Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas Ullah Jan, Dawood Jan

...ality elasticity between urban and rural households is provided using Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) data from Pakistan Social and Standards Living Measurement (PSLM) 2010-11. The elasticities of interest were obtained via log-log inverse (LLI) functional form of Engel equation. The quantity and expenditure elasticities remained less than unity with reasonable differ- ence in magnitude across urban and rural hou...

Frank Griffel

... in white jelabiyya and turban carrying the now famous “Je suis Charlie” sign. The headline above the drawing of the man reads: Tout est pardonné, all is forgiven. Regular readers of the journal know the man with the brown skin, white jelabiyya, and turban well. It is a familiar depiction of the prophet Muhammad as drawn by the caricaturist Luz, a member of Charlie Hebdo’s staff, who survived the atta...

 Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas-ullah Jan, Dawood Jan, Ghaffar Ali and Yousaf Hayat

...ence in magnitude across urban and rural households. Overall, the quality elasticity turned out to be positive with an estimated value of 0.0061 and 0.2375 for wheat & wheat flour and rice & rice flour, respectively. The estimation of quality elasticity based upon income quintiles revealed that the magnitude of quality elasticity increases for rice & rice flour (0.2019 to 0.2639) while decreases for wheat & wheat flour (0.0160 to -0.0012) as ho...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

...>Pakistan is the fastest urbanizing country among all of the South Asian Countries and its rural population may equalize that of the urban till 2030. There are other changes as well like population growth and the wealth effects that have been observed in Pakistan. These changes can affect the consumption pattern of the people, and hence result in the food demand shifts. The current study estimates for the presence of structu...

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...tudy was to identify the urban blowfly species having forensic importance on Ankara University Medical Faculty Cebeci Campus in Ankara. Eight small liver bait traps were used for catching flies. Chicken liver was used in the study to attract blowflies. Eggs and larvae of the flies that oviposited on the liver were raised and identified. Six different indices were used to determine diversity (Shannon-Wiener [H’], Simpson Dominance [Sd], Simpson Diversity ...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...umption decisions of the urban and rural household in order to understand the demand for different food commodities and to determine the effects of important economic factors such as prices and income. Flexible Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2011-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...zoonosis and an emerging urban slum health problem. There is a scarcity of population-based information on the distribution of the infection and transmission determinants for urban Leptospirosis in developing countries. This study aims to source dynamic ecological and epidemiological field parameters to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to a...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...e tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against disturbances, for instance fires in addition to windstorms, and start the bio-worsening of woody tissue. The females lay eggs on the bark surface of the stems and branches of trees as a result rotten woody plants. The larval beetles characteristically feed ...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
... animal markets and peri-urban livestock holdings in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). RBPT positive samples were subjected to a B. abortus specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Serum samples that were confirmed to be positive for B. abortus through serology were subjected to an rPCR in order to test its efficacy in detecting Brucella in blood of i...
Memoona Akber1, Muhammad Mushtaq1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1 and Noor-un-Nisa2 
...Rattus norvegicus in urban areas of Rawalpindi city, Pakistan, live trapping of commensal rodents was carried out from May 2011 through April 2012. A total of 100 rats (R. norvegicus = 65, Rattus rattus = 35) were trapped during 720 trap nights @ 0.13 captures per night and the trap success was 13.88%. Maximum captures of the Norway rats were recorded during summer (n = 33), followed by winter (n = 13), autumn (n = 12) and the least number wa...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...d suddenly after the disturbance occurred. Resting behaviour occupied most of the daytime hours during the adaptive phase, and the proportion was higher than other behavioural types except two times, resting behaviour decreased after 13:00 hours when activity behaviour increased. The adaptation of Milu was documented to a certain extent, it was found that the animal’s behavioural rhythms changed during acclimation to the new habitat. It is likely that re...
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
... due to human caused disturbances and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Molecular methods have an important role in phylogeny and diversity analysis. In Pakistan hog deer (Axis porcinus) is an important wild species belongs to the family Cervidae. The hog deer is one of the least studied species at molecular level in Pakistan. The present study was planned to investigate its molecular phylogeny and diversity analysisusing mitochondrial cyto...

Abbas Ullah Jan1, Muhammad Fayaz1*, Yousaf Hayat2, Dawood Jan3 and Ghaffar Ali3 

...quantity and quality for urban and rural households using household income and expenditure data of Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) survey 2005. The log-log-inverse econometric model, representing nonlinear Engel curve relationship proved to be a valid estimation technique for fruit consumption in Pakistan. The results show that quantity elasticity with respect to income is constant for dates, grapes, guava and mango and tends to increase...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
...and land sliding and disturbances by the increasing human population were major threats to the avian fauna of Rawalakot.
...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
... (APV) etc. in rural and urban areas. To mitigate these problems study was conducted by using binary mixtures of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (isolates Bb-01, Bb-10), Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (isolate Ma-11.1, Ma-2.4)and Isaria fumosorosea (isolates If-2.3, If-02) and chemical insecticides i.e., bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, triazophos, spinosad, pyriproxyfen and nitrinpyrum, as lar...
Naveed Akhtar,1,* Riaz Muhammad2, Kausar Saeed2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Muzaffar Shah3, Jehan Zeb2, Shahid Ahmad2, Azam Jan Afridi4 and  Aftab Hussain5
...llegal and over hunting, urbanization and deforestation are possible factors of extinction formammalian fauna in district Buner. The responsible authorities are requested to take action against such problems to ensure the safety of mammalian fauna of Malka and Mahaban valley district Buner.
...

 Sonila Hassan, Abid Hussain*, Muhammad Azeem Khan** and Irfan Mahmood*

RURAL-URBAN RETAIL PRICES AND MARKETING MARGINS OF FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN PAKISTAN
...keting margins and rural-urban price differences of fresh fruits and vegetables. A checklist and an open-ended questionnaire were developed and used to interview a total of 200 retailers (rural and urban), 100 producers, 30 commission agents and 10 transporters in July 2010. Price data were collected from rural and urban retailers in Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Peshawar, Muzaffarabad and Quetta...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...d as monitoring tools in urban areas of the selected sites. Results showed that mosquitoes are active throughout the year with their most active season during May, September and October. The mean relative abundance of Culex species in different districts were: Peshawar (32.3), Nowshera (18.8), Mardan (20.3) and Charsadda (21.0). Higher numbers of Aedes mosquitoes were observed in Nowshera (19.3), Peshawar (16.4), Charsadda (13.1), and Mardan (9.8), respectivel...

 Mazher Abbas*, Irfan Mehmood*, Arshed Bashir*, Muhammad Ather Mehmood* and Sonila Hassan* 

WOMEN COTTON PICKERS PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HEALTH HAZARDS DUE TO PESTICIDE USE IN IRRIGATED PUNJAB
...ness (54.5%), mental disturbance (9.90%) and fatigue (8.00%). More than 58% women reported their involvement in household decision making regarding food and groceries while 30.6% women involved in decision about education of children. It is suggested that the female cotton pickers should be educated about the importance (in terms of disease treatment and long-run health costs) of using safety measures during and after cotton picking.

...

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

ECONOMICS OF PERI-URBAN RADISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN FAISALABAD
...ected randomly from peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. It was found that majority of farmers were not following recommendations of the agriculture department regarding seed rate, fertilizers, and irrigations. Majority of respondents (94.2%) reported the local Meno as the best yielding variety. Imported and 40 day varieties were not popular as only 5.8% farmers were cultivating these varieties in the study area. On the basis of survey data, benef...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
...I strain considering disturbances caused in the levels/activities of biochemical components.

...

 Abdul Rehman Khan*, Muhammad Mahmood–Ul-Hassan**, Rizwan Ahmad** and Anjum Munir ***

ARSENIC III TOLERANCE POTENTIAL OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AND NON-POLLUTED SOILS OF PAKISTAN
... were isolated from peri-urban soils of Multan and Gujranwala irrigated with untreated industrial or municipal effluent. Some fungal strains were also isolated from non-polluted soils of Islamabad area. Arsenic (III) tolerance potential of 18 fungal isolates was tested by growing them on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium amended with different concentrations of As (50 to 5600 mg/L). The fungal tolerance was evaluated by comparing tolerance index (TI), minimum ...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
Humaira Jabeen and Nazia Jamil*
...ated from the desert and urban soil samples. A total of 39 strains isolated from Cholistan near Bahawalpur and 24 strains were isolated from various areas of Lahore. Bacterial strains were screened for the production and accumulation of bio-plastic. Only three strains from urban soil sample were able to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Strain Acinetobacter seohaensis produced 40.6% bio-plastic when supplemented wi...
Ambreen Asghar, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*
...g ratio of metabolic disturbance and obesity. Despite the genetic regulation of metabolic responses, a close relationship between high energy food-intake and increased body-weight has been reported to support several pathologies in the metabolic and immune system. Present work was designed to evaluate the variations in serum protein level induced by fat rich diet. For this purpose, two groups of Wister rats were fed with diets carrying difference in percentage...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
...ive means that cause disturbance to natural habitat. Cover boards are most likely to be used for long term surveys of amphibians. Furthermore, not even a single sampling technique can record all possible species in particular area. Researchers need to identify aims of survey and possible negative effects of sampling methods used on habitat and taxa under consideration. In addition, study area must be sub-divided into small patches and more than two suitable sa...
Liumeng Zheng1, Yanmei Wang1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yuanzhao Qin3, Yuming Guo3, Hongxing Niu1,* and Yanzhen Bu1,*
...ly tolerant to human disturbances, such as presence of roads. As the population of crested ibises expands, more may move outside of the nature reserve. It is, therefore, important to also implement crested ibis conservation strategies such as public outreach and surveillance outside of the nature reserve, as well as continuing conservation efforts inside of the nature reserve.
...

Muhammad Suhaib1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Masooma Munir3, Badar-Uz-Zaman1, Bushra Atta4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...t organelles causing disturbances in the normal functioning of the plant and even may lead to death in severe cases. The results of this study conferred that there were genotypic variation found in two genotypes regarding salinity tolerance. SARC-4 was found to tolerate more salt stress as compared to Parwaz-94 and performed better at both salinity levels then Parwaz-94. Salicylic acid induced improvement is significant regardless of stress environment or norm...

Samiullah*, Mohammad Aslam Khan and Atta-ur-Rahman  

...lysis reveals that rapid urban expansion has resulted in reduction of farmland and sub-division of landholdings into smaller land fragments. Beside urbanization, a major contributor to fragmentation is the law of inheritance, which divides the land among successors. In the absence of specific policies on land consolidation or development control, it is hard to see any expected change in landholding and farm fragmentation and...
Maaz Ahmad1*, Mussab Ahmad2 and Tehreem Munir3
... was conducted in Lahore urban community.After initial diagnostic investigations in 200 patients diagnosed as cases of FD fulfilling Rome III criteria were recruited after taking written consent and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment groups (CP extract group or placebo) in equal number. A 7 days medication free period was observed before the start of trial. Each patient received the treatment for 6 weeks. The primary outcome variable was the improvement i...

Jahangir khan* and Abbas Ullah Jan 

...s randomly selected from urban and rural region of Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Sampled households were interviewed face to face. An open-ended CVM question was designed to elicit households’ willingness to pay (WTP) and a linear regression analysis conducted to identify important determinants of households’ WTP. Results show that 93% of respondents are willing to pay a price premium of PKR. 14. Empirical findings reveal that s...
Rida Zainab1, Sana Elahi1, Afshan Kaleem2,*, Daniel C. Hoessli3, Mehwish Iqtedar2, Roheena Abdullah2, Faiza Saleem2, Shanza Khan1, Anusha Ijaz1, Shagufta Naz2 and Abdul R. Shakoori4,5,*
...nal and intellectual disturbances. First generation antipsychotics for Schizophrenia were replaced with by second generation ones with less side-effects like Parkinsonism and Hyperprolactinemia. A novel, computer-based drug designing technique, has emerged to develop more efficient drugs. One of the computational methods becoming increasingly popular to develop new drugs is relying on Pharmacophores. This method was utilized to develop pharmacophore models of ...

Muhammad Abu Sufyan Ali, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Ghaffar Ali and Muhammad Fayaz 

...e irrigated farmlands at urban fringe is alarming. More than half of the sampled transacted farmland parcels were used for residential and commercial units’ construction. Farmland potential for commercial or residential use creates a value expectation and it capitalizes into farmland price. The value, however, does not influence farmland rents. For control in loss of fertile agricultural land, the study recommends the imposition of progressive taxes on r...

 Mian Azhar Ahmad1†*, Nawab Mohammad Khan2, Asmatullah3

Anatomical variations of hepatobiliary triangle in patients operated laparoscopically for gallbladder diseases from Lahore and Sahiwal
...ere found more common in urban as compared to rural population with respective percentages of 66.67% and 60%. Gallbladder disease with stone was found to be much common in the age group between 31-60 years. Laparoscopic surgeons must know variant anatomy of hepatobiliary triangle to avoid intraoperative damage to blood vessels and extrahepatic biliary apparatus during laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent postoperative complications.

...

 Saima Naz*, Adil Ali Rajpar, Abdul Hameed Chandio

New Records of some Phthiraptera (chewing lice) of birds from urban areas of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
...g 2013-2015, mainly from urban areas. Chewing lice of both suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera
included family Menoponidae and Philopteridae respectively were reported from different localities of Hyderabad city.
It was the first chewing lice survey that has been carried out in the region, which reported eight species of
Menoponidae and eleven species of Philopteridae. These species were Campanulotes compar (Burmeister, 1838),
Colpoc...

 Anber Naqvi1*#, Abdul Qadir1, Adeel Mahmood2, Mehvish Mumtaz3, Iqra Aslam1, Gan Zhang4

Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in maternal blood serum from selected districts of Punjab, Pakistan
...ower chlorinated PCBs in urban population descending
towards rural population. The mean TEQ concentration of eight dioxins like PCBs
was recorded as 0.03 ng/g l.w. Analysis of Σ34PCBs and socio-demographic
parameters reflected significant results for milk intake. The study findings
suggested a need for regulating the continuous intentional or unintentional
releases of PCB into the environment to prevent human exposure.<...

Amara Amjad Hashmi1,2,*, Maqbool Hussain Sial3, Waqar Akram4 and Maaida Hussain Hashmi5,6

... (58%) to (77%). we find urban households are more food insecure over the time as compared to rural households. Whereas, in qualitative terms of food insecurity, we use two food diversification measures; one is dietary diversity score and second one is share of staple food in total calories consumed by household, suggest that households dietary diversity score is good on average that is 9 out of 10 food groups and on the whole it is slightly improved from (8.8...
Farheen Shaikh*, Saima Naz, Nadir Ali Birmani
...localities including two urban and two rural areas of Jamshoro and Hyderabad Districts. The selected birds were tagged with identity rings and 5-8 hosts in each locality were examined. Infestation of chewing lice on each bird was checked periodically in each month. Moreover, permanent microscopic slides of ectoparasites were prepared. During the study, three species of chewing lice were reported from Common Quail. Their population density on host body was reco...
Kamran Zakaria1*, Noreen Munawar1 and Shafqat Ejaz2
...e of water resources for urban uses and agriculture. For such purpose, Precipitation regions were recognized in river Indus basin in Pakistan by examining the rainfall frequencies with the help of global wavelet power spectra. Records from 52 rain gauges were studied and the outcomes of the whole power spectra exhibited a low annual frequency all over the basin; whereas additional frequencies are present with major significance that indicate changes in the rai...

 Abdul Maalik1, Shahzad Ali1,*, Anam Iftikhar1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Haroon Ahmad2 and Iahtasham Khan1

...ere animal type, breeds, urbanicity, age (years), teat washing, bedding area, lactating stage and previous exposure of mastitis. Initially surf field mastitis test (SFMT) was applied for screening subclinical mastitis followed by bacteriological techniques on positive milk samples for confirmatory isolation of Staph. aureus as a bovine mastitis causing agent. These Staph. aureus isolates were further tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Epidemio...

Kubra Siddique*, Ghaffar Ali, Irfan Ullah, Atta Ullah Shah and Muhammad Fayaz 

...on the food items while, urban households spend more on non-food items. Expenditures on beef is noted highest for both urban and rural region followed by chicken, fish and other meat type (Eggs, Shrimps, Prawns). Empirical results show that for all the selected meat type expenditure elasticities are positive suggesting them as normal goods. The expenditure elasticities for mutton and beef are greater than one and are expen...
Emre Barlas1 and Elif Yamaç2,*
...or other uses, human disturbance and loss of foraging habitats. In this study, cave-dwelling bat species and habitat preferences were investigated in Northwest of Central Anatolia in spring, summer and winter. Investigations were performed in 26 caves hosting (15) and not hosting (11) bats. Temperature, humidity, length of caves, distance to nearest settlement, paved road, water source, agricultural area; height, width and orientation of cave entrance and acti...
Haroon1,2, Yu-Feng Meng1, Zahid Khan1, Farzana Perveen2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Sayed Waqar Shah4, Xiao-Hong Su1 and Lianxi Xing1,*
...emplations are rendering urban reserves imperative for worldwide preservation endeavours. Generally, urban areas frequently emerged close conspicuous landforms, for example, soak slopes or important waterways and protect their flora and fauna of the study area.
...

Gulfam Hassan1*, Ijaz Ashraf2, Muhammad Qavi Irshad3, Shafiq-ur-Rehman Zia2 and Muhammad Idrees

...tion, respectively. Peri-urban vegetable production is gaining importance in all over the world as it helps the farmers to access inputs and market outputs easily. Lack of sufficient training and low technical efficiency are some common barriers in low productivity of vegetables in Pakistan. This study assesses strengths and weaknesses of trainings conducted by public sector extension in peri-urban areas of Faisalabad, Pakis...
Muhammad Asif Gondal, Qazal Waheed, Sana Tariq, Waseem Haider, Aisha Khan, Qudsia Rasib and Haroon Ahmed*
...pe of investigations, so urban benthic macrofauna may be well understood in-terms of ecology, phylogenetic analysis, spatio-temporal variation and diversity.
...
Mounir R. Abi-Said1, Mohammad Al Zein2, Mohammad A. Abu Baker3 and Zuhair S. Amr3,4*
... species and shifting to urban rodents.
...
Fatima Hashim Abbas1,2* and Alaa Tareq Shakir Al-Hassnawi1
...;">In pregnancy, any disturbance in the balance between antioxidants and oxidants in favor of the later can cause serious problems such as abortion. So the investigation of the oxidants/antioxidants status during early stages of pregnancy is urgently needed to help us solving such health issues. In this current study, One hundred and thirteen aborted women (73 known causes group, 40 unknown group) and control group (23 normal delivery women (control positive),...

Muhammad1*, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Syed Akhtar Ali Shah1 

...my is key to sustainable urban waste management planning. The goal is to reduce the environmental damages, enhance food supply, increase employment opportunities and broke the vicious circle of poverty. This study performs a focalized analysis and investigates the influencing factors of urban farmers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for organic fertilizer in District Mardan, Pakistan. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was...

Ahmad Kiani1*, Shapour Zarifian1, Hosein Kouhestani1 and Hosein Karimzadeh

...is still the gap between urban regions and rural regions and many immigrants from rural regions to urban regions have been recorded. So, this research tries to prioritize the criteria of establishment and development of agricultural industries in the rural areas in Tehran Province. The result shows the items which refer to market and financial issue have greater weight, So, it is necessary to develop transportation to stream...

Iram Fatima1*, Imran Pasha1, Ambreen Saddozai2, Shahid Nadeem3, Amer Mumtaz4 and Saqib Jabbar4 

... day due to growing urbanization. The study aimed at exploring the safety status of various snacks and beverages sold in the streets of Faisalabad, Pakistan. The three zones of city were selected for the purpose of sample collection. Mean prevalence of E. coli 61.7% was indicated by Spread plate method. Prevalence of Total plate count checked and pathogenic count was calculated in CFU/g and CFU/ml, me...

Mahmood Alam Khan1, Muhammad Yaseen1, Mujahid Khan*2, Amjad Khan1 

TEMPORAL VARIATION IN GROUND WATER QUALITY DUE TO URBANIZATION. CASE STUDY: DISTRICT PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN
...to assess the effects of urbanization on ground water quality in district
Peshawar, another study was undertaken in 2014-15 by collecting samples from the same locations. Standard procedures
were adopted to determine the selected parameters and results of both the studies were compared. Comparative
analysis of both the studies showed that some of the chemical parameters values gained an increase while other got
decreased. Results al...

Zulfiqar Ali Soomro1* 

NOISE CONTROL FILTRATION OF LATERAL AND YAW DYNAMICS FOR RAILWAY VEHICLE WHEELSET ON TRACK
...ailroad.
This disturbance is created deteriorating environment on deranged railway vehicle speed in any direction of basic
degree of freedom. In this paper, Brief applicable mathematic is used framed for necessary modeling. The estimation
of perturbations for the movement by wheels and velocity of train in lateral and yaw phases are enumerated.
Here dual bucy kalman estimator is implemented to decrease the influence of the noise cau...

 Nasimullah*, Muhammad Irfan Khattak**, Muhammad Shafi**, Gulzar Ahmad**

A TUTORIAL ON ADAPTIVE ROBUST POSITION CONTROL OF DC MOTOR USING FUZZY LOGIC COMPENSATION
...riction and external disturbance torque. Friction phenomenon is simulated
using Lugre dynamic model. Adaptive fuzzy system is used to approximate nonlinear friction and external disturbance.
Assuming that system state matrixes are known, model based robust controller is formulated using sliding mode
control method. Adaptive fuzzy system formulated using Lyapunov function. The proposed cont...

Mohammad Aslam Khan*, Samiullah* and Zulfiqar Ali*

DYNAMICS OF URBAN SPATIAL GROWTH AND PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF PESHAWAR
...trol has seen tremendous urban sprawl. The pattern of development of urban sprawl in Peshawar is typical of most Pakistani major cities, where ribbon sprawl is common along major roads, while leapfrog sprawl is prevalent in the city’s fringes. The uncontrolled expansion in the built up area is typically consuming rich agricultural land and pose a threat to food security. The study highlighting the c...

Abroon Jamal Qazi*, Afzal Khan*, Muhammad Tahir Khan*, Muhammad Ali Kamran* and Khizar Azam*

A NOVEL APPLICATION OF PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE IN SEMI-ACTIVE SUSPENSION SYSTEM CONTROL
...ect to the road disturbance and relative velocity across the damper. Fuzzy logic control can cope with the nonlinearities of system using heuristic rules. Three gains are incorporated in the system corresponding to the inputs and output of the controller. Particle swarm optimization method is utilized for its better convergence and precision. The technique results in evaluation of appropriate gains that result in superior performance o...
Cheng Zhao1,2, Jianghong Ran2*, Bin Wang2,3, Qin Shi4 and Marwan M.A. Rashed1
...ulation due to human disturbance. To protect this species, we investigated the relationship between giant panda habitat use intensity and human disturbance density in the Daxiangling Mountains. The results indicated that, among multiple kinds of disturbances, roads affected the giant panda habitat use significantly. In addition, roads caused the giant panda habitat use intensity to decline...
He Wenyun, Zhi Yijin and Shao Mingqin*
... far from sources of disturbance such as mine factory (2.70 ± 0.48), village (286.10 ± 168.97 m) and road (114.50 ± 105.01 m). Our study showed that riverbank vegetation (Z=-2.614, P=0.009), distance to village (Z=-2.859, P=0.004) and road (Z=-2.085, P=0.037) in the foraging habitats were significantly higher than in control plots, indicating that Mandarin duck clearly preferred habitats with highe...
Ateeq Ahmad1, Umar Hayat2, Shahid Ali2*, Hazrat Bilal3, Naveed Ali2, Khan Mir Khan4 and Khalid Khan4
Descriptive Analysis of Water Resources in Pakistan: A Perspective of Climate Change
...tors like industrial and urban push the country further into water crises. The purpose of present research is to highlight the significance of water resources and shift in rainfall trend in Pakistan focusing on agriculture sector. Data on rainfall and temperature was taken from (PMD) Pakistan Metrological Department for the period of 1980-2011. The data was analyzed through descriptive statistical tolls and Arc GIS 9.8. Result suggests that climate change has ...

Asif Ali Abro1* and Iqbal Ahmed Panhwar2

Impact of Various Factors on Crop Diversification Towards High Value Crops in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis by using THI
...tion. Per capita income, urbanization, and profitability of minor crops were taken as demand side factors. Per capita income, urbanization and profitability of minor crops regression coefficients showed positive and significant impact on crop diversification. The technology was determined using fertilizers, the number of tubewells, Net Area Sown (NAS) and the production of tractors in quantity. The regression coefficients of...

Asim Faraz1*, Abdul Waheed1, Ayman Balla Mustafa2, Nasir Ali Tauqir3, Riaz Hussain Mirza1, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Rana Muhammad Bilal4 and Muhammad Shahid Nabeel5

... of Pakistan. Due to the urbanization, this husbandry system is changed and the cameleers are moving towards urban/peri-urban areas of arid and semi-arid environment. This study was planned to check its production potential in extensive management system (EMS) and semi-intensive management system (SIMS). The mean milk yield and range of Marecha she-camel was found to be 5.6±0.3, 6.1...
Feng Xu1,2,3*, Weikang Yang1,2,3*, Ming Ma1,2,3 and David A. Blank4
...s. Group size, human disturbance, environment factors, body size of a prey and a predator, season, traits of species and numbers of others factors were thought to have significant impacts on vigilance. Here, in this study we considered only three of them: group size, disturbance, and predation vulnerability and their impact on the vigilance of the Demoiselle crane (Antropoides virgo). Our results showed that group siz...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Afzal1,Muhammad Asam Riaz1,Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Luqman2, Mehar Zubair Shehzad1, Muhammad Bilal Tayyab1, Mujahid Tanvir1 and Saadia Wahid1
...against agricultural and urban insect pests. 

Abdul Hameed1*, Ihtsham ul Haq Padda2 and Abdul Salam3
Estimating Food Consumption Patterns in Pakistan by Using Ideal Demand System
...s in Pakistan as well as urban and rural areas. The regional analysis indicates that the gross and net substitute impacts in urban areas are somewhat more dominant than in rural areas. It implies that urban areas household makes more substitutes relative to rural areas. These findings suggest that policy makers and public organizations should reexamine the connection between consumption, p...

Muhammad Luqman1*, Roshan Hussain1, Muhammad Yaseen1, Muhammad Umer Mehmood1, Ijaz Asghar2 and Usman Saleem1

Comparative Analysis of Dietary Intake Patterns of Rural and Urban Communities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan
...ural respondents and 300 urban respondents) was randomly selected through equal distribution technique and interviewed by using structured interview schedule. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and the following key results were obtained. Most of the respondents from the study were above the 30 years of age (mature), illiteracy was high in rural area and most of the respondents were dependent upon business and farming as their liv...
Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1,2, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani1, Asghar Ali Kamboh3, Mansoor Ayoob4, Waseem Ali Vistro3 and Abdul Sattar Baloch3*
...ining epithelium and disturbance of the coherence among various histological layers. In spleen, there was enormous infiltration with mononuclear lymphocytes, especially in the area of red pulp. Haemagglutination inhibition titer of all experimental groups was found higher on day 21 as compared to day 0 and 7. Taken together, experimental data showed the susceptibility of Japanese quails and mynas to experimental intramuscular and oral inoculation with VVND vir...
Oluwatobi Emmanuel Olaniyi1,2*, Chukwudiemeka Onwuka Martins2, Mohamed Zakaria2
... phoenicurus (AP) in the urban wetlands of Malaysia.
...

Sabina Noor1*, Fatimah Abang1 and Hamady Dieng2

Biology of an Exotic Butterfly Acraea terpsicore (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae), in a Newly Invaded Region, Sarawak, Borneo
...ucted in relation to the urbanization levels. Passiflora foetida was recorded as the primary host plant of this species. Fecundity in a single cohort varied from 30 to 85 eggs, whereas eggs were oriented on the underside marginal areas of host plant leaves. The developmental time of A. terpsicore to complete its life cycle took an average of 30 ± 3.01 days with a total of five larval instars. The ontogenesis of larvae was accomplished without any disrup...
Muhammad Bilal Anwar1, Mirza Azhar Beg1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1*, Syed Israr Shah1, Sajida Noureen2
Muhammad Mushtaq1 and Tariq Mahmood3
...ltivated area with rapid urbanization all around to better understand their ecological significance. Regurgitated pellets of three owl species (n = 434) were collected seasonally from the study area. The food of the spotted owlet and eurasian eagle owl was found significantly different (P< 0.05) across seasons whereas no seasonal differences were seen in collared owlet’s prey resources. Insects of four orders dominated in the diet of col...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 53, Iss. 3, Pages 801-1200

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