along with safety to the natural enemies of different pests as a whole safety to environment.
 

 

...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...vailability of requisite water, meteorology, agrometeorology and forecasting inputs and outputs by marketing, production, protection and processing, and other essential information provided through a decision support system (DSS), in an agriinformatics networking such that is not ordinarily available to Indian farmers in general. Due to Precision Farming (PF), production increased by 40 to 60 percent farmers’ margins of the produce and reduction of the c...

Sujoy Mondal and S. S. Ghatak

Bioefficacy of some indigenous plant extracts against epilachna beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr.) infesting cucumber
... 5ml and 6ml (per Lt. of water) while this was 1ml, 2ml and 3ml (per Lt. of water) in case of petroleum ether extract of rhizome of Acorus calamus. Endosulfan 35 EC was used at 1ml, 1.5ml and 2ml (per Lt. of water) to compare the efficacy of plant products. Results of the experiment revealed that Endosulfan 35 EC at 2mL-1 of water performed very well in ...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...#730;52ʹ28̋ E; water depth: 0.5 to 1 m) during March to September, 2014. Their genders were obtained by dissection. The aim of this study was to determine the sexual ratio in their population and to see if they effect the operational sex ratio (OSR). The number of males and females were 71 and 126, respectively. Twenty samples by the total wet weights less than 12 g were non-sexual. The wet weight of the gonads was ~8.25% of the mean total wet body w...
Obaidullah1, Zafar Ali Shah1* and Sami Ullah2
...1 N) in double distilled water at pH of 7.6 having temperature 40 °C for 3 hours. Whereas, copper-Lapachol nanoparticle synthesis was performed by treating 1 mM copper acetate tetrahydrate (Cu (CH3COO)2. 4H2O) with 1 mM solution of Lapachol at pH of 7.8 having temperature 40°C for 5 hours. Both newly formulated silver and copper nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopic techniques followed by SEM evaluation. The UV spectrum...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...l, ethanol and distilled water) using hot and cold extraction methods. Phytochemical analysis of leaves was performed on powder and extracts of leaves using already reported methods. Mineral analysis was done using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Hair growth promoting effects were examined using alopecia mouse model. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of higherquantities of carbohydrates, proteins and secondary metabolites in methanol compar...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

...rd conditions for light, water, vaccination and experimental feed for 42 days. The body weight gain, feed intake and the feed conversion ratio was observed weekly. After 42 day of the growth, the birds were slaughter with the Islamic Halal Method and the blood samples of the birds were preserved for antioxidant enzymes assay analysis. The data showed that as the citrus waste percentage in the feed of the broiler was increased, its feed intake and the body weig...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...agriculture research and water management department in the study area. Top learned skills from this approach were fertilizer application, improved agricultural technology and sowing methods. It is suggested that there is a need that FSC has to establish the linkages of the farmers with the entire line department associated with the farming. FSC should take steps to build the capacity of the farmers regarding the latest improved practices of vegetable cultivat...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...th varying fiber content water activity, texture, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, NFE and fiber content changed significantly (p<0.05). Gross energy level in cake which is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was dark colored, low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatment (T3) containing 5.6g grapefruit albedo powder shows significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory scores in term of color (8.02±0.50), flavor (8.0...
Hassen Allaya1,2,*, Abderraouf Ben Faleh1, Manel Rebaya1, Sonia Zrelli3, Abdallah Hattour2, Jean-Pierre Quignard4 and Monia Trabelsi1
...810) inhabiting Tunisian waters. Our investigation based on the analysis of morphological characteristics of Euthynnus alletteratus from two distant sampling sites (Mahdia and Zarzis) along the Tunisian coast using 11 morphometric and 3 meristic characters in order to investigate the morpholgical variation among them. Uni and Multivariate analysis of variance of 64 adult specimens showed significant differences among the means of the two studied sites f...

Murad Ali1, Farmanullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad2* and Imran Khan1

...on 2014-15 on a selected water eroded site in District Swabi. Fourteen treatments viz the control (T1), recommended dose (RD) (120:90:60 kg ha-1 N: P2O5: K2O. T2), four combinations of farmyard manure (FYM) i.e 20, 15, 10 and 5 t ha-1 with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the RD (T3, T4, T5, T6, respectively), four combinations of poultry manure (PM) i.e. 10, 7.5, 5 and 2.5 t ha-1 with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the RD (T7, T8, T9, T10, respectively) and four combinations of the mixe...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...ques using acid, alkali, water treatment and fermentation to prepare processed moiety on pilot scale. All these processed materials were included in experimental ration at a fixed level (20 %). All iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous rations were offered to experimental animals (n=36, 22 male 14 female Lohi sheep almost evenly distributed in experimental groups) having almost uniform body weight (BW). During 60 days of the trial, no significant difference (p =0.06...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...nasal/ocular discharges, watery to bloody diarrhea and lameness. The major gross lesions were erosive stomatitis, hemorrhages in lung, liver, abomasum, small and large intestine. PPRV NP was detected in sheep (n=20) and goats (n=18), anti-PPRV NP was also detected among sheep and goats (n=162) by ELISA, 3ABC-FMD enzyme immunoassay were positive (n=6) when ovine sera were tested. The study revealed that PPR-FMD viruses were circulating in the region and warrant...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

...ing highly polluted wastewater for irrigation by local farmers since long has contaminated the soil and now the pollution is being transferred to our food chain. An investigation has been done to ascertain toxic heavy metal concentration in the wastewater, irrigated soil, their accumulation in vegetables, and potential human health risks. The results reveal that Cr concentration in the wastewater
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...regular accessibility of water, and usual human activities are common nearby. The breeding period was discerned to be start from April to August and Acacia nilotica was observed as most preferred tree for nesting followed by Syzygium cuminii. At three selected sites, 30 nests from each were marked and regularly monitored to get data on nesting behavior (nest height and diameter), birds plumage variations, courtship behavior, eggs measurements (cl...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...astic tanks (42.5 liters water carrying capacity each). Fish juveniles (length: 10.63 ±0.980 cm, weight: 9.030±1.40g) were stocked after acclimatization. A total of 3 treatments were tested following 2 replications i.e. first treatment (T1, Squid feed), second treatment (T2, Tubifex feed) and third treatment (T3, pellet feed). Juveniles were fed with 5% of total biomass twice in a day. At the end, higher growth in...
Lu Liu1, Sher Khan Panhwar2, Tianxiang Gao3, Zhiqiang Han3, Chunhou Li4, Dianrong Sun4 and Na Song1,*
...zingeri from coastal waters of China and Pakistan, respectively. Sequences of L. carinata were obtained from GenBank. A neighbor-joining tree showed the specimens to form a strong monophyletic group. The mean within-species genetic distances for L. affinis, L. carinata, and L. klunzingeri were 0.26%, 0.52%, and 0.47%, respectively. The mean genetic distances among L. affinis, L. carinata, and L. klunzingeri ...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...d sprayed with distilled water. It is concluded from the current study that Deblossoming time and GA3 application might be significantly reduced the fruit drop and enhanced the growth of guava tree. 

...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
... treatment was done in a water bath at 70 oC for 90 seconds. In HPP treatment (250 MPa/60 °C/3 min), significant reduction was observed in microorganisms, PME and PPO whereas improvement was observed in cloud value, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TF) and total flavonols as equated to thermal and control, while ºBrix, pH and acidity remain unchanged in all HPP treatme...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
...cal parameters including water absorption, dough development time, dough stability, gluten content and falling no. values differed significantly (p < 0.01) among all the treatments of composite flour. Wet and dry gluten content decreased from 22.16 ± 1.58 % (T0) to 16.43 ± 1.32 % (T3) and 7.46 ± 0.47 % (T0) to 5.03 ± 0.38 % (T3) respectively. With increasing percent of pea flour in bisc...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
... design (RCBD) with five water regimes (150ml, 175ml, 200ml, 225ml, 250ml) and five levels of SA at (0.0mML-1, 0.5mML-1 1mML-1, 2mML-1, and 3mML-1) as the main factors and four replications. The experiments were conducted in the research area of AAUR Pakistan. Statistical analysis showed drought stress significantly reduced vegetative and reproductive growth, along with various and biochemical attributes, ...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

...n: justify;">Inactivated water-in-oil vaccines are widely used to control viral diseases in poultry, however, the interference of physico-chemical properties of the emulsions are overlooked when compared to antigenic properties. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different commercial inactivated water-in-oil multivalent vaccines; vaccine A contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and D274 strains), NDV (Clone 30), aM...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
... having capacity of 18 L water with a stocking density of 25 fish fry per aquaria. There were two treatment groups; T1, T2 and a control (T0) each was replicated twice. Fenugreek as an additive was added in experimental feed at the rate of 0.5% in T1 and 1.0% in T2 while control T0 was without fenugreek supplementation. Fish was fed for six days a week at the rate of 4% of its body weight twice ...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...amendments and efficient water used to reduce the input cost and improve crop yield. A field experiment was conducted at Arid Zone Research Centre (AZRC), D. I. Khan during year 2014 –15 and 2015–16 to investigate the water use efficiency and response of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop to organic and inorganic fertilizers on a heavy textured soil. The treatments used in the experiment include compost @5 ...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...of timely and sufficient water for irrigation would be helpful in reducing future potential losses to wheat growers.  

...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...ficiency and exacerbates waterlogging and salinity. Addressing this issue, farmer managed irrigations on commonly used Narrow Bed (NB) with furrow spacings 66 cm and newly introduced Wide Bed (WB) with furrow spacing 130 cm on sandy clay loam, were investigated using the irrigation modelling software, WinSRFR, to explore irrigation management strategies for improving irrigation eficiency. The study revealed existing average application efficiency of low quar...
Habibun Nabi1, Saher Islam2, Amna Arshad Bajwa2, Imran Rashid1,*, Haroon Akbar1, Wasim Shehzad2, Kamran Ashraf1, Nisar Ahmad1 and Aneela Durrani3
...ontamination of soil and water. Fecal samples from cats at Pet center of UVAS (Lahore, Pakistan) were screened for coccidian parasites through microscopy examination. DNA was extracted from positive fecal samples for coccidian parasites and a T. gondii PCR was performed. Five sets of primers were designed using PrimerSelect tool for PCR to amplify SAG2 gene 5’ and 3’ regions. Sequences of 5 fragments of SAG2 were annotated and analyzed using...
Mehmet Guvenc1,*, Ayşe Nilay Guvenc3, Ökkeş Yılmaz2 and Mehmet Tuzcu2
...ministered with drinking water for 56 days every alternate day. Fructose administration increased the hepatic omega-6/omega-3 and 16:1 n7 / 16:0 ratios (p<0.001, p<0.001), but decreased the retinol and alfa tocoferol levels (p<0.01) compared with control group. Resveratrol administration to fructose treated rats decreased the retinol and cholesterol levels (p<0.01, p<0.05), and increased alfa tocoferol and vitamin d3 levels (p<0.01...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...Malaise trap, Yellow pan water trap and insect hand net. As a result, a total of 783 specimens belonging to 8 species, 6 genera of two subfamilies were collected, among which Episurphusbaltatus, De Geer, Eritalinus aeneus, Scopoli, and Ischiodon scutellaris, Fabricius were found to be most prevalent whereas; Eristalis arbustorum was found least in number during study period. The abundance of hoverflies fauna varied seasonally, the highest abundance was re...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
... elution solvent ethanol-water (95%, v/v) solution was 4.5 BV; flow rate was 2.0 BV·h-1. Flavonoids with content of 68.3% were obtained with a flavonoid recovery of 93.7%. The results showed that AB-8 resin revealed a good ability to purify total flavonoids. Lastly, feeding experiments results indicated that flavonoids had significant anti-hyperlipidemic activities to rabbits by reducing the content of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceri...

 Zeenat Bano1,*, Sajid Abdullah1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Anjum Zia3 and Wardah Hassan1

...of selected toxicants in water, their bioaccumulation and effects on antioxidant enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in vital organs (gills, liver and kidney) of fish, Cirrhina mrigala. The 3 different representative water samples and 60 fish samples (20 fish from each site) were collected from three sites i.e. fish-farm, hatchery and Indus River of Punjab, Pakist...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
...nvironmental conditions (water depth and availability of sand beds) on changes in body weight and health status in captive big-headed turtles before and after hibernation were evaluated. Results showed that providing a suitable sand bed during hibernation have a significant effect on turtle health (P< 0.05), but makes no significant contribution to body weight maintenance. An appropriate water depth (less than thre...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
...etergent fibre (ADF) and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Acetic acid was significantly (P<0.05) low in G2 and G3, while propionic acid and yeast was significantly (P<0.05) low in LAB2. Gas production (GP 72) was significantly (P<0.05) high in LAB3. From the results of the present study, we concluded that addition of glucose and probiotic bacteria improved the chemical composition and ensiling characteristics of mulberry leaf.
...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
...espectively treated with water, fluoxetine (0.3 mg/kg) and fennel oil (0.5 ml/day). The treatment was continued for three weeks. Struggling time in forced swim test (FST), number of square crossed in open field test (OFT) and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze (EPM) was monitored weekly. Repeated administration of fennel oil for 3 weeks showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects in FST and EPM, respectively which were comparable t...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
...ciennes, 1842) is a freshwater fish of importance as source of low-cost protein in Lower Mekong Region. The present study applied multivariate morphometric technique to identify fishery management units of C. apogon from six populations of three different river drainages: Pong, Chi, and Mun Rivers. Thirty-two truss measures and standard length were obtained using digital calliper from 291 fish individuals, and raw measured data were then subjected to al...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
...b fishery from Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data of crab fishery from 1999-2009 were obtained from and handbook of Fisheries Statistics of Pakistan. Two computer software programs CEDA and ASPIC were used which were based on surplus production models. From CEDA Fox, Schaeder and Pella-Tomlinson were used with initial proportion (IP) 0.9 were used because the starting catch was 90% of the maximum catch the MSY estimated value from Fox with three error...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

... cm) were transferred to water tubs containing Hoagland solution without P. The treatments included 0, 18, 36, 72, 144 and 216 mM as KH2PO4 solution foliarly applied three times with one week intervals starting after two weeks of seedlings transplantation. Each treatment unit consisted of 10 seedlings arranged in CR design with three replications. Plant height, shoot and root dry biomass of 6 weeks old seedling were significantly increased with each increment ...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...lication by spraying and watering application by adding the to the irrigation water. After 2 days of applications, daily monitoring was conducted for 10 days to record any dead or paralyzed adults and/or larvae. Dead and paralyzed adults or larvae were found particularly in foliar application compared with the control. Furthermore, females egg-laying defect with serious reduction in their movement was recorded especially in ...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...ood erythrocytes of freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus by using Comet assay. The 96-h LC50 value of pesticide mixture was estimated for 180-old fingerlings of O. niloticusin a static system and then four sub-lethal concentrations viz. 1/3rd of LC50, 1/4th of LC50, 1/5th of LC50 and 1/6th of LC50 were calculated and fish were exposed to th...

Gamalat Osman1, Mansour Galal1, Abbas Abul-Ezz2, Ahmad Mohammed1, Mohammed Abul-Ela3 and Asmaa Mostafa Hegazy2

...lign: justify;">The freshwater snail Lanistes carinatus was tested as bioindicator to assess water quality and identify exposure to oil contaminants. L. carinatus was chronically exposed to crude oil at intervals of 24 hours, 15 days and 30 days. The LC50 of crude oil for L. carinatus was 700 ppm. HPLC analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the flesh demonstrated that PAHs accumulation in the treated snail...

 Maryum Fakhar, Iqra Jabbar, Anjum Nasim Sabri*

.../> urification of waste waters and treating contaminated soils.

...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...ria from industrial wastewater. Two bacterial isolates were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus lactis on the basis of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both isolates showed fair growth up to 1 mM of K2Te2O3. Both strains showed maximum growth at 37ºC and pH of 7. The bacterial growth in the presence of metal ions was delayed as compared to the control. High ellurite reduction potentia...

Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani2, Sami Ullah2, Najeeb Ullah2, Abdur Rauf3 and Inam Ullah2

...ulation, save irrigation water, cut cultivation costs and increases cotton yield and quality on sustainable basis. Field trial was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to study the effect of tillage systems [ridge tillage (RT) and flat tillage (FT)] and 5 nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kgN.ha-1) on cotton lint yields, quality and earliness. Experiment was laid out in a RCB design with spli...

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

...nsoon haor remains under water. A total of 37 fish species belong to 7 orders including prawns were found. Among the 37 species 5 were vulnerable, 7 endangered, 1 critically endangered, 3 exotic, 20 not threatened and 1 not evaluated according to IUCN, Bangladesh, 2000. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found highest (3.12) in June and lowest (2.9) in January. Margalef richness index was found highest (3.02) in July and lowest (2.70) in December. On the o...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...omly distributed into seawater tanks (60 cm × 30 cm × 45 cm each). Ten fish were stocked in each tank with 2 replications. Fish were fed with commercial floating pellet (35% protein) at 3% body weight per day for 40 days. Results showed that fish growth was significantly (P<0.05) higher in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, mean daily WG, SGR, feed conversion and survival rate from 15‰ to 30‰ salinity than those reared in...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
...n characterized for freshwater fish. In this study, we were able to gain three full-length SoxD sequences from transcriptome sequencing data of carp: CcSox5, CcSox6 and CcSox13 (Cyprinus carpio SoxD).These genes were verified by sequencing, blast and homology alignment. CcSoxD have two to four exons and encode a 780, 784 and 602 amino acid protein, respectively. Chromosome synteny analyses revealed that CcSox...
Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Saima Masood1,*, Hafsa Zaneb1, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Asim Aslam3, Kamran Ashraf4, Habib-ur-Rehman5, Muti-ur-Rehman3 and Muhammad Shabir Shaheen6
...iven ad-libitum feed and water during an experiment of 35 days. At the end of trial, two birds from each replicate were slaughtered for analysis of the selected parameters. The results showed that carcass weight and carcass yield were significantly high (p < 0.05) in MOS+OAB compared to MOSG, OABG and CONT. The results of small intestine microarchitecture showed that villus length, villus width, villus to crypt ratio, villus surface area, acidic, mixed and ...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...t was also tested in hot water bath on same temperature. Results were same in both techniques. Results showed that LAMP was more sensitive for FMD strain O (positive reaction upto -4 dilution) than others strains A and Asia -1 (positive reaction upto -3 dilutions). Further studies will be conducted to develop LAMP PCR as field test that does not require RNA extraction.
...
Ann Milliken Pederson
...ith a long cool drink of water. Indeed, Peters claims that humans have an “ontological thirst” for the ultimate and this book attempts to satisfy the thirst or at least provide the water to drink. In a world where fragmentation, brutality, and chaos mark the lives of so many, it is no wonder that people long for wholeness, healing, transformation, and an encounter with the ultimate. Ted Peters’ new book loc...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

...ity by 9-14%, saturation water by 9-20% and available water by 19-29%. However the INM5:75,10:50, 15:25, closely followed the FYM5,10,15,20 with reduction in BD by 9-11% and increased in porosity by 11-13%, saturation water by 14-17% and available water by 25-30%. All interactions remained non-significant. These results concluded that integrated nutrient...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
...y levels. Mean values of water quality were found acceptable for tilapia i.e. temperature 28.42±0.08°C, dissolved oxygen 7.48±0.06 mg/L, pH 7.64±0.04 and ammonia 0.022±0.004 mg/L. Relationship between log body weight and log total length of the the fish shows that Nile tilapia fingerlings reared from 10‰ - 20‰ was significantly (P <0.05) higher than 25% and 30% salinity levels. Present study sugges...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...ation consisted of 93 mm water. Three organic soil conditioners viz., farmyard manure (10000 kg ha-1), wheat straw as crop residue (10000 kg ha-1) and two levels of humic acid (2 and 4 kg ha-1), alone and in combinations with gypsum (1000 kg ha-1) as inorganic soil conditioner were applied a week before sowing of maize. Design used was randomized complete block with split plot arrangement replicated thrice. Experimental site was Agronomy Research Farm, The Uni...

Attia Anwar1, Sajida Malik2*, Zobia Usman1 and Sadia Chiragh3 

...=10) was given distilled water and Group B (n=10) was supplemented berberine hydrochloride with dose of 75 mg/kg body weight/day. 24 weeks post-treatment, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture from both groups and tested for Hb (%), WBC, RBC and platelet counts, SGPT, alkaline phosphatse, serum uric acid, blood urea and serum creatinine. All the numerical data were expressed as mean± SD. The values in two groups were analyzed with help of unp...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...ion issue and revival of water channels along with introduction of micro credit schemes. 

...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

... “Influence of hot water treatments on the storage life of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Sherkhana-I” was carried out at Post harvest Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. The research was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors i.e. hot water dipping times (0, 5, 10, and 15 Minutes) and storage durations (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 Days...

Sidra Majeed, Shahid Ahmad*, Asif Ali Bhatti** and Ghazanfar Abbas***

...en seasonal rainfall and water productivity is very high (0.93). There is a strong correlation between seasonal rainfall and yield of barani wheat. The yield of barani wheat grown using chemical fertilizers varied from 0.41 to 3.21 t ha-1 represents an eight-fold variation in the wheat yield of last 10 years (1998-08). There were almost three years when the yield was higher than the mean yield and three years when yield was lower than the mean yield by around ...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

..., shortage of irrigation water over normal supplies, imbalanced use of fertilizers particularly of DAP fertilizer below the recommended doses, higher prices of inputs such as seed, fertilizer, diesel, electricity and less wheat prices during 2006-07 and late announcement of the minimum guaranteed wheat price for 2007-08 were the main reasons of lower wheat production in 2007-08. To enhance the wheat yield, farmers were of the view that the timely availability ...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...ntial of saving land and water resources by re-allocating sugarcane area to relatively more productive recommended sugarcane varieties. Secondly, this exercise shall also provide feedback to researchers in sugarcane crop as well as sugar mills for assessing the types of varieties performing better, relative to others. The study document the extent of adoption of recommended sugarcane varieties in Pakistan. The study was based on the primary data collected thro...

 Aly Khan* and S. Shahid Shaukat**

...lkaline with low maximum water holding capacity. In most cases similarities were low between localities.

...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...d production analysis of water-yield functions revealed that yield varies from 1.1 t ha-1 in drought or dry spells to 12.75 t ha-1 with full irrigation in favorable environments. Benefit-cost analysis shows that break-even point can be achieved in fourth year of plantation of Jatropha. The projected consumption in Pakistan for petro-fuel for 2025 is 35.1 mt, which is almost double of the current consumption. Thus, the target projections for replacement of petr...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...n practices at Kohat and water management practices at both sites. Main strategies adopted by the farmers to mitigate the effects of climate change were occasional sale of livestock, reduction in consumption expenditures, and migration to nearby cities for non-farm employment.

...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...xposed to the rice paddy water where as 125 were not exposed to rice paddy water. The cumulative seropositivity among the exposed is (83.2%) as compared to (42%) among the non exposed to rice paddy field water. The calculated cumulative odds ratio is 6.7 which represent a strong association of the risk for the development of disease among the exposed than the non exposed subjects. Leptospi...
Abul Hassan Faiz*, Fakhar-i-Abbas and Lariab Zahra Faiz
...llect data on percentage water saturation, electrical conductivity (E/C), pH, organic matter content, and phosphorus and potassium contents. We found significant differences (mound soil and undisturbed soil) in % water saturation, electrical conductivity (E/C), pH, organic matter, phosphorus, potassium and biomass in all types of soil. A Chi-Square Q-Q plot was applied to test for the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA w...
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...nous and endangered cold-water fish in Tsinling mountain, China, and only is distributed as spot in the Weihe River and Hanjiang River among Tsinling mountain, To access relationship of populations from the two rivers and the genetic diversity of wild population, 11 microsatellite loci were firstly used to evaluate the genetic characterization using 120 samples from 2 tributaries (ZZ and LX populations) of the Weihe river and 2 tributaries (YX and TB populatio...
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
... mL of sterile distilled water dispensed on the surface of a couple of moistened filter papers. For each treatment concentration, 10 adult engorged ticks were placed in the Petri dishes, and each treatment was replicated four times; the experiment was replicated two times. Tick mortality was recorded daily for 9 days. Our EPNs were able to parasitize engorged ticks, and tick mortality ranged between 70-100% after 9-d post-exposure. The faster and higher tick m...
Umair Riaz*1, Zafar Abbas1, Qamar uz Zaman2, Muhammad Mubashir1, Mahwish Jabeen2, Syed Ali Zulqadar1, Zeenat Javeed1, Saeed-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Muhammad Javid Qamar1
...g and analysis of ground water of Bahawalpur Tehsil, Pakistan, has been made to evaluate its suitability for irrigation use. Water samples from different areas of the tehsil were collected and analysed for various physic-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), sulfates (SO4
Xia-Lin Zheng1, Pan Wang2, Jun-Yan Liu1, Yu-Jing Zhang1, Jun Li1 and Wen Lu1,*
...eg;C, respectively. Body water contents of these stages in B. macroscopa have no negative or positive correlation with the supercooling points. Supercooling points of these stages are lower than the air temperature during the winter, which suggested that these stages are the potential overwintering stages of this species in Wuhan City.
...

 Hidayatullah, T. Mahmood, M. Farooq, M. A. Khokhar and S.I. Hussain*

* Corresponding author: hidayatu2003@yahoo.uk.co.uk

PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AFFECTING SEX EXPRESSION OF BOTTLE GOURD (LAGENARIA SICERARIA MOLINA) PLANTS
...s sprayed with distilled water were considered as control. Among all foliar agents, the response of -l GA3 3 and MH was found better. Exogenous application with 30 µmol l GA maximally increased the pistillate flower production as compared to control. Moreover, the treatment produced maximum number of fruits -1 -1 (22.24 plant ) and fruit weight (6.31 kg plant ). However, foliar spray with different combinations of ethrel did not improve yield and yield c...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...rease in degraded lands, water shortage, energy crisis, all contributing to poverty. During last two decades, many efforts were made to address the issue through developing and applying the inoculants. Several research institutions including National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan contributed significantly to these efforts. There are many reports on achieving increase in yield of legumes, cereals (wheat, maize) and vegetable crops. Th...

 Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Umar Farooq, Nadeem Akmal*, Shahid Munir and Bashir Hussain**

POTENTIAL FOR INVESTMENT IN INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES: A CASE OF LOW COST SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION STRUCTURES IN RAINFED POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...2 billion cubic meter of water is lost from surface runoff annually. Soil erosion, along with arid climate, erratic rainfall and undulating topography makes land productivity very low and the livelihood of rural people even hard. Soil and water conservation under such an environment could provide the foundation for agricultural and natural resource development. To develop appropriate technologies for increasing land producti...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...poor management of soil, water and fertility issues. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad and the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat (W-F-W) cropping system was evaluated with the improved wheat-maize fodder-wheat (W-MF-W) and wheat-mungbean-wheat (W-MB-W) cropping systems. Two tillage practices, i.e. shallow tillage with cultivator and deep tillage with moldboard; and four fertilizer treatments viz., control (C), ...

 Muhammad Yaqoob*, Rukhsana Anjum, Mumtaz Hussain and Muhammad Jahangir Shah**

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND CHARACTER ASSOCIATION IN SOME CHINESE HYBRID RICE UNDER DRY CONDITIONS

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

RAISED BED TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT CROP IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation ...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Abdul Jabbar** and Sajida Taj*** 

FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY OF WHITE SUGAR PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
... use. Adequate supply of water, optimal use of fertilizer and judicious use of pesticides can improve yield and hence higher financial profitability.

...

 Naheed Zahra*, Hassnain Shah*, M. Azeem Khan* and M. Zubair Anwar* 

LIVELIHOOD ASSETS AND POVERTY NEXUS: A CASE STUDY FROM RAINFED POTHWAR AREA OF PAKISTAN
...of 40 households arround watershed project site at Fateh Jang in Pothwar region. The inter-linkage of livelihood assets and poverty is determined by employing poverty score card technique. The poverty status of household was highly correlated with the livelihood sources (P<0.01), water availability for irrigation(P<0.10) and tenancy status (P<0.05). The results regarding poverty revealed that 2.50% of the sampled ho...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...ion channels, irrigation water leakages, pots, vase, tyres, temporary containers stagnant flood waters, etc. Ovitraps were used as monitoring tools in urban areas of the selected sites. Results showed that mosquitoes are active throughout the year with their most active season during May, September and October. The mean relative abundance of Culex species in different districts were: Peshawar (32.3), Nowshera (18.8), Mardan ...

 Hassnain Shah*, Nadeem Akmal*, Waqas Farooq*, Muhammad Azeem Khan* and Shahid Munir**

SHIFT FROM SITE DEVELOPMENT TO SKILL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF WATER HARVESTING THROUGH MICRO CATCHMENTS
...as a useful tool for rainwater harvesting. The assessment of acceptability and compatibility of the intervention through farmers' perceptions, feed-back, practices and intentions regarding up-scaling the technology would develop the up-scaling and sustainability options for wider area. Under Watershed Rehabilitation and Irrigation Improvement Project besides other technologies, rainwater h...

 Sameera Arshad*, Iftikhar Hussain*, Maqsood Anwar* and Sarwat Naz Mirza*

HABITAT SURVEY FOR RECOGNIZING BIRD ATTRACTANTS AROUND BENAZIR BHUTTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...anking (6), habitat near water bodies and landfill sites (5.6), followed by habitat with old buildings as dominant feature (4), landfill sites (2.9) habitat near sport ground (1.8), however bird score of these two sites, was 2 and 3, respectively. Habitat representing modern housing society with covered trash transfer facility (with rank, 1.3) had least bird attracting sites. About 64 plant species and 34 bird species were recorded during the survey. Results i...

 Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Adnan Shakeel**, Muhammad Abdullah***, Muhammad Islam**, Sadiq Muhammad*, Ghulam Murtaza* and Mushtaq Ahmad**

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND WATER STRESS ON PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
... various fertilizers and water stress. In present research, the response of cotton variety CIM-496 to water stress and phosphorus fertilizer was investigated. Samples were collected after 90 days of planting. Kjeldahl method and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of total protein and phenolic compounds, respectively. Proteins were greatly affected by fertilizer treatment a...

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...o create awareness about water saving technologies as solar powered irrigation system, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, micro catchment, rooftop rainwater harvesting and irrigation scheduling. Therefore, the project activities also include the training of the professionals from the line departments for the demonstrated technologies to foster the process of adoption. For this purpose Climate and Alternate Energy

  Sohaib Arshad*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar** and Maqbool Shahbaz**

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC RHODES GRASS ACCESSIONS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...g is increasing, overall water scarcity is resulting in deterioration of natural resources, and it is need of the hour to find fodder crop resources which are more accustomed to change climatic conditions. Hence, different exotic and indigenous varieties of Rhodes grass were tested for quality and yield parameters. Three varieties were imported from Australia and Zimbabwe namely Sabre, Tolgar (Australian) and Katambora (Zimbabwean). Dry matter yield and crude ...

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION
...training based skills on water conservation technologies. To help in improving the effectiveness, the socioeconomic backup for assessment of these trainings was included as part of the activity. The information for paper is collected from opinions of the participants before and after the training. Descriptive analysis alongwith paired 't' test was used to measure the effectiveness of training. Results indicated higher satisfactory level as majority of the part...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
...mination of environment (water, soil, and air) and increase the health cost of vegetable pickers. The purpose of this study is to estimate the excessive use of pesticides and economic cost of health hazards for the vegetable pickers in district Vehari. Data from 90 respondents were collected and analyzed. The most common health problems identified during the survey were headache, eye irritation, skin infection, cough and shortness of breath. Health cost consis...

 Sidra Majeed*, Mubbashira Nazir*, Sumia Bint Zaman * and Waqas Farooq*

POTENTIAL OF SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW
...production especially in water scarce areas to bridge the demand gap and scrutinize the issues and constraints in commercial production of sugar beet. Trends were analyzed using existing published statistics. Water requirement of sugarcane is almost three-fold of the sugar beet. Sugar beet will not put pressure on water resources if cultivated on commercial scale. The government is in favo...

 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION, SOWING METHODS AND MULCHING ON WHEAT YIELD AND NITROGEN UPTAKE
...determine the irrigation water scarcity, inefficient irrigation supplies to farm lands, increasing temperature with high evaporation rate and poor sowing, an experiment was conducted at the research farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2011-12. In the study three factors were studied i.e., sowing methods, mulching and deficit irrigation with four levels viz: full irrigation (DI ), 20% deficit irrigation (DI ), 40% deficit irrigation (DI ) and...

 Dilawar Khan*, Abid Saeed*, Junaid Ahmad*, Imtiaz Qamar**, Fazal Yazdan**, Saleem ud Din** and Muhammad Tariq**

ASSESSMENT OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN DHRABI WATERSHED AND CHAKWAL REGION IN PAKISTAN
...land use systems. Dhrabi watershed is one of the areas where, there is a high potential for forage and livestock production. The analysis includes assessment and role of this riparian vegetation which is very helpful for integrated watershed management in different watershed areas. Dhrabi watershed is a catchments area of Dhrabi reservoir and lies in dis...

 Muhammad Bilal*, Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Muhammad Aslam*, Muhammad Ijaz****, Adnan Shakeel***, Mushtaq Ahmad*** and Kashif Bashir*****

RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT COTTON ( L.) GENOTYPES AT VARIOUS SALINITY LEVELS
...ts experiment in soil at water testing laboratory, D.G. Khan during 2012-13. Six cotton genotypes (FH – 945, FH – 901, NIAB – 111, NIAB – 999, B – 630 and B – 622) were collected from Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) and Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad. The plant height of NIAB-111 was more affected by soil salinity than that of other varieties. The number of bolls per plant also s...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Neelam Yasin*

EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF MAIZE
...t application (control), water spray and foliar application of micronutrients mixture @ 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500 ml ha at stem elongation stage of maize. All micronutrients treatments significantly improved plant height, cob length, number of grains rows cob , cob weight, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, grain protein and grain oil contents. However, micronutrients application at stem elongation stage showed non-signif...

 Zafar Islam*, Abdul Ghafoor Mangrio*, Muhammad Munir Ahmad*, Ghani Akber*, Sher Muhammad**, Muhammad Umair*** and Yaskina****

APPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF IRRIGATION WATER UNDER VARIOUS SIZES OF CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
...gation systems for their water distribution, uniformity and tendency to recommend changes in system maintenance or repair. The main objective of this study was to evaluate existing central pivot sprinkler irrigation systems under field conditions at different locations in the country. The study was carried out to evaluate water distribution under central pivot irrigation systems at three locations; National Agricultural Rese...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...eight, seedling relative water content and seed vigor index. It was inferred from findings of the present investigation that aqueous extract of exhibits inhibitory effects on growth and development of and therefore could be a potential source of botanical herbicide in the control of this noxious weed species.

...
Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2 and Saleh S. Alhewairini1,*
...d with the control (well water), respectively. The application of Huwa-San TR50 showed a promising safety profile when compared to other acaricides, as it spared predatory mites at concentrations which had a high lethality to tomato russet mites. Hence, Huwa-San TR50 can be utilized in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program as an acaricide agent.
...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos*, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Elsayed O.S. Hussein and Mutahar H. Ali
...tamin C) to the drinking water or feed of poultry has become a common practice. Broilers are more susceptible to heat stress as compared to other animals. The current experiment was conducted to examine the effect of commercial vitamin C supplement (VC100, 200 mg/kg), on performance of broilers. Two levels of environmental temperatures: normal (22°C) and high (32°C) and two levels of vitamin C in drinking water (with...
Xiaopeng Tang1,3, Rong Xiang1, Sijia Chen1,3, Shufen Yang1,3, Hu Liu1,3, Rejun Fang1,3,* and Aike Li2,
...l on crude protein (CP), water-soluble protein (WSP), amino acid (AA) and peptide fractions, and the AA digestibility and metabolic energy of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) and enzymatic hydrolyzed cotton seed meal (EHCSM) in white leghorn roosters. Firstly, CSM were fermented with Aspergillus niger, or hydrolyzed with alcalase and flavourzyme. Secondly, a total of 32 white leghorn roosters with similar body weight (1.95± 0.14 kg) were randomly...
Burcu Onuk1,*, Murat Kabak1, Bünyamin Sahin2 and Nazan Gezer İnce3

 

...r to prevent the loss of water that is crucial for the fluid balance of birds. This function may be related to the structure of the nose of flying birds. For this reason, we decided to analyze the nasal structure of two different birds using volume and volume fraction approach of the stereology. In this study, 14 seagulls and 7 storks were examined and volume fractions of the nasal cavity and nasal structures were estimated. Heads of animals were scanned in co...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

...t-align: justify;">Groundwater is one of the valuable resources for life sustenance in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In recent past, its contamination due to lack of balance between its exploitation and recharge has posed a serious menace on its utilization for various purposes. Current study was conducted in District Karak during June to November, 2009 with the objectives to assess the changes in groundwater tabl...
Lili Zhang, Yuanxiao Wang, Yili Kong, Hussain Ahmad, Rui Yan, Li Dong, Jingfei Zhang and Tian Wang*
...to other isoforms, lower water-holding capacity and meat color of slaughtering pigs.
...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...es, tea making, and wastewater treatment among others. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate pectinase-producing bacteria from local habitats. To enrich the diversity of isolated bacteria that produce pectinase, samples were collected from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37º...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
...es, tea making, and wastewater treatment among others. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate pectinase-producing bacteria from local habitats. To enrich the diversity of isolated bacteria that produce pectinase, samples were collected from the soil, water, fruits and vegetables wastes. Initial screening of pectinase producing bacteria was carried out on pectin containing agar plates of pH 7 incubated at 37º...
Olaniyi Alaba Olopade1,*, Henry Eyina Dienye1, Bosede Jimba1, Nathanael Akinsafe Bamidele2, Iyabo Olusola Taiwo2
...es to thrive in brackish water and freshwater, and that these parameters support the assessment of the well-being of different fish in different locations.
...

Muhammad Suleman Bacha1*, Mohammad Nafees1 and Syed Adnan2
 

...ty significantly affects water, food and energy sectors particularly in developing countries. The current study focused on farmer’s perception about climate change vulnerabilities, their adaptation measures and relationship with the changing climatic records in the district Swat (Pakistan). The data collected through household interviews and focus group discussions. Total 177 questionnaires administered to sample households and 9 FGDs (Focus Group Discus...

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

...f the adverse effects of water stress on maize (CV. Azam). The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) using pots in a glass house and comprised of 2 irrigations (irrigated and water stress) and three concentrations of CaCl2 (5, 10 and 15 mM CaCl2.2H2O) as foliar spray on maize seedlings 20 days after emergence (DAE). Water was sprayed as untreated control on maize s...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou3, Jian-hua Huang1, Qi-bin Yang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1,*
...rol), cultivated under a water temperature of 27.0±1.5 °C, salinity of 30–32, pH of 8.0–8.3, and light intensity of 1000 lx. Results showed that food consumption and feeding intensity of the eyestalk-ablated broodstock were higher than those without eyestalk ablation. The night-time feeding intensity was 1.46-fold and 1.31-fold higher than the daytime feeding intensity in the treatment and control groups, respectively (P<0.01)....
Shagufta Andleeb*1, Fariha Zahid1, Noor-ul-Ain1, Yousra Nisar1, Chaman Ara2
... in sterilized distilled water. These doses were injected into eggs on 3rd day while recovery of embryos was done on 7th day of incubation. Disrupted embryos with microcephly, hydrocephaly, short neck, micromelia, amelia, micrognathia, agnathia, cataract, ectopiacordis, omphalocoel, axis distortion, anencephaly, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, phocomelia with reduced body weight and crown- rump length in all dose groups were obtained. Adver...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
... are recorded from fresh water reservoirs of Pakistan and are mainly attributed to continued loss of wintering habitat, habitat modification, fragmentation, eutrophication, anthropogenic activities and illegal hunting. The adverse effects of habitat loss (Band tailed fish eagle, Black Stork and Water Pipit), pesticides (Gulls, Eagles, Terns, Ducks and Cormorants), eutrophication (Painted stork and Dalmatian pelican), Agroche...
Huma Ayub1,Iftikhar Ahmad2, Syed Lal Shah3,*, Muhammad Zafarullah Bhatti4, Nuzhat Shafi5 and Mazhar Qayyum1
... diversity in other freshwater lakes in the region.
...
Leila A. Kaimbayeva1,*, Elena S. Malysheva2, Rashit Kazikhanov3 and Saule R. Kazikhanova4
...re evaluated for the pH, water-binding power, activities of tissue enzymes and microstructure changes. The results of chemical analysis revealed the nature of protein substances, altered рН value of the meat and the intensity of glycolysis. All these parameters were indicative of autolysis process in the meat. The levels of water-binding capacity and structural-mechanical properties of red deer meat that occurred...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...uck (n=5; 2%), migratory water fowl (n=3; 1%), pheasant (n=2; 0.8%), grey leg goose (n=1; 0.4%), turkey (n=1; 0.4%), eagle (n=1; 0.4%) and crane (n=1; 0.4%), for domesticated bird species sero-prevalence was; broiler (n= 152; 60%), rural poultry (n=14; 6%), domestic desi birds (n=12; 5%), pigeons (n=9; 3.6%), desi chicken (n=9; 3.6%), broiler breeder (n=3; 1%) and layer (n=2; 0.8%). Overall sero-prevalence was 53% and average range of the hemagglutination inhi...

Feroza Haider1,2, Shamim Gul2,3*, Javaid Hussain4, Sadaf Asalam Ghori5, Muhammad Naeem Shahwani6, Muhammad Murad6 and Abdul Manan Kakar

...apa (turnip) under groundwater and wastewater irrigation. Biochars were applied at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kg m-2 to soil. Amendment of biochar increased significantly the aboveground plant biomass by 28% - 34.3% under groundwater and 18.3% - 30.4% under wastewater irrigation. Dry weight of root biomass increased by 16.1% - 20.2% under ground

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

...ithout damaging soil and water, reducing losses due to leaching of nitrogen and enhancing long lasting incorporation of nutrients by micro-organisms present in the soil. Another major breakthrough of nanotechnology for improvement in agriculture production is the development of insect-resistant varieties by DNA transfer in the plants or nanoparticle-mediated gene. Biofuel production from biomass is estimated to speed up using nanotechnology. Researchers and ma...

Saleem Ashraf1*, Ashiq Hussain Sangi1Zakaria Yousaf Hassan3 and Muhammad Luqman2

...vailability and conserve water and land. 

...
Asad Sultan1,*, Shahroom Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Shuaib Khan2 and Hamza Maris3
... ml/l (OA-2) in drinking water during the starter period for 21 days. Feed intake was significantly (P<0.05) lower and weight gain and dressing percentage were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the OA-2 group, resultantly, the best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded in the same group. Tibia dry matter, ash, calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in OA-2. On the other hand, fecal Ca and P decreased significantly (P<...

Muhammad Adnan Khan1*, Majid Suhail Hashmi1, Ali Muhammad1, Muhammad Muneeb1, Haris Bilal1 and Gul Wali

...bination of pulp: sugar: water, with 3: 4: 1 ratio respectively. All samples were tested for total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, ascorbic acid and sensory properties as flavor, color and overall acceptability. Samples were stored for three months and readings were recorded at every 15 days interval. During storage intervals, TSS increased from 48.0 to 51.31°Brix, pH increased 3.82 to 4.25, titratable acid...

Wiqar Ahmad1* and Farmanullah Khan

... (ω) and available water content (θ) increased by 3.6%, 5% and 11%, respectively, over the RD. The cereal-legume rotation recorded 16, 15 and 32% higher total N, mineral N and soil OM, respectively, whilst it reduced ρ by 3% with increase in ƒ, ω and θ by 3, 11 and 3% over the cereal-cereal rotation, respectively. The study concluded that yield potential and fertility status of eroded soil can be restored by replacing 50% of th...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Irshad Khan Abbasi2, Muhammad Tariq2, Jawad Ali3, Melad Karim4 and Rizwan Ahmad1 

...aning glacier based freshwater availability in future. River Indus fed by glaciers is critical for Pakistan as it is irrigating its 80% of agricultural land. Shigari Kalan watershed is one of the water sheds located in Skardu, Northern Pakistan, which also contributes to River Indus flowing to Pakistan. The aim of instant research is to evaluate the correlation amid temperature and the rat...
Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq1, Amer Jamal Hashmat1, Ejazul Islam1, Muhammad Afzal1, Abid Mahmood2, Muhammad Ibrahim2,*, Muhammad Nawaz3,*, Shahid Nadeem4 and Qaiser Mahmood Khan1
...s of highly colored wastewater. The scope of this new electrochemical treatment is a significant advance to the existing technologies. There were four different treatments employed as; T1: wastewater, T2: wastewater with 0.1% electrolyte, T3: diluted wastewater (50% tap water), and T4: diluted waste
Selçuk Kaplan
... variations in Anatolian water buffaloes. Sequence analysis were revealed seven polymorphic site (G1072A, T1081C, T1131G, T1143C, T1145G, T1151G and C1221T) and one monomorphic site (C1071T) in Anatolian water buffaloes. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first study that fully describes seven polymorphic sites of bubaline leptin gene in Anatolian water buffaloes.
...

Muhammad Rehan Aslam1, Muhammad Maqsood1, Zahoor Ahmad2*, Sajjad Akhtar3, Muhammad Rizwan4 and Muhammad Usama Hameed

...ir yield and also adjust water stress levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of foliar applied magnesium sulphate and irrigation scheduling on the quality and yield of maize (Zea mays). Maximum cob weight without sheath (253.38 g), number of grains per cob (472.49), 1000-grains weight (265.99 g), biological yield (13.08 t ha-1), grain yield (5.05 t ha-1), harvest index (38.43%), grain protein contents (8.09%) and grain oil...

Rizwana Qamar1, Maria Ghias1, Fida Hussain1, Sajida Habib1, Muhammad Khuram Razzaq2*, Muhammad Aslam1 and Imran Habib3 

...y the inaccessibility of water. Developments of sunflower hybrids having greater drought tolerance are the effective and inexpensive approach by plant breeders to manage with drought. A wire house experiment was conducted in Oilseeds Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Faisalabad for the screening of genotypes against drought. Ten hybrids along with their 13 parental inbred lines were grown in polythene bags following factorial structured completely...
Maryam Javed*, Farwa Saghir, Naveera Aziz, Maham Saeed, Asif Nadeem and Wasim Shehzad
...ition for resources like water, food, offspring and mating probabilities. It is an antisocial behavior having strong genetic relation. Current study focused mainly on the screening of genetic marker V158M located in COMT gene for its relation to physical aggression in the four domestic bovine species of Pakistan, which are normally less aggressive. Selected animal species were cattle (Bos indicus), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries<...
Laiba Shafique1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2, Mehroze Fatima3, Huma Naz4, Qaisra Saddique1

Muhammad Khalid1,2 and Muhammad Naeem2* 

...sis, mean percentage for water was 80.76 %, ash 3.40 %, 4.31 % for fat and 11.53 % for protein in C. idella. Percent water contents showed inverse relationship with % protein (dry and wet body weight), % ash and % organic contents (wet body weight). Wet body weight (W) showed negative correlation (P < 0.001) with percent water, percent fat (dry and wet body weight) and positive correlat...

Fiaz Ahmad1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...ress especially lead and water stress. Therefore, present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the response of two mungbean varieties to three different Pb2+ concentrations under two water stress conditions. Different morpho-physiological and yield traits were studied. Both varieties showed gradual reduction in morphological traits at increasing concentration of lead and water s...
Md. Abu Affan1,*, Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani1, Adnan Jaman Turki2 and Mohammed S.B. Hariri3
...sudden fish die-off in a water body such as toxic discharges, low dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, salinity, pH, ammonia, turbidity, pesticides, toxins, and diseases. The study was carried out to find out the reasons of sudden fish killing. Therefore, physico-chemical and biological parameters, and postmortem, especially the gills and gut content of dead fishes were studied. The dead Tilapia tilapia (Tilapia), Chanos chano (Milkfish) and Pa...
Qudsia Yousafi1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Aslam3 and Allah Ditta Abid4
...etallic tray filled with water, was used as light trap. Data for fruit infestation was recorded fortnightly, starting from mid-May, from twenty randomly selected plants. The percent fruit infestation in all three treatments was lower than control except on June 15 when infestation in control and in plots having light traps was not significantly different. Seasonal means for fruit infestation reduced fruit infestation by 16.1, 9.6 and 19.5 percent in T1, T2 and...

Ansaar Ahmed1, Imtiaz Hussain2*, Ibni Amin Khalil3, Subhanulla3, Gulzar Ahmed3, Imtiaz Ahmad3 and Muhammad Imtiaz2  

...tensive tillage and more water for irrigation. In this study, zero tillage and bed planting effect in comparison with farmer practice on maize-wheat system productivity was evaluated at five sites in district of Nowshera, KP province during 2014-2016. Maize grain yield with bed planting and manual planting on flat surface were non-significantly different. Because of weed infestation, there was 30 percent lower maize grain yield with zero till planted maize in ...

Muhammad Sajid Mahmood1*, Muhammad Ashraf1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Sohail Latif4 Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar5 and Waqas Ahmad6 

... the influence of barley water extract alone and in combination with low doses of pendimethalin (pre-emergence) for weed control in mungbean during summer season, 2009. The treatments were: Control (weedy check), Hand weeding (30 and 45 DAS), Pendimethalin herbicide @ 1.5 kg a.i. ha-1 (recommended dose), Barley W.E. @ 12 L ha-1 (20, 30, 40 and 50 DAS), Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1, Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 0.75 kg...

Muhammad Zahid1, Naeem Iqbal1, Sohaib Muhammad2*, Summiya Faisal3, Wajid Mahboob3, Makhdoom Hussain4 and Zaheer ud din Khan2 

...en it encounters extreme water shortage. In order to reduce the adversities of drought, glucose was exogenously applied at various phenological stages on wheat variety “AARI-11” and desiccation tolerance potentials were assessed through growth, yield and physiological attributes. Glucose was supplied in various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM) as seed priming and foliar spray treatments at vegetative and reproductive stages. Plant growth and...
Ali Karabayir1,*, Nazan Arifoğlu2 and Mustafa Öğütcü3
...) addition into drinking water on the growth performance of three different chicken strains, Plymouth Rock, Australorp and Village (local mix-breed village chickens) was evaluated in the present study. Supplementation of disinfectant clearly improved the microbiological quality of chicken drinking water, by reducing the total bacteria, coliform and E.coli counts. On the other hand, disinfectant addition decreased feed...

Ali Sher1*, Khalid Naveed1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Ayub Khan1, Muhammad Saeed1 and Shah Masaud1 

...e. no micro nutrients no water (control-I) and no micro nutrients + water (control-II). The N was soil applied and MN as foliar spray at booting stage. Days to anthesis, leaf area tiller-1, leaf area index, plant height, days to physiological maturity and biological yield were significantly increased by both N and Zn while the same parameters except days to anthesis, days to physiological maturity were also significantly enh...

Madiha Naz1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1*, M. Jamil Khan1, Obaid Ullah Sayal2, Asim Afridi3 and Aziz Ullah Sayal3 

...oluble solids, while the water content and fruit pH were non significantly changed. Soil properties including soil pH, bulk density, soil organic matter, total nitrogen and extractable phosphorus was significantly altered amongst the treatments. Tomato showed positive response to the organic fertilizers applied along the foliar nutrients in terms of growth, yield and quality. It may be concluded that poultry manure applied along with NAA was comparable with th...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Saeed Akhtar2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3* and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...ged irrigated by f waste water are a reason of accumulation of heavy metals leads to the production of contaminated food which exerts serious health risks to the humans. In the present study, edible portions of five vegetables viz., okra, tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower, grown with canal, tubewell and sewage irrigation water, were assessed for their proximate (moisture, ash, protein and fiber) and heavy metal (Pb, Ni...
Haroon Rashid1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Tasleem Ghori2, Mamoona Chaudhry3, Hamad Bin Rashid2, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir1, Muhammad Hamid Chaudhary4, Muhammad Asad Ali1, Mian Muhammad Khubaib Sattar5, Javed Muhammad1 and Bhushan Jayarao6
...8, 9.376), distance from water source 0.5882 (0.05258, 6.581), number of household in village 0.2255 (0.02011, 2.528) in Chakwal only one sample was found positive, while in the Faisalabad, Sahiwal. In Gujranwala, D.G. Khan and Sargodha, no positive sample was detected. The odds of (PA) in Chakwal District pathogen B. anthracis PA plasmid positive sample shows no association with distance from Animal Market, distance from road, distance from drainage, n...
Wajid Ali1,*, Asma Karim1, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3*, Ghulam Mustafa4, Zeeshan Shafique1, Ijaz Anwar1
...soil.In this study,fresh water fish Hypophthalmicthyes molitrix were exposed to sub lethal concentrations of deltamethrine. Fish were divided into 4 groups and each group contains six fish. Experimental groups viz. A, B and C were exposed to 25, 50 and 75% of LC50, respectively for four days. Blood samples for biochemical analysis (blood glucose, cholesterol and total protein) and gills for histology were taken after 96 hrs. After acut...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

...n limited by shortage of water during reproductive stages. Salicylic acid, potassium nitrate and methanol are considered to induce drought tolerance in plants. Field trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar-Pakistan to study the effects of moisture stress and foliar application of chemicals at different growth stages on canola growth and phenology during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experiment comprised of four moisture levels (opt...
Haozhen Liu1, Xiangfu Li2, Yinong Wang1,*, Xun Liu3,4, Li Wang1, Dong Liu1, Chen Chen1, Jinjing Li1, Haifeng Jiao5 and Zhongjie You1,5
...ariables of sediment and water column were studied to provide models for spatial patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. Result showed that most of variation in macrobenthic spatial patterns were explained by the studied environmental variables. Sedimentary sulfide, sedimentary total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and water colour are the certain environmental factors that have proved shaping the distribution of macrobenthic abu...
Şehriban Çek Yalnız 1,* and Erdal Yilmaz2
...licles (POF) of the freshwater teleost, Clarias gariepinus were observed by light microscopy. The germinal vesicle and the cytoplasmic organelles of the oocyte were disintegrated. The theca of atretic mature oocytes was hypertrophied and persisted to form the interstitial cells, whereas the granulosa cells were regressed and disappeared. Erythrocytes and leukocytes were also detected at the advance stage of atresia. Apoptosis in the granulosa cells were...

Amar Razzaq1, Abdur Rehman4*, Abdul Hassan Qureshi2, Iqbal Javed3, Raheel Saqib5 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal6 

...">The growing demand for water resources highlights the need for improved management of this diminishing resource to ensure high water productivity. In order to cope with this situation, it is imperative to make use of available water resources more efficiently through high-efficiency irrigation systems (HEIs). The present study aimed to conduct the economic analysis of high efficiency irr...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...pest-pressure. Moreover, water scarcity is extremely high temperature in the core zones colligate, which is already under observations where the temperature is extremely high. In Pakistan, closely 1.7 million peoples they are engaged in growing cotton crop. The farmers of Pakistan surveying and evolution for high quality of fiber and high quality of lint yield sweetening, the Pakistan also fulfills its 18.8% of comestible oil demand from cotton seed oil. Infor...
Merica Slišković1, Meta Povž2, Marina Piria3,*, Goran Jakšić4, Ana Gracanin5 andGorana Jelić Mrčelić1
... were observed at a high-water level in the Mur River of Slovenia. In total, 14 specimens were sampled by fishermen using sport fishing techniques. The age, condition, length-weight relationship (LWR), 20 morphometric and four meristic traits, were analysed. Fulton condition coefficient and LWR value indicated that sichel specimens’ were well adapted to the environmental conditions. Positive allometry in both males and females were observed (W = 0...

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

...Ziziphus mauritiana) and water (H2O) and planted in pots on the next morning. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design at the University of Agriculture Peshawar during winter 2013-14. Periodic growth sampling was taken by harvesting three pots of treatments starting in early spring and thereafter during tHEgrowth to the maximum five samplings to study roots and shoot growth. Averaged across varieties and extracts, results revealed that pl...

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 

...indicators resulted from water, tillage, soil, salinization, and overgrazing. Moderate (0.49) index of water degradation and the changing climatological index were light but the reduction of drainage density of water runoff and slope gradient reduction of soil index was severe. The tillage degradation index value moderate (0.57), overgrazing index (0.32) fall in the severity scale category...

Sabahat Noor*1, Shaukat Ali1, Hafeez-ur-Rahman1, Farhatullah2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali1 

...ll contents and relative water contents were recorded and compared in transformed and non-transformed plants. It was observed that under drought and salt stresses, proline contents, sugar contents, chlorophyll contents and relative water contents (RWC) were significantly higher in transgenic plants as compared to non-transgenic plants. From obtained results it is concluded that, increase level of RWC, proline, sugar and chlo...
İnan Kaya1,*, Muhitdin Yılmaz2, Müge Mavioğlu Kaya3,Abdulsamed Kükürt4 and Mahmut Karapehlivan5
...trol) was kept in normal water. Group II, III, IV and V were kept in separate tanks containing 0.3 mg/L carbaryl, 0.6 mg/L carbaryl, 10 mg/L 2,4-D and 20 mg/L 2,4-D, respectively. The blood and liver samples were taken from the fish for biochemical studies at the end of the study period. Oxidative stress index (OSI) in plasma were evaluated as well as AST and ALT levels in the liver. Plasma OSI and liver AST levels in the groups with carbaryl and 2,4-D were co...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*
...ns it pollutes the groundwater table and if used for irrigation purpose represents a major health risk not only to humans but also to local flora and fauna. The purpose of current research work was to analyze the toxicity of leachate in Wistar rats. Wistar rats of about 250g were selected and divided into three groups namely Control, Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 was given 4ml/kg leachate while Group 2 received 4ml/kg of 1:10 diluted leachate intra-peritoneally...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
...t of air temperature and water depth on bird abundance and two ecological diversity indices (Shannon and Shannon E). Significant inter-annual fluctuations in bird abundance were recorded. Maximum values were always recorded during autumn. Water depth correlated positively with bird abundance and Shannon index. Field samplings indicated that bird abundance was frequently higher than 1000 individuals, which suggests that this ...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
... MSY in Pakistani marine waters along the Sindh coast is between 1500-1700 t. Moreover, the harvest of this fishery resource beyond 1750 t should be considered as limiting reference point (LRP) which will result in economic loss.
...

Nadia Sharif1, *Neelma Munir1 and Shagufta Naz1

MICROBIAL PRODUCTION OF ALGINATE
... they are hydrocolloids, water soluble biopolymers. Alginate is a natural polysaccride that occur as 30 to 60% structural component of brown algae. Alginate favorable properties like ease of gelation and biocompatibility promote its applications in engineering and bio medical science.

...

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
...th irrigated wheat field water. Study was carried out to check the efficacy of heavy metals and antibiotics against five isolated bacterial pathogens. Different morphological and biochemical tests were performed to identify and characterize bacterial pathogens. Among isolated strains, two belong to genus Staphylococcus spp., other two were Pseudomonas spp. and one strain belonged to genus Salmonella spp. Effect of various parameters such as temperature and pH ...

Hareem Mohsin, Azka Asif*, Warda Fatima, Sarooj Nadeem, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Assessment of biocalcification by the water absorption test using microorganism from oil contaminated site
...e calcium carbonate. The water absorption test was performed to check the presence of a protective layer that provides resistance to water penetration and corrosion to cement. The samples treated with calcium and urea for one hour were found better as shown by less absorption of water compared with the untreated samples. Application of Bacillus pasteurii on the cement or the cement based ...

 Sumera Siddique1,†, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Muhammad Irfan1

Screening of some agri-wastes for economical cultivation of Candida tropicalis SS1
...eels of apples, mangoes, water melon and bagasse singly as well as in eleven different combinations. The media were inoculated with 1% (w/v) suspension of 24 h old yeast cultured in nutrient broth. The strain grew best in water melon (WM) at pH 7.0 and 37 °C under non agitation conditions. The proximate analysis revealed that the water melon peels showed the highest amount of crude pro...

Muhammad Babar Khawar, Nadeem Sheikh*

Effect of paper industry leachate on various serological indices and serum proteins of wistar rats
...e. The toxicity of waste water (leachate) resulting from paper processing has become a serious issue now a day. So, current research was aimed to assess various toxic aspects of pulp and paper industry waste water. Study design involved the division of Wistar ratsof about 245±5g in three groups (n=5) viz, Control group (4ml/ kg normal saline), Group 1 (4ml/ kg leachate) and Group 2 (4ml/ kg 1:10 diluted leachate). All...

Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*

Induction of acute phase in response to tacrolimus induced hepatotoxicity
...ded with normal drinking water and dissections were done after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of tacrolimus dose. Densitometric analysis revealed considerable elevated level of some positive acute phase proteins, specifically C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. While albumin and transferrin levels were found to be low as compared to control animals. The results obtained in this study revealed that tacrolimus resulted in the onset of acute phase response in ...

 Hamda Azmat1, Waqas Ali2, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain2, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Zara Saeed1,Syed Shafiq Hussain Bukhari4

Chromium contamination in water, sediment and its bioaccumulation in Indian major carps in River Chenab, Pakistan

 Haji Muhammad1, Zafar Iqbal1, Tanveer Akhlaq2

Length-weight, length-length relationships and condition factor of fishes of family cyprindae from the Indus River, Pakistan
...ens belonging to 20 freshwater fish species of family cyprinidae. Fish samples were
collected on a monthly basis from August 2013 to July 2014 at Taunsa barrage from the Indus River, Punjab,
Pakistan. The values of parameter b for LWRs ranged from 2.16 – 4.10 suggesting the isometric and allometric
growth pattern in fishes of family cyprinidae. The results of K factors ranged from 0.645 – 1.836 also determine both
negati...

 Abir Ishtiaq, Muhammad Naeem*

Length-weight relationships and condition factor for farmed Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) from southern Punjab, Pakistan
...d highly commercial freshwater major carp, thaila (Catla catla) from farming system. Mean±S.E. total
length (TL) and body weight (W) of studied samples have been calculated as 39.29±0.23 cm and 827.43±14.55 g,
respectively. For LWRs, specimens of C.catla were collected from fish ponds and grouped into three categories on
the basis of the feed offered to them which contained 15%, 20% and 25% crude protein (CP). The regr...

 Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Zahid Hussain3, Amir Sohail4, Syed Shahid Ali4*

Extracellular lipase production from Bacillus subtilis using agro-industrial waste and fruit peels
...ncluding banana, orange, water melon and melon as carbon source, was 27.17, 21.37, 10.57 and 8.43 U/ml, respectively. The corn cob produced 12.27 U/ml while waste oils of various industries produced 16.17 U/ml (Shan oil), 13.67 U/ml (automobile), 13.37 U/ml (unbranded waste cooking oil) and 6.03 U/ml (Sitara oil) of enzyme activity when used as substrate for lipase production. It is concluded that among the agro-industrial wastes, fruit peels and waste oil sam...

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
...olites.

...

Madeeha Arshad, Asmatullah, Chaman Ara

Embryotoxic effects of sodium arsenate in Mus musculus
...was given only distilled water. Pups were recovered on
18th day of gestation and fixed for morphometric morphological and histological
analysis. Morphometric observations indicated significant (P≤0.05) variations
among groups in certain parameters (body weights, crown rump length, head and
eye circumferences) against control. Microcephaly, hygroma, skin hemorrhages,
scoliosis and appendage deformities among arsenic treated...

 Khurram Shahzad1*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Farhat Jabeen2, Nasreen Kosour3, Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan1, Munir Ahmad1

Bioaccumulation of manufactured titanium dioxide
... toxic influence in the water environments. There is a need to exploremore likely
accumulation of nanoparticles in the aquatic organisms. This study was designed
to investigate the possible bioaccumulation of TiO2, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles to
tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Fish were exposed to three doses of
nanoparticles suspensions T0 (no dose administration), T1 (0.5 mg/L), T2 (1.0
mg/L) and T3 (1.5 mg/L) for 14 days...

 Siddra Tayyab Akhtar, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Twitching, swimming, swarming in biofilm forming strains in response to chemical and physical factors
...a drain of sewage
water located in the vicinity of Jinnah hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Six biofilm forming
bacterial strains were selected on the basis of their motility and biofilm forming
ability firstly by growing them on congo red agar medium and then by performing
ring test. By 16S rRNA sequencing, bacterial strains were identified as
Exiguobacterium aurantiacum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus
endo...

 Zafar Iqbal

A review of fisheries education in University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
...
research in freshwater fisheries is an old and dominant area of study in the zoology
department. At present the fisheries courses are offered in all degrees programs.
The research on freshwater cultivable and ornamental fishes is carried out in the
department. Recently twelve PhD scholars completed their projects on different
topics in fisheries. Fish Disease and health Management laborato...

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
...nclude liquid hot
water and AFEX (ammonium fibre explosion), biological methods involving whiterot/
brown-rot fungi and bacteria, and quite a few combinations thereof to
breakdown the lignocellulose into its components. Pre-treatment process changes
cellulose morphological, chemical and physical features, making it prone to
enzymatic attack for saccharification. In this review, we have discussed different
pre-treatment...
Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Tehseen Zamir3, Zahid Hussain1, Syed Shahid Ali4*
...) isolated from soil and water samples from oil industry, mobile oil filling areas and kitchen wastages were screened on tributyrin agar and rhodamine agar plates. The strain PCSIR NL-37 was identified as Bacillus cereus following morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Best medium for lipase production was olive oil and mustard oil cake and the best carbon sources were fructose and maltose whereas yeast extract was found to be the be...

Umair Talib1, Ijaz Ashraf2, Robert Agunga1 and Saleem Ashraf3* 

...-poor farmers face while water conservation and climate smart agricultural practices were proposed as the main mitigation strategies. Educating resource poor farmers on the causes and consequences of environmental degradation is relatively new in Pakistan. With these farmers constituting the vast majority of the agricultural population there is an urgent need for extension to come to their aid. Climate smart agricultural practices should be integrated in exten...

Misbahullah, Shad Khan Khalil, Asim Muhammad*, Afza Tabassum and Shah Fahad  

...ute underground drinking water. Alternative environmental friendly methods are needed to explore possibility of weed control and enhance crop yield. Sorghum extract and their application times on weed dynamics, phenology and leaf tracts of variety Atta Habib was sown at the Research Farm of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan throughout 2015-16. Used of sorghum extract with three concentrations (1:3, 1:4, 1:5), weedicide (affinity) with ...
Faiz Muhammad1,2, Canfeng Dou1, Zhen-ming Lü1,*, Li Gong1, Xun Du1 and Muhammad Shafi3
...n variability in Chinese waters.
...
Chao Zhao1,2, Juan Feng1, Haidong Xu1, Lihua Qiu1,2,*, Qibin Yang1, Zhenhua Ma1 and Jian G. Qin3
...ficantly affected by the water pretreatment (P > 0.05). However, the bacteria communities were significantly affected by water pretreatment (P < 0.05). Heterotrophic bacteria and vibro counts in the formalin treatment were significantly lower than UV treatment and untreated group (P < 0.05). Based on the results obtained in the present study, we suggest that formalin treatment could be a better ...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1, Hina Ashraf2,*, Muhammad Arshad3, Sabeeha Parveen4, Amna Aslam4, Nargis Naz4, Zahid Kamran1, Sumbul Gohar Khalid5, Sajid Hameed1, Muhammad Ashfaq6 and Muhammad Mukhtar7

 

...y dissolved in distilled water before taking their antiviral trials in 7-11 days old chicken embryonated eggs. The viral loads were determined through heamagglutination (HA) test. The methanolic extract of each plant was found effective against NDV but in varying order. The active extracts were further used in different concentrations and IC50 of each extract was calculated. The extract of Achyranthes aspera was found most effective with IC

Fouzia Tabssum1, Qamar uz Zaman2*, Yinglong Chen3,4, Umair Riaz5*, Waqas Ashraf6, Ambreen Aslam2, Nusrat Ehsan2, Rab Nawaz2, Humera Aziz7 and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah8 

...eakage and improving the water related (relative water contents and water potential), and biochemical attributes (SOD, CAT, MDA, EL and T CHL). Under field conditions, exogenous application of optimized dose of proline both at seedling establishment and vegetative stage significantly improved the performance of rice cultivars by improving tillering dynamics, plant ...
Asim Faraz1,*, Muhammad Younas2, Abdul Waheed1, Muhammad Yaqoob2 and Kashif Ishaq3

 

...ues ad lib. Twice watering was done in both the groups. At end of trial mean body weight and ADG of male and female calves was significantly increased (P<0.05) in IMS (80.83+2.7, 77.83+2.7 kg and 0.674+0.02, 0.649+0.02 kg/d) than SIMS (50.33+2.7, 45.16+2.7 kg and 0.419+0.02, 0.376+0.02 kg/d), respectively. Intake of crop residues varied (P<0.05) between groups (6.93+0.45, 6.37+0.45; 4.09+0.46, 3.83+0.46 kg/d in male and female calves, respectively...

Masaud Khan1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Tahir Sarwar1 and Muhammad Jamal Khan2 

...manding crop in terms of water and fertilizer. To fulfill the irrigation water demand, the growers use surface and ground water resources, which are declining day-by-day. Realizing the importance of water, tomato yield was studied under deficit irrigation regimes and different Nitrogen (N) levels during 2015 and 2016 at the research farm of the Universit...

Ali Bakhsh1*, Mashal Rehman1, Said Salman1 and Rehmat Ullah

...os of climate change and water security cotton production is under threat so, it is imperative for plant breeders to develop cotton lines that can grow on minimum water availability. In this study performance of 23 cotton genotypes was compared for seed cotton yield and fiber quality traits under water stress and non-stress conditions. All the genotypes depicted significant differences for...

Salman Ali*, Inamullah, Muhammad Arif, Mehran Ali, Muhammad Owais Iqbal, Fazal Munsif and Arsalan Khan 

...op growth stages reduces water losses and improves water use efficiency and yield of a crop. Potassium is a major plant nutrient required in large quantity by crops and has a significant role in increasing crop growth and yield by reducing the adverse effects of drought stress. Although a large quantity of potassium can be found in soil but is mostly in an unavailable form. A field experiment was, therefore established at Ag...
Pingping Cang1, Mingming Zhang1, Guo Qiao1,Qirui Sun1, Dehai Xu3, Qiang Li1, Xinghua Yuan4 and Wenbin Liu2,
...nt was conducted in zero-water exchange BFT system. The results demonstrated that weight gain (WG), specific growth (SG) and survival in BFT group were 133.94%, 1.20% day-1 and 90.0%, respectively. In control group with a 1/4-1/3 daily water exchange, WG, SG and survival were significantly lower than those in BFT group. There were no statistical differences in crude protein (CP), crude lipid (CL) and ash contents ...

Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik1, Khalid Usman1*, Tahir Amin1, Muhammad Riaz2, Zafar Iqbal3 and Fiaz Hussain

...fy the impact of limited water on lint yield and quality of cotton genotypes. An experiment was managed in a split plot, randomized complete block design, replicated thrice at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan. The experiment was conducted in 2016 using treatments irrigation intervals (10, 15, 20 and 25 days) and Bt cotton varieties (MNH-886, CRIS-342, and CRIS-134) as main- and sub-plots treatments, respectively. Total irrigation
Peng Song1,2, Wei Feng2, Haiying Shi2,Jinsheng Zhao3, Renmin Liu3 and Wei Xu2,*
...m to decolorize both water and oil-soluble azo dyes were investigated. The bacteria was incubated under static conditions in the presence of 50mg/L Amaranth or 5 mg/L Sudan I in LB media at 37°C for 10 h, and reduction of the dyes was monitored. The preferable pH for the decolorization of Amaranth by ts17 strain was between pH 6.0-9.0, and with the optimum pH at 7.0. The promotion effect of NaCl on the decoloration of Amaranth up to 5% (w/w) content, a...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

... is grown anywhere where water is available. This crop is also grown in rural area of Lower Dir district which play vital role in the economy of the farming community. Till today no study was arranged in this district to analyze the situation. Seeing to its importance the present study was started in 2016 and completed in2018. The major objectives of the study were to determine the factors which affect the production per acre of rice and analyze the problems a...
Zhi YiJin1, Shao MingQin1,*, Cui Peng2 and Chen Bin1
...pling in the Poyang Lake watershed in the Jiangxi province, China. The results showed that the Mandarin Ducks’ predominant behaviors were resting (36.56%), swimming (21.75%), foraging (20.88%), and maintenance (15.58%), indicating that during the winter, Mandarin Ducks spend most of their time accumulating energy. Mandarin Ducks reduced their energy consumption by increasing time spent on resting behavior. Females spent more time resting than the males, ...
Dur-E-Shahwar1,2, Riaz Ahmad Sheikh1, Nazia Jamil2*
...ral industries. Produced water is a major waste water stream of petroleum industry which is produced during petroleum extraction from subsurface in which hydrocarbons are found as a main environmental pollutant. Present study is focused on production of biosurfactants from indigenous bacteria, isolated from produced water and produced water contaminated ...

Hina Ali*, Iram Shaheen and Feroza Hamid Wattoo 

...ial analysis of drinking water samples of different areas of Rawalpindi. The water samples were collected into sterile containers from the different localities of Rawalpindi such as Dhokekala khan, Morgah, Scheme-III, Gulshandadan khan, Satellite town, Dhoke kashmirian, Pandora, Bahria town, University campus (Mehr water) and Air Port. The pH of PMAS-AAUR campus wa...
Liqin Liu, Maoting Wang, Zhenming Lü, Li Gong*, ChangWen Wu, Baoying Guo and Lihua Jiang
... in the tropical coastal waters of the Indo-pacific region. In this study, we developed twenty-one microsatellite loci for S. pharaonis through next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 100 alleles were detected, and the number of alleles per loci ranged from 2 to 9. The observed and expected heterozygosities per loci ranged from 0.000 to 0.531 and from 0.031 to 0.751, respectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) showed that six loci wer...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
...nificantly decreased the water intake. Body temperature and mortality percentage were significantly decreased in ascorbic acid and basil supplementary group as compared to control. Dressing percentage significantly increased in both supplementary groups. It is concluded that supplementation of basil at 5g/kg feed, promotes the growth, improves the intestinal villus size, feed efficiency and immunity of heat stressed broiler chicken.
...
Song Jiang, Fa-Lin Zhou, Jian-Hua Huang, Qi-Bin Yang* and Li-Shi Yang
...vannamei aquaculture water during seeding. Seven groups were established and the microecological preparations were added every 5 d. Bacillus concentrations in the Y1, Y2 and Y3 groups were 10 ppm, 15 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively, and the Lactobacillus concentrations in the R1, R2 and R3 groups were 20 ppm, 25 ppm and 30 ppm. The control (C) group had no microecological preparation added. Results showed that the Y2 larvae achieved the heaviest...
Liyan Zhang1,2, Zhidong Zhou1,3, Haiping Li1,2, Yanlong Qiao4, 5 and Yueping Zhang1,3,*
... Strait and its adjacent waters. The results of genetic diversity and genetic structure analysis of S. japonicus showed that these four populations exhibited moderate genetic diversity across the sampled geographical range of the species. However, no phylogenetic structure corresponding to geographic location was observed from the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree and haplotype network analyses, and gene flow and exact P test results revealed that a wid...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Irshad Abbasi2, Himayatullah Khan1, Arjumand Nizami3, Abdul Hakeem4, Jawad Ali3 and Muhammad Jamal Khan

... of July-October. Burgay watershed is situated upstream of Satpara Dam. Water from this watershed is distributed among the communities according to historically agreed distribution patterns. Water availability vary from season to season. The objective of the instant study was to assess the glaciers/snow water dependenc...
Kamran Zakaria1*, Noreen Munawar1 and Shafqat Ejaz2
...or the balanced usage of water resources for urban uses and agriculture. For such purpose, Precipitation regions were recognized in river Indus basin in Pakistan by examining the rainfall frequencies with the help of global wavelet power spectra. Records from 52 rain gauges were studied and the outcomes of the whole power spectra exhibited a low annual frequency all over the basin; whereas additional frequencies are present with major significance that indicat...

Salman Anwar1, 2*, Farhan Anwar Khan3 and Atta-ur-Rahman4 

...tile agricultural lands, water resources and minerals. Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. About 70% of its population is directly or indirectly associated with this sector. Gilgit-Baltistan is a vast mountainous and remote area in the extreme north of Pakistan.. The inhabitants of this area are mostly engaged in the agricultural sector. Before the construction of KKH, their mode of agriculture system was subsistence and crude techniques w...

Arjumand Nizami1, Jawad Ali1 and Muhammad Zulfiqar2* 

... assets including crops, water, houses and other physical infrastructure. In order to overcome these losses, communities apply short-term coping strategies by spending limited means and hard-earned cash reserves. These unsustainable strategies further exacerbate vulnerabilities and give way to new ones. Taking empirical example of Chitral, the study recommends to formulate policies and encourage investment to substitute short term coping strategies with long t...

 Zhi Yijin and Shao Mingqin*

...ivers of the Poyang Lake water system, Jiangxi province, China. Spatial and temporal variations in population size were ascertained for this endangered species. The Xiuhe, Fuhe and Raohe river systems exhibited large steady populations, with the maximum size ranging from 25 to 68 individuals for each river. Restoration and maintenance of suitable habitats for the scaly-sided merganser is imminent as the species is at risk of extinction due to its small populat...

Saeed Ullah1, Muhammad Israr1*, Shakeel Ahmad2, Nafees Ahmad3 and Asif Yaseen

...management practices and water degradation. The effects of LD were difficulty in farming, drought, desertification, increased the necessity for fertilizers, loss in livestock production, migration, poverty and economic backwardness. High land degradation was perceived by the farmers and having positive association with the socio-economic influences. There is a need for awareness about the different land management and conservation practices coupled with differ...

 Attaur Rahman1, Sadeeq ur Rahman1,*, Ashfaq Ahmad2, Abdul Sajid1, Muhammad Asif Hussain1, Mian Muhammad Salman1, Niamat Ullah Khan1, Kamran Khan3, Fazli Rabbani1, Muhammad Akbar Shahid4, Irshad Ahmad5 and Shakoor Ahmad6

.... A decrease in feed and water intake was recorded in both broiler and ostrich from 116 g to 82 g/bird and from 235 ml to 172 ml/bird for broiler, and from 1300g to 790 g/bird and from 1433 ml to 995 ml/bird for ostriches on days 0-7 post-inoculation. Interestingly, morbidity was observed 100%, while maximum mortality of 100% in broiler and 33% in ostriches was observed on day 7 and 6 post-inoculation, respectively. Interestingly, gross lesions were found simi...

Amer Mumtaz2*, Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui2, Muhammad Naeem Safdar2, Masooma Munir2, Aqsa Qayyum2, Sahar Shibli2 and Muhammad Khalid Ibrahim3 

...egetable juice industry, water, waste water treatment, starch modification and removal of food allergens from food. 

...
Tianlong Cai1, Falk Huettmann2, Kisup Lee3 and Yumin Guo1,*
...) and artificial flowing water impoundments can be used to attract wintering hooded cranes at these seven sites. Theoretically, our models show that these habitats can accommodate approximately 3,713 wintering individuals (ca. 35% of the wintering population in Izumi).
...

Hafiz Umar Farid1, Muhammad Zubair2, Zahid Mahmood Khan1, Aamir Shakoor1*, Behzad Mustafa1, Aftab Ahmad Khan3, Muhamad Naveed Anjum4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Mubeen

...nt technologies to apply water to the crops because these technologies use less irrigation water and produce more yield as compared to conventional irrigation methods. However, the most burning issue of these systems is their non-adoptability or low adoptability by the farming communities, despite their proven benefits. It was highly desirable to analyze and evaluate certain parameters which keep systems functional as well a...
...hromis sp.) Reared in Seawater Tanks. Pakistan J. Zool., vol. 50(2), pp 409-415.
 
(iv) Abdul Malik, Ghulam Abbas1,* Abdul Ghaffar, Ghulam Dastagir, Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Asad Ali Muhammad, Abdul Jabbar and Khalil-urRehman, 2018. Assessment of Optimum Salinity Level for Maximum Growth and Survival of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linna...

Fraza Ijaz1*, Umair Riaz2, Shazia Iqbal3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Muhammad Furqan Ijaz5, Hina Javed1, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi1, Zuhra Mazhar3, Ahmad Hassan Khan6, Hassan Mehmood7 and Ijaz Ahmad8 

...eir higher solubility in water, continuous providence of hormones as well as low cost. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of Rhizobium, with and without Tryptamine on growth and yield parameters of Berseem. Total of eight treatments was planned to conduct an experiment. Results revealed that the nodule mass (0.523 g plant-1), highest plant height (103.45 cm), number of seeds per head, thousand seeds weight were recorded with Co-inoculation + Tryptam...
Muhammad Ahmad, Zohaib Noor*, Karim Johar Khan, Waqar Younas and Ajmal Hussain
...ght gain. Mean values of water quality parameters were conducive however temperature fluctuated between 26°C-29°C. Significantly higher values of (P<0.05) crude protein, fats, carbohydrates, Mg (%) and K (%) was recorded in the H. molitrix than C. catla. The results of the study showed that H. molitrix probably consumed all the phytoplankton density by filtering the water continuously resultin...
Iqra Jaffar, Zainab Sehzadi, Muhammad Adeel, Khalid P. Lone and Mehwish Faheem*
... the present study, freshwater fish (Labeo rohita) juveniles were exposed to low concentrations (10μg/l and 100μg/l) of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 7 days to evaluate oxidative stress in liver and gills by analyzing activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO). Catalase activity increased significantly in liver and gills of fish exposed to 10μg/l of DBP. Level of GSH...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Sami Ullah1*, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Abbas3, Ijaz Ahmad4, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Muhammad Zeshan5, Adeel Abbas1, Mehmood Ali Noor1 and Mohsin Nawaz1 

...on, cell wall formation, water relations, meristematic tissue growth, carbohydrate metabolism, and pollen tube growth which suggests plausible effects on all these activities due to its deficiency. Therefore, a field trial was set up to assess the efficacy of different levels (control, 0.01 M and 0.05 M) of foliar applied B at booting, anthesis, and grain filling growth stages of wheat crop respectively. Results revealed that B application at the rate of 0.05 ...
Muhammad Afzal1, Nighat Sultana1, Ali Hassan1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2,*, Mahroze Fatima3, Syed Makhdoom Hussain4, Muhammad Bilal5 and Majid Hussain2
...digestibility. Important water quality parameters such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored and maintained within acceptable limits for fish during entire experiment. The findings of the experiment showed improved weight gain%, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), muscle composition and digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein and crude fat in Labeo rohita juveniles when fed CA supplemented diet. Similar observ...
Syeda Shazia Bokhari*, Ghashia Qayyum, Uzma Rafi and Aisha Waheed Qurashi
...ally formed vermicompost water holding capacity, soil pH and aggregation changed positively by EG4. The results of the present finding showed positive impact of inoculation on vermicomposting in the presence of L. terrestris. This is beneficial for improving soil fertility and aggregation.
...
Wafaa M. Hikal1,2,* and Hussein A.H. Said-Al Ahl3
..., including the hospital water sources and medical devices especially in dental units and dialysis machines. It poses a threat to public health as it is responsible for human infection. In inappropriate conditions, it forms cyst with high levels of resistance to disinfection methods. The aim of this study was to isolate the pathogen from the dental units and hospital water network and treatment of Acanthamoeba with
Fatima Tufail1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3
...ic health effects. Fresh water fish species such as Channa striata serve as important bio-indicators for aquatic contamination to access the changes caused by human activities effectively and reliable monitoring bio-system to recognize and predict hazardous effects of pollutants. Therefore, this study was done to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan (END),deltamethrin (DM) mixture on hepatic catalase (CAT) activity of fish, Channa striata exp...
Huma Naz1*, Sajid Abdullah2, Khalid Abbas2, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq3, Laiba Shafique4, Ghazala Nazeer5
... were also kept in clean water known as negative control (NC) and for positive control (PC) cyclophosphamide was injected into fish. The tolerance limits of C. catla against END+CPF was computed as 1.35±0.01µgL-1(LC50) and 2.25±0.02µgL-1(LC100). Genotoxic results showed that END+CPF mixture caused significant damage to nuclei (22.58±5.37%) and GDI (0.73±0.15%) in RBCs of...
Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny1,2,*, Reny P. Devassy1, Erinn M. Muller3, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani1 and Ali M. Al-Aidaroos1
...itions along the coastal waters of Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia during the summer period. Conspicuous stratification was evident in the water column while nutrient distribution highlighted the oligotrophic nature of the region. Nitrate showed a notable increase in the deeper layers of almost all the stations and towards the south. Chlorophyll a was low throughout (0.05-0.27 mg m-3) though a small peak was ob...

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3* and Balach Rasheed

...mate change resulting in water scarcity, low agriculture productivity, and variation in seasons across the country. The present study is an attempt to analyze the dynamic effects of variation in rainfall on economic growth in different provinces of Pakistan. Results show that low rains over the period of time have adversely affected the production, employment, and supply chain of crops. Furthermore, to avoid the adverse effects of climate change in the future,...
Jie Zhang1,2,*, Baradi Waryani3,4 and Qihai Zhou2,*
... distribution in Chinese waters including coastal waters, inland lakes, and outflowing rivers south of the Yangtze River and its delta. In order to maintain stable high production of salangids, fertilized eggs from native or introduced populations of icefish were frequently introduced to various types of water throughout China mainland except for Tibet Plantae. The genetic diversity a...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

...e field area of soil and water testing laboratory for research, Bahawalpur in growing seasons from July to October of 2017. Treatments were arranged in Two factorial Completely Randomized Design CRBD fashion with three replications and six treatments. Treatments are arranged as control T1 (Without fertilizer + No Poultry Manure + No compost), T2 (NPK full dose @ 150 kg ha-1N, 75 kg ha-1P and 60 kg ha-1K), T3 (full dose of poultry manure (PM) @ 30 ton ha-1), T4...

Yasir Ali1,2*, Bashir Ahmad1, Naqeebullah Jogezai3 and Adil Hussain

...hrotrophic bacteria from water and soil samples collected from different glaciers of Karakorum Range of mountains, Pakistan. Serial dilution and plating approaches were exploited for bacterial isolation and the isolates were qualitatively screened for proteolytic and lipolytic activity with skim milk and Tributyrin agar (TBA plate) assay method. From the collected samples, a total of 20 bacterial isolates (PAK-01 to PAK-20) were exhibiting psychrotrophic physi...
Gulzhan Аubakirova1,*, Zhanat Adilbekov2, Assylkhan Inirbayev2 and Tanatar Dzhamanbayev1
... capacity of inland freshwater reservoirs is the transition from the simple exploitation of fish stock to the creation of the highly efficient regulated fishery in lakes and reservoirs. By their potential capacity, small and medium-sized lakes can produce significantly more fish with better quality if regulated and properly managed intensive-type lake farms are created.
...

Ayub Khan* and Ghaffar Ali 

...erable to rain and flood water. Programs at government and society level are required to control soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to seek the farm household willingness to pay (WTP) for forestation based soil conservation program on communal land in the Northern Area of Pakistan. Open-ended format of CVM is used for the elicitation of respondents’ WTP. For this purpose, a contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to elicit households WTP. ...
Muhammad Waheed Mushtaq1,*, Muhammad Waqar Younas2, Jamil Anwar2, Syed Mustansar Abbas3 and Shahid Bashir3
...etic enzyme contaminated water samples, called radial freezing. After complete freezing, the samples were collected from various sections of the frozen mass and concentration of enzymes was determined. It was found that more than ~85% mass of enzymes, migrated along with freezing front and concentrated in the centre in case of radial freezing. To examine the effect of unidirectional freezing over extracted enzymes, the working activity of separated enzymes was...
Naimat Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan2, Muhammad Mobashar3, Shahbaz Javaid4*, Tarique Tonio1 and Asif Mahmood5
...influence dry matter and water intakes as well as weight gain significantly (P>0.05) among different treatments. Body conditions score was recorded significantly higher (P<0.05) in fat supplemented groups B (3.65) and C (3.78) as compared to group A (3.09). A significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in motility percentage, progressive motility percentage and semen concentration (million/ml) of group B and C. Treatment groups showed no significant ef...
Emre Barlas1 and Elif Yamaç2,*
... settlement, paved road, water source, agricultural area; height, width and orientation of cave entrance and activity of cave values were determined. Seven out of 10 recorded bat species were evaluated as new records for the area. There was a significant preference for caves which were situated at lower altitude, far from paved road and close to water source. Bats were mostly found in longer caves. Caves with entrance orient...

Rashid Iqbal1,2, Mathias Neumann Andersen1*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza2, Muhammad Adil Rashid1 and Salman Ahmad2 

...ght or unavailability of water may seriously limit plant growth as well as yield. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of various irrigation strategies i.e. Full (FI), deficit (DI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD) on physiological, water relations, water use efficiency (WUE), and yield related attributes of wheat. These irrigation treatments were started at anthesis s...

Muhammad Noman, Yong Tong Mu*, Muhammad Mohsin, Aamir Mahmood Memon and Muhammad Talib Kalhoro

...atus in Pakistani marine waters from Balochistan coastline.Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz. Fox (F-M), Schaefer (S-M) and Pella-Tomlinson (PT-M) along with three error assumptions (EAs), log (L-EA), log normal (LN-EA) and gamma (G-EA), were used in CEDA while two SPMs, Fox (F-M) and logistic (L-M) were used in ASPIC. In CEDA, for initial proportion (IP) 0.9, F-M for L-EA and LN-EA estimated maximum sustainable yield (MSY) as 2593 t and 2282 t...

Rizwan Ahmad and Muhammad Zulfiqar* 

...ic challenges, construct water harvesting structures for high efficiency irrigation and further research to estimate range of temperature and precipitation within which crops under study perform better. 

...
Joyce Osarogie Odigie*
...c activities alters freshwater bodies and thus depreciating water quality. Water quality (WQI) and Pollution tolerance indexes (PTI) are effective biomonitoring tools being applied in river management by freshwater ecologists. Obueniyomo River is the main water supply channel for the inhabitants of Agemokpa village in ...

Muhammad Waqas, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah and Ghaffar Ali 

... order to store rainfall water for irrigation of unirrigated land for higher wheat production.

...
Muhammad Saleem Hanif1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1,*, Arshad Javid3, Noor Khan2, Irfan4, Hamid Majeed5, Muhammad Altaf3
...tap as well as tube well water as drinking source. On the other hand, to run the fishing business, majority of them were relying on loans from non-government sources.It is concluded that fishing is a profitable business but with educating the fishermen especially in fish handling could improve their status of living as well as in generating brilliant mind towards global economy. 
...
Maliha Ayub1, Muhammad Javed1, Fariha Latif 1*, Faiza Ambreen2, Komal Sabir1
...the glass aquaria of 70L water capacity. After 30-day exposure, antioxidant (peroxidase) activity was measured in the fish liver, kidney, gills and brain and then compared with control group. The results showed that the antioxidant activity increased significantly in all organs of metal stressed fish as compared to the control fish. Among all test concentrations, the activity of antioxidant enzyme (peroxidase) was significantly higher in the fish liver under 9...

Mustasim Famous*, Obaidul Islam, Shameema Khatun, Mohammed Mustafizur Rahman and Tania Ferdoushi 

...oor space, feeder space, waterer space uses in turkey marketing age, weight, price of turkey. Among 6 farms only 66% of farms maintain a common vaccination schedule, other farms use only new-castle disease vaccine. Most of the turkey farmers rear turkey in small scale semi-intensive system (50%) was generally practiced by the rural farmers. They have very little idea about breed and variety of turkey and prevention of diseases of turkey. But farmers have very ...

Muhammad Sharif1*, Sadullah1, Ghulam Rasool2, Muhammad Nasir Khan1, Zubair Rehman1, Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Khalid Hussain4 

...infiltration rates, soil water contents (SWC), soil reaction (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), soil bulk density, total soil porosity, soil temperature, crop biomass and crop yield. The results revealed that TOC under ZT (0.57%) was increased significantly. EC of ZT (0.314 ds m-1) was decreased numerically, but pH was not affected by tillage treatments. No significant difference regarding SWC, soil temperature, infiltration rate was observed under different ...

Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad2 

...se of plants to soil and water salinity depends upon climate, soil characteristics, topography and management strategies. Water, even may be saline, is becoming more precious natural resource. Hence, there should be more crops and jobs per drop while conserving the quality of present terrestrial and groundwater. Saline water has been used for production ...
Muhammad Khalid Rafique1, Rashid Mahmood1,*, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1,Imran Bodlah2 andFarid AsifShaheen2
...of one drop of distilled water (C) Royal jelly plus distilled water (D) on queen bee rearing were investigated under field conditions. A considerable variation in queen rearing success was observed as calculated by percentage of secluded queen cells vs. grafted larvae over the study interlude. The highest larval acceptance 80.85 ± 0.64 and 81.25 ± 2.05 was observed by addition of royal jelly in March and April ...
Min Li1,2, Jingjing Wang3, Suxian Hu3, Philip Stott4, Baoqing Lin5, Lianshan Li5, Hui Liu1, Heng Bao1, Duoying Cui6 and Guangshun Jiang1,* 
... by the presence of open water, farmland, and alkaline marsh, and negatively by human settlement; and in addition, these relationships were only apparent when scale was considered. We detected the dependence of the avian assemblage on alkaline marshes and open water, which in turn might depend on incoming flows of water. We also found negative relationship between human settlements and bir...
Aqsa Pervaiz1*, Rukhshanda Afridi1, Zahra Pervaiz1, Rabia Masood1 and Hira Pervaiz2
... L and 0.073 mg/L in tap water respectively. The fish exhibited tail and fin disruption, bulging of eyes, scales erosion, mucous secretion, hemorrhage, color change, slow down swimming, lake of balance, restlessness, swimming side-wise, retardation of opercular movement and quick sudden movements. The fish was anesthetized and liver were removed after 48 and 96 hours for histopathologicalstudies. The histopathological changes observed in liver were degeneratio...
Himanshu Mishra, Vikas Kumar and Ashish Kumar*
...mergent vegetation, open water and agricultural fields, the most utilized were lowland vegetation and the emergent vegetation in the early and middle wintering stage. While in late winter, the emergent vegetation was the most utilized habitat. The findings of the present study provide the baseline information about the population of migratory birds and the rate of habitat utilization at the Bakhira bird sanctuary. 
...
Muhammad Izhar Shafi* and Muhammad Sharif
...lone. Data regarding the water soluble phosphorus showed significant increased with increasing levels of HA and incubation days with maximum mean available water soluble P of 1.219 mg kg-1 in soils treated with DAP and 10 kg HA, while the lowest of 0.565 mg kg-1 was noted in soils that were applied with recommended level of NP alone. It was concluded that the application of recommended dose of DAP with ...
Abdul Majeed1*, Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq2, Abid Niaz3, Abid Mahmood4, Naeem Ahmad1 and Hafiz Muhammad Walyat Ali Khan1
...uations and poor quality water under present climatic conditions has drastic effect on plant physiology and growth. The current research experiment was performed to screen salt tolerant wheat varieties grown in hydroponic and soil medium on the basis of plant photosynthetic rate, potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) contents. Twenty wheat genotypes/varieties were grown in hydroponic culture, having different residual sodium carbonate (RSC), el...
Muhammad Nisar* and Muhammad Idress
... to lesser awareness and water scarcity. Small farmers’ involvement in home gardening was significantly associated to nursery preparation, water management and manure composting training needs. Trainings for small farmers and women were recommended to create awareness for home gardening and water management at the garden.
...
Wiqar Ahmad1*, Farmanullah Khan2, Muhammad Sharif2 and Muhammad Jamal Khan2
... (ω) and available water (θ), respectively over the fertilizer control, whilst amongst cropping patterns, lentil after maize effect was significantly (p<0.01) superior over the wheat after maize and wheat+lentil intercrop after maize for improving soil properties. Significant correlation existed between bulk density and yield (r2=0.96 and 0.91) and soil OM and yield (r2=0.84 and 0.75) for wheat and lentils, respectively, as...

Ahmed Zia1*, Iqtidar Hussain2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Muzaffar Shah3 and Abdul Rauf Bhatti1 

... and possesses unlimited water resources. Due to prolonged uncertain ground conditions, this area remains unexplored for insect fauna. Present study was carried out in to record richness, abundance and species complex of Odonata. It revealed four families, fifteen genera and twenty-six species. Among recorded fauna, family Libellulidae appeared to be a dominant group representing 19 species, followed by family Coenagrionidae with 5 species and family Caloptery...

Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Muhammad Afzal1, Azhar Abbas Khan2, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1, Muhammad Saqib1, Asad Abdullah1, Saba Kousar1 and Maryam Riaz1 

...rld. Knowledge about how water stress modifies the ability of plants to resist against insect feeding is an interesting and important component in an integrated pest management program. In the present study, water stress was applied to field grown cotton with two Bacillus thuringiensis transgenes (CIM-602 and CIM-599) and one non-transgenic genotype (CIM-554) for the performance of H. armigera feeding The difference in leaf ...

Nosheen1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...xt-align: justify;">Freshwater ecosystems have been contaminated with a wide range of pollutants. Heavy metals are important contaminants of aquatic system and can cause oxidative stress in fish. Evaluation of antioxidant in fish can reveal metal toxicity in the water ecosystem. Therefore, this experiment was planned to assess the acute affect of lead (Pb+2) on peroxidase (POD) activity in tissues viz. liver, gills, kidney, ...

Muhammad Abdul Rahman1*, Abdul Saboor1, Gulnaz Hameed1, Ghulam Bilal2 and Farooq Tanwir3 

...e India-Pakistan ties on water, water scarcity, high water requirement for buffaloes and lack of innovation in processing of milk and milk products are other major threats to production from farm animals. The findings of this study can serve as basis of providing key elements for policy devising in order to have research based policy making and implementation with separate set of policy ac...

Muhammad Azam Niazi1* and Umar Farooq2 

...g tubewells where ground water table allows sustainable use, should be encouraged to ensure timely water availability. 

...

Muhammad Abdul Qayyum1*, Farhat Bashir2, Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool3, Anser Ali3, Saqib Bashir1 and Qaiser Abbas4 

...-align: justify;">Saline water irrigation is considered a severe threat for plants seed germination because it has highest concentration of soluble salts. This study aims to examine the effect of NaCl salt at 100 mM and 200 mM concentrations on linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) germination, plant growth, nutrients and soluble salts uptake. The results revealed that tested four linseed genotypes showed an overall germination rate of 86-94% at 100 mM NaCl (T2) an...

Fazle Akbar and Sahib Alam* 

...tigated the influence of water activity (aw) and storage time on total fungal and Fusarium counts and mycotoxins zearalenone (ZON), trichothecenes type-A (i.e. T-2 and HT-2) and trichothecenes type-B (i.e. DON, 3-ac DON, 15-ac DON) production in maize grains. Water activity of the grains was adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and the samples were stored at 25°C for 45 days. The control samples were kept without any aw mo...
Tanzeela Riaz, Fiza Sana-Ullah Khan, Farah Rauf Shakoori
...ed from fruits, soil and water samples obtained from different localities of Lahore city, Pakistan. Locally isolated microorganisms were screened for their mannanase producing characteristics on mineral salt agar medium pH 7. Six isolates were found to be mannanase producers by qualitative analysis. Three isolates (MBL-SP02, MBL-CW01 and MBL-GN02) produced maximum zone of hydrolysis with maximum activity ratio. These isolates (MBL-SP02, MBL-CW01 and MBL-GN02) ...
Mehwish Faheem1*, Maleeha Rafeeq1, Aisha Majeed1 and Saba Khaliq2
...ure in an organism. Freshwater is exposed to many anthropogenic compounds that adversely affect aquatic life especially, fish population. Effect of acute exposure of low concentrations of BPA (10, 100, 1000 µg/l) on liver cyp1a1 and heat shock proteins mRNA level was evaluated using real time qPCR. Results revealed that exposure to bisphenol A caused decrease expression of cyp1a1 in a concentration dependent manner. Exposure to graded conce...

Manzoor1*, Ahmad Khan1, Amir Sohail2, Shahzad Ali1, Fawad Ali Shah3, Junaid Iqbal3, Muhammad Owais Khan4 and Sultan Nawaz4 

...ave decreased irrigation water supplies in KPK and some other semi-arid areas of the Pakistan. When available water is not enough to meet crop water requirements during the entire growing cycle, it becomes critical to know the proper irrigation timing that would maximize yields and profits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,2,*, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Rizwan Shukat4, Shahid Ali Rajput5, 

Shadab Shaukat6, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem2,5,8, Mubashar Hassan2,5, Tabassam Fatima2,5
Fayyaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Usman Saleem7, Fatima Arooj1, Ashar Mehfooz2 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi2
... of fresh clean drinking water was made available round the clock. Exposed does were mated naturally and bucks were inducted to the exposed does for 30 minutes at morning and evening daily for teasing purpose to identify does in estrus, while separate them for breeding with enlisted buck. Mean values of Fertility rate and kidding rate in T1 and T2 were 75% vs 85% and 150% vs 176 % (p<0.01) showing significantly higher rate is in T...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2*,Mujahid Manzoor1, Zubair Aslamand  Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1, 2
...rol samples treated with water or dsGFP. These results support the RNAi application as a suitable tool for the management of insecticide resistance and control of R. ferruginous.
...
Fariha Latif1*, Muhammad Javed2, Hammad Ahmad Khan2 and Khalil-Ur-Rehman3
... 96-h LC50 of water-borne Pb for three fortnights (42 days) in glass aquaria at pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and total hardness 250mgL-1. After each fortnight, fish were sampled from each treatment and different organs such as liver, kidney, gills muscles and brain were taken out for determination of bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in the fish. The results showed that water-borne Pb exposure caused...
Zekeriya Demir1 and Hatice Kaya2*
...ed ad-libitum and water was available all the times. The hen house was lit for 17 h. The layers fed with diets including BP showed linear increases in final body weight and body weight changes calculated from initial and final body weights at the end of the trial. The supplementation of bee pollen into layer diet linearly decreased feed intake and linearly increased feed conversion ratio. The inclusion bee pollen at different levels affected the egg wei...

Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry2, Muhammad Irfan3, Muhammad Khan1, Shaukat Ali4 and Saima Shahzad Mirza5 

...ict the metal profile of water bodies without sacrificing the animals. 

...

Rahat Naz*, Mussawar Shah, Asad Ullah, Intikhab Alam and Younas Khan 

... become scarce(P=0.000); water logging and salinity has affected the production of crops(P=0.000); and loss of agricultural productivity affecting the local economy with effects on human lives. The study concluded that, climate change has drastically affected the agricultural practices, resulting into low crop production, soil erosions and water logging salinity. Taking climate change adaptation measure’s to minimize t...

Hassnain1, Abdul Basit1*, Mehboob Alam1, Imran Ahmad1, Izhar Ullah1, Noor Alam2, Inayat Ullah3, Muhammad Areeb Khalid1, Muhammad Shair4 and Noor ul Ain1 

... resistance and improved water use efficiency. Therefore, a research study was planned to investigate the effect of chitosan on growth and yield of tomato (Cv. Rio Grande) plant under water stress condition at Ornamental Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan, during 2018, using Completely Randomize Design (CRD) with two factors and repeated three times in a control (Glass house...
Awais Bin Shahid1, Moolchand Malhi1,*, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Muhammad Giasuddin Shah2, Nazeer Hussain Kalhoro3, Asmatullah Kaka4, Rajoo Mal1, Muhammad Awais Soomro1Saba Parveen Samo1 and Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani5
...supplementation. Hay and water was provided ad libitum. The results revealed that the molar concentrations of propionate and the total short chain fatty acid (SCFA) increased (P < 0. 005) and the pH decreased (P < 0.05) in the ruminal fluid of SY goats compared to C. The morphometry showed that the length, width and the density of papillae in the atrium ruminis...
Hazrat Ali1,2,*, Ezzat Khan1,* and Muhammad Jamal Nasir3
... of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in water, sediments and different fish species of River Shah Alam, a tributary of River Kabul in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The different environmental samples were collected from the river, downstream the city of Peshawar, and analyzed for the selected heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Heavy metal accumulation was studied in muscles of six fish species collected from the river. Heavy metal accumulation was also stud...

Jawad Ali*, Ibad Ullah Jan and Hidayat Ullah 

...attributes of okra under water deficit conditions as well in control. The current investigation proved beneficial in improving the growth performance of okra, suggesting that foliar supplementation of Se may result in the development of drought mitigation in okra. 

...
Hafrijal Syandri1*, Ainul Mardiah2, Azrita3 and Netti Aryani4

 

...18. This species is freshwater fish native in Indonesia and has a high price in the markets. This study investigated the effect of stocking density on growth performance, body carcass composition and biometric indices of juvenile gurami sago in the synthetic sheet pond. Fish were stocked at densities of 10, 15 and 20 fish/m3 in synthetic sheet pond with three replicate. Fish were fed with commercial feed containing 29% crude protein and gross energ...

Ghulam Murtaza1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Fakhar Mujeeb2, Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1 and Ayesha Zafar1  

...use of saline irrigation water leads to the buildup of salts in root zone, resulting in decreased yield and deterioration in soil resource. Continues use of organic manures, help in the reduction of salt concentration in the root zone. Organic matter was used to mitigate the negative effects of saline water irrigation using sorghum as test crop during summer, 2018. In this experiment water...

Muhammad Sohail Memon1*, Khadim Ullah1, Altaf Ali Siyal1,2, Naimatullah Leghari1, Ahmed Ali Tagar1, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto1, Syed Tahir Ata-ul-karim3, Muhammad Tahir4 and Noreena Memon1 

...ve amounts of irrigation water. Knowing the importance of raised bed-furrow irrigation (RBFI) in water conservation and salt distribution in profile with three testing treatments viz. T1 with raised bed size = 0.6 m, T2 with raised bed size = 0.8 m and T3 with raised bed size = 1.0 m. The soil samples were collected from depth desired depth to analysis the Physical chemical properties before and after the trial. Irrigation <...
R. Yasmeen1*, S. Shaheen1, B.N. Khan2, S.S. Bokhari1, U. Rafi1 and A.W. Qurashi1
...eed) and non-biological (water, soil) samples were collected. Soil was collected from different depths (6, 12, 18 inches) to study deposition patterns of metals. Samples were chemically digested and finally analysed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometery (FAAS) for four heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. The results showed all the metals were in safe range in feed samples, a very negligible amount was present in water...
Abdul Samad1, Raheela Asmat2, Muhammad Naeem1, Hamida Ali3, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa1, Ferhat Abbas1, Jannat Raza1,3 and Muhammad Tauseef Asmat1*

 

...yzed and were found that water used to wash the meat and vegetables was contaminated with Listeria. This study concludes that better hygienic measures should be adopted to keep the food material germ free.
...
Haroon1,2, Yu-Feng Meng1, Zahid Khan1, Farzana Perveen2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Sayed Waqar Shah4, Xiao-Hong Su1 and Lianxi Xing1,*
...soak slopes or important waterways and protect their flora and fauna of the study area.
...

Ajmalud Din1*, Munir Ahmad2, Fahad Masoud Watto2, Sheraz Ahmed1, Imtiaz Ali1 and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

...adjustment, excised leaf water retention (ELWR), relative water content (RWC), cell membrane stability (CMS), chlorophyll content and canopy temperature. Mean squares for all traits revealed significant differences among genotypes under moisture stress and normal environmental conditions. High variations were recorded for cell membrane stability, relative water content and osmotic adjustme...

Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,2*, Muhammad Ajmal2, Taj Ali Khan2, Zia Ul Haq2, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2 and Abdul Malik2 

... to ensure uniformity of water application. 

...
Muhammad Asif Gondal, Qazal Waheed, Sana Tariq, Waseem Haider, Aisha Khan, Qudsia Rasib and Haroon Ahmed*
...iv>For a long time, freshwater snails have attracted the attention of biologists. The ecological attributes like diversity, species richness and equitability of freshwater gastropods are important due to various reasons like intermediate hosts for many trematodes and bio-indicator. Snails are cosmopolitan in distribution and diversity of habitat to perform ecological performance is abosolute. The fresh<...
Nahed H. Ghoneim, Maha A. Sabry, Zeinab S. Ahmed and Esraa A. Elshafiee*
...ken cloacal swabs and 15 water samples were gathered from different localities in Giza and Cairo Governorates. An additional 50 stool specimens were collected from individuals in contact with the examined chickens. Eleven Campylobacter isolates were recovered through bacteriological examination. Campylobacter spp. were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as C. jejuni (63.6 %) and C. coli (36.4 %) through the detection of t...
Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel
...d into three groups. Tap water was provided to the control group (Group I). Group II and Group III animals were orally received 5 and 10 ppm of HgCl2.The treatment started the first day of pregnancy and continued to the day 15 after birth thearafter the dams were sitched to tap water. The behavioral results showed a significant increase in nonsocial investigation while social investigation and defense activities w...

Muhammad Ilyas1, Sardar Ali Khan1, Shahid Iqbal Awan1, Shafiq-ur-Rehman1, Waqar Ahmed1, Muhammad Riaz Khan2, Raja Mohib Muazzam Naz2, Muhammad Mohib Ullah Khan3 and Sumaira Hafeez1* 

...wo separate trails under water deficit and normal irrigation conditions in the experimental field of Department of Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics. Selection of parents for further study was done with regards to grain yield and its component traits. Broad range of genetic diversity was shown by the inbred lines and displayed different levels of drought tolerance. Four inbred lines were selected i.e., VDR-51, DR3-126, DR-37 and 5CDR-53. Crosses were attem...
Tian-Yi Zhao1, Zi-Qing Liu2, Shu-Fei Ma3, Bo-Yang1, Fan-Fan Guo1 and Ming-Hua Duan1*

 

...ities of AD rats, Morris water maze model was applied in vivo, and the activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway and concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were measured. The results demonstrated that biatractylolide can reduce apoptosis in hippocampal cells, prevent and improve the cognitive decline induced by Aβ, prevent the morphological changes in hippocampal nerve cells and can reduce the activation of NF-κB signal pathway in v...

Masaud Khan1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Shahab Ahmad2, Asad Ali3, Numan Khan3 and Muhammad Adnan Fahad

...anding crops in terms of water and fertilizer inputs. To meet irrigation water demand, growers use surface and ground water resources. These resources are in decline. Realizing the importance of water and fertilizer, tomato yield under deficit irrigation regimes, and different Nitrogen (N) levels were studied during 2015 and 2016 at the research farm of ...

Muhammad Ilyas1*, Sardar Ali Khan1, Shahid Iqbal Awan1, Shafiq-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Riaz Khan2 and Sumaira Hafeez1 

...er normal irrigation and water stress conditions. Parental selection for further study was done with regards to grain yield and its related traits. Inbred lines explained a broad range of genetic variability and displayed different levels of drought tolerance. Four inbred lines were selected i.e. VDR-51, DR3-126, DR-37 and 5CDR-53. Crosses were done among the selected inbred lines. Six generations as P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 were prepared for both the cross...
Derya Kocamaz* and Elif Oruc
...purate in pesticide-free water for 7 days. Results showed that acetyhcholin-esterase, catalase and estradiol/testosterone levels decreased, while the amount of etoxyresorufin-O-deetylase (EROD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) and protein carbonil (PCO) increased in comparison to the control. After the recovery period, EROD, GST, malondialdehyde, estradiol/testosterone levels were found to be lower than the contro...
Veli Sel1, Isa Yilmaz2,* and Mete Yanar3
...n the farms of Anatolian water buffalos in Igdir. For this purpose, a total of 637 milk samples gathered from 91 animals raised in 54 farms were analyzed and statistically evaluated. The age and education level of the farmers and the effect of the milker on the SCC were found to be significant (P <0.001). SCC value (65.930 ± 2.484 cells/ml) was found to be the lowest when the milker is the person from the household. The udder cleaning before milking ...

Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu*, James Jingmang Kopmut, Chrysantus Achi Lagi and Kelly Nkem Okoh 

...were enriched in peptone water broth, incubated at 37oC for 24 hours, and sub-cultured onto Mannitol Salt Agar and thereafter standard bacterial procedure continued. A total of 83 (51.9%) S aureus isolates were identified, 54 (33.8%) MRSA, and 15 (9.4%) Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The study showed a statistical association between the prevalence of MRSA in livestock and students. This could lead to cross infection of MRSA from livesto...
Zhi Yi Jin and Shao Ming Qin*
... At micro-habitat scale, water flow speed (P=0.044), and distance to road (P=0.018) and village (P=0.001) were significantly greater than in control plots. Principal component analysis showed that safety factors (vegetation cover on both banks, distance to a mine factory and river width) were the three most important habitat factors, indicating that Scaly-sided Merganser had high requirements for shelter and safety. Twenty two species of f...
Muhammad Waseem, Tariq Mahmood*, Abid Hussain, Abdul Hamid, Faraz Akrim, Shaista Andleeb and Hira Fatima
... steep slopes having the water resource/s. Sightings of the bear were the highest in the month of July (32%), and the least from November 2016 to March 2017. A total of 74 livestock were killed (in previous five years span) by Asiatic black bear including goats (75%), sheep (14%), and cows (11%), amounting to economic loss of 15,240 US$. Moreover, 16,420 kg maize was damaged by Asiatic black bear having a worth of 3284 US$.
...
Yunfang Tian, Zeqin Fu, Jiantong Feng, Yahong Guo, Yingying Ye*, Jiji Li and Baoying Guo
...t-size: small;">The freshwater discharge from river and ocean current system influenced the population genetic structure of marine mollusk organisms via promoting or limiting planktonic larval dispersal. The clam, Meretrix meretrix, is an important aquaculture species in the coastal regions of China. However, the previous studies of genetic information about M. meretrix were vague. None integrated research to reveal the population genetic and str...
Asim Faraz*
...ousehold refusals. Twice watering was provided. Fortnightly weighing of calves was done by digital scale. Data collected on different parameters was subjected to statistical analysis with 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments under completely randomized design. After 120 days trial period the mean body weight and average daily gain (ADG) of male and female calves was significantly increased (P<0.05) in IMS as 80.8±2.7, 77.8±2.7 kg and...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 52, Iss. 3, Pages 825-1224

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