Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
...reatly improved the lens used for the anthropological gaze. Finally, I conclude by suggesting the collaboration between anthropology and theology in the restoration of a world capable of supporting life in more than a mere physical sense.

...

Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...sp;

...

Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
... is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world, and is maintained in avian reservoirs and amplified by pigs. The occasional spill-over of the virus into humans results in more than 60 000 clinical cases of Japanese encephalitis annually, with high case fatality rates. The main vectors preferably feed on livestock and breed in rice fields, and the majority of cases subsequently occur in rural areas. This review lists the risks of emer...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...ks of avian influenza viruses (AIV) of subtype H5N1 in poultry since 2008. Since then, these viruses continue to evolve. In 2006-2008, outbreaks were reported mostly during the winter season, but in 2009-2012 they occurred year round. H5N1 AIV succeeded in infecting not only domesticated birds but also many other avian species and mammals. Infections of humans were accompanied by mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein w...

Reviewed by David Svolba, Fitchburg State University, USA email: dsvolba@fitchburgstate.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...ie morally justified because religion is a source of claims of conscience, and liberty of conscience is supported on both broadly Kantian and utilitarian grounds. People will likely be happier in a society that allows them a “private space” in which “they can freely choose what to believe and how to live,” and affording each other this space is one important way in which we show respect for each other as persons (15-19). So the book&rsq...

Stephen Kershnar

... does not capture it because it is an overly intellectual account.

...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses. Multiple H9N2 AIV genotypes have been identified from various species, including birds and mammals. H9N2 AIVs could spread through water, air, and live bird markets. Since the first isolate from 1994 in China, H9N2 AIVs have been prevalent over 20 areas of China, especially in South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian provinces. Vaccination is the predominant strategy to prevent and control H9N2 AIVs. There are three in...

Nicola J. Stonehouse

...s. They can therefore be useful as molecular tools and also as novel therapeutic agents. This commentary describes RNA aptamers selected to bind to the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus. The aptamers are able to inhibit the function of the enzyme both in vitro and in the context of a sub-genomic replicon and highlight the future potential of this technology in many aspects of virus research as well as in diagnostics and therapeutics....

Justin P. McBrayer

...’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to those who believe in God verses those who do not. A renewed wager can avoid this difficulty by relying solely on well-documented differences between those who believe in God verses those who do not. Social scientists have put together an impressive set of data that shows that theists do better in terms of happiness, health, longevity, interpersonal relation...

Mark Zelcer

...nd religion. The book focuses on the metaphysical worldviews of philosophers, scientists, mathematicians, and religious thinkers. Though for reasons I elaborate on later, I would not recommend this to experts in those fields, but rather to non-professionals.

...

Justin P. McBrayer

...’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to those who believe in God verses those who do not. A renewed wager can avoid this difficulty by relying solely on well-documented differences between those who believe in God verses those who do not. Social scientists have put together an impressive set of data that shows that theists do better in terms of happiness, health, longevity, inter- personal relati...

Kathryne E. Taylor1 and Karen L. Mossman1,2*

...act that many frequently used experimental manipulations restrict this protein to the nucleus. This commentary discusses the significance of these findings to the ICP0 field.

...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...e and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regulators, and intestinal and environmental microbes. Due to the similarities between pigs and humans in terms of genetics, physiology, intestinal anatomy, and immune system, pig is particularly a suitable animal species for the modeling of human enteric pathogen infections, immune responses and for vaccine evaluations. These are the b...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

... diarrhea is a disease caused by viruses of the genus Pestivirus in cattle worldwide. Herein, we present the current status of the disease in Brazil showing its nation-wide distribution. In Brazil, BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and ‘HoBi’-like viruses are frequently reported whereas BVDV-2 has a higher frequency when compared with other continents. It is important to reinforce that currently ...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...ent subtype influenza viruses. CTT functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune responses. Here, we discuss those different effects of CTT truncation or elongation of NS1 protein in different genetic backgrounds of influenza experimentations. Conclusively, it can be stated that CTT confers a positive role during the infection of influenza A viruses. However, this regulation is contributed by multiple factor...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

...r and legumes could be a useful strategy for enhancing the overall farm profitability and productivity of cereal-based systems by providing increased yields from this additional ‘summer gap’ crop.

...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...oduct called Bio-Aab was used as a source of EM. Organic manure was first mixed with Bio-Aab, left for 7 to 15 days at room temperature (20oC) and then applied to appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, compost @ 0.7 t ha-1 and poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 were applied with half of the recommended dose of NPK @ (75:60:30 kg ha-1) with or without EM. In 2009-10, the application of EM with Press mud @ 20 t ha...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...rs’ education. The use of more labour and tractor plough hours would increase wheat production in the country.The analysis revealed that the technical efficiency increases with the increase in the level of education. Government of Pakistan should focus on formal as well as informal education in the country. Government should also need to provide better educational opportunities to the rural population and extension education to wheat producers.

...

Arshad Ali Khan1, Muhammad Sajid1, Abdur Rab1, Sahib Alam2, Abdul Bari3

...0 and 75-25 ratio may be used as an optimum fertilization dose for obtaining higher yield and improved fruit quality of tomato crop.

...

Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas Ullah Jan, Dawood Jan

...etween urban and rural households is provided using Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) data from Pakistan Social and Standards Living Measurement (PSLM) 2010-11. The elasticities of interest were obtained via log-log inverse (LLI) functional form of Engel equation. The quantity and expenditure elasticities remained less than unity with reasonable differ- ence in magnitude across urban and rural ho

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

...rdinary least square was used. Time series data for different explanatory variable (eco- nomic, location and climatic) from 1979-2009 relating to wheat were used for Faisalabad and Ba- hawalpur. The results of analysis showed that the effect of climatic variables was found significantly higher than that of non-climatic variables. The largest impact on wheat yield was of mean maximum average temperature at the time of maturit...

Mohammed Ali Hussain, Zakiya Ahmed Hassan

...at these traits could be used as an index in the selection of high grain yield plant-1.

...

Hussein Rashid

...the initial reporting focused on the fact that the gunmen were of North African de- scent and were Muslim. These facts meant that they were responding to the publication by CH of cartoons deemed insulting to the Prophet Muhammad. Such an understanding seems to flow logically from the re- sponse of certain Muslims to the publication of Salman Rushdie’s Satanic Verses in 1989, and of cartoons of Muhammad printed in Jyllands-Postens, a Danish newspaper, in ...

Massimo Pigliucci, K.D.

... lines, particularly because I’m coming to the issue from what I feel is an increasingly rare point of view: that of a moderate liberal atheist.

...

Ozgur Koca

...ecific circumstances the use of violence escalates among certain human collectivities. At this point in history particularly Muslims appear to be subject to this problem as evinced by the emergence of many militant and terrorist organizations like al-Qaeda, ISIL, Boko Haram and the escalation of sectarian violence between the Shi’a and the Sunnis in Iraq and Syria.

...

Varadaraja V. Raman

...overnments for various causes.There has also been terrorism by the majority on the minority in communities and nations: for example, Jews in Nazi Germany, Kurds in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and Blacks in South Africa. In recent years a new kind of terrorism has been emerging in which individuals or groups attack and murder innocent civilians in another country.

...

Frank Griffel

...on its office simply because he happened to be out at the time. For the magazine’s frequent readers the front page needed no further explanation. Foreign observers, however, did not understand so quickly and when a journalist of Slate.com asked him to explain, Luz said that the drawing is a callback to an earlier 2011 cover showing the Prophet Muhammad with the words: “100 lashes if you don’t die of laughter.” On the day that cover appe...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a highly contagious disease in both domestic and wild small ruminants, and in camels. Based on sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, the PPRV has been classified into four lineages. Serological investigations in Tanzania indicate that peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was introduced in 2004 in Ngorongoro district bordering Ken- ya before official confirmation of the disease in most districts of Northern Tanzania in 2008....

Paulo Eduardo Brandao

...t in human patients, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) for Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS) has witnessed an increasing interest from those concerned with a cure for rabies, inspired on the success obtained for other viral diseases. This review is intended to present the current situation of RNAi against rabies, as well as insights into the future on the field.

...

Masood ur Rahman1*, Zahid Mahmood2, Taj Ali2, Muhammad Aziz Irfan Mufti3, Jehangir Khan Seyal4, Munir Ahmad5

E-mail | masoodra@hotmail.com

 

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 31, Iss. 1
... failure. The machine is used for mechanical weed control and hoeing. It was observed that the worm gear used in its transmission often failed due to surface wear of gear teeth. Worm gears made from three different copper alloys were tested against soil resistance in sandy loam soil bin. The gears were formed of commercial gun metal (Cu 87.76%, Sn 7.74, Zn 1.52%), gun metal (Cu 88%, Sn 7.38%, Zn 1.78%), and gear bronze (Cu 8...

Chun-Yi Lin1, Meng-Ling Wu2, Tang-Long Shen1, Hsin-Hung Yeh3, Ting-Hsuan Hung1*

 

...ex real-time RT-PCR were used to detect the current status of the two viroids showing HSVd was more prevalent than CEVd and simultaneous infections were common in field. Uneven distributions of both viroids also occurred in different tissues of citrus. Two multiplex molecular detection methods provide the understanding of the genetic diversities among viroid isolates and quantify viroids in citrus host. Our field survey can help clarify citrus-viroid relations...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

Qingzhong Yu

 

...ent approaches have been used to investigate the most suitable insertion site for optimal expression of a foreign gene without compromising the replication of the Newcastle disease virus. Recently, inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene upstream from the GE sequences of the viral genes and subsequent quantitative measurements of the GFP fluorescence intensity, we have concluded that the P and M junction region is the optimal insertion site for a high...

Galina N. Leonova1*, Ilya G. Kondratov2, Sergei I. Belikov2

 

...justify; ">This study focused on finding, culturing, and identifying the biological and genetic characteristics of three Louping ill virus (LIV) strains in the south of the Russian Far East isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks and one strain was isolated from the blood of a person after a tick bite. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains are related to LI/A and LI/K strains isolated in England and Scotland.

 

...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...ammatory response, and causes more severe damages in lymphoid tissues when compared with virulent viruses of other genotypes. Therefore, severe pathology in immune organs, caused by genotype VIId of NDV, is associated with high levels of virus replication and an intense innate immune response.

...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...tion Function (CDPF) was used to analyse the data. The results of the study indicate that credit has positive effects on wheat productivity. Analysis shows that only 30% of credit users are utilizing loan for the purchase of seed and fertilizers while 70% are utilizing loan for other purposes as for marriages & ceremonial and for purchase of agriculture land & tractor etc. Similarly, 80 percent of credit

Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Aysha Sameen1, Mahr un Nisa2

 

...mended by dietitians because of its low calories compared to other traditional meat. The current study was carried out to investigate the dietary responses of flaxseed on the meat of rabbits. Rabbits were divided into three groups: T0 rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 7% flaxseed, and T2 were on 3.5% flaxseed in the feed of rabbits. Bearing in mind that this range of flaxseed will fulfil omega 3 Poly unsaturated fatty acid (...

Leonard Izzard1, 2, John Stambas1, 2*

...fy;">The application and use of miRNA-based technology in influenza research is rapidly expanding. miRNAs are currently being used to manipulate pathogenicity and immunity and as biomarkers for disease severity.

...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...the swine industry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are cruci...

Hai-Bo Wang, Qiu-Hua Mo, Ze Yang*

... of diarrhoea related viruses. This mini review overviewed the basic principle of RT-NASBA and discussed the significance of these new findings.

...

Huaichang Sun

...n: justify;">Many RNA viruses undergo rapid mutations which compromises the immune protection of conventional vaccines. RNA interference (RNAi) has becoming a feasible strategy against various virus infections. Recently, a significant advance in RNAi technology is the use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to fight virus infections. However, different strategies are needed to prevent virus variation or mutation escape. This r...

Josef D. Jarhult1, 2

...4 hours, and increases nausea and vomiting by 3-5%. Whether oseltamivir treatment has an effect on the frequency of influenza complications or not remains controversial. Oseltamivir is still standard as prophylaxis, treatment of severely ill patients and patients with risk factors for severe influenza disease as well as an important part of pandemic preparedness plans. Resistance development is a potential problem both in treated humans and in the environment....

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

... of extension to the end users. This study analysed farmers’ perception of the accountability of agricultural extension services rendered in Oyo State, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used in eliciting information from 195 farmers in rural communities across the four agro-ecological zones in the study area using a two-stage random sampling technique. Data used for the stud...

Asma Noshad1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Hamida Bibi2, Saifullah3, Salma Bibi4, Hamid Ullah Shah1

...lues were calculated and used as an indicative of insecticidal potential. The maximum mortality of aphids was achieved at 80 µg mL-1 and the LC50 for the fruit body extract after 24 HRS was calculated as 12.83μg mL-1, followed by the extract from the fermentation filtrate with LC50 value 25.03 μg mL-1. The mycelial extract with LC50 (29.96 μg mL-1) exhibited least insec...

Muhammad Shah Zaman1, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Aish Muhammad1, Khalid Farooq2, Iqbal Hussain1*

...d in this study would be used in Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation of AtNHX1 to improve their tolerance against salinity stress.

...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

...n Pakistan. Farmers make use of traditional wheat varieties, whose yields are quite below the modern wheat varieties. The result of the study reveals that the parameter estimate of wheat variety is negative and significant also. The parameter of seed rate variable is also negative and statistically significant. A technical inefficiency of 22% is present in the production of wheat crop in the selected district. Majority of the farmers typically utilize the last...

Faheem Khan*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...tage sampling method was used to draw sample of 336 sugarcane growers for the present study and an interview schedule was used to solicit responses that addressed the research objectives. The findings from the study showed that 80 percent of respondents were illiterate while the 20 percent of respondents who were literate had achieved various levels of education. In the years 2012 and 2013, the average yield of educated suga...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

...ultivariate analysis was used to assess the diversity in 176 wheat genotypes for morpho-physiological traits. Simple correlation coefficients indicated that grain weight had a significant positive relationship with residual transpiration, osmotic adjustment, cell membrane stability, flag leaf weight, specific flag leaf weight, while negatively correlated with specific flag leaf area. These results indicated the importance of physiological traits and their posi...

Jonathan Jong

...no legitimate scientific use.

...

Ethan G. Quillen

...such as the creation and use of umbrella terms such as ‘non-religion,’ or the precarious notion of a division between ‘positive’ and/or ‘negative ‘Atheism. This article will attempt to assuage this issue by mapping out the discursive shifts presented within the discourse on defining the term, as well as promote a more discursive approach, linking the study of Atheism with the study of religion, and thereby the issues addres...

John Stinespring, Ryan T. Cragun*

...arkov switching model is used which yields a tractable steady state solution and growth path for the share of the population that is nonreligious. The model setup and solution are shown to be both intuitive and determined by three parameter values. The authors illustrate its use by estimating these parameter values using biannual data from the 1973 to 2012 General Social Surveys (GSS). The parameter estimates from the first ...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

... options for sustainable use of water resources in semi-arid environment. A field study was conducted during Rabi 2010-11 and Kharif 2011 crop seasons to compare the CWP of main crops (wheat, sugarcane, maize and tomato) under public and civil canal irrigation systems in Peshawar Valley. For this purpose, 18 farms were selected under public canal system and 13 under civil canal systems. Results revealed that average CWP of wheat, maize,&nbs...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...able to eat directly because the fruit contain high level of bitter glucoside such as oleourepean. Aim of this research work was to reduce the bitterness level of olive fruit by different treatment such as water, salt and lye solution which were coded as RW1, RW2 and RW3 respectively. During treatment process the bitter glucoside level such as oleourepean leached out from the fruits to the solvents by osmosis process which alters the composition of olive&...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...er water extracts caused significant reduction of weeds and increased seedcotton yield as compared to weedy check. The combined application of sorghum @ 15 L ha-1+ Dual Gold @ 1.25 L ha-1 resulted in weeds mortality upto 66.6%, produced seedcotton yield of 3961.4 kg ha-1 and gave net benefit of Rs. 2,20,029. Sunflower applied @ 15 L ha-1 in integration with Dual Gold @ 1.25 L ha-1 showed weeds mortality of 65.5 %, resulted in seedcotto...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...cid and lactic acid were used. A total of 3024 meat samples were collected from cattle slaughtered at Peshawar, Pakistan. Samples were processed and analyzed for TVC of E. coli and S. typhymurium at 0, 48, 144 and 288hrs during 12 days of meat samples refrig- eration storage at 4±1 °C. The pH of meat samples were checked and recorded on similar intervals. During 12 days storage, significant reductions (i.e. P <0.05) were found in both E. coli O15...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

...ts and children. It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. JEV is endemic to many parts of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia, where periodic outbreaks take thousands of lives. With rapid globalisation and climatic shift, JEV has started to emerge in previously unaffected areas. Scientific evidences show that JEV would remain a global pathogen and might cause worldwide pandem...

Rick Repetti

...eory and practice may be used to ground a model of the possibility of free agency that stands up against four powerful arguments for free will skepticism in contemporary analytic philosophy: Peter van Inwagen’s consequence argument, which asserts that if choices are lawfully necessary consequences of prior events, then they are unfree; Derk Pereboom’s two arguments for hard incompatibilism: the manipulation argument, which asser...

Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde1*, Kayode Ayinde2, Tofunmi Emmanuel Ilori1, Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde1

E-mail | opeyemi@unilorin.edu.ng

...arious organizations and used for this study. These data were transformed from their nominal value to real value and analysed using descriptive statistics, unit root test, ordinary least square model, Cochrane-Orcutt, least absolute deviation estimators and simultaneous equation model. The study further established that the prices of staple foods were inter-related. Also, it was showed that agricultural credit guarantee scheme funds (A...

Reviewed by Dr William Patterson

...ilure. Coyne has much of use to say on the topic and many of his points are powerfully made. His case is weakened, however, by his incoherent treatment of epistemology. This problem is serious in that it lies at the heart of the matter and serves to undermine, at least to some extent, parts of Coyne’s main argument.

...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...E virus is one of the viruses that causes acute and self-limiting infection with a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised individuals usually leading to liver cirrhosis. Individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus have a greater risk to the virus due to their impaired immunity. The study was carried out to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Immunodefi...

Elly Vintiadis

...eligion is ill-posed because, properly understood, theism incorporates science since it too, just like science, requires people to seek the truth and to think critically. In order to go about showing why this
is so, Steane embarks on showing what theism is and how it offers an explanation of the world and life of which science is a part.

...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different conditions and in different ways....

Muhammad Arif Zafar1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1*, Aayesha Riaz1, Asim Shamim2, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 and Arfan Yousaf

E-mail | murtazhassan@yahoo.com

...omas. It is effective to use autogenous vaccine along with immune-modulators to revert the papillomas completely.

...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

Muhammad Zubair, Sajid Mahmood Sajid

...fertility medicine. It causes the pituitary gland to release hormones needed to stimulate ovulation. Clomifene is useful in those who are infertile due to anovu- lation or oligoovulation. Clomifene inhibits estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, inhibiting negative feedback of estrogen on gonadotropin release and leading to up-regulation of ovulation. It has useful effects on the reproduc...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

... most common bacterial cause of kennel cough or canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) in dogs. Other disease agents include various respiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective was to develop a s...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...on the mustard plant because of the regulation of the anti-oxidative enzyme system and MDA, but provoked oxidative stress when applied at high dosages. Therefore, pesticide application at high concentrations can be considered as a kind of stress, similarly to other stresses such as salt, drought and low or high temperatures.

...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

... 1000 and 1500 ppm) were used. The results revealed that potassium levels significantly influenced all the parameters except the stem diameter. Minimum days to flowering (118.1), maximum plant height (45.83 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (54.1), fresh flower weight (44.29 g) and dry flower weight (5.12 g) was obtained with the application of 200 mg K2O pot-1. In case of maleic hydrazide, the plants grown under control treatment took minimum days (112.9) to flow...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

... 1.42 and 2.16 Kg DM/day used as replacement for CSC containing 2.16, 1.42, 0.71 and 0.0 Kg DM CSC/day. Overall the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) were non-significant (P>0.05) whereas digestibility of NDF was significantly increased (P<0.05) in treatment MLM4. When compared among treatments, the value of crude protein (CP) digestibility coefficient was high (P<0.05) in treatment MLM4 as compared to MLM1...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1*, Arfan Yousaf1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1, Faisal Ayub Kiayani1, Matee ul Islam2 and Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 

...nastomosis technique was used. Herniorrhaphy was done with sliding mattress sutures. After first 10 days post-surgical decompression and administration of fluid, antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, good outcome in the calf was obtained. There was no postoperative complication suggesting that modified two-layer hand-sewn anastomosis technique was a successful technique. It was concluded that traumatic hernia may lead to septic shock and modifi...

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

...combinations, which were used to develop three generations F2, BC1 and BC2. Heterosis (in F1) and inbreeding depres- sion (in F2, BC1 and BC2) were quanti ed for traits including shelling percentage, kernels per row, kernel rows per ear, and 100-grain weight and grain yield. Non-additive gene action was evident for shelling percentage, kernels per row and 100-grain weight and grain yi...

Mohammad Taghi Karimi

...es of orthoses have been used to treat the kyphosis. The aim of this review is to determine the effciency of various orthoses to reduce kyphotic curve based on the available literature. A search was performed in some databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Embasco and ISI Web of Knowledge between 1960 and 2015 years. Keywords such as kyphosis, spinal deformities were used in combination with orthosis, brace and c...

Monireh Ahmadi Bani1*, Mostafa Kamali2, Iman Borji3, Soheyla Aslani3, Francis Fatoye4

...he Romberg test has been used for evaluating stability in patients with various neurological defects. This test evaluates patients in 1 minute standing, but studies have shown that any stability test performed for less than five minutes is not clinically valuable. This study has evaluated stability with open and close eyes in normal subjects during five minutes standing in twenty healthy subjects. The subjects were asked to stand on a force plate for one and t...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

...s of treatment have been used for patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis (OA). Among them total knee artroplasty is being practised frequently. This method is suitable especially for elderly subjects with limited degree of physical activity. However, most of young subjects are not recommended to be treated with this method owing to high level of physical activities. KineSpring knee implant system was designed for young subjects with kn...

Fatemeh Kheiri

...d and walk. They have to use various prosthesis components to enhance their abilities to stand and walk. Nabtesco-knee joint is one of knee joint components designed for an active above-knee amputees. ere was no study on kinematic, kinetic and stability of amputees with this knee joint. This study was aimed to evaluate the per- formance of amputees walking with this knee joint. Two above-knee amputees using Nabtesco knee joint were recruited. eir kinematic a...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...rthosis which is easy to use, economical and effective. A new knee orthosis was designed to improve the performance of OA patients during standing and walking. Two subjects with knee osteoarthritis recruited in this research study. The gait performance of the subjects and their stability to stand was evaluated by the use of motion analysis system and a force plate (Kistler). The mediolateral excursion of the knee joint ...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

... not known. Here we have used in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), a selective tool for studying virus-host protein-protein interactions. BDV P (phosphoprotein) and N (nucleoprotein) have previously been reported to interact with several host proteins, thereby interfering with various signaling pathways. In this study, we focused on some of these interactions (BDV P-HMGB1, BDV N/P-Cdc2). First, we

Muhammad Amjad Nadim1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Kashif Waseem2

...l growth parameters. The use of NPK and organic fertilizers had, however, non-significant interaction with micronutrients during both the experimental years. It was concluded that application of NPK (recommended dose) along with boron was the best combination for obtaining higher yields of wheat.

...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...esults and thus could be used for enhancing overall farm productivity and net economic returns of the farming community.

...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...ere obtained through the use interview schedule. Eighty copies of structured interview were purposively employed to obtain individual response of the farmers whose plots fall within the demarcated forty-sampled quadrats from both irrigated and non-irrigated farms. Information on socio-economic activities of the rice farmers, level of rice yield, agricultural practices for rice production and farm management techniques employed in the study area were observed. ...

Moorthy S. Muthuswamy

...eligious leaders who espouse violence or undercut the value of modern education, and the ideology of radicals. Not least of all, this approach, as history suggests, has a good chance of reinvigorating modernity in affected Muslim communities.

...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

... replication without the use of secondary labeling. This mini-review discusses the applications of reporter CSFV in the study of CSFV biology, including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.

...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...avirin antiviral drug is used to cure this disease. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for this disease. It is recommended that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites and contact with blood of the suspected animal. 

...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...tion in mink typically cause hypergammaglobulinemia, plasmacytosis and immune complex disease. Due to lack of success in eradicating Aleutian disease (AD) by stamping out, a new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried blood samples collected from mink, a VP2 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) system was recently evaluated. Howe...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...ent identification of viruses is paramount to not only define the cause of uncharacterized infections but also to estimate the dynamics of viral population in the infected hosts. Several recent methodologies and chemistries have been proposed for viral diagnostics with variable outcomes and successes. In this review, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive ...

Shahida Bibi* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...de treatments (herbicide used and herbicide not used) were assigned to main plots, while intercropping treatments (sole maize, sole mungbean, 5 rows of mungbean + 6 rows of maize, 10 row of mungbean + 6 rows of maize) were allotted to subplots. Results of the study revealed that weed density m-2, fresh weed biomass in maize and mungbean crops were significantly affected by both the main-plot and sub-plot treatment...

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

...eat crop contamination caused by heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Ni). Soil samples were collected from both orchard and non-orchard fields and were extracted with Aqua-regia and Mehlich-3 extracting solutions for total and available metals respectively. Wheat crops from both fields (orchard and non-orchard) were collected and analyzed with aqua-regia for heavy metals contents. Results showed that the average concentrations of metals in soils of orchard and non-orchar...

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

...it plots arrangement was used for the experiment. The experiment was replicated four times. The Silvery softwood cuttings were planted in two different growing conditions i.e. under plastic tunnels and open field growing conditions, on five different planting dates with the regular interval of 15 days such as January 15th, January 31st, February 15th, March 2nd and March 17th. The growing conditions were s...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...ts ruminants virus causes an economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. Further the recent description of the disease in naïve populations of animals have demonstrated an expansion of the distribution of the disease. Having been in the shadow of rinderpest virus for decades little is understood regarding factors that influence the outcom...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...nants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important plague of sheep and goats that serves as a major constraint in the development of the small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately affected with its attending impact on poverty in what are alre...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increased abortion, cost of high feeding and rearing inputs in young and adult sheep/goats etc. The results revealed that at the annual 10% incidence level, the estimated total loss due to PPR in sheep and goats was INR 5041.5 million (77% ...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...ase of goats and sheep caused by a morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae is a major threat to small ruminant farming. Global announcement of PPR eradication by 2030 has opened lot of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous syst...

Keyvan Sharifmoradi1*, Nader Farahpour2

...istler force plates were used to measure forces applied on the legs. Data were evaluated using independent t-test with significant point set at p< 0.05. There was no difference in cadence between left and right of normal subjects and those with PD. However, there was a significant decrease in walking speed and stride length in both sides of PD patients compared to normal subjects. Patients with PD showed a significant decrease in progression force an...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...emic in Bangladesh and causes considerable economic losses due to its high morbidity and mortality. The study was undertaken to detect and characterize the PPR virus (PPRV) circulating in Bangladesh. Twelve local isolates of Bangladeshi PPRV were successfully detected from post mortem samples (lymph node, spleen and trachea) of goats and a sheep during the year 2008-2012. The partial N gene of ten isolates and partial F gene of eight isolates were amplified by...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...ts (PPR), possibly caused by the introduction of new animals in the herd, was investigated in an unvaccinated mixed herd of sheep and goats. Goats in the herd showed characteristic signs of PPR including nasal and ocular discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed within two weeks. Interestingly, the disease was exclusively observed i...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

...operties, which could be used in the enhancement of the nutritional quality of the value added products; processed by the addition of them.

...

Murad Ali Khan and Mohammad Akmal 

... recommended row spacing used for sunflower crop in the region. Experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design, replicated four times. Results showed no significant changes in yield traits i.e. plant density (m-2), number of grains per head and 1000 grains weight (g). However, biomass yield (kg ha-1), grain yield (kg ha-1) and oil content (g kg-1) were found significantly (p<0.05) higher for planting geometry 90 x 15.5 cm as compared to 70 x...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

... subplot treatments were used. Compost materials i.e. farmyard manure (FYM), cereal residue (CR) and legume residue (LR) were composted as sole or in various combinations six weeks before sowing and then were incorporated to plots at sowing both the years. All treatments including control were either supplemented with half of the recommended dose (75 kg N ha-1) of Urea-N or no Urea-N. Compost, its composition, mineral N and their interactions significantly aff...

 Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas-ullah Jan, Dawood Jan, Ghaffar Ali and Yousaf Hayat

...stify;"> This study used log-log-inverse specification of Engel curve for cereals’ quantity and quality response to households’ income in Pakistan. The elasticities of interest (quantity, expenditure and quality) were inelastic with reasonable difference in magnitude across urban and rural households. Overall, the quality elasticity turned out to be positive with an estima...

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...lected from 87 farming households in Mardan Tehsil of Mardan District. Questionnaire was the main tool used to collect the data from farmers. The credit access ratio formula was employed that measured farmers’ access, in relative terms, to their landholdings. Likewise, credit adequacy formula was used to investigate farmers’ credit adequacy. A probit model was employed to find ...

 Zafar Khan, Asad Sultan, Rajwali Khan, Sarzamin Khan, Imranullah and Kamran Farid

 
...oxic heavy metals will cause a harmful effect on human health. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn) present in poultry egg and meat were determined in the following three districts; Peshawar, Dir Lower and Malakand of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In all the three districts the egg albumen was found to contain significantly higher levels of Pb, Cd and Cr as compared to egg yolk which contains signific...

 Arif Khan, Abdur Rahman, Shoail Akhtar, Siraj Uddin, Zahid Ullah and Nazir Ahmad

 
...ree factorial design was used to analyze the beef quality characteristic data in Genstat software. Breed and animal age had significant and their interaction has significant (P < 0.05) effects on marbling. Animal age group and their (breed x age) interaction had significant effect on the Water holding capacity (WHC). Breed effect on WHC was found not significant at P 0.05. WHC increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increase in age of the buffaloes howev...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...ion of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calculate haplotype, haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity for the two species. Based on combined loci of cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and cytochrome b (CytB), twelve haplotypes were generated for G. p. palpalis and five for G. m. submorsitans. Similarly, for the combined loci, haplotype diversity (Hd) was higher for G. p. palpa...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

...d oxidation is a major cause of deterioration in the quality of food and food products. Oxidation can occur in both triglycerides and phospholipids of food because lipids are divided into two main classes; polar lipids (phospholipids) and neutral lipids (triglycerides). Lipid oxidation has been long been recognized as a major problem in the storage of fatty acids in foods. Oxidation occurs by several molecular mechanisms suc...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

...-1, and R-2210 should be used for optimum grain yield and economic benefits.

...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...es, whole live cells are used as targets, so the aptamers being generated could bind target molecules on live cells in their native conformation and it is possible to know the molecular profile of the cellular surface. Whole CELL SELEX is very useful in the field of diagnostics and targeted therapy and the aptamers generated can be utilized to differentiate cancerous cells from normal cells or even different types of cancero...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

...ptamers. In general, the use of aptamers in Western blot formats is advantageous for validation of aptamer binding and specificity based on molecular weight matching of detected electrophoretic bands across a spectrum of related and unrelated bacteria.

...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...ter extract and powder caused substantial (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in germination and seedling growth of C. arvensis and C. rotundus as compared to control. Integrated application of eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 30 ml kg-1 of soil and eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil showed highest inhibitory effect. In both aforesaid treatments, lowest and statistically similar values of germinati...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...e Varroa mite and can be used without any side effect during all the three seasons.

...

Muhammad Ibrahim, Jawaria Ali Khan, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Avais, Ali Husnain, Naimatullah Khan, Muhammad Kamran Ameen and Abdullah Iqbal

...these ingredients can be used for enhancement of milk quality as well as their effects on the haematological values. Total 30 cows were selected for this study kept in different dairy farms in the premises of Lahore. Out of these 30 cows, 24 had subclinical mastitis and 6 were healthy. Cows suffering from subclinical mastitis were divided into 5 groups. Each group consists of 6 cows. Cows kept in group one was treated with Vitamin E+ Se for five days. Cows pla...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

...ditive models (GAM) were used to analyze the relationships between the catch of Portunus trituberculatus in the northern East China Sea, and 6 main impact factors, which include the number of main catch vessel (NMV), power of main catch vessel (PMV), number of trawl vessel (NTV), power of trawl vessel (PTV), release number of larval crab (RELE), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the interpretation ratio (IR) of the 6 factors reached 83...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...c biopolymer that can be used for sustainable waste water treatment as a coagulant-flocculent due to its ability to coagulate various ionic substances such as metal ions as well as dyes. In the current study novel polymer composites were prepared using natural polymers chitosan and starch in molds. Structure of composites was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The physical parameters such as weight and swelling degree of composite were studied. Chito...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...r gum can effectively be used up to 0.45% to improve the functionality and acceptability of low fat Cheddar cheese.

...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...s carried out in a net house at the University of Peshawar, Pakistan. The main purpose of this research was to find out the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation (with and without Mycorrhiza) along with application of various levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) of rock phosphate (RP) fertilizer on spores density and percent root colonization of selected sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in P-deficient soil. It was observed that spore den...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...e  study  that used to  cultivate Non-BT cotton and BT cotton  varieties. In Pakistan, the NonBT cotton varieties have been promptly substituted with the BT-cotton varieties. This substitution of imported BT-cotton seed is taking into account without considering the local environmental conditions of Pakistan. Thus the main objective of the research was on the comparative efficiency and the productivity analysis of BT- Cotton varieties with ...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...kistan are traditionally used by mobile pastoralists for livestock grazing during summer. Since the late 1980’s, these pastures have been used for off season vegetables cultivation which leads to change the traditional mobile pastoral system. This study was carried out in Naran valley in 2015, to understand the agriculture land use changes during the past three decades and its impact...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...8%) infection. In greenhouse experiment, similar trend was found. L. muscarium proved to be more effective against M. hapla whereas S. rugosoannulata and C. rosea showed better results among other tested fungi in experiments. Moreover, plant growth parameters were also improved due to antagonistic relationship of fungi and nematodes in soil.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...nificantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nematode population compared to that of untreated control. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in numbers of eggs per cyst warrants that nematicides were able to penetrate into cysts. Reproduction rate (Pf/Pi) of L. muscarium treated plants was docu...

Felwa A. Thagfan1, Mohamed A. Dkhil1,2* and Saleh Al-Quraishy1

...> is one of the commonly used plants in Islamic countries.The root extracts of S. persica has been tested for its anticoccidial activity against Eimeria paillata induced infection in mice jejunum. Three different doses, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg were used after infection of mice with sporulated oocysts. A dose of 300 mg/kg reduced the number of oocyst output in mice faeces by about 56.8 % and also improved the bod...

Muhammad Aslam

... inputs availability and use, improved irrigation, improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality seed production, improving irrigation water management and improving rec...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...eterinarian services and used more nutritious fodder (silage), as compared to non-members. The findings of study also provided the evidence that establishment of milk marketing cooperatives foster more economic opportunities to female dairy smallholders and assist them in rural development. Based on study findings certain policy options has also been suggested to extend the farmer cooperative activities over different aspects of agriculture sector.

...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...ese lipids content can cause the atherosclerosis by blocking the arteries canal which increase the risk factors associated with heart attack. Atherosclerosis is also associated with development of diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney failure. Hypercholesterolemia is mainly caused by high fat diet, obesity and diabetes.Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect of water based infusion of Withania somnifera was investigated in ...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

.... A sample of 201 farm households (Owners, Owner-cum-tenants and tenants) was selected using random sampling technique and data were collected through a pre-tested interview schedule. This study is focused on two selected districts of Peshawar and Charsadda. Four villages were studied two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that owners (59.31 percent off-farm employment) were performing more off-farm jobs than t...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

...d food groups from the Household Integrated Economic Survey for the years1985-86, 1993-94, 2001-02 and 2007-08. Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) is employed to estimate the budget shares and test for these shifts. The results confirm for the significance of the quadratic variables in the model except for the Oils’ group. The presence of these shifts have been proved in Pakistan and hence there are other factors as well like urbanization that...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...erential statistics were used for data analysis. Early age of addiction onset, low literacy rate, peer pressure, occupation type, and stress are among risk factors increasing susceptibility towards heroin addiction in our studied cohort. Drug abuse initiated at an early age seems to trigger transition to heroin addiction under the influence of environmental risk factors.

 

 

...ll liver bait traps were used for catching flies. Chicken liver was used in the study to attract blowflies. Eggs and larvae of the flies that oviposited on the liver were raised and identified. Six different indices were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity [S], Margalef Species Richness Indices, Pielou’s Evenness [EH], and...

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

...at CHAID analysis may be used to better prove relationship mechanism between egg quality characteristics which are of great importance for higher price and more income of fertile and table eggs.

...

Sadiq Hussain, Muhammad Sharif, Sarmad Khan, Fazli Wahid, Hina Nihar, Wiqar Ahmad, Imran Khan, Nadeem Haider and Tabassum Yaseen

...g ha-1. Vermicompost was used as a source of P on the basis of its P concentration. The recommended dose of N @ 120 kg ha-1 was applied in the form of vermicompost and urea, while K was applied in the form of sulphate of potash. Spores of mycorrhiza were isolated from fresh growing crop of berseem at the University research farm and used as inoculums in this experiment. Results showed the maximum grain yield of 15.09 and 14....

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...of the urban and rural household in order to understand the demand for different food commodities and to determine the effects of important economic factors such as prices and income. Flexible Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2011-12. Food products are categor...

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

...ross sectional data of House Hold Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) collected by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics to obtain the income and expenditure level of sampled House Hold. The HIES data set of year 2011-12 for KP Province was comprised of the total of 1352 sampled House Hold. However, the sampled rural House Hold was 926. The statistical framework c...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...control agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has also been reported from different localities of Pakistan. The main objective of this study was to screen out locally used pesticides i.e., pyriproxyfen, acetamiprid, chlorfenapyr, diafenthiuron an...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...">Antibiotics are widely used as bacteriostatic or bactericidal agents either to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Their abuse results in various side effects on the human health, environment and agriculture. The occurrence of bacterial “suprainfection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...ion is one of the main causes of decline in fertilizing potential. Present study aimed at evaluating the role of melatonin in extender for its cryoprotective effect on post-thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls using artificial vagina at weekly intervals for a period of three weeks (three replicates). Qualifying semen ejaculates were diluted (50×106 motile sperma...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...us juveniles to commonly used herbicides, glyphosate and paraquat was evaluated through changes in fish behaviour and mortality. Juveniles of the African catfish were exposed to varying acute concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat. The fishes responded, exhibiting different behavioural abnormalities like hyperactivity, abnormal swimming, restlessness, loss of equilibrum and haemorrhage. Observation of opercular ventilation count (OVC), tail fin movemant rat...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...in laboratory and greenhouse trials. The fungi chosen were Arthrobotrys oligospora, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, and Lecanicillium muscarium. In the laboratory experiment, S. rugosoannulata proved to be the most efficient biocontrol agent by parasitizing the maximum number of eggs, whereas D. oviparasitica appeared to be the least efficient after 72 hours. The greatest numbers of cysts and eggs were found to be ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...re conducted in a greenhouse to determine the population dynamics of the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and the nematophagous fungus, Lecanicillium muscarium, on tomato. The nematode population densities were measured by determining the number of galls and egg masses, juveniles and eggs per root system, and reproduction factor. Four initial populations (Pi) (500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 eggs) mixed with antagonistic fungal conidia levels (1×103,...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...application under greenhouse conditions. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in the number of galls and egg masses, eggs and juveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infestation significantly (P=0.05) in soil compared to the control, but there was no significant difference (P=0.05) among them. P...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...r (GNRHR) are possible causes of HH. This study aimed at identification of mutations in GPR54 and GNRHR genes and their correlation with HH in Pakistani boys. Thirty one boys with delayed puberty and thirty one normal age matched controls were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR using specific primers for GPR54 and GNRHR splice site exons. Mutations were analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or sequencing. No mut...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...odes (EPN) depend on the use of host insects for in vivo production. As there is little information regarding relationship between nematode dosage and production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies investigations were done on these aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria mellonella was observed with White traps than with modified Baermann trays. M...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...ers to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propagation. Influential habitats would serve as key targets for interventions. To achieve this aim, we have designed a pseudo-longitudinal survey to be undertaken for two years in Kibera slums in Nairobi city Kenya. H...

Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

...toxic concentration were used against Vero cells for anti-HSV-1 and ant-HSV-2 effects by plaque assay. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that the extract has high polyphenolic content while has relative low flavonoids contents. In the antiradical scavenging property test the extract showed at 64.1 μg/ml 50% DPPH radical scavenging activity and in the MTT assay the extract has relatively low cytotoxicity where the IC50 value of extract against...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...square error (RMSE) were used as goodness-of-fit criteria, among others. A 10-fold-cross validation was applied to train and test CART, CHAID and ANN and to estimate MR coefficients. The most significant BW predictors were sex, rump height, shank circumference and head girth. The r value ranged from 0.82 (MLP1) to 0.86 (RBF and MR). The lowest RMSE (3.94 kg) was found for RBF and the highest one (4.49 kg) for MLP1. In general, the applied algorithms quite accu...

Shakeel Ahmed* and Sarwat Jahan

... adult male monkeys were used in this study. 50 nmol of NMS was injected intravenously. Blood samples were collected individually 60 min before and 120 min after NMS administration at 15 min intervals. The plasma adipokines concentrations were determined by using specific Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) kits. 48 h fasting significantly increased plasma adiponectin (P<0.001), while decreased leptin (P<0.001) and resistin (P<0.01) concentrations compared to no...

Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

...ll cells of mussels were used to determine the DNA damage by comet assay. The tail DNA (%), comet tail length and olive tail moment (OTM) were the parameters selected to detect DNA damage. Low doses (120 µg L-1) of each metal induced significantly higher levels of DNA strands breaks as compared to medium dose (240 µg L-1) and very low levels of DNA damaged was observed at high dose (360 µg L-1). Cu and Pb showed significantly higher value of ...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...tant economical losses caused by this virus in Africa and Asia, the development of more effective, targeted and successful treatments for the disease are necessary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV induces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies ...

Giselle R.R. Ayres* and Brandão P.E

...ovirales order. Coronaviruses have a single-stranded positive RNA genome, corresponding to the largest known RNA genome, with about 27kb for AvCoV. The first 5’ two thirds of this genome, correspondent to a wide ORF1 (also called replicase gene), code for non-structural proteins (nsps) that are enrolled in viral transcription, replication and pathogenesis. The last 3’ one-third of the genome codes the four structural and accessory proteins. Nsps ac...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

..., and fish species being used for producing fish meal. The overall production of single processing unit ranged from 40 to 500 metric tonns per month. Kampa Industry (Unit 1) was found to be the first largest contributor producing 100 metric tons in 24 h. The second largest producers of fish meal in this region were Abdul Baqi, Ghulam Hussain and Kampa Industry (Unit 2) which produced 300 to 500 metric tons per month. Proximate composition of fish meal samples ...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

...s in its development and use of these metaphors. In this paper we discuss the journey, battle, and container metaphors in relation to LDS doctrine and scripture and some crucial implications that grow from these metaphors. The discussion considers the relationship of these metaphors to such matters as an open canon of scripture, the relationship of grace and works, the doctrine of the eternal progression of human beings, and the vital nature of covenants. As p...

Imed Ben Salem*, Aymen Ben Ibrahim, M’barek Chetoui and Said Nouira

Abdul Sattar Baloch1*, Abdul Rasheed1,2, Rahmatullah Rind1, Jam Kashif Sahito1, Rehana Buriro1, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1 and Parkash Dewani1

...ive-ELISA (c-ELISA) were used as screening tests, and overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be as 21%, 21% and 13% by RBPT, SAT and c-ELISA tests, respectively. Seroprevalence was higher in females (26%) than in males (16%) by RBPT and SAT tests, and also in camels less than 9 years of age (13.33%). Milk samples were collected to detect the antibodies against the disease, however, none of the sample was found to be positive for brucellosis. It was...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...gainst H9N2 influenza viruses and its molecular detections in asymptomatic commercial layers from Faisalabad district of Punjab, Pakistan. Overall 120 blood samples, 24 tissue samples from each organ (trachea, lung and intestine) were collected from the 12 commercial layer flocks selected randomly at the age of 35-50 weeks without any direct clinical manifestation of avian influenza. Serum collected from 120 birds was tested for antibodies against H9N2 by usin...

Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed

...riminate and injudicious use of conventional insecticides resulting in problem of insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, fruit contamination and health hazards. The major goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a bio-insecticide, emamectin benzoate with other conventionally used insecticides against B. zonata. The results revealed the high toxicity of emamectin benzoate with LC50 value of 38....

Atta ur Rehman1, Sher Ali2 and Sajid Malik2*

...emographic transitions caused by recurrent displacements, fragmentation and migrations. In order to observe the genetic differentiation in lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) region, ABO and Rh blood groups record of nine Pashtun populations, i.e., Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Hangu, Karak, Kohat, Kurram Agency, Lakki Marwat, South Waziristan Agency, and Tank, was collected. Absolute gene diversity, gene differentiation and genetic diversity were estimated to be 0.01, ...

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...nd human beings. It is caused by Brucella abortus in animals and Brucella melitensis in human. The current study aimed to find out the prevalence of Brucella and active brucellosis in the human population of district Swat. Total 300 individuals (both female and male of all ages, meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria) with informed consent were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and brucellosis was detected by Standard Plate Agglutination Te...

John G. Bruno

...etic beads (SAv-MBs) and used to capture their cognate and related E. coli serovars. Capture was assessed by fluorescence microplate assessment following acridine orange staining. While there was significant cross-reactivity between the various captured serotypes, each of the anti-LPS aptamer candidates showed a preference for its cognate E. coli serotype. Results suggest that these aptamers may be useful for enriching speci...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

... the productivity, it accused to be negatively affecting the avian immune response facilitating the secondary infection. Many reports take into account the genotypic and pathogenic characterization of H9N2 in avian species. However little is known about the impact of different strains on the innate immune response. In the present study, using quantitative real-time PCR, cytokines gene expression were examined in response to infection with two strains of Egypti...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...ion precise fertilizer B use.

...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...ne of the most common viruses in humans. It is the best known cause of infectious mononucleosis. In acquired immuno-deficient Syndrome patients, several distinct and additional EBV-associated diseases may occur and some forms of malignancies. This study was designed to determine the incidence of EBV in Human immune-deficient virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and seventy eight HIV-i...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...toxin-B1 toxicity by the use of 0.5% calcium bentonite clay and to evaluate its effect on the growth performance of Nile tilapia over a period of 10 weeks. Inclusion of AFB1 at both 2 and 4 ppm levels significantly (p<0.05) decreased specific growth rate (SGR), net weight gain (NWG), average daily gain (ADG), survival, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the addition of the 4TX in the diets. Among differ...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

..., effective and commonly used pesticide in agriculture for pest control in Nigeria. This study investigated the effects of aluminium phosphide on the behaviour, haematology, oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemistry of African catfish (C. gariepinus) juvenile on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were exposed to 0.175, 0.0875 and 0.035 mg/L corresponding to 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50 of the 96 h LC50 value (1.75) of the pesticide. Behavioral responses which include colou...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...hly contagious disease causes severe economic loss due to reduced productivity of the affected animals as well as increased mortality in calves and kids. In this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

...ecorded as negative. Because of numerous supranuclear vacuoles of the epithelial cells, only a few goblet cells could be differentiated in posterior parts of alimentary channel, with their weakly reaction to AB (pH 2.5), PAS and PAS/AB (pH 2.5). Moreover, these cells were not stained with AF and KOH/PAS. According to their affinities, goblet cells oriented in anterior and the mid intestine were mainly classified as acidic (AB-positive) and neutral (PAS-positiv...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

...ecorded as negative. Because of numerous supranuclear vacuoles of the epithelial cells, only a few goblet cells could be differentiated in posterior parts of alimentary channel, with their weakly reaction to AB (pH 2.5), PAS and PAS/AB (pH 2.5). Moreover, these cells were not stained with AF and KOH/PAS. According to their affinities, goblet cells oriented in anterior and the mid intestine were mainly classified as acidic (AB-positive) and neutral (PAS-positiv...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

...um species, which can be used for the production of medicinally important different secondary metabolites and organic acids. 

...

Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Waseem Ahmad Khan2, Waseem Ahmad Khan3 and Najam-ul-Huda Khan4

...of Little Indian field mouse, Mus booduga, at five lakes in the Salt Range, Punjab, Paklistan. The trapping data of 375 trap nights indicated highest abundance of Mus booduga (no = 132), out of 141 small mammals trapped. Majority of the Mus booduga specimens were adults (56.06%) while the juvenile/sub-adults were 43.94% of the total specimens trapped. The highest trap success of Mus booduga of 74% was achieved at Namal Lake, followed by Khabeki (38.67%), Uchal...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...oplankton species may be used as indicators of relevant variables. Results in this research are very useful in guaranteeing ecological security in Lake Nansihu.

...

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

...herosclerosis. Thus, a mouse model of vascular injury is vitally important for researching the pathophysiological mechanisms to restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) as well as translational approaches. In this Experiment, we established a unique murine model of femoral artery injury through a home-made wire. The mouse model of vascular injury may be used t...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...e number of transgenic mouse models carrying astrocyte-specific transgene expression of transgene have made significant contributions to understanding astrocytic structure and function in vitro and in vivo, evidence suggests that mouse models are limited and sometimes do not fully replicate the complete spectrum of neurological phenotypes seen in human diseases. On the contrary, pigs, especially mini-pigs, show exciting pote...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

...tion (IP) value of 1 because the starting catch was approximately 100% of the maximum catch. The estimated values of MSY using CEDA with the Fox model under three error assumptions of normal, log-normal and gamma were 25 860.07 t (R2 = 0.864), 26 812.65 t (R2 = 0.836) and 26 665 t (R2 = 0.85), respectively. The MSY values with Schaefer and Pella Tomlinson models under two error assumptions normal and log-normal were 29 160.13 t (R2 =0.84) and 30 455.5 t (R2 =0...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

... fishing, which almost caused extinction of the species in the the Yangtze River. Therefore, it is very urgent to carry out genetic breeding to improve yield. In this study, we developed SSR markers by transcriptome, which could be used to genetic research. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of six libraries from hepatopancreas samples in E. sinensis. After removing low-quality reads, short reads and reads ...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

.... Interview-schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The findings revealed that the fish farmers were economically active with a mean age of 42.5 years, majority (73.1%) were males, married (74.4%) and had one level of formal education or the other (82.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between the respondents’ training needs on value addition initiatives and their age, educational level, years of experience...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

...Colored Mohair kids were used. The kids were weighed at 2-week intervals from birth to 150 days. The Monomolecular, Gompertz, Richards and Three Parameter Logistic models were used. The best model was determined by considering the root mean square error, R2 % and asymptotic correlation coefficient criteria. We concluded that the Gompertz and Richards models were favourable for singletons and that the Richards model was favor...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...hritis (RA). The exact cause of RA is still unknown. Reduced activity of antioxidants enzymes because of polymorphisms in antioxidant genes and variations in levels of metals and minerals creates oxidative stress may play some role in progression and pathogenesis of RA. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene polymorphism [rs2070424 (–251A/G)] in RA and to compare t...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...wide. With the increased use of antibiotics in food industry, the problem of bacterial resistance is emerging, hence leading to serious health issues. Among 24 strains isolated from Shaukat Banaspati Ghee industry (Grw) and Shezan foods (pvt) Ltd, Lahore, Pakistan food industry, 10 highly antibiotic resistant strains were subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to identify three highly resist...

Bin Wang, Bo Zhang, Nan Yang, Liang Dou and Jianghong Ran*

...n food resources might cause variation in demography and the frequency of cooperative breeding among populations.

...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

...progeny inhibition was caused by the extract of A. indica. While more than 50% population of C. chinensis was inhibited with deltamethrin. More pronounced results were obtained at high concentrations. Plants were effective in order of Azadirachta indica > Melia azadirach > Pegnum hermala > Salsola baryosma> zingiber officinale; whereas effectiveness of pyrethroids was in order of deltamethrin > cypermethrin > bifenthrin. The findings of this ...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of small ruminants that causes extensive livestock losses across areas where it is endemic. A serological survey on the prevalence of antibodies to PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...t’s virus (PPRV) causes a highly contagious disease in both domestic, wild ruminants and camels. Sera from non-vaccinated sheep (n=683), goats (n=624) and camels (n=155) of all ages and sexes were collected in a cross-sectional study in Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah. Saudi Arabia. The seroprevalece was determined by NP-epitopes based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...tage sampling method was used to select a sample of 274 livestock farm households from 6 union councils, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the female respondents through face to face interview. Cobb-Douglas production function and cost benefit analysis were used to arrive at the main conclusion. Results show that feed cost...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...e estimation of resource use efficiency of crops. Present study explored the resource use efficiency and return to scale in off-season cucumber production in Punjab, Pakistan. Primary data were collected from 70 off-season cucumber growers by using simple random sampling. Cobb-Douglas was good on the basis of R2 (0.748) and f-statistics (17.505). Production elasticity was positive for education, polythene sheet, fertilizers,...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...ce to superior cultivars used in the study, thus can be utilized in breeding for drought stress by wheat breeders.

...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

..., irrigation, pesticides used and labour days would rise sugarcane yield by 0.053, 0.103, 0.068, 0.020, 0.024, 0.111, 0.118, 0.005 and 0.121% respectively. All inputs except DAP, farmyard manure and pesticides were found significant at 5% significance level. In inefficiency model grower age, experience and contact with extension workers has significant contribution in decreasing farm inefficiency. However, grower’s family size, his off-farm income and di...

Mariano Gastón Asla

...mmanuel Kant or Michael Ruse, to name just a few examples, have used this kind of fictions to analyze and defend very different arguments. Currently, this interest has not diminished. On the contrary, it has spread to other disciplines, including the natural sciences. In fact, this interest does not entail just an expansive theoretical movement, but also the development of a practical dimension, i.e. the active pursuit of li...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...of Palai dam on the land use and cropping pattern, crop production and revenue of mouza Qilla, Tehsil Tangi, district Charsadda in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Secondary data was collected from revenue office Tangi, and was geospatially analyzed in ARC GIS 10.1. Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based set of procedures used to store and analyze geographically-referenced data. Primary data about crop...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...idization is limited because of its flowering and viable fuzz production. New avenues suitable for flowering were explored using 20 genotypes for initiation of breeding program in the country. A site near Bagh district (Arja) Azad Kashmir was found suitable and used for morphological evaluation, phenotypic diversity analysis and their flowering behavior sugarcane under local conditions. Two year data revealed that genotype H...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...st frontier analysis was used to estimate the allocative efficiency of cotton-melon cropping systems efficiency. The result illustrates that none of the farmers to be optimally using their inputs. The average allocative efficiency was around 75%. Approximately 36 percent of farms allocative efficiency varies from 0.20 to 0.60. Around 60% of farms allocative efficiency ranges from 0.61 to above 0.90. The under and over-utilization of inputs such as land, seeds,...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...atistically higher water use efficiency (WUE) of 4.56 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.02 kg ha-1 mm-1 for both wheat and maize, respectively. However, similar WUE of wheat and maize was recorded for F2 and F3. Soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium after wheat-maize cropping rotations significantly responded to tillage, residues and organic and inorganic fertilizers. These results suggest that deep tillage has the potential to increase c...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...ple food in low income households. Due to small scale farming in the province the maize growers are always in need of loan for the purchase of inputs. The present study examined the effect of ZTBL credit program on maize productivity in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For this, a sample of 226 farmers was selected by employing multi stage sampling technique. At first stage, all the three tehsils (i.e.; Mardan, Takht Bhai and Katlang) of the di...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...es is suggested to get a useful lead structure for development of novel antibiotics to combat resistant pathogens.

...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...obacco plants and can be used as target gene for engineering thermotolerance in crops.  

...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...cs and gross margin were used. The average total cost of small poultry farm was Rs. 3,10,067 per flock while that of medium and large farms were Rs. 4,99,002 and Rs.7,34,290 respectively. The highest cost was estimated for feed followed by chicks cost. The average gross margin of small farms was Rs. 38,556 while that of medium and large farm were Rs. 62,844 and Rs. 89,261 respectively. The highest net benefits were reported from the large scale poultry farms i...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...ts of these components cause ultrastructural changes in A549 cells.
...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...cal techniques provide a useful alternative approach. Concerning with genotypic identification, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied for identification of Candida species, Cryptococcus albidus, Saccharomyces, Trichosporn, Torulopsis and Rhodotorula. Using universal primers ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 amplified ITS region. And it yielded a unique PCR size of approximately 376-930 bp. PCR amplicons were digested with enzym...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...is study will help us to use those insecticide formulations, which not only kill the aphid pests but are also eco-friendly to natural enemies and our environment.
...
Önder Duysak*andKübra Azdural
...Bay, Turkey.Our study focused on seasonal variation of some heavy metals and aluminium in Patella caerulea L., 1758 tissues collected from eight different sampling stations of Iskenderun Bay. The concentration of heavy metal in P. caerulea tissues tended to vary significantly between season and stations.The distribution of heavy metals in P. caerulea followed in their muscular tissues in order; Çevlik > Kaleköy> Payas >...
Ahmad Kamran Khan1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1,*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Nazir Javed2
...y of Mesostigmata can be used to access the soil health within a geographical region. Family richness, diversity, abundance and evenness of soil inhabiting Mesostigmata mites in cultivated and undisturbed soil were estimated from five different localities of Punjab, Pakistan in 2014. Family richness, abundance and Shannon diversity indexes were higher in undisturbed soil as compared to the cultivated soil in all the localities, while low variability in evennes...
Irshad Ahmad
...nd includes the cautious use of chemical insecticides, mechanical means, cultural and biological control methods for the substantial control of walnut borer. The present study offers valuable information through IPM, which appears to be a promising approach for the control of walnut borer. Collectively this strategy has resulted in significant reduction of the pest population in the target area of district Dir, Pakistan.
...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Ghulam Sarwar1, Waqar Ahmad1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1, Ammara Balouch1 and Muhammad Khalid Rafique1
...e honeybee colonies were used which had similar number of worker bees, brood and stored food. In order to study the foraging activity of honeybees in the field condition, the number of pollen foragers returning to the hive entrance was recorded for 10 min duration on hourly basis between 0800 h to 1600 h for 3 days per week. The data was collected at 0800–1000 hours (early morning foraging activity), 1000-1200 hours (late morning foraging activity), 1200...
Kiran Afshan1*, Sarwat Jahan1 and Mazhar Qayyum2
...of animal fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica in Pakistan, we first time evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of commercially available bovine F. hepatica enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgG against fascioliasis in sera of small ruminants. The result of current study indicated diagnostic accuracy of test 95.6%, while sensitivity and specificity of this assay for small ruminants was 97...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3
...y;">The present study focused on a rapid identification of dengue virus from larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) by using PCR. During this study, larvae of A. aegypti and A. albopictus were collected from different localities of Lahore during May to September of 2012 to 2014. RNA extracted from each mosquito larvae pool was tested by nested PCR for detection of dengue virus. O...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...type of Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1), have been reported previously both in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HN) genes of NDV strain isolated from an outbreak in a peacock flock was undertaken. Proteolytic cleavage site of F0 showed a cleavage ...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...us, a dsRNA virus that causes an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in young chickens. The first line of defence against the virus is innate immunity whose activation is independent of the antigen and depends on the ability of the host to recognize pathogens by means of specific pattern recognition receptors. This interaction induces the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons. Through Janus kinase/signal transducers and transcr...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...ential. The disease is caused by ASF virus (ASFV), the only DNA virus with an arthropod vector of the genus Ornithodoros, involved in its transmission. Tick involvement has been reported in Europe, East and Southern Africa to be part of ASFV transmission cycles. Ticks in an ASFV infected area have been reported to influence the emergence of genetic variation and long-term persistence of the virus in an area. Since the first report of ASF in Nigeria, periodic o...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
... a control (water)] were used with different solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was observed that honey fed wasp pair produces significantly more number of eggs, adults and also lived significantly longer than other treatments. Highest fecundity and longevity of parasitoid was recorded in case of parasitoids feeding on 50% honey solution followed by 25% sugar and date syrups solutions respectively. It has provided use<...
Sidra Ilyas1, Abdul Rehman1* and Qasim Ilyas2
...i-resistant yeast can be used efficiently for the removal of toxic metals from the wastewater.
...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...nested multiplex PCR was used to amplify the cDNA of the four dengue serotypes. Six out of 35 (17.14%) adult mosquito pools were found positive for dengue virus with type-2 (77.77 %) and type-3 (11.11 %) while a single (11.11%) pool of concurrent infection with type 2 & 3 was also detected. The adult Ae. aegypti belonging to Shuba Bazaar showed 33% positivity for DENV with minimum infection rate (MIR) 11.1 while that of Wazir Bagh showed 16.67% posi...
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
...tivum L.) crop and causes significant production losses to the wheat crop in Pakistan. So far eight genes from the conventional wheat cultivars that are resistant to the attack of R. padi have been incorporated in the commercial wheat cultivars to help manage R. padi. During this study seven wheat genotypes were evaluated as antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance. These tested genotypes were (Pir Sabaq-2004, Atta-Habib, Saleem-2000, Serin-2010...
Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...one of the most common causes of cancer death. We tested whether licofelone, an inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, changes the survival rate and induces apoptosis in a hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). We determined in vitro survival rate with MTT assay, the morphological changes with an inverted microscope, apoptosis using flow cytometry and statistical significance with one way analysis of variance fol...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...azardous to health and causes environmental pollution by contaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mosseae (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) were applied as protective treatment....
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
... confidence interval was used to analyze the collected data. Antibiotic sensitivity was checked with twenty four antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Over all mastitis was found 52.5% (63/120) with leading subclinical (41.67%, 50/120) form of mastitis on overall milk collected data. Pathogen type was crowned by Staph. aureus with 74.5% (47/63) prevalence, following which were Streptococcus species (17.45%, 11/63), E. coli (3.17%, 2/63), a...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

..., District Khanewal were used for the present study. Persistency of lactation was determined using five indices viz. Wood, Johnson and Hansen, Mahadevan, Ludwick amd Petersen and Gajbhiye and Tripathi. Statistical model included fixed effects of period and season of calving and parity and random factors of animal. Indices values for Wood, Johnson and Hansen, Mahadevan, Ludwick and Petersen and Gajbhiye and Tripathi were 138.66, 75.68, 243.65, 85.84 and ...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
...ch most probably was because of bee visitors denied to forage on flowers of the crop. Results revealed that sunflower in blooming stage attracted large number of bee visitors particularly Apis mellifera and A. florea. Visitation/foraging of honeybee contributed significantly towards increase in the yield and quality of sunflower seed.
...
Nagwan F. Zahran, Ali F. Hamza and Rehab M. Sayed* 
... Exposure to radiation caused very frequently the appearance of some extra bands and the deficiency of others in the RAPD-PCR amplification patterns of the irradiated insects. 
...
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...tive tools that could be used as complementary in diagnosis of amphistome infections in ruminants. 
...
Andrea Rezic1, Ivica Boskovic2, Piera Lubinu3, Marina Piria1, Tihomir Florijancic2, Massimo Scandura3 and Nikica Sprem1*
...s analyses are now often used to examine morphological variation in carnivore skull. Differences in golden jackal skull shape and size due to sexual dimorphism were examined using two dimensional geometric morphometrics approach. A total of 21 landmarks described the dorsal side of the skull and lateral side of the mandible. Individual variation in skull and mandible morphology was statistically significant for the shape (p<0.01). Sexual dimorphism as main ...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...e threatened by plant viruses worldwide as they hack the host machinery for their reproduction. Plants have undergone continuous evolution and have equipped themselves with counter defense and tolerant strategies against viral infections. In the 21st century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in plants against viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in triggering...
...ue of 2017, Hosts and Viruses is the revised name of the British Journal of Virology. The journal was initiated in 2013 and started publishing in 2014 with six issues per year.
 
Hosts and Viruses is an initiative of virologists around the globe who gathered after publishing a series of books on the mononegaviruse<...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...e main goal should be focused on sex ratio, mortality and sex ratio at birth.
...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...he detection of plant viruses from plant species containing various forms of PCR amplification inhibitors. In current study, IC-PCR was used for the detection of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from plant extracts of Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with ToLCNDV. To immunocapture the ToLCNDV, two antisera raised against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-coat protein (TYLCV-CP) and African cassava ...

 Nosheen Noor Elahi* and Misbah Mughal

...mis in sugar cane can be used as a characteristic of variety differentiation.

...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...n lymphoid leukosis is caused by various avian retroviruses which induce a variety of benign and malignant neoplasm in domestic chickens with subsequent economic losses to poultry industry. Effected birds show lymphocyte tumor, abnormal proliferation and series of tumors in connective tissues and other visceral organs. To evaluate the status of lymphoid leukosis virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection in free-range chickens in fiv...
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...xoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii parasite, is one of the most worldwide parasitic infections of warm-blooded animals including man. In most adults it does not cause serious illness, but it can cause serious health problems in infants, pregnant women and immune compromised patients. Abortion is one of the most serious outcomes in pregnant women. In this cross-sectio...

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

...ft flank region. Twin fetuses (one male and female) were surgically removed with care to avoid proliferation of uterine contents into the peritoneal cavity. Penicillin powder was dusted into the surroundings area of the uterus. The cow was treated with antibiotics, analgesics and liver tonics during the first week post-surgery. Local antiseptic dressing was performed using povidone-iodine daily for one week and skin sutures were removed at 14 day post-operatio...

Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul M. Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa, Khurram Ziaf, Irfan Afzal and Muhammad Qasim

...hy;) can be commercially used by the growers for early, uniform and healthy nursery stand of the tested species, which can ensure uniform maturity and flower harvesting of ornamentals.

...

 Abdul Wajid Khalil and Zafar Iqbal

...akistani medicinal herb, used in the treatment of various ailments, including asthma, cough and jaundice. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the proximate, mineral, amino acid compositions of the aerial parts and roots of B. procumbens. The result of carbohydrate (75.56±0.046%) of aerial parts was found higher as compared to the roots (31.22±0.05%) while protein (37.46±0.02%) and organic matter (21.25±0.03%) was recor...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...not uncommon to “reuse” rinse water for processing several batches of poultry carcass.Several samples were collected from three poultry slaughterhouses within Jos metropolis at intervals for a period of 6 months to check for presence of Salmonella during various stages of processing. Salmonella was isolated from at least one of the four matrices in the three LBM with an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Of the 84 samp...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
...ococcus aureius were used against each other to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. All of bacteria were cultured in LB media and further the culture of each bacterium was divided into three parts, the first part was centrifuged in order to collect supernatant. While the second and third parts were also centrifuged but however supernatants were discarded to get their pellets, which were dissolved in normal saline. Of this one part was taken for thaw a...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...f Ileum (P<0.05). The use of antibiotic caused a reduction in all three forms of microbial population. On the other hand, herbs added as feed additive acted as prebiotic and enhanced the lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, supplementation of herbs as feed additive improved growth parameters and present results suggests herbs could be used as alternative to antibiotics growth promoting ...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

... showed that the weeds caused quantitative and qualitative reduction in alfalfa. Alfalfa in the second cutting had better growth compared to the first cutting, so that the plant produced the highest fresh and dry yield in the second cutting. However, weed non-interference increased the levels of superior morphological traits of alfalfa, such as fresh and dry yield, plant height, and number of leaves per plant, number of main-stem nodes, leaf area and percentag...
Cansu Akbulut1,*, Tuğba Kotil2, Burcu Öztürk1 and Nazan Deniz Yön1
...O2) is widely used nanoparticle all over the world. In this study, we have investigated the histopathological effect on zebrafish ovaries after exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Adult zebrafish individuals were exposed to 1, 2 and 4 mg/L TiO2 for 5 days, and then their ovaries were evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopy. Numerous degenerated follicles with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitotic catastrophe in mito...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...larger host species were used to determine the survival potential of the wasp. It was observed that maximum number of adult wasps emerged from the hosts G. mellonlla (95 ±2.30 (se) and S. litura (81 ±1.15 (se)) by placing the lowest number of wasp eggs (4 eggs per larvae) on the hosts larvae and minimum number of adult wasps was recorded from the hosts G. mellonella 44 ±1.15 (se), and S. litura (39 ±0.57 ...
Shahzad Ali1,*, Heinrich Neubauer2, Falk Melzer2, Iahtasham Khan1, Shamim Akhter3,Tariq Jamil2 and Sajid Umar3
...identify the potential cause of infection in three different cattle farms located at Potohar Plateau in Punjab, Pakistan. A total of399 serum samples from indeginous and exotic cattle were tested for brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and multiplex real-time PCR for Brucella sp., Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis. A total of 20 (5.01%) samples were found seropositive by RBPT and 19 (4.76%) by SAT, however real-time PCR showed 13 (3.25%) sampl...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
...ic region based rPCR was used. This was followed by two species-specificrPCRs that detected IS711 genomic region of B. abortus and B. melitensis. Five (8.3%) serum samples from cattle and 1 from buffalo (1.6%) were found to be positive for B. abortus by RBPT. Four (6.6%) out of the 5 RBPT positive cattle samples were also found to be positive by i-ELISA, while one was negative in i-ELISA. The single RBPT positive buffalo was also po...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...or guinea worm disease causes severe morbidity and disability among effected populations. Pakistan was declared dracunculaisis-free in 1996. The present study is a follow-on to the declared eradication of dracunculiasis in Dera Ismail Khan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province, Pakistan through investigating disease recurrences and Cyclops species in drinking water sources. A cross-sectional household survey wa...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...BC-0236 and BC-0252 were used to determine the effects of seeds of different storage containers on growth, yield and quality of cotton genotypes. The experiment was conducted between July, 2010 to February, 2011 at Cotton Research, Training and Seed Multiplication Farm, Sreepur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Significant variations related to genotypes and seed sources were observed for stand establishment, branch development, phenology, yield components, yield and fibe...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...hines and equipments and use of hand tools and implements. Most of the respondents have high competency level having practical farming experience. Study suggests pre-service along with in-service trainings along with higher degree in agriculture i.e. PhD for improving their technical competencies in agricultural mechanization

...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...genic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) subtype H9N2 are highly prevalent in the Middle East and are causing economic losses in the commercial poultry production sectors. Due to potential of H9N2 infections in human, LPAI H9N2 poses serious public health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop H9 plasmid-based DN...

Waqar Islam

...eases and their damage caused to economically important crops are reportedly increasing every day particularly in the countries embedding tropical and subtropical conditions. Integrated management approaches involving utilization of virus resistant crops and efficient management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are rarely applied due to lack of farmer’s knowledge about plant virus dise...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...hout the world and are caused by either Mycoplasma gallisepticum or Mycoplasma synoviae. Hence, in the present study we have detected Mycoplasma spp. from tissue samples collected from clinically sick (60 samples) and apparently healthy broiler birds (30 samples) in a commercial farm, using classical isolation and compared with molecular identification of Mycoplasma infections. A total of 96 tissue samples from trachea, air sacs, lungs and oral swabs along wit...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...niform in all sites, because some sites were in hilly area. The computed data showed that the highest relative frequency of 28.71% was recorded for parthenium weed followed by C. sativa, C. dactylon and C. album having relative frequency of 13.33%, 12.71% and 10.16%, respectively. Comparatively, the other weeds were having a very low relative density and relative frequency at most of the locations studied. Importance value also shows that P. hysterophorus, C. ...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...differentiation of the house mouse Mus musculus provide insights into past dispersal events in natural populations of this species. We investigated the molecular phylogenetics of Chinese house mice based on 466 DNA sequences from mitochondrial D-loop fragments. Our analyses revealed that Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus are older colonized subspecies with broa...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...>2SO + 20% FBS was used as the standard cryopreservation solution. After 2 months, MTT assay showed significant differences in the proportion of adherent viable cells in the FH group and GSH group compared with the control group (p < 0.05), and the FH+H group had a more beneficial effect on post-thaw survival of cryopreserved ADSCs compared with the GSH+H and GSH+FH+H groups. The use of FH and H in long-term storage...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...-ground symptoms and profuse root galling. The pathogenic potential of M. incognita on passion fruit was determined; the minimum 10 second stage juvenile (J2)/200 cc soil can cause reduction of plant growth parameters and highest reproduction (R=87.27). 
...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
...rate the feasibility and usefulness of using the tree shrew as an AD model, we examined how well the model recapitulates features of the disease. Injecting animals intraperitoneally with d-galactose to induce acute senility, and then injecting them with β amyloid fragment 1-42 and ibotenic acid into the bilateral hippocampus led to significant learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze test. Pathology analysis of treated animals showed obvious ...
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...justify;">Canine parvoviruses (CPV) are posing significant threats to the dog population, around the globe. To ascertain the current situation and genetics of CPVs in Pakistan, a total of fifty samples from sick dogs suspected for parvovirus infection were collected from different geographic areas of the country. Samples were screened for positivity and verified for CPV using PCR. From a 30% positive samples for hemagglutination, nineteen (38.4%) samples were ...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

... concluded that accurate use of cheaper rock phosphate, farm yard manure and effective microbes proved as an alternative of costly fertilizers and sustaining the agricultural productivity. Residual effect of rock phosphate with additional use of farmyard manure with effective microorganisms would be a promising strategy for enhancing P use efficiency and productivity of wheat crop in eco f...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

...tage sampling method was used to select a sample of 274 livestock farm households from 6 rural Union Councils, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from female respondents through face to face interviews. A composite index was constructed to measure the extent of women’s participation, and a linear regression model was used ...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...PR-1 + PGPR-2). The PGPR used in this study were pre-isolated and characterized, taken from soil microbiology and biochemistry laboratory, Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences (ISES), University of Agriculture Faisalabad. In this experiment Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangements having three replications was used. Significantly maximum 1000 achene weight, achene yield, biological yield, ha...

Zia Ur Rahman1*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Hidayat Ur Rahman1, Fida Mohammad1, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Ijaz Ahmad Khan2

...against the disease. The use of these resistant rice accessions are, therefore, recommended for deploying bacterial leaf blight resistant genes into commercial rice cultivars.

...
Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3
...ub>.It is concluded that use of 2-tillers on raise bed sowing method gave significant result of WUE, economics and grain yield which may be recommended for the arid regions.
...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...pastoral resources. Land use-classes such as forest, agriculture, pastures and snow cover were recorded by means of Global Positioning System (GPS) and further processed to develop maps by using Geographic Information System (GIS). The impacts of agriculture encrachment were determined by means of group discussions, household’s interviews and personel observations. The results showed that crops cultivation occupied 18 ...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...ee species composition caused by grazing pressure is critical since fodder trees form the base diet for browser such as goat as well as maintenance purposes for cattle in the dry season. Thus understanding the dynamics on rangeland response to grazing could prove worthy in finding an equilibrium point for optimizing animal productivity, with limited range degradation. Therefore, the current study was aimed at determining and comparing fodder tree species compo...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...ed. Two antibiotics were used as references compounds for antibacterial activities. The aqueous ethanolic extract having 968.125 µg/ml of chlorogenic acid inhibited significantly the growth of tested bacterial strains. Among the bacterial strain tested Salmonella entritidis and Helicobacter pylori were even more sensitive to 20.313 (µg/ml) of chlorogenic acid and showed zone of inhibition with the value of 6.0 and 7.0 mm. The HPLC ana...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...and identification of viruses has been a challenge since the advent of the discipline of plant virology over a century ago.Agreat variety of methods have been developed that permit differentiation of viral pathogens.These methods, initially based solely on identifying the distinct biological characteristics of different viruses, were soon supplemented with methods based on light or electron microscopy and serology and subseq...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
... pipeline for commercial use.

...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
...Yield of damaged tuber caused by soil pests was found maximum in control plot and it was recorded lowest in T treatment which received soil application of phorate 10G at 40 DAPand foliar spray with imadichloprid and chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin at 55 and 70 DAP, respectively. But soil application of phorate at planting followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos, azadirachtin and Bt (T) was not as effective as T.

...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...terial leaf spot (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv.mor was found to be one of the major foliar diseases in mulberry at farmers field in Birbhum district.BLS incidence appeared in May and continued up to November. The correlation coefficient between disease severity and meteorological parameters revealed that BLS disease severity showed significant positive correlation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy ...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...stry. These products are used mainly for direct soil application in nurseries/main fields to suppress the soil-borne inoculum. In liquid state fermentation, Trichoderma is grown in inexpensive media like molasses and yeast medium in deep tanks on a commercial scale. Biomass from the liquid fermentation can be made into different formulations like, dusts, granules, pellets, wettable powders. Trichoderma formulations can be applied to the seed either by dry seed...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
...partment (IMD), could be useful to forewarn aphid 2 days in advance for farmers. To escape critical aphid incidence, rape and mustard crops need to be sown by 15 October, because crops sown beyond this period are likely to be adversely affected by aphid. Keywords : Aphid, sowing date, moisture regime, weather parameters, correlation, regression

 

...

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...ormosanus were found profusely in fungus comb in the months of March, May, September and October of 2006 to 2008 Average lengths and standard deviation (mean±SD) of the eggs were (0.66 ± 0.09), width (0.04 ± 0.07) mm and egg shape ratio is 0.53. Eggs were mostly of broad type. Distinct quiescent period was also observed. Morphological changes completed within 1st to 5th stages. In the 1st stage, total length ranged from 0.8-1.5 mm. Termina...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...stify;">Sugarcane wilt caused by Aeginetia pedunculata (Roxb.) Wall. (Orobanchaceae) is endemic in the command area of Plassey Sugar Mill in the districts of Nadia and Murshidabad in West Bengal. It spreads through water-and soil-borne seeds. With the objective of developing location-specific integrated management schedule of the parasite, crops, other than sugarcane, grown in the target area were evaluated for their potential as trap and catch crops of the pa...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...on in egg hatching and caused high mortality of juveniles than the control (P< 0.05). The microorganisms which caused high nematicidal activity also showed antifungal activity in dual plate culture test in vitro. All the antagonists showed reduction in root knot and root rot disease and promote plants growth as the length and weight of root and shoot in pot trials on tomato plants. Keywords: Antagonistic fungi, root knot ...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...eturns are uncertain because of its susceptibility to several pests and diseases, aggravated by the nature of the plantation. A good number of hemipteran insect pests occur in betelvine ecosystem which dwindle betelvine yield potentiality. Among these, the polyphagous betelvine blackfly, Aleurocanthus rugosa Singh (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) is a major pest causing severe damage to the foliage in the conservatories (borojas) of West Bengal. The seasonal incidence...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...), a white rot fungus, causes heart rot disease and Biscogniauxia mediterranea (= Hypoxylon mediterranea) (under Xylariaceae) causes canker rot disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of rotting pathogens on Som plants at Regional Muga Research Station (RMRS), Boko, Assam, India with during 2004-06. The disease incidence (DI %) caused by B. mediterranea was 12% ...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...ost important and widely used bioconrol agents being used across the world for the management of several plant diseases. Some bacterial biocontrol agents can inhibit both bacterial and fungal pathogens. Smilarly, fungal-fungal, fungal-bacteria and actinomycete-fungal/actinomycete interactions exist in nature and opens a new area of research in biocontrol of plant diseases. The mechanisms of action of these biocontrol agents ...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
... foot rot of betelvine caused by Phytophthora parasitica and growth, yield, and keeping quality by applying two bioagents, viz., P. fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. P. fluorescens inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1 was applied once at pre-monsoon, twice during pre- and post- monsoon and four times at quarterly intervals. T. harzianum inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1was applied at quarterly intervals. Bordeaux mixture (BM) was u...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...la asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola by spraying three fungicides (carbendazim at 0.1%, mancozeb at 0.025% and blitox at 0.25%) and four biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride at 107 cfu / ml, T. harzianum at 107 cfu / ml, Pseudomonas fluorescens at 108 cell / ml and Biomonas-a formulated product of P. fluorescens preparation...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...eem seed oil (5 % ) were used to assess their effects on the mortality of P. marginatus . It is evident that tobacco medicine exerted the best result in terms of control followed by neem seed oil, mehgoni seed oil, castor seed oil and tobacco leaf extract (20 % ).

...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...tivity of tea. Extensive use of chemical pesticides began only a few decades ago with tremendous immediate economic gains but its abuses were not foreseen or ignored. As a consequence there arose the development of resistance to pesticides, pest resurgence and undesirable pesticide residue in the made tea as the major problems. Current trends in eco-friendly insect pest management practices emphasize the host plant resistanc...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...arts of India it is also used as green vegetable and pulse. The crop is known to suffer from a variety of diseases. Among those root rot and collar rot are important and R. solani has been an important factor behind these two main diseases. A field trial was conducted during pre-kharif season of 2011 to control root and collar rot of cowpea caused by Rhizoctonia solani with two organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum a...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...ra de Willink) in 2006 caused major concern in papain production. The need for repeated application of insecticides and dearth of labour for application of insecticides made it difficult for the farmers to maintain the crop and forced many farmers to even abandon papaya crop cultivation altogether. Considering the drastic reduction in the wet latex supply, SPFP has taken up series of initiatives which are summarized in this paper. Initially, a survey made in m...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...nation and under green house experiments for control of Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique, whereas 15% increased seed germin...

Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control
..."justify">Indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical pesticides has led to several environmental problems such as resistance and environment pollution. Nanotechnology visualized as a rapidly evolving field has potential to revolutionize agriculture and food systems. We utilized nano-technological interventions for developing nanopesticides with potent fungicidal and miticidal properties. Nanosulphur and nanohexaconazole were prepared using encapsulation techniqu...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...ly, B18 and B16 could be used as biofungicide as well as biofertilizer for the management of sheath blight of rice.

 

...

M.S. Islam, M.Ali, and I. Ahmad

Efficacy of sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP to control die-back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh
... 72WP and recozeb 80WP caused colony growth inhibition, respectively by 75.00-90.77% and 75.88-91.33% in 2008 and 74.66-90.55% and 75.66-91.11% in 2009. In a field experiment at the main farm of Bangladesh Tea Research Institute (BTRI), both fungicides were applied as foliar spray for three times at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg ha-1. In 2008, sedomil 72WP gave 45.52-92.78% and recozeb 80WP gave 46.47- 90.39% reduction in PDI. In 2009, the reduction in PDI was 45.8...

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik and M.L. Chatterjee

Evaluation of new and conventional insecticides for the management of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.)
...treatments. Insecticides used in the experiments were imidacloprid 17.8% SL at 27g a.i/ha, lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC at 25g a.i/ha, chlorpyriphos 20% EC at 375g a.i/ha, dichlorvos 75% EC at 375g a.i/ha, thiamethoxam 25% WG at 27g a.i/ha, dimethoate 30% EC at 375g a.i/ha and chlorpyriphos 50% + cypermethrin 5% EC (Canon) at 375g a.i/ha. Chlorpyriphos (93.50%) found to be most effective treatment followed by chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin (92.76%), thiamethoxam (90...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...re as well as probable causes of death. The review traces the shift in the areas of research as well as ups and downs in the interest shown by the researchers. Guide lines for organized, coordinated research to i) screen different strains of NF that are tolerant to antagonism by other fungi, and ii) develop a bioagent based on nematophagous fungi which will show consistent success for the controlling of phytonematodes are also suggested.

...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...e the emission of Greenhouse gases in the region in order to ameliorate the effects of induced global warming on cowpea production in the country and also provide effective control of the identified pest in order to maintain or stall resurgence. 

...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...fiable concentration for use against the pathogen. The pre inoculation spray of the formulation was observed to produce 63.62% reduction in lesion height caused by the sheath blight pathogen. Two isoforms of poly phenol oxidase, PPO 1 and PPO 3 were observed to be induced only in Ganosol 10EC sprayed plants and were absent in control. The formulation was tested to have good emulsion stability. The antifungal activity of the ...

D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal and G. Saha

Bioassay of some agricultural chemicals, human drugs and disinfectants on Phytophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd
...of the eight antibiotics used in this study prevented mycelial growth. No sporangia formation was recorded in five antibiotics viz. streptomycin sulphate + tetracycline hydrchloride, streptomycin sulphate, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, ofloxacin and norfloxacin at 100 ppm. The insecticide, Profenophos prevented sporangia formation and consequently its germination. Copper sulphate (CuSO4, 5H2O) had adverse effect on mycelial growth and sporangia formation. Pot...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
... ?traditional‘ because of their increased in dose rate or repeated applications to get desired bioefficacy which lead to accumulation of pesticide residues in food commodities along with environmental pollution. Conventional formulations, because of their characteristics i.e. dustiness and use of volatile organic solvents in their preparation maximize several problems like health haz...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...2px;">Chilli leaf curl causes huge crop loss in Sundarban Islands that occurs primarily due to attack of thrips, yellow mites and white fly followed by invasion of chilli leaf curl virus. An attempt was made to find out the cost effec-tive management schedule to minimize the crop loss. Seven treatments were taken up for study including two chemicals i.e. profenophos and diafenthiuron, three ecofriendly approaches i.e. garlic extract, spirit and alternate

Dharmishthabahen R. Shah and Abhishek Shukla

Reaction of gerbera cultivars to spider mite, Tetranychus urti-cae Koch (Tetranychidae: Acari) under polyhouse conditions
...cae Koch under the polyhouse conditions. Results showed that the gerbera cultivar Cherany was highly tolerant with lowest mite popu-lation (1.62mites/plant) whereas Venezia and Fana were tolerant to spider mite with 7.72 and 9.67 mites per plant, respectively. The gerbera cultivar C. F. Gold (13.31 mites/plant) and Stanza (15.56 mites/plant) were medium tol-erant under polyhouse conditions. On the basis of biomorphological c...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
... important soil-borne viruses of potato were conducted in Hazara and Malakand Divi-sions during potato growing seasons in 2011-12. Incidence and distribution of Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV) and Tobacco rattle tobra virus (TRV) was reported on the basis of characteristic symptoms expression, bait test, infectivity assays and double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both the viruses were preva...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...t scale was prepared and used to determine severity (= Percent Disease Index, PDI). Strongly predictive equations for severity in terms of intensity in all cases but one viz. Alternaria leaf spot of Dracaena deremensis in terms of occurrence were developed. Such relationships helped prior assessment of severity before the disease reaches the predicted level. Thus, although crop losses were neither determined nor sought to be predicted, a new methodology has be...

K. K. Hegde and B. S. Nandihalli 

Bioefficacy of some indigenous products in the management of okra fruit borers
...f cow dung and cow urine used individually were not effective against the borers and recorded higher fruit damage of 55.70 and 52.10 per cent, respectively. GCKE was significantly superior in reducing the fruit borer damage to the tune of 64.83 per cent with higher fruit yield of 35.87 q.ha-1. The highest incremental benefit: cost ratio was noticed in endosulfan treatment (15.00) followed by treatment involving NSKE alternated with cow urine 10% (13.00), repea...

Shrinivas Mudigoudra and Shekharappa

Evaluation of plant products aganist sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani
...different plant products used in the study were, Vitex negundo, NSKE, Adathoda vesica, Pongamia glabra, Vinca rosea, Butea monosperma, Aloevera @ 5% concentration and were compared with carbofuran 3 G @ 30 kg. ha-1 to know its efficacy on shoot fly in sorghum ecosystem. The results clearly indicated that NSKE (5%) recorded less eggs of shoot fly (0.40egg/plant), per cent dead heart (14.97%) and maximum grain yield of 13.22 q.ha-1 among different plant products...

Sujoy Mondal and S. S. Ghatak

Bioefficacy of some indigenous plant extracts against epilachna beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr.) infesting cucumber
... of Annona squamosa were used at 4ml, 5ml and 6ml (per Lt. of water) while this was 1ml, 2ml and 3ml (per Lt. of water) in case of petroleum ether extract of rhizome of Acorus calamus. Endosulfan 35 EC was used at 1ml, 1.5ml and 2ml (per Lt. of water) to compare the efficacy of plant products. Results of the experiment revealed that Endosulfan 35 EC at 2mL-1 of water performed very well in reducing population build up of Hen...

V. S. Desai, S. D. Desai, A. J. Mayekar and V.G. More 

Infestation of coconut eriophyid mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer in Konkan region of Maharashtra
...d mite was reported to cause damage in coconut plantations in Konkan region of Maharashtra from January 2002. Three orchards from this area were surveyed to record infestation level of this pest in April and October of 2004 and March 2005. The survey indicated that the infestation was higher in Thane district followed by Sindhudurg district.
 

 

...

S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...per, Plusia orichalcea caused damage to Gerbera and Gladiolus by feeding on the leaves. The tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) was serious on Gladiolus and Anthurium. Cutworm (Agrotis segetum) damaged the seedlings of Gladiolus. Among the Coleopteran pests, the Blister beetle (Mylabris p) was the most important feeding on the flowers of Gladiolus and China rose. The steel blue beetle, Altica p. and white spotted flea beetle (Monolepta signata) was found i...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
... pathogenic field IBDV caused the serum biochemical changes by damaging the liver and kidney tissues with histopathological effect on lymphoid organs of chicken.
...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...n (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isolation of lactoferrin using the fast protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Disc diffusion method was applied for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of lactoferrin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactoferrin was determined by 96-well plate method using ELISA reader. Results depicted that CM-S...
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...entified alleles will be useful for animal selection at molecular level i.e. an ideal tool for marker-assisted selection of animals for future breeding programs.
...
Song Li1,* and Zuojian Feng2
...China. In this study, we used 45 P. albiventer specimens from Xizang and Yunnan in China to conduct multivariate analyses and calculate coefficients of differences on cranial measurements, together with a comparison of pelage characteristics. Results indicated that the allopatric samples from Xizang were obviously different from all those previously defined in Yunnan. Therefore, we describe them as new subspecies P. a. muzongensis subsp. nov. Dis...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...isalabad to evaluate the use of the planting time and the insecticide sprays for managing aphids to avoid losses to grain yield. During the crop season in year 2015-16, wheat variety (Millat 2011) was sown on three planting dates: mid Nov (crop 1), end Nov (crop 2), and mid Dec (crop 3). Trial was laid out in split plot design having three replications. Planting dates were kept in main plots while, insecticide treatments were kept in sub plots. Incidence of ap...
Ayesha Zahid,Ammara Muazzam, Sidra Mustafa, Saba Irshad*,Malik Siddique Mahmood and Rehman Shahzad

 

...ataracts are principal cause of visual impairments among people, although ocular surgery can reestablish vision in such patients but genetic researches have validated that, mutations in GJA8 are coherent source of lens opaqueness and inappropriate growth of fiber cells. In the present study, a novel G to C substitution (1104G>C) (pE368Q) was screened by PCR-SSCP in exon 2 of GJA8 and this tansversion altered exceedingly conserved glutamic acid to glu...
Madeeha Arshad1, Naveed Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Khalid3, Asmatullah1, Mohammad Tahir2, Khadija Naveed1 and Asia Iqbal4
...ehicle control group. Fetuses were recovered on 18th day of gestation and fixed for morphometric and morphological studies. Experimental groups showed variable degree of fetal abnormalities, along with reduction in body weights parallel to increase in dose concentration, as compared to control and vehicle control. Morphometric studies showed significant differences in nervous, integumentary and skeletal systems against control. Exencephaly, Omphaloc...
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
...nsplanted main-field because of smaller area of nursery that can be managed better way as compared to transplanted field. In the present study, chlorantraniliprole granule was applied both in seedbed and transplanted field along with spraying of some new generation insecticides like indoxacarb, flubendiamide, spinosad and chlorantraniliprole to test their efficacy against different rice insect-pests. The study found that whorl maggot can be managed properly in...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...ted among 10 different household at 10 villages. Results showed that grain dressing with both neem and mustard oil under botanical approaches performed significantly superior over other approaches and traditional practice in terms reduction in percent infestation (92%), increase in germination percentage (36.04%), 88% increase in the quantity of viable seed after storage and benefit-cost ratio. Therefore, seed dressing with neem or mustard oil at 2ml/kg seed c...

Elvera Monin, B. Dasgupta, Palash Chandra Paul, Jayanta Saha and Srikanta Das

Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...xamined using alopecia mouse model. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of higherquantities of carbohydrates, proteins and secondary metabolites in methanol compared to other extracting solvents. Moreover, only ethanol (5 and 10%) and petroleum ether (5%) demonstrated significant hair growth promoting effects (p < 0.05) compared to standard, i.e., 5% minoxidil and extracts in other solvents. Likewise, ethanol (5% and 10 %) and petroleum ...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...) and avian influenza viruses (AIVs) H5N1 are endemic in Egypt and extensive vaccinations are being applied for chicken flocks, which have maternal derived antibodies (MDA) for these viruses. To understand the interference of maternal derived immunity impact of maternal derived immunity interference in vaccination regimen in poultry, a total of one hundred day old commercial broiler chicks were vaccinated with LaSota. A grou...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...sease of cattle and is caused by the LSD virus (LSDV). LSD is endemic in most countries of Africa and Middle East and can be transmitted either by mechanical as well as intrastadial and transstadial routes. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemo...
Süleyman Kök*
... program has mainly been used for purebred TGC that are under the conservation of Bandırma Livestock Research Institute (BLRE) ex-situ program. This study aims to compare 3 SNP of the genetic features of purebred TGC that are under the conservation of ex-situ (51 cattle) program with the ones raised by the smallholders (79 cattle) in the villages. According to the estimated average heterozygosity values for ex-situ breeding program an...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
...plicated in teleosts because of the greater pressure they suffer in aquatic environment. In this study, we identified a set of 27 GSTs including 8 classes of members in common carp genome. Both sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis exhibited that genes derived from the same GST class from different species share more similarity than genes of different classes in the same species. Copy number of GSTs examining showed that five classes of GST genes in co...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...sporidium is chief cause of diarrhea in both developing and developed countries, causing millions of deaths each year. This study was designed to estimate the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium in three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), i.e. Bannu, Lakki Marwat and Kohat. For this purpose 360 stool samples were collected from the District Headquarter Hospitals of all the three districts and were screened through microscopy. Results yi...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
... meal may effectively be used as a low-cost protein constituent in the broiler finisher ration.
...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
...ation of slow release boluse of trace elements bolus in Naemi ewes during late gestation. Thirty Naemi ewes were divided into two groups. One group served as a control while the other was treated with rumen bolus of trace elements containing copper (Cu) cobalt (Co); selenium (Se), manganese (Mn); zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). Blood samples were collected from ewes and their newborns at parturition. Colostrum yield and biochemical analysis at parturition was also d...
Viram Kumar1,*, Moolchand Malhi1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi2, Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani3 and Khushal Das Malhi1
...afowl of Thar and can be used as reference values to evaluate the health or diseased conditions in the same species.
...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...ce of avian influenza viruses in Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan was carried out from April 2013 through September 2014. Pooled morbid material and fecal samples from 600 different locations across the region were analyzed for isolation. Isolation was carried out on embryonated chicken eggs. Identification of H protein was undertaken through hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test while N typing was done using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...scale. The current study used morphology and DNA sequences from mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer I) genes to identify the hyperparasitoid Promuscidea unfasciativentris. The successful PCR-based detection of hyperparasitism is promising for designing strategies for the biological control program of cotton mealybug.
...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1*,Ibrahim Alhidary1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Rifat U. Khan3, Abdel Raouf S. Bello4, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2 and Ramzi A. Amran1
...upplementary protocol, causes a significant change in rumen fermentation patterns as a result of increasing the intake level of NDF from the alfalfa hay. This shift in the fermentation pattern may positively affect the rumen environment and consequently growing lambs’ health and productivity.
...
Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
...e egg yolk precursor and used as a biomarker for estrogenic endocrine disruption. To elucidate the endocrine-disrupting effect of bisphenol-A, juvenile Catla catla was exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol-A (10,100,1000μg/l) for 14 days. BPA exposure strongly elevates vtg mRNA level in fish exposed to 100μg/l but at 1000 μg/l exposure of BPA, vtg level decreased compared to 100µg/l exposed fish. These results showed...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...evel and natural enemies use these substances to locate their prey. Twelve-arm olfactory apparatus was used to evaluate the response of C. septempunctata toward aphids and different host plants of aphids. Different horticultural plants and field crops were used singly or in combination with prey as a host. An increased numbers of C. septempunctata was observed when host plant...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

... fertilizer and nitrogen use efficiency on wheat variety Hashim-08. The experimental trial was conducted following RCB design with three replications. Fertilizer applications (foliar and soil) were assigned to main plots, while nitrogen levels 0, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 were kept in sub plots. Results revealed that foliar application of N significantly (P≤0.05) affected plant height (89 cm), tillers m-2 (313), grains spike-1 (48), 1000-grain weight (...

Khurram Shahzad and Mohammad Akmal*

...nic matter contents. Because of changing rainfall patterns due to changes in the weather conditions and/or climatic change responses observed in the world, the split application of N is beneficial to the crops in terms to avoid N-mobility in the soil and improve its use efficiency for crops. This study, therefore, aimed to identify split applicarion of N rates and timings for wheat performance in recent weather condiction. E...

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...n interview schedule was used for data collection during November-January, 2016. Maximum likelihood technique was used for the estimation of the Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production model. After running various econometrics software the output of the Frontier 4.1 was found good fit. The findings of the study showed that technical efficiency ranges from 0.83 to 0.99 with the mean technical efficiency of 0.93. The findi...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...type production model is used to estimate tomato yield and identify important factors affecting yield. Ordinary Least Square estimates for the model indicate that machinery, seed quantity, labor, number of irrigation, chemicals spray and fertilizers have positive significant effects on tomato yield. Allocative efficiency analysis reveals that machinery, seed quantity, number of irrigation, fertilizers and chemicals are underutilized, while labor and FYM are ov...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
...or plant productions the use of compost may be supportive not only increase moisture holding capacity but also help to sustain soil conditioning. Composting through MSW could be introduced country wise as solid waste management option for the recycling and reuse of the organic remains.
...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...ontact method was rarely used in the study area as only 10% of the respondents ranked it very high and 28% respondents reported it very low on likert scale. It can be concluded that FSC had developed the linkages of the respondents with agriculture research and water management department in the study area. Top learned skills from this approach were fertilizer application, improved agricultural technology and sowing methods. It is suggested that there is a nee...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
...m ether and ethanol were used for extraction from leaves. Amongst the various treatments applied, the acetone extract of D. alba showed the highest repellency of 84.14%, whereas, the lowest repellency of 10.73% was observed by the chloroform extract of T. peruviana. Significant ovipositional deterrent effects of the extracts applied have been observed. Maximum oviposition inhibition was shown by petroleum ether extract of A. indica (57.14%...
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...ublic health concern because fish are an important part of human diet. The present study was conducted to investigate the bioaccumulation of two heavy metals, Cu and Zn, in muscles of two economically important fish species, an herbivorous fish Schizothorax plagiostomus and a predatory fish Mastacembelus armatus, from three rivers of Malakand Division, Pakistan. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were determined in fish samples by atomic absorption spec...
Muhammad Imran Shabbir
...s etc. Punnett square is used to describe the possible combinations of paternal and maternal alleles for a particular cross. Described here is a line-dot method using ternary genotype codes to determine genotype probabilities in a very quick and simple way. Also ternary genotype codes along with gender symbols and affection status are used to modify the Punnett squares. On applying these modified Punnett squares along polygo...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...nd 100% and control were used against T. clareae in naturally infested honey bee, A. mellifera colonies in Honeybee Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The percentage of infestation by T. clareae on worker brood, number of dead/fallen mites per hive/weekon white formica sheet, percent mite mortality and honey yield per colony was determined before and after the treatments in the experimental colo...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...egression model has been used to evaluate the effect of different socio-economic variables on the adoption response of different recommended production practice for citrus. Average age, education and experience of the citrus growers were estimated 43.92 years, 9.74 schooling years and 17.72 years respectively. The awareness and adoption of recommended citrus practices was generally good. The results of the logit model for adoption of recommended irrigation pra...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...ted to lack of potential use of resources in sugarcane crop. Forecasted Per capita food availability will increase wheat 138.2kg to 185 kg, rice 36.2kg to 50.8kg and maize 26.8kg to 43.5kg for forecasted population 188 million to 258.4 million from 2014 to 2035. Food security and sustainable agriculture growth are conceivable through proper and feasible policy measures by policymakers to revamp their strategies accordingly.

...
Hassen Allaya1,2,*, Abderraouf Ben Faleh1, Manel Rebaya1, Sonia Zrelli3, Abdallah Hattour2, Jean-Pierre Quignard4 and Monia Trabelsi1
...o populations could be caused by differences in genetic structure or environmental conditions.
...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...nd in most cases it is caused due to insufficient intake of dietary fiber.A study was conducted to evaluate the role of dietary fiber and ß-glucan from major food grains used locally on plasma cholesterol level of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Insoluble dietary fiber (lignin and cellulose) was extracted from wheat and maize, while ß glucan was extracted from barley and sorghum. Male rats (n = 32), we...
Saba Irshad1,*, Ayesha Ashfaq1, Ammara Muazzam1 and Abida Yasmeen2
...Plant extracts have been used as an active antimicrobial compound since long. The present study was intended to validate the antimicrobial, antidiarrheal and anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), used in Pakistani cuisine to enrich flavour and to treat infectious wounds. Their crude ethanol and methanol extracts were tested against five important bacterial and fu...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...ianum in the green house at 25 ± 4ºC. Primarily, 15 chilies cultivars viz., 28-2010, C-72, Sanam, C-73, Gola Peshawari, 27-2010, Tata Puri, C-302, C-33, C-19, 5-2010, C-68, 11-2010, 18-2010 and 15-2010 were evaluated against M. incognita and S. rolfsii. Two week old chilies plants were inoculated with M. incognita, S. rolfsii separately and in combination as well. At harvesting, roots of C-302 contained signif...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

... H5N1 in 2006 in Egypt caused severe economic losses for both commercial and backyard poultry production sectors. Owing to public health risk, effective control of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this s...
Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...ripes which has been used as one of human genome model animal since mid-1990s. In this experiment, we cloned a pair of DNA fragment sequence including complete ORF (921bp) of taste receptor candidate gene T2R1 of T. fasciatus and studied the differential expression spectrum of tissues in combination with bioinformatics analysis so as to understand the possible functions in response to chemical sensation behavior of taste receptors. The recept...

Murad Ali1, Farmanullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad2* and Imran Khan1

...h suggest the integrated use of FYM+PM (5 + 2.5 t ha-1) + NPK 50% of the recommended dose for sustainably improved production on eroded soils. 

...
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
...centuries due to human caused disturbances and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Molecular methods have an important role in phylogeny and diversity analysis. In Pakistan hog deer (Axis porcinus) is an important wild species belongs to the family Cervidae. The hog deer is one of the least studied species at molecular level in Pakistan. The present study was planned to investigate its molecular phylogeny and ...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...;H9N2 avian influenza viruses are currently endemic in Pakistan and outbreaks are continuously being reported with high morbidity, drop in egg production and reduced weight gain. Besides economic losses to the poultry industry, these viruses pose a significant threat to public health. Owing to significant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating virus entry and release, the present study was...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...ucella species are cause of abortions and other reproductive disorders in animals and human beings. In this project, prevalence and distribution of soil borne Brucella species in nine districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sargodha, D.G. Khan, Chakwal, Sahiwal, Gujranwala and Attock were determined. By using grid based sampling strategy, soil samples (n= 1280) were collected from villages (n=256, 5 samples/village) of the nin...
Muhammad Aslam Farooqi1,*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Sohail Akhtar1Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Naveed Aslam3 and Muhammad Rafay4
... detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine residues of commonly used agricultural insecticides (imidacloprid, thiametoxam, profenofos, endosulfan, spinosad and deltamethrin) in multi-floral raw honey of Apis dorsata F. collected from the cotton belt area of Punjab, Pakistan. The residues of these insecticides were extracted using ethyl acetate. Honey samples were spiked at 0.1 and 0.01 mg/kg. The mean recoveries of th...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...revealed that PPR-FMD viruses were circulating in the region and warrants proper control measures. 
...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...e of Rs. 527,275/- per household. Results of paired t-test confirmed that beekeeping has significant effect on household income. On average of 2 family members per household were engaged in the beekeeping activity. It also provided multiple sources of employment mainly in honey transportation and marketing, thus beekeeping not only served as an income generating activity but also an employ...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...tudy would be helpful to use NPV and flubendiamide in IPM under field conditions to control S. litura on cauliflower.
...
Mehran Kausar1,2, Naveed Ashraf3, Farzana Hayat4, Asraf Hussain Hashmi1, Saima Siddiqi1,* and Mariam Anees2
...ied fontanels, and an obtuse mandibular. The present study was conducted to determine the underlying genetic cause of Pycnodysostosis in a family from Azad Kashmir, Pakistan presenting with symptoms of multiple recurrent fractures, short stature, increased bone density and stubby hands. We performed direct sequencing of CTSK for five members of the family to find out the causative mutation. All coding exons of CTSK...
Ayşe Gül Harlıoğlu*
...-6, C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6 caused a decrease in total n-6. On the other hand, an increase in arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) give rise to (AA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA/EPA ratios in absorbed yolk-sac larvae.
...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...thogenic bacteria that cause animal and human brucellosis. Currently, the mechanism behind the pathogenesis of Brucella remains unclear. For this reason omp10 mutant was constructed to examine the impacts of the outer membrane protein 10 (Omp10) on bacterial survival, virulence, phagosome-lysosome fusion, and apoptosis induction, as assessed in appropriate in vitro (cell culture) and animal models. Results showed the omp10 mutant wa...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...justify;">Yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici, is one of the most important diseases of wheat in many parts of the world including Pakistan. Surveillance for yellow rust occurrence, distribution and impact on wheat landscape was carried out along with recent deployment status of cultivars during 2012 in northwest Pakistan located close to the center of diversity of P. striiformis f.sp. tritici. Around 1600 wheat fields were sampled coveri...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...and root-knot nematode cause huge losses to cotton. Experiments were conducted to assess the role of fungi and root knot nematodes in root rot disease complex of cotton and to optimize their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sult...

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

...ractors. The most widely used marketing channel was producers selling their orchard to pre-harvest contractor who then harvest the orchard, pack the produce and transport it to the market where the produce is handed to wholesalers. Wholesalers then channel the produce to retailer from where the ultimately consumers buy the product. It was also observed that considerable marketing margins were taken by the marketing intermediaries in the citrus value chain. It ...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
... and 48 intravenous drug users (IDUs) through community outreach, peer referring and field sampling. Blood samples were tested for syphilis and HIV infections after pre-test counseling and receiving informed written consent. Initial testing was performed by rapid devices approved by World Health Organization (WHO) and confirmed by Chemiluminescence Immunoassays (CLIA). Of total 387 respondents, 149 subjects tested positive for syphilis (38.5%), whereas 37 test...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...d male Norduz sheep were used. The sheep were obtained in the year 2015 from Livestock Application and Research Directorate of Yuzuncu Yil University. The sheep were randomly allocated into three groups each of which contained 10 sheep. The groups were formed as; Group 1 The Control Group (No castration), Group 2 (Surgical castration group) and Group 3 (Chemical castration group), respectively. Blood sample was taken from vena jugularis of the animals before t...
Ibrahim A. Alhidary1,*, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Moez A. Ayadi1,3 and Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2
...5.93% NDF). Lambs were housed in an individual pen for 90 days. Lambs were weighed every two weeks and feed intake was recorded weekly. Rumen fluid samples were collected monthly after 2, 4 and 8 hours of feeding for pH, VFAs and NH3-N determination. Blood samples were collected monthly for different metabolic analysis. At the end of the trial, six lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered for rumen coloring. The results of this t...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...the world for industrial uses to make high value products. An enormous potential of sisal fibre is present in Pakistan for making ropes, twines, paper, carpets, cloth and handicrafts, which has not been exploited so far. The aim of this study was to design and develop a small-scale portable sisal decorticator for extracting fibre from sisal leaves. A prototype of sisal decorticator was designed and fabricated at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institut...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...ing 2016. RCB Design was used for this experiment with three replications i.e. factor A was Deblossoming Time (Control, May, June, July, August and September) and factor B was GA3 application (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm). Results demonstrated that minimum fruit drop (5.95%), fruit density (0.80gcm-3) with maximum number of new shoots (55.7), number of new flowers (225.3), fruit weight (197.5g), and fruit volume (245.5cm3) were recorded in plants deblossomed ...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
...ital role in the green house gases. Carbon sequestration during the photosynthesis process via plant biomass is the extent of this atmospheric gas. An experiment the data for above and below phytomass for grazed and un- grazed range land was collected and carbon pool was estimated by Wet Combustion and Dry Combustion method.Four transect lines were drawn in each experimental plot. Twenty four samples of each experimental plot were collected with the help of AD...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...ds of each genotype were used as control. Field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replicates in the green house. Radiation effects were observed on some agronomic traits like Plant height, Number of branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1, Fiber Fineness and yield of seed. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences for radiation treatme...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
...ymorphic markers will be useful tools for investigating genetic diversity and population structure of this species.
...
Zuhao Huang*, Meifang Li, Rujue Ruan and Jiawei Qin
...um likelihood method was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic trees based on HKY+ G model. The phylogenetic tree grouped members of every genus were grouped into each clade, except the genus Gorsachius. Our results indicated that the genus Gorsachius might not be monophyletic.
...
Muhammad Fiaz1, Khadija Munawar2, Muhammad Mushtaq2,*, Mukhtar Ahmad3, Mushtaq Ahmad Chaudhry3, Muhammad Aslam3, Tanveer Ahmad1 and Nasrullah4
...alf milk replacer can be used as an efficient substitute of ewe milk for optimum growth performance in neonatal Salt Range lambs after mandatory colostrum feeding.
...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...ent techniques have been used to determine the integrity of DNA in which acridine orange (AO) assay is easy and less costly. Though used in many species but the variability exists in technique. Therefore, the present study was aimed to optimize the steps of AO staining protocol for buffalo sperm which has not been explored yet. Semen was collected from two mature buffalo bulls, diluted in tris citrate egg yolk based extender...
Umair Talib1*, Ijaz Ashraf1, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhary1, Riaz Ahmad2
.... Interview schedule was used as research tool. In the light of above findings, it is concluded that growers were not satisfied with public sector’s extension field staff (EFS) regarding their help in credit acquisition and dealing with them. Performance of private sector is very poor in provision of information about innovative technologies to farmers. Analysis of satisfaction of farmers with public and private sectors show that farmers are not com...

Qudsia Khalid, Safdar Hussain Shah*, Faiza Zaeem and Saad Hussain Shah 

...P + 30g/l D-Sorbitol was used. LiCl adapted line showed significantly higher indices of tolerance than unadapted line at 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM NaCl stress. Adaptation resulted in enhanced accumulation of saturated fatty acids (myristic and stearic acids), while unsaturated fatty acids exhibited variable profiles with enhanced oleic acid and significantly reduced linoleic acid. The regeneration capability of adapted line decreased 10 times (20% to 2%), while...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
... when sodium phytate was used as substrate. The stability of enzyme at a wide range of temperature and pH makes it a potential candidate to be used in the poultry feed industry.
...
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
...le linear regression was used to investigate the association of cobalamin with fasting blood sugar level after adjusting for gestational age and gravidity. ROC curve analysis was conducted to assess the suitability cobalamin as a predictive biomarker for GDM. Median cobalamin were significantly reduced in cases (108.95±92 pg/mL) as compared to controls (173±90 pg/mL) at p<0.001. Low vitamin B12 levels (β = -0.29, p=0.004) significantly pr...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

...mechanism by which LET caused sex reversal, juvenile carp (120dph) were exposed to 0, 5, 25, 125, and 625μg/L LET for 15 days, and the expression profiles of seven gonad differentiation related genes (Cyp19A, Cyp19B, Arα, ERα, Dax, Foxl2, Dmrt1) and gonad histological changes were examined. The results showed that LET could inhibit oocyte growth in female and promote the development of testes in males. For the gonad differentiation related genes...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...a honey is traditionally used for medical purposes including remedy of bacterial infection. However, scientific evidences for its antimicrobial effects particularly against NDM-1 producing bacteria are lacking. In addition to antibiotic profiling, the present study aimed at determining the in vitro anti- bacterial activity of Manuka honey against NDM-1 producing clinical isolates of Pakistan. A total of five carbapenem resistant bacterial species; E....
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
... bee. The indiscriminate use of pesticides involve many problems; cause resistance in mites, residual in honey, wax and potentially hazardous to man and environment. Plant-derived mixtures are normally more easily degradable and could show a minor undesirable impact on environment with respect to synthetic compounds. This study was planned to check the efficacy of four different essential oils (neem oil, lemon oil, eucalyptu...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...gn: justify;">Several viruses are associated with enteric diseases in avian species, causing decreased growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Twenty-nine pools (29...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...mary entry points for viruses into host cells. Amongst these, respiratory tract is prone to direct and continuous exposure to viral infection. Respiratory viruses including influenza virus, coronaviruses and herpes viruses are important pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, successfu...
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...ustify;">Basil seeds are used not only as pharmaceutical plant but also for culinary purpose. The current study has been undertaken to develop a nutritious, healthy and value added drink. Proximate, mineral analysis, total polyphenol content and mineral analysis of basil seeds was conducted. Result revealed that basil seeds are not only good source of fiber and protein but they provide appreciable amount of minerals and phenolic compounds. Swollen basil seeds ...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...lts of this study can be used in integrated pest management program for the management of H. armigera.
...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...umber of roots and water use efficiency. SA treatment therefore decreased adverse effect of stress on strawberry plants. Thus the result suggests that SA at a concentration of 3mML-1 concentration could be used commercially to improve yield of strawberry.
...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

...-oil vaccines are widely used to control viral diseases in poultry, however, the interference of physico-chemical properties of the emulsions are overlooked when compared to antigenic properties. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different commercial inactivated water-in-oil multivalent vaccines; vaccine A contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and D274 strains), NDV (Clone 30), aMPV (BUT 8544) and IBDV (classic s...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...ents and efficient water used to reduce the input cost and improve crop yield. A field experiment was conducted at Arid Zone Research Centre (AZRC), D. I. Khan during year 2014 –15 and 2015–16 to investigate the water use efficiency and response of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop to organic and inorganic fertilizers on a heavy textured soil. The treatments used in the ...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

... in the Central zone because of conducive agro-climatic conditions. The estimated Cross-sectional Ricardian Model reveals that temperature and rainfall have non-linear relationships with net-return per acre. The relationship between growers’ net-return and atmospheric temperature, represented with a temperature response curve, is inverted U shaped having a yield maximizing temperature level of 25oC. The rainfall response curve for net-return is U shaped ...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...easonal free and green house independent which would accelerate the work relevant to genetic transformation of maize. MS medium fortified with 3 mgL-1 BAP and 5 mgL-1 picloram produced maize seedlings with expanded coleoptilar nodes. Longitudinal cut sections of expanded coleoptilar nodes produced maximum primary calli on callus induction medium containing both 0.5mgL-1 2, 4-D and 1 mgL-1 picloram. Eighty percent of embryogenic calli were obtained on MS medium...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

... irrigations on commonly used Narrow Bed (NB) with furrow spacings 66 cm and newly introduced Wide Bed (WB) with furrow spacing 130 cm on sandy clay loam, were investigated using the irrigation modelling software, WinSRFR, to explore irrigation management strategies for improving irrigation eficiency. The study revealed existing average application efficiency of low quarter (AE lq) 71%, 87%, distribution uniformity of low quarter (DU lq) 70%, 80% and adequa...
Habibun Nabi1, Saher Islam2, Amna Arshad Bajwa2, Imran Rashid1,*, Haroon Akbar1, Wasim Shehzad2, Kamran Ashraf1, Nisar Ahmad1 and Aneela Durrani3
...>...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
...hicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature, while chicks in HAT zone were kept at high ambient temperature. Chicks in each group were further divided into four sub groups. Each sub group was further subdivided into four replicates having ten chicks per replicate. Blood was collected on weekly basis from day 21 to 42. Mean serum antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) and serum paraoxonase (PON1) were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in T...

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

...omplete block design was used, having two replications and 35 genotypes, comprised of 33 hybrids and two local checks. Data were recorded on days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% anthesis, days to 50% silking, anthesis silking interval, plant height and ear eight. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for all the traits except anthesis silking interval that exhibited non-significant difference among the tested genotypes. Moderate to high br...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...erential statistics were used. The study has revealed that field assistants (FA) provide new information (75 respondents). It was observed that FAs were available at their offices (70) and farmers were satisfied from the solution of problems they reported (92). Correlation coefficients demonstrate that education, frequency of FAs visits, accessibility of FAs office and establishment of demonstration have highly significant association with provision of new kno...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...sign study 324 fish were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) whereas the phytase levels were (0, 500 and 1000 FTU). The addition of 3 % citric acid and 1000FTU phytase produced significant interaction effect on calcium and phosphorus digestibility and different body contents of L. rohita. Phytase and citric acid increased the digestibility of calcium and phosphorus with improvement in body dry matter, protein, fat, energy and ash content...

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

...to ensure that funds are used for the specified agricultural activities are suggested. 

...

Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...vantage Index (RTA) were used to understand the relative competitive advantages of China and Vietnam rice export. The results showed that Vietnamese rice comparative advantage grew steadily in the Chinese market. Overall Sino-Vietnam rice export competition is not strong, it is helpful to reduce trade friction between the two sides. Moreover, there is conducive to the development of bilateral trade cooperation of long-term stability, from another point of view...

Abbas Ullah Jan1, Muhammad Fayaz1*, Yousaf Hayat2, Dawood Jan3 and Ghaffar Ali3 

...ty for urban and rural households using household income and expenditure data of Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) survey 2005. The log-log-inverse econometric model, representing nonlinear Engel curve relationship proved to be a valid estimation technique for fruit consumption in Pakistan. The results show that quantity elasticity with respect to income is constant for dates, grapes, guava and mango and...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
...ewas conducted in farm houses at three main regions (Western by-pass, Spiny village, and Sariab region) of District Quetta from March, 2013 to March, 2014.   Around 1649 ticks were captured from six main body parts of 404 cattle. Of these 346 (65.96%) were observed to be plagued by one or more tick infestation. Compositions of tick species captured from the host were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (33.39%), followed by Dermacenter andersoni ...
Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
...allel cross combinations used for selection was built to investigate compensatory like growth of each combination. Yes/No(Y/N) effect was determined for specific combination dyads, which there were significant differences in body weight at tagging, but no difference in body weight at harvesting. Among the 36 dyads, 7 had an YN response (19.4%). When the YN effect had a fixed accumulated value, the value reflected its compensatory like growth degree, i.e., no c...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...preparation methods were used and broth dilution method found simpler and most efficient for positive PCR. Primers were selected for 16s rRNA and it could detect up to 100 cfu and 250 cfu from MS and MG respectively in a samples. We have tested pure DNA of other mycoplasmas (5 species from avian origin and 3 other mycoplasmas species) but it produced only the genus specific band. The optimized ratio of tPCR primers were 1: 1: 10: 1. For Outer F, Inner R, and I...

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...e sampling technique was used to select the study area. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data from farming households’ heads. Credit fungibility ratio and ANOVA were used to explore the credit fungibility and credit margin of investment among the groups of farmers. Results showed that a considerable proportion of loan was
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...olitan species who can cause direct damage to the plants by extracting the sap, and indirectly it is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romani...

Arshad Iqbal1*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1 and Muhammad Sharif Kakar

...h three replications was used in the experiment. Data were recorded on yield and some other important plant traits like days to heading (days), days to maturity (days), flag leaf area (cm2), spike length (cm), grains spike-1 (no.), grains weight spike-1 (g), biological yield (kg ha-1) and grain yield (kg ha-1). Mean performance of genotypes showed that all the spring wheat genotypes performed well for all the traits. Spring wheat cultivar Tatara showed best pe...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Muhammad Saeed Akhtar1, Maryam Umer1, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Muhammad Imran Din3
... (Wasmann) is known to cause considerable damage to wood work in buildings. Efficacy of extracts of Foeniculum vulgare and Ocimum basilicum was studied against this termite. Chemical composition of plant extracts by chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed five different compounds in F. vulgare: Piperidine, 3-isopropyl, Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,3,3-trimethyl, Benzaldehyde, 4-methoxy, Estragole, 11-Octadecenoic acid, methyl es...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...08 should be avoided because it was found susceptible to aphid infestations, and give low net yield. It is inferred that infestation of aphids significantly reduced the grain yield when not protected by insecticide. Insecticide protected crops give maximum net returns. Integration of varietal resistance and insecticides showed an effective reduction of aphids and gave a significant increase in grain yield.
...
Mubashir Hussain1,Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3 and Sohail Latif4
...ess time consuming, more user friendly with higher accuracy over seedling emergence method. 
...
Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz
... kg ha-1) was used uniformly with experimental N rates. Data on plant height (132.00 cm), number of plants (91.33 m-2), number of tillers (146.00 m-2), number of leaves tillers-1 (5.66), total dry matter (17.70 t ha-1) and fodder yield (60.90 t ha-1) showed that nitrogen application @ 150 % N of recommended dose with drill sowing proved to be the most cost effective technique for fodder oat prod...

 Zeenat Bano1,*, Sajid Abdullah1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Anjum Zia3 and Wardah Hassan1

...ntioxidant system can be useful as an early warning tool in natural monitoring studies.
...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
...dangered in the wild because of illegal trade, overharvesting and habitat destruction. Captive breeding is an effective protection against extinction, but safe overwintering is still technically difficult to captive big-headed turtles. Determining optimal hibernation conditions is important in resolving this problem. In this study, the effects of two important environmental conditions (water depth and availability of sand beds) on changes in body weight and he...
Boran Karataş, Muhammed Arabaci and Şükrü Önalan*
...a group and 24 fish were used in each group. Study groups were named based on stocking ratio percentages as G, K, G75K25, G66K34 and G50K50 and the study lasted 80 days. When the growth parameters in polycultures of rainbow trout and brown trout are considered, it was determined that the growth rates were not statistically different between rainbow trout monoculture and rainbow trout G75K25 and G50K50 groups, however rainbow trout in G66K34 experienced statist...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
... ancient times herbs are used as medicinal purposes. One such herb is Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Fennel has many efficacious uses. It is a common herb and spice. It is used in many culinary purposes and also it has therapeutic purposes. In the present study antidepressant effects of fennel oil was monitored by comparing it with a synthetic antidepressant drug, fluoxetine. The rats...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...t gradient. SDS-PAGE was used to monitor the purification steps, and protein band was located by immunoblotting technique. Bubaline placental lactogen was purified to homogeneity and showed a molecular weight of about 30 kD. Purified placental lactogen was administered to male albino mice for up to eight weeks for growth promoting activity. Increased mammary growth was observed in test female non lactating mice, as compared to controls when placental lactogen ...
Mumtaz Akhtar1, Shabana Naz2,*, Muhamamad Iqbal3, Waqar Azeem4 and Mirza Azhar Beg5
...rom the fields and farmhouses of the croplands of the Central Punjab. The collected animals were segregated into five age classes, i.e. I (immature), II (sub-adults), III (adults), IV (middle aged), V (old), on the basis of tooth wear, mandibular length, and condition of reproductive organs. In the winter samples, most of the animals belonged to the middle body weight classes, while in the spring sample majority of specimens belonged to the heaviest wei...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
...Distribution and habitat use of avian fauna of Rawalakot city and its surrounding was studied from March 2006 to February 2007. The study area is situated in the center of district Poonch. For the convenience of data collection the study area was divided into six study sites; systematic surveys were conducted at each site. Direct sighting and indirect evidences were collected from all these sites. Seventy eight bird species were recorded that belonged to 34 fa...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...formatics technique were used for characterize the differential expressed proteins. Almost 78 patho-stress responsive proteins which expression level more than 1.5-fold were identified, where 50 proteins were up-regulated and 28 proteins were down-regulated; The identified proteins were categorized into 16 classes, which are mainly including energy metabolism, gene expression regulation, oxidation-reduction reaction, cellular component and stress responses, an...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...l contributions at the household level. To highlight the contributions of livestock at household level the present study is conducted in Mohmand Agency of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. The study used a dataset of 323 households collected through face to face interviews from women respondents. The collected data were analysed usi...

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...infestation is a major cause of low wheat yield. Synthetic herbicides are mostly used to control weeds. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the Chemical control of broad-leaved weeds in wheat at the Koont Research Farm, PMAS-Arid Agricultural University, Rawalpindi, during rabbi season, 2014. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications, with a plot size of 06 x ...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

...% of RDF, moringa can be used as green manure and incorporated into the soil to enhance the maize productivity.

...

Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar1*, Amir Shakeel1, Muhammad Amir Maqbool1, Muhammad Waheed Anwar1, Zoraiz Tanveer1 and Muhammad Fahad Irfan2 

...re than one trait can be used as indirect selection criteria in segregating populations.  

...
Semra Benzer1,* and Recep Benzer2
...nce criteria (MAPE) were used for comparison of artificial neural network and linear regression models goodness of fit. The results of the current study show that ANNs can be a superior estimation tool compared to LWR equation. Thus, as an outcome of the present study, ANNs can be considered as a finer method especially in the growth estimation of the species in biological systems. Another outcome of this study is that crayfish of Uluabat Lake well accommodate...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

... schedule. This study focuses on two selected districts i.e. Peshawar, and Charsadda. Four villages were selected two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that the coefficients of household size, educational level of the sampled respondent, age of the sample small farmer, were positively related to the off-farm employment. While farm area operated was negatively but significantly related to off-farm employment. S...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Yue-Hui Ma2, Ming-Xing Chu2, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Hui-Jiang Gao2, Huai-Zhi Jiang3, Di Liu4, Li Liu5, Yan-Bin Zhu6, Wang-Dui Basang6, Luo-Bu Danjiu7, Tian-Wu An8, Xiao-Lin Luo8, Shi-Cheng He7 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...v>...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...erase chain reaction was used to detect representative virulence factors or genes, including E.coli adherence factor (K88, CS31A, afaE-8), toxins (estA, estB, Stxl, Stx2, EAST1), pathogenicity island (eaeA, irp2, ETT2) and outer membrane protein (ompA). Moreover O-antigen serotype was tested by slide agglutination test and a mouse model was built to assess the lethality of the E.c...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

...: justify;">The frequent use of pesticides at repetitive application have increased the input cost of local farmer and similarly aroused the serious problem of pest resistance. The introduction of transgenic cotton since last decades has played a significant role in suppressing the pest population of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund) which is the main pest of cotton in all over the world. Nevertheless, the indigenou...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

...stify;">Garlic rust is caused by pathogen (Puccinia allii) that severely hinders the productivity of Alliaceae family. Experiment was conducted to determine the optimum plant spacing in order to abate garlic rust and maximize garlic crop yield. The experiment was carried out in RCB design with three replications; garlic cultivar (china) and three levels of intra-row spacing (10, 15 and 20 cm) were included in the study. Data regarding disease occurrence, disea...
Sana Imran1*, Sarwat Jahan2 and Mohammad Sair3
...dex (PASI criterion) was used to observe improvement in psoriatic patients taking these drugs.In this randomized and comparative study, psoriasis severity was checked by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). At day 90 Calcipotriol treated group B patients showed more improvement in mean PASI score as compared to Betamethasone valerate treated group A patients. In PASI score, Calcipotriol shows 71.61% betterment whereas Betamethasone vale rate shows 63.2% bette...

Bibi Haleema1*, Abdur Rab1 and Syed Asghar Hussain2 

...as a foliar spray can be used alone or in combination to improve growth and fruit production of tomato. 

...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...i>Ricania simulans causes harm in almost all plants that grow along the Eastern Black Sea coast. The chemicals used to control this pest are prohibited in this region due to tea cultivation. For this reason, new strategies are needed to control this pest. With the awareness on the negative effects of the chemicals used in the control against pests and with the increasing awareness on e...
Falah Baiee1,3, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff1, Ariff Omar,2 Nurhusien Yimer1, Salman Hammadi1, Tarig Ahmedeltayeb1, Asmatullah Kaka4
...d is also recommended to use for other animals, in particular, the wild animals.
...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...read pests of okra and causes worldwide yield losses. The pest is mainly controlled by chemicals which cause deleterious effects to human, livestock and environment. To dispense with the detrimental consequences of chemicals, use of resistant cultivars can prove one of the effective and reliable alternative approaches for the management of this pest. As the information regarding resistant ...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
...anesthesia is frequently used in pregnant female undergoing caesarean section due to its safety than general anaesthesia. Post dural puncture headache (PDPH) is commonly occurring problem associated with spinal anaesthesia and causes a considerable morbidity. PDPH depends on several factor and various methods have been used to reduce and treat the pain of PDPH. We evaluated effects of hydr...

H.I. Hosein1, Sherin Reda Rouby1*, Ahmed Menshawy1 and Ahmed E. AbdAl-Ghany2 

...me diagnostic procedures used for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis on serological, bacteriological and molecular basis. A total of 141 cows from brucella infected farms under quarantine of the veterinary authorities were employed. Serological examination using BPAT, RBT and CFT in 141 cows revealed 109 (77. 3), 105 (74.47) and 104 (73.76) seropositive respectively. Relative sensitivity, relative specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive val...
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
...al adaptation, providing useful information for the sustainable conservation of this fish.
...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Munir3 and Muhammad Sohail Khan

... placement technique was used in this study. Strands were cut from a freshly opened male spathe and 2 – 3 strands were placed between the strands of the female inflorescence. Data were collected for fruit set (%), fruit drop (%), fruit yield (kg palm-1) and wide range of physico-chemical quality parameters. Results revealed that pollination times affected all the parameters significantly. Maximum fruit set of 98.12, 93.14% and fruit yield of 79.43 and 78...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
...tch and effort data were used to estimate the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of Portunus spp. to evaluate the population state of crab fishery from Pakistani waters. The catch and effort data of crab fishery from 1999-2009 were obtained from and handbook of Fisheries Statistics of Pakistan. Two computer software programs CEDA and ASPIC were used which were based on surplus production models. From CEDA Fox, Schaeder a...
Aqsa Imtiaz and Abdul Rehman*
...subtilis BML5 can be used to overcome the poultry wastes based environmental pollution and keratinase could be used to improve feather meal digestibility in animal feed as an additive.
...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...mel hypoplasia have been used by different paleontologists as stress indicator in evaluation of palaeo-environments. The present study involves the analysis of enamel hypoplasia in seven extinct giraffid species to determine and compare stress periods during the early Miocene to Pleistocene ages of the Siwaliks of Pakistan. Enamel hypoplasia is a tooth malady which is caused by the deficiency of food/nutrients. The feeding d...
Pan Hong, Ruonan Li, Yumeng Li, Hainan Lan* and Xin Zheng*
...porcine hepatocytes were used as a somatic cell model to study the internalization and subcellular localization of porcine growth hormone (pGH), and the results showed that pGH could be internalized into porcine hepatocytes in a time-dependent manner. The results also showed that pGH could be translocated into cell nuclei in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the subcellular localization, according to immunoelectron microscopy, showed that pGH was localized...
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...onic lung disease that causes inflammation and narrows the air passages. Present study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of asthma patients and to investigate the alteration in similarity and diversity of gut microbial composition with comparison of healthy controls. Fecal samples from fifteen patients and five healthy individuals were collected. PCR-DGGE, by using universal primers focusing V3 region of 16S rRNA gene, was performed for characterization...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...G>A). The source data used to calculate the indicators of reproduction were collected from cows inseminated by semen of Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian bulls and giving birth to single calf. The following information was taken from each animal: age at first insemination, age at first calving, number of semen portions attributable to successful insemination, length of pregnancy and periods of: insemination service, postpartum resting period, interpregnancy...
İbrahim Aytekin1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Koksal Karadas3, Rifat Akşahan4 and İsmail Keskin1
... of 103 young bulls were used. In the prediction of fattening final live weight as an output variable, several continuous predictors evaluated in the current study were: withers height (WH), back height (BH), front rump height (FRH), back rump height (BRH), body length (BL), back rump width (BRW), chest depth (CD) and chest circumference (CC). Also, the breed factor was considered as a nominal predictor and fattening period (FP) was accepted as an ordinal pred...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

...osphorus for enhancing P use efficiency and crop growth at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar. Wheat (cv. Atta Habib-2010) seeds were first germinated in sand culture and then three weeks old seedlings (7.5 cm) were transferred to water tubs containing Hoagland solution without P. The treatments included 0, 18, 36, 72, 144 and 216 mM as KH2PO4 solution foliarly applied three times with one week intervals...
Muhammad Siraj-ud-Din1,2, Riaz Aziz Minhas1, Usman Ali3,*, Mayoor Khan2, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Nuzhat Shafi1 and Basharat Ahmad1
...ted to determine habitat use and feeding preference of urial in Gilgit Baltistan. Current study is the first and only detailed study about the habitat and feeding ecology of these wild sheep in Pakistan. The study provides baseline data about the study topic which will help conservation management of the species in the area. The habitat use of urial was determined on the basis of direct or indirect evidence (e.g. animal sigh...
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...nd thus support the safe use of MOS in fish feed.
...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
... was tested under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. A sharp reduction in the population of T. urticae was obtained after one week of applying Huwa-San TR50 at a rate of 4000 ppm. This resulted in mortalities of 82.10 and 78.60% under greenhouse and laboratory conditions, respectively. The side effects of Huwa-San TR50 on predatory mite, Neosiulus cucumeris, were also tested to gain successful implementation...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...tudy would recommend the use of oxamyl in managing and controlling the infestation of RPW.
...
Rana Hanan1*, Muhammad Waqar Shafi1, Sumair Anwar2 and Numrah Nawaz1
...c disease and a silent cause of high causalities around the globe. Both hyper and pre-hypertension affect all ages and professions, and are as common as flu infections by affecting 1 in every 5 persons. In order to determine frequency of hypertension and pre-hypertension among medical students and their association with various variable and fixed risk factors, this study was designed. The cross sectional study of 4 months was carried out on the students of Sha...
Wen-Feng Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying-Kun Huang*, Rong-Yue Zhang, Jiong Yin, Zhi-Ming Luoand Hong-Li Shan
...f cane and sugar yield caused by the combined occurrence of Tetramoera schistaceana (Snellen) and Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) were measured in pesticide–treated and untreated areas during 2014-2016. The results indicated that the in untreated areas, percent dead-heart was 8.30% - 58.83%, the percent stalk injured was 26.73% - 96.67%, the percent internodes bored was 4.40% - 25.87%, and the effective stem number was reduced by 4440-21900 st...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...eporter gene system were used to predict and verify the target relationship between miR-122 and DUSP4/PDK4, miR-449a and FKBP1B. Thereafter, comparison analysis was done on miR-122, miR-449a, DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B mRNA expression levels in different bull testes tissues (1-day, 12-months-old and 24-months-old). In addition, genes mRNA and protein levels were detected after bull testicular Sertoli cells were transfected...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*
... sections were mainly focused on luminal epithelium, glands and vascular epithelial cells. This study revealed the molecular expression of AR and the distribution of intracellular proteins in the oviduct of the hen, which provides an important basis for the regulation of the physiological activities of poultry oviduct and the molecular mechanism of sperm storage.
...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...bility to phosphine were used in this study. Based on LC50, five populations (previously exposed to phosphine for 15 years)viz., Mandi Bahauddin-I (MBDIN-I), Mandi Bahauddin-II (MBDIN-II), Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sargodha were labeled as phosphine-tolerant populations and one population never exposed to any insecticide/fumigant for 13 years was termed as phosphine-susceptible population. Percent change in the activities of above mentioned micr...
Wanrong Wei and Weiguo Zhang* 
...The temporary burrow was used to avoid predators in emergency situations, and probably was the initial stage of construction of more complex burrows of some dispersing pikas. Permanent burrows were used for avoiding predators, resting and rearing offsprings.
...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

... study showed integrated use of glyphosate and tillage systems in general did not affect soil moisture content (P > 0.05). However, soil moisture content was 9% higher in NT + GH as compared to check (1 MBP + 8 CS; P ≤ 0.05). Soil moisture content was significantly higher at 30-45 cm soil depth as compared to top soil (0-30 cm; P ≤ 0.05). Besides, higher soil moisture content was measured at wheat developmental stage relative to other stages (P ≤ 0...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...udy investigated nesting use of tree species by avifauna at Pabbi Range Forest Kharian (32.811°N and 73.865°E), District Gujrat, from September 2013 to June 2015. Data were collected from five selected sampling sites by searching and identifying nests of different bird species in various vegetation types and observing birds on the nest. The nests were monitored for breeding activity of the particular bird species through clutch size, incubation period,...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...he results supported the use of Comet assay for evaluating the toxicity of pollutants which may be used as part of environmental monitoring programs.
...

Naila Riaz1 , Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2* , Khizar Samiullah3

... and 0.5µl venom caused 100% mortality at 8 hr post-treatment compared to 10 hr and 12 hr post-treatment of topical application, respectively. It is concluded that oral treatment of venom was more efficient compared to its topical treatment with same doses of treatment.

 

...

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...e the worldwide data because more of males are affected in the selected family. For the males the age at onset was higher compared to females and the affected individuals were unmarried and unemployed. Parental consanguinity was another important determinant studied and was identified that three of four offsprings of cousin marriage were schizophrenic. It was concluded from the present study that along with inherited nature of schizophrenia importance of share...

Ayesha Aihetasham1*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2, Syeda Rida Hasan1, Imran Bodlah3

...f extract of C. papaya caused highest mortality i.e. 100% of 10%, 5% and 3% concentration. Bougainvillea glabra and H. annus caused 100% mortality at 10% and 5% concentration while 96.4% mortality on 3% concentration after exposure period of 10 hours. B. glabra extracts also caused 100% mortality on 10% and 5% concentration while 96.4% mortality on 3% concentration. C. papaya showed the mi...

Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain1, Farhat Jabeen1, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain 2,Sajjad Ahmad3, Abida Ashraf4,Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1

...nce. Test ingredient was used as M.oleiferaleaf meal (MOLM) to prepare six experimental diets that were supplemented with graded levels of phytase (0, 300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 FTU kg-1). The fingerlings were fed at the rate of 4% of live wet weight twice a day and feces were collected from each tank. On the basis of results it was noted that addition of phytase showed clearly significant (p<0.05) enhancement in bioavailability of minerals. Maximum ADC% ...

Manzoor Hussaina,b

... (up to TSI 5 days) were used to generate the autosomal DNA profile of the semen donor and twenty of the post coital vaginal swabs obtained at the TSI of 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 days were not tested for autosomal STR profile and were saved for subsequent analysis of Y-STRs. It was found that autosomal DNA profile of semen donor up to TSI 48 hours is feasible; however, chances of getting complete male DNA, partial male DNA profile and no male profile at TSI 72 hours ...

Fatima Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3, Fouzia Tabbsum3, Javed Iqbal Qazi3
 

...ls could successfully be used as substrate for cellulase production in submerged fermentation.

...

 Maleeha Manzoor1*, Madiha Manzoor2, Qurat-ul-ain Ahmed3, Sobia Ahmed4, Shazia Manzoor5

 Maryum Fakhar, Iqra Jabbar, Anjum Nasim Sabri*

...r provides the basis for use of bacteria isolated from saline environment and to check their biofilm forming ability under nickel stress. Our previous results showed that these bacteria are capable of producing proline, glycine betaine, choline and other osmolytes under NaCl stress. On the basis of those results it is hypothesized that this osmolyte production ability may help them in nickel resistance under Ni salt stress. This study was centered on assessing...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...tify;"> Major aroma used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries is chemically synthesized vanillin. The current research was carried out to explore local bacterial isolates for vanillin production using waste residues of rice bran oil. After the screening of different bacterial isolates, a novel strain Enterobacter hormaechei showed significant production of vanillin when inoculated in waste residues of rice bran based media. E. hormaechei prod...

Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Khanum Zahra2, Arooj Zaheer2, Khizar Samiullah3

...er silk is important because of its maximum mechanical strength, biocompatibility and biodegradability, pore filling ability and very low immunogenicity. In this review structure and types of silk producing gland, spinning process, chemistry of spider silk fiber, mechanical properties and applications of silk in health, military industry and many other fields is discussed. Its antifungal and antimicrobial potentials are also explored. Researchers are trying to...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
... by cardiac puncture and used for estimation of hematological and some serum biochemical parameters. The hematological parameters did not show any significant variation between the two groups. From amongst serum biochemical parameters triglycerides (P = 0.02) in CGP55845 treated mice showed significant increase compared to the control mice. All other studied parameters remained unaffected indicating that CGP55845 can be injected intraperitonially for the treat...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
...eg;C on engorged ticks caused no effects on egg viability, whereas 4°C and prolonged 37°C and 40°C treatments on engorged H. longicornis decreased the hatchment rate of their eggs. These findings suggest that the tick H. longicornis could adapt a wide range of climate conditions and showed high tolerance to cold and low tolerance to heat.
...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Humaira Aziz1 and Khalid Zamir Rasib2
... and Mirage during 8 h caused less than 97% mortality in 8 h. LC50 values for Pronil and Mirage were 39.81 ppm and 177.32 ppm, respectively. Pronil was found more toxic than Mirage with low LC50 value however both insecticides revealed to be non-repellent against H. indicola.
...
Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
...ted as the most common cause of mortality. Lahore and Sahiwal districts of Punjab, Pakistan were selected during 2016 for the present study. A total of 616 foals were examined out of which 447 diarrheic foals were sampled for isolation of bacteria. During the study 294 faecal samples (horse n=217, mules n=23 and donkey n=54) were diagnosed positive for bacteria. The overall prevalence of diarrhea was 72.56% with bacteria in 65.77% of diarrheic cases. The preva...
Faiza Hassan1, Mubshara Saadia1,*, Muhammad Sher1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Muhammad Arshad3,Asam Riaz4 and Mahmood Ahmad Khan5
...ug combinations commonly used as antidiabetic.
...

Ayesha Aihetasham*, Faiza Qayyum and Muhammad Xaaceph

...mportant insects. They cause damage to furniture, household goods, timber and forest vegetation. Present study was designed to determine the effect of fungus isolates at six different exposure times on Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann), which is one of the major destructive termites of Pakistan. Fungal conidia were repellent to C. heimi. The workers of C. heimi were exposed to fungus for 60, 45, 30, 20, 15, 10 minutes and percenta...

 Addishiwot Fekdu, Afework Bekele and Demeke Datiko*

.... Twenty-five traps were used to capture the rodents. Four hundred sixty two (462) individuals of small mammals were captured and one recorded as observed species during both dry and wet season. They were identified into six species. Among these, 458 (99.1%) were rodents and 4 (0.9%) were insectivores. The trapped species were: Lophuromys melanonyx (242), Stenocephalemys albocaudata (126), Arvicanthis blicki (86), Mus Mahomet (3), Dendromus lovati (1), and Cro...

Farah Rauf Shakoori, Momina Shokat, Faiza Saleem and Tanzeela Riaz

...ortance commercially because of its high stability at elevated temperatures and in alkaline conditions. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen xylanase producing bacteria and to optimize cultural conditions for maximum production of enzyme from locally isolated bacteria and to optimize the assay conditions under which enzyme possessed maximum activity. Two bacterial isolates XPB-GS02 and XPB-CW01 with maximum activity ratio showed 18.3 and 12.2 U/ml...

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

... in situ to keep for the use of future generation.

...

Phong Huy Pham*

...its abdomen segments are used by D. esuriens. The first sting aims at the sixth segment and the second at the seventh segment. The total time of catching the prey is about four minutes. A green worm, one of mainly insect pests on sesban, is one of the preferred prey of D. esuriens. 

...
Zia ur Rehman1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3
...hicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature (25ºC ± 2ºC and RH 65 ±5%) while chicks in HAT group were kept at high ambient temperature. In the TN zone, significantly (P< 0.05) higher feed intake and weight gain were recorded on day 21, 28, 35 and 42. Feed intake in TN zone was 3.02, 9.79, 9.74 and 12.14 % higher than feed intake recorded on the corresponding days in HAT while weight gain in thermoneutral zone was 9.28,...
Ozgur Altan*
...raw material that can be used in fish feed ingredient by means of a system called flash dryer has been researched. Before being subjected to drying and grinding in the flash dryer system, the FBP have been passed through the press and decanter, and it has been endeavored to separate the liquid part to the extent possible and to store them separately. At the end of the study, the fatty acids content in the liquid part, the nutrient content, amino acid and fatty...
Yunjun Yan, Zhenming Lü, Tianming Wang, Yongjiu Chen, Jingwen Yang, Baoying Guo, Lihua Jiang, Changwen Wu and Liqin Liu*
...codon ATA and all others use the standard ATG. Ten protein-coding genes use TAA as the termination codon and the rest share the termination codon TAG. There are five cases where tRNA genes appear to overlap. The LNCR of O. dollfusi was 926 nucleotides and no repeated sequences were found in this LNCR. Phylogenetic analysis of 24 cephalopoda species based on the complete mitochondrial genome showed that the O...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

.... coli and NDV can cause substantial economic losses by exercising additive or synergistic pathogenic effect in the reproduction of respiratory disease if given simultaneously or three days apart.
...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...imal expiratory flow was used as a surrogate marker for lung function, accounted for the change in the dependent variable to the greatest degree (Adjusted R2= 0.38, p< 0.001). Overall the three models consistently showed that positive family history, high body mass index, heavy smoking, poor lung function (mid maximal expiratory flow/FEF2575, FEV1 and FVC), older age and requirement of steroid therapy predicted increased frequency of exacerbation...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...nagement all the farmers used pesticides haphazardly while 1.3% used after it. 90.7%, 86.7% and 97.3% farmers were aware of economic threshold level of harmful insects, use of pesticides at economic threshold level and clean cotton picking respectively. 94.7% growers adopted thinning of plants, 91.3% knew pest scouting, 87.3% used pesticides after pest s...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...-20 days earlier than it used to be 20 year ago (1992-2012). Similar change was reported in the time of fruit tree blossoming because of the onset of early summer and shortening of winter season. Majority of farmers believe that warmer climate caused a variety of new crop diseases. Survey reveals that there is not only decrease in the amount of rainfall but the timing of rainfall is also c...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

...ign: justify;">The study used a Stochastic Frontier Approach for measuring the technical efficiency of strawberry production at farm level. For this purpose data has been collected from 382 randomly selected strawberry producers of two purposively selected villages of district Charsadda. Out of 382 producers 176 were located in Tebana Dhere and 206 in Sarkai village. It is find out that 47% of land area was under the cultivation of strawberry with average prod...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...(O, A, Asia1) already in use at animal health.Viral RNAs were extracted using R Neasy Minikit (Qiagen) according to instruction manual. After extraction RNAs were eluted in 60 ul elution buffer and stored at -70C. Each strain of FMD virus was serially diluted to -5dilution in order to check the efficacy of test. Reaction was completed in 1 hr and 10 min at temperatures 600C. It was also tested in hot water bath on same temperature. Results were same...
Lowell Gustafson
...terested in religion because they want to know why people believe what they do; and (3) it is a mark of hubris or pride that a religious person (or even a scientist) would claim total knowledge about ultimate reality. Ted Peters adds to a discussion that is taking place along our current pilgrimage, but he would be the first to say that is not the final word about ultimate reality.
...

Muhammad Zamin* and Abdul Mateen Khattak 

... these ecotypes could be used for turf purposes in public landscape under saline environments. 

...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...canker of tomato (BCT) caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), in a set of 20 weeds commonly found in tomato fields of major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Northwest Pakistan. Based on agroclimate, KP was divided into five zones as Northern KP, Southern KP, Eastern KP, Western KP and Central KP. A total of 100 collected weed samples were analyzed in laboratory for the presence of bacteria. The samples were cru...
...more periodic in lions housed at Lahore Zoo (site 1) in contrast to lions at display at Safari zoo Lahore (site 2). The frequency of natural behavior was periodic in African lions housed at Safari zoo Lahore. In the present study stereotypic behavior in lions represented here as a tool to measure the level of comfort at housing sites. This behavioral display also defines the safety of these groups of lions kept in distinct c...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
... dominant species were house crow, Corvus splendens (n=2518), house sparrow, Passer domesticus (n=772), common myna, Acridotheres tristis (n=327), black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax (n=190) and jungle babbler, Turdoides striatus (n=186). Among 71 species, Alexandrine parakeet, Psittacula eupatria was the only near threatened species: all other species were least concern...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
..., regardless of the gene used either F or N, clustered in lineage IV which is the most prominent and prevalent lineage of Asia. The distribution of Pakistani strains of PPRV was more dispersed as the isolate collected from Taxilla was clustered slightly distinct compared to rest of the isolates collected from Pakistan. Our findings are indicative of PPR endemic state of the country.
...

Muhammad Luqman1,3, Raheel Saqib2*, Xu Shiwei3 and Yu Wen3 

... male head as well as spouses of each selected farm family. The total sample size of the study was 300 (150 male and 150 female spouses). A designed structured questionnaire was prepared for the data collection as the research instrument. The data thus collected were coded on SPSS for analysis and interpretation. Results showed that there is significant difference in age and educational status of male heads and their spo

Ronaq Zaman*, Shahid Ali and Inam Ullah 

...estimation technique was used. To ensure the abnormality of data set Chow test and Dummy variable test was employed for any possible structure break across the broiler farms. Results indicated that there were significant structural breaks across the sampled farms. Based on these findings three different model was estimated for small, medium and large farms, respectively. The mean calculated technical efficiencies for small, medium and large farms were respecti...
Senol Celik1,* and Orhan Yilmaz2
...r breeding, racing and housekeeping. However, variables and factors that correctly estimate this trait are lacking. Here, we applied classification and regression tree (CART) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) approaches to estimate the most important variables in predicting the body weight of Turkish Tazi dogs. Using various body measurements, the CART algorithm proposed that withers height (WH), abdominal width (AW), rump height (RH) and che...

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

...asites and predators are used to check pest growth instead of pesticides which reduces ecological and health damage. Pesticides are used at the last resort in IMP method so it reduces the cost of production and increases the farmers’ profit. However, concerns about production may hinder widespread adoption of this technology by farmers. The aim of the study is to evaluate economic feasibility of IPM method in Punjab. T...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...s, soil conditioners are used. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of soil conditioning and irrigation regimes on the performance of maize crop during 2011 and 2012. Four irrigation regimes ranging from 3-6 irrigation in relation to the critical stages of maize crop were applied. Irrigation consisted of 93 mm water. Three organic soil conditioners viz., farmyard manure (10000 kg ha-1), wheat straw as crop residue (10000 kg ha-1) and two levels of...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

... the most essential food used by nearly 40% of the total population of the world. Yellow or stripe rust (produced by Puccinia striiformis), is a globally significant disease of wheat. Stripe rust was primarily considered a disease of cooler climate (2°C - 15°C), upper altitudes and northern latitudes, but current epidemics of the disease have confronted this supposition because fresh strains have greater adaptation ...

Wang Jian1, Abdur Rehman2*, Noor Khan3, Wang Zhengjia4, Ji Peng-fei5, Xie Cong6, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan Babar7 and Raheel Saqib8 

...et income of the rural households using statistical data of Hebei province China for the period 2000-2014.The descriptive statistical analysis, correlation test, Extend Linear Expenditure System (ELES) model, Gray relational analysis and the residual test have been used in this study.The results of the study indicates that all the rural households consumption have the increasing trend exce...

Afsheen Masood1*, Rubab Musarrat2, Shama Mazahir3 and Adeela Ashraf4  

...control study design was used. The sample consisted of N=120 parents out of which n=60 were the parents of children with leukemia and n=60 were the parents of normal children, , taken as normal cohort and drawn through non-probability purposive sampling procedure. Both cohorts were matched on the basis of the age and income level of the parents. Quality of Life Scale WHOQOLS and Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collec...

Aneeza Jamshed1* and Syed Amir Gillani2 

...average percentages were used to find out the difference between pre and post awareness performances and t score and p value was calculated. All the students (150) were boys, 98% belonged to a lower middle class family with the age of 9-12 years. During pre-testing evaluation, students were never given the knowledge about hepatitis C, its source of transmission (contaminated syringes) and its secondary prevention. Only 3% knew that it can be prevented. About 6...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...e extent. Similarly, the use of chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure was also decreased due to decrease in the income of the households after the floods-2010 while an increase, though non-significant, was reported with respect to use of agricultural chemicals. The floods-2010 has also had adverse effects on crops production where significant decrease has occurred in wheat, sugarcane a...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...elf-treatment and higher use of penicillin in general ailments had positive association with MDR prevalence. The study concluded higher prevalence of MDR S. aureus in camel milk with significant association of assumed risk factors and some of antibiotics presented higher scope of treatment.
...
Justyna Batkowska1,*, Lukasz Wlazlo2, Kamil Drabik1, Bozena Nowakowicz-Debek2, Karrar I.A. Al-Shammari3 and Magdalena Gryzinska1
...ce of red grapefruit was used as disinfectant (GT). Eggs were incubated under standard condition. On 14th day eggs were candled to determine infertile eggs or dead embryos, as well as samples of eggs to microbial analysis were. After 17.5 days of incubation its results were evaluated. Chicks were reared for 14 days and their livability and body weight gains were registered. The effectiveness of grapefruit juice as a disinfectant for hatching eggs wa...
Sumaira Zareen1, Syeda Sadaf Zahra2, Ayeza Mehmood3, Muhammad Asadullah4* and Aish Muhammad5

 

...ealthy grown plants were used as explants and cultured on standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of benzyl amino purine (BAP) or kinetin for shoot induction and Indole acetic acid (IAA) for primary shoot and Indole Butyric acid (IBA) for root proliferation. Best shoot proliferation (4.48 per explant) was observed in MS medium containing 0.2/0.4 mg/L BAP/IAA combination. For rooting of the micro shoo...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...f cereals with excessive use of chemical fertilizers bring forth higher production cost and pollute the soil environment. Therefore, some alternative but sustainable, environment friendly and cost effective approaches of nutrient management can be a possible solution for these problems. So the present study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, Groundnut Research Station Attock, Pakistan during rabi 2013-14 to check the effect of different integrated nutri...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
...acid and determining its usefulness by applying on food products. Natural edible color was extracted from T. erecta gave lemon yellow color shade which when applied on candies increased the attractiveness. The spectrophotometric analysis at 474nm of extracted color both in crude form and in candies was found to be stable at 4oC and showed decay in mean lutein concentration at higher temperatures i.e. 25oC and 45oC. The m...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

...are unit. 14% parents refused for KMC position and discharged. Mortality in preterm newborn in neonatal unit was 29.4% (without KMC) but no mortality occurred after 3 months follow up in KMC babies. All the neonates from KMC unit were discharged in satisfactory condition and called for follow up investigations. All Kangaroo Mother Care babies had exclusive breast-feeding. Taken together, the results indicate that prolonged skin-to-skin contact and exclusive br...
Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Idrees1,*, Kafeel Ahmad1, Dawood Ahmad2, Sajid Ali3 and Shumaila Bashir4
...is H37Rv were used as reference strains. RAPD-PCR differentiated the strains and authenticated the high molecular diversity. PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) profiles of all isolates and reference strains were found to be the same. PRA is a valid alternative to phenotypic identification in a routine diagnostic laboratory. High diversity values were found in the studied area implying high population diversity of M. tuberculosis that&rsquo...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
...hetic nerve pathways, we used immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, Western blot and in situ hybridization to detect the expression and distribution of IL-18Rα in the inferior mesenteric ganglion of the female goat. Our results showed that IL-18Rα mRNA and proteins are expressed in the IMG, which provides molecular evidence for the study of immune and neuro-modulation in the female reproductive system.
...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...species and hence can be used for the management of insect pests.
...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

...camps, campaigns, open houses, seminars and symposiums as well as day-to-day bases dealing with clinical directors and managers. This research was conducted to study the leadership styles among the medical professionals. For this purpose, a cross sectional and non-probability convenient sampling was conducted involving 59 medical professionals of Azra Naheed Medical College, Lahore. The assessment of leadership-style (T-P leadership rating scale) was applied. ...

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...rus. It is a principal cause of long lasting morbidity, mostly from serious pelvic pain(1). Endometriotic tissue has the potential for aromatase gene expression that leads to aromatase and estrogen production. Danazol is a synthetic androgen whereas Letrozole is aromatase inhibitor. This study was conducted to compare the mean decrease in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score with Danazol versus Letrozole for the pain management of endometriosis in females. A...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

...ecurity is among major causes of under-nutrition and has been associated with low birth weights. This study aimed to assess the effect of maternal food insecurity on birth weight of neonates in Lahore, Pakistan.Ina prospective cohort conducted at Shalamar Hospital Lahore; from April to August 2016, written informed consents were obtained from 103 eligible pregnant women. Data on demography was collected through a structured questionnaire and exposure was asses...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

... and increasing demand causes fall in hemoglobin level leading to anemia and adverse pregnancy outcome especially in young girls. Anemia is a major public health problem. Around 58.27 million women worldwide are anemic during pregnancy 95% of whom live in countries that are developing. To know the frequency of anemia, and obstetric outcome in terms of preterm delivery, low birth weight and rate of caesarean section in young Primigravida. It was a cross section...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
...ly generation may not be useful and it has to be delayed till segregating generations.
...

S. M. I. Hossain*, S. U. K. Eusufzai and M. A. Rahman**

...n soil bed settlings are used as planting material.

...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...xing of ingredients were used. Recipe “A” containing rice, mung, potato and poppy seed was organoleptically preferred. No significant change in moisture content, peroxide value and free fatty acid were observed during three months storage in double polyethylene bags at ambient temperature (20-25 ºC).

...

Ata-ul-Mohsin*, Ehsan-ul-Haq** and Muhammad Naeemullah*

...-align: justify;">Glasshouse studies were conducted to ascertain the effects of nutrient solutions of calcium and phosphorus on the growth and development of rose grain aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) and its parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Steph.). High calcium and high phosphorus concentrations applied to a partially resistant wheat cultivar “Rapier” did not have a significant effect on the growth and development of the aphid or its p...

Naheed Akhtar, Noreen Moin, Ghulam Jilani*, Ata ul Mohsin**, Shaheena Yasmin, Afzala Tashfeen*, Munir Goraya**** and Irshad Begum*

...als (NUWYT) 2004-05 were used. Among the tested germplasm (one variety and 11 lines of wheat), V-5 line was found resistant and NRL-2017 line was found susceptible to Rhopalosiphum padi. The results of Antixenosis Test indicated that two wheat lines, V-5 and PR-83 were least preferred and three lines viz., NRL-2017, V-00055 and V-00BT004 were highly preferred by the test insect. The results of Antibiosis Test showed that PR-83 line was least fecund whereas NR-...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

...mal supplies, imbalanced use of fertilizers particularly of DAP fertilizer below the recommended doses, higher prices of inputs such as seed, fertilizer, diesel, electricity and less wheat prices during 2006-07 and late announcement of the minimum guaranteed wheat price for 2007-08 were the main reasons of lower wheat production in 2007-08. To enhance the wheat yield, farmers were of the view that the timely availability of quality inputs (seed, fertilizers) a...

 Z. A. Soomro, M.B. Kumbhar, A.S. Larik*, M. Imran** and S.A. Brohi***

...simultaneously, could be useful in the genetic improvement of yield and yield components in upland cotton.

...

 Nasreen Sultana* and A.Ghaffar**

...lodia theobromae , the cause of seed rot, seedling and root infection on bottle gourd was studied in vitro and in vivo. Carbendazim and Topsin-M completely inhibited the growth of L. theobromae in vitro at 50 ppm whereas Aliette, Benlate, Mancozeb, Ridomil and Vitavax showed complete inhibition of colony growth at 100 ppm. Invariably all fungicides at three different concentration viz., 1, 2, 3 g (a.i.) kg-1 seeds reduced the recovery of the seed borne fungi. ...

 Mohammad Siddique Munawar, Shazia Raja, Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure* and Muhammad Barkat**

...rican Foulbrood (AFB), caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is a serious disease of honey bees worldwide that inflicts considerable economic losses to beekeepers. All work was undertaken in a commercial apiary that showed visual signs of AFB infection. Twenty four hives positive for AFB were identified from the apiary (4 colonies in each replicate). Half of the colonies were treated with shook swarm method while other half were left without any treatme...

 Aneela Afzal, Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Humera Amin and Samina Saki*

...m sampling technique was used to collect the data from 480 respondents from three tehsils of the district. The results show that a vast majority of women were illiterate, having annual family income less than one lac, living in joint family system and having small land farms. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they remained engaged in cleaning of seeds, sowing, harvesting, weeding, etc. for corn, rice, wheat, sugarcane, and vegetables’ p...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

...‘T’ test was used to compare the difference in milk yield. Farmers reported 0.5 to 2 liters per day increase in milk yield with the use of balance feed. The paired sample ‘T’ test depicts statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in milk yield before and after the use of balance feed. The locally produced balance feed was found cost effective along with bet...

 Babar Hussain*, Muhammad Ashfaq**, Mazher Abbas***, Khalid Mahmood**** and M. Ather Mahmood***

...intervention. This study used the monthly wholesale price (Rs. / 40 kg) data from January 1991 to December 2006 of gram, in logarithmic form and empirically estimated the degree of integration in gram markets of Pakistan using co-integration analysis. Co-integration results show that all gram markets are highly co-integrated in the long run. The high degree of market integration observed in this case is consistent with the view that Pakistan’s gram marke...

 Sikander Khan Tanveer, Shaheena Yasmin, Imtiaz Hussain, M.Yaqub Mujahid*, Muhammad Munir and Muhammad Asif**

...h four replications. Because of different combinations of fertilizer NP and FYM, statistically significant differences in biological yield, grain yield and yield components of wheat were recorded. Maximum wheat grain yield of 4083 kg ha-1 was obtained with the application of full fertilizer and FYM. Minimum grain yield and biological yield were recorded with no fertilizer and only FYM application. Different combinations of fertilizer NP with and without FYM di...

 Zafar Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain**, Badruddin Khokhar* and Muhammad Sohail**

...) were in sub plots. Because of better tillering, plant growth, growth period, number of grain per unit area and grain weight, November 15 planted wheat had maximum grain yield of 5904 kg ha-1, followed by November 1 and December 1 which gave 5302 and 4948 kg ha-1 respectively. Wheat planted on December 15 resulted in minimum grain yield of 4756 kg ha-1. Wheat genotype, V-7002 had significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield of 5578 kg ha-1 in comparison with ...

 Rahmat Ullah Khan, Abdur Rashid*, Mohammad Sohail Khan** and Erdogan Ozturk***

...of inorganic fertilizer, use of natural fertilizer resources for increasing crop production on sustainable basis has become imperative. Two field experiments were conducted to study the potential of humic acid (HA) as a low-cost natural fertilizer and to determine its effect on the yield of rainfed wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Naseer) at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan during two successive winter seasons, 2007-08 an...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...re needed to rapidly diffuse the more recently released varieties among the farmers. The sugarcane growers in KP are suggested to increase varietal diversity on their farms to avoid any risk of complete crop failure due to any reason. Sugar mills in all three provinces are suggested to take serious note of status of adoption of different sugarcane varieties through a collective action in their respective provinces. Activities like planting demonstration plots ...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...sing vermitechnology and use of vermicompost and vermiwash obtained from the vermitech in varied combinations for exploring the effect on soil and productivity of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in Guyana. The soil quality was monitored during the experiment along with plant growth parameters of Okra. The study revealed that combination organic fertilizers vermicompost and vermiwash combination [VW+VC] compared with control [CON] and chemical fertilizers [CHM], ...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...owar region of Punjab, household and sedentary system of goat production is practiced. The availability of feed varies according to the season. Goats in the region are under nourished and producing less than potential. This study was conducted to find out the feed supplementation practices of goats in the Pothowar region. Data for this study was collected for the complete calendar year 2008. Data sheets were prepared in Urdu and provided to 100 literate female...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...ble to grow oilseeds because in trade-off between food and fuel, food should win. Before launching commercial production of Jatropha in Pakistan key issues need to be addressed including maintaining the goal of food security, water scarcity, cost-effectivity, and feasibility of Jatropha in comparison with oilseeds, pulses, feed crops and fuel-wood plants.

...

 Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Amanullah, Saifullah Khan, Basharat Hussain Shah and Munir Ahmed Khetran*

...s were kept in a shade house and humidity was increased manually by hand sprinkling (four times in a day). Highest rooting percentage (60%) was obtained in the cuttings treated with 3000 ppm. The maximum average number of roots per cutting (4.443) and average root length (5.687 cm) were recorded with 4000 ppm IBA treatment. Percentage of rooted cuttings decreased with increased IBA concentration, whereas, number of roots and root length increased with increase...

Barkat Ali*, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah, Ghulam Shabbir** and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

...iallel mating design was used to study the inheritance of different plant traits in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Six genotypes viz., BJA-592, ACALA-SJ-4, 4-F, CP-15/2, CIM-497 and PB-899 were included in diallel crosses. Results revealed that over-dominance type of gene action was controlling the inheritance of monopodial and sympodial branches plant height number of bolls and boll weight. The line CP-15/2 possessed maximum dominant genes for monopod...

 Ashiq Saleem, Habib Iqbal Javed, Rashid Saleem,* Muhammad Ansar** and M. Amir Zia*

...120 kgha-1 of Potash was used in three splits. While minimum grain yield was recorded in control. In sorghum, maximum grain yield (4356 kgha-1 ) and stalk yield (13422 kgha-1 ) was recorded with the application of 120 kgha-1 of Potash with three splits. All the parameters except plant height had significant effect in both maize and sorghum. Days to 50% silk in maize are significantly affected by potash when compared with control treatment, but there was no sig...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...onally these species are used for the treatment of fever and pain. Annual or German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), and perennial chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) are the most important species all over the world due to multipurpose uses. Field experiments were conducted at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta to evaluate the growth and production potential of Matricaria recutita. Two crops a year are possible in highlands of...

 Rahila Nazli, Tehmina Sohail, Bushra Nawab and Zahra Yaqeen*

...ferent concentration was used to investigate its antimicrobial activity against gram +ve and gram-ve bacteria. The study was also extended to some species of fungi. Results showed that the activity was more pronounced against gram +ve organisms and fungi. Maximum inhibition activity was calculated against all the groups of organisms, which was between 0.5 and 1mg ml-1 against bacteria and 2.5 mg ml-1 against fungi. It is therefore concluded that G. sepium prov...

 Zaheeruddin Mirani*and Aslam Memon**

...he farmers regarding the use of pesticide/fertilize and/or seeds and other related inputs/products available in the market. Farm visits and result and method demonstration methods of technology transfer were perceived as effective methods of technology transfer. Farmers were able to increase the yields of their farm produce. However, the picture says that there is yield gap between the potential yield obtained by research scientists and yield obtained by the f...

 Rubina Bano, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif and Waqar Akhtar*

...tability index of open house broiler farms and is based on the survey of 40 broiler farms in district Rawalpindi. The analysis covers the descriptive analysis of socioeconomic characteristics of the sample poultry farmers along with cost and profitability analysis. Broiler farming was done by adult males on full time basis. It was the main source of income of a family. The average flock size in the study area was 4033 birds. The study also bifurcates the cost ...

 Muhammad Afzal, Sarfraz Ahmad , Abdul Salam Baloch* and Qazi Bashir Ahmad**

...;Hedonic price model was used to examine factors affecting livestock price formation while price variations due to time were examined using means and coefficients of variation. A sample of price observations of 725 animals (389 sheep and 336 goats) from Quetta livestock market was collected for one year on quarterly basis with a minimum sample of 150 animals. The objective was to determine seasonal price variation considering the effects of different attribute...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...robability technique was used for sampling. In the first stage one union council was selected from each district randomly. In the second stage, 25 subjects involved in rice cultivation from the last 10 years were selected from each union council. Similarly 25 subjects who never worked in the rice paddy field were also randomly selected from each union council as controls. The serum sample of each subject was tested against each of the five antigens against the...

Sana Qanber Abbasi1*, Ejaz Ahmed2 and Rabia Sattar1 

...e common and disabling causes of headaches, has been described by World Health Organization as close to quadriplegia and dementia.Among the headache complaint visitors in the emergency department, the most common are those suffering from migraine. (1) Alinear correlation has been found between rising serum pro BNP levels and Cardiovascular pathologies especially those involving left ventricular dysfunction which may depict a probable association between migrai...

Halima Shoukat1*, Hafiz Sheraz Arshad2, Faiza Sharif1, Arooj Fatima1 and Filza Shoukat

...tightness is commonest cause of altered biomechanics of ankle, knee, hip and spine. Long persistent tightness results in pain, decreased range of motion and others pathologies in knee joint. Stretching techniques are used to treat muscle tightness. In clinical settings, different stretch holding times are used to treat hamstring tightness. The purpose of the study was to determine effects ...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...n in young dogs and is caused chiefly by canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine parvovirus (CPV). While, CPV is considered the most important cause of diarrhea, studies have shown an increasing prevalence and importance of CCoV around the world. Fatal CCoV infections have been described, however, there is limited information on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this study, canine fecal samples from...
Saba Rafique1,2,*, Khalid Naeem1, Naila Siddique1, Muhammad Athar Abbas1, Aamer Ali Shah2, Akbar Ali1, Abdul Rahim1 and Farooq Rashid1
...nce identity values were used to identify the isolate that looked to be derived from recombination. It showed maximum nucleotide homology 99.5% with ck/CH/LHB/121010 (KP036503), India/IBV572 (KF809797) and Japan/JP/Wakayama-2/2004 (AB363951.2) and 99.3% with 4/91 vaccine (KF377577), Iran/491/08 (HQ842715) and 99.1% with India/NMK/72/VRI/10 (HM748585) and was least related to rest of IBV lineages compared in this study. It is concluded that Pak-786 isolate belo...
Promy Virk
...f 7 weeks. Metformin was used as a standard drug. The results of Zetasizer and Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed the presence of spherical to irregularly shaped green gold and silver (Au/Ag) nanopcomposite with an average size of 73.18 nm with polydispersity. A typical optical absorption peak at approximately 2.30 keV and 3.0 keV corresponded to the surface plasmon resonance property of gold and silver nanoparticles respectively. The ...
Abul Hassan Faiz*, Fakhar-i-Abbas and Lariab Zahra Faiz
... without interaction was used for the different soil types (mound and undisturbed soil) to examine the effects of rat burrowing activity on, plant biomass, saturation, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, potassium and phosphorous concentration. These significant differences in soil composition have long-term effects on ecosystem sustainability and productivity of vegetation.
...
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...ellite loci were firstly used to evaluate the genetic characterization using 120 samples from 2 tributaries (ZZ and LX populations) of the Weihe river and 2 tributaries (YX and TB population) of Hanjiang river. A total of 59 alleles were found and the number of alleles in each locus ranged from 3 to 8, with an average of 5.4. There were 6 highly polymorphic loci and 4 moderately polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity (He) and observed (H<...

Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1*, Azhar Abbas1, Raza Ullah1, Umar Ijaz Ahmed2, Ali Sher3 and Shoaib Akhtar4 

...rming for agricultural households. The present study is aimed at investigating the significance of non-farm income in farm household’s poverty and income inequality. Data were collected from 480 cotton growing respondents from six districts of Punjab province of Pakistan and Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index along with Gini coefficient were estimated to assess the impacts of non-farm income on ho

Anish Shrestha 

...tion economics, resource use efficiency, technical efficiency and production problem of honey, produced from Apis mellifera. Total of fifty five households were randomly selected as the sample for the study. Farmers were rearing on an average 34.54 hives and average honey productivity was 34.6 Kg/hive. Average production cost was NRs. 7392.52 with the average net profit of NRs. 2987.05 (1 USD = 106 NRs), and B:C ratio was 1....
Mustafa Sahin1,*, Esra Yavuz1 and Fatih Uckardes2
... RR and PCR methods were used as an alternative to LS. Compared with LS, PCR and RR led to small standard deviations and more accurate and more reliable partial regression coefficients. As a result, it was concluded that the use of RR and PCR analysis methods could be more accurate instead of the LS method under multicollinearity problem.
...
Saleem Abid1*, Nasir Jamal2, Muhammad Zubair Anwar3 and Saleem Zahid4 
... 2012-13 (33 years) were used. Five different forecasting models such as Linear trend model, Quadratic trend model, Exponential growth model, S-curve trend model and double exponential smoothing model were used to find the best fitted model for area and production of potato in Pakistan. Forecasting errors namely mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute deviation (MAD) and mean squared deviation (MSD) were
Umair Riaz*1, Zafar Abbas1, Qamar uz Zaman2, Muhammad Mubashir1, Mahwish Jabeen2, Syed Ali Zulqadar1, Zeenat Javeed1, Saeed-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Muhammad Javid Qamar1
...itability for irrigation use. Water samples from different areas of the tehsil were collected and analysed for various physic-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), sulfates (SO4-), carbonates (CO3-), bicarbonates (HCO3-), sodium (Na+), and chlori...
Muhammad Kashif Maan1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Muhammad Ijaz2, Hamid Akbar1, Sajid Umar 3 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*
... injectable anesthesia caused significant effect on serum biochemical and cardiovascular parameters when compared to inhalation, so, it is a less safe choice during lengthy surgical procedures