John Shook

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...gy’s desperate maneuvers for avoiding science and scientific atheology only delay the inevitable. Partner atheologies wielding logic, ethics, and civics await to help theology extinguish the gods.

 

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Lei Chen, Ling Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wan-Zhu Guo

 

Molecular Genetics of Aichivirus C (Porcine Kobuvirus) in China
... C is a member of the Kobuvirus genus within the Picornaviridae family and is widely distributed in both healthy and diarrheic pigs from China. Due to the high detection rate in the severe diarrhea in China, Aichivirus C is thought to be a potential pathogeny of pig diarrhea. The review represented the discovery of Aichivirus C in China, and made a brief summary about molecular and epidemiology characterizations of Chinese Aichivirus C strains. Mutiple Aichivi...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...text-align: justify;">Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was bio-assayed against three larval instars of Atteva sciodoxa under laboratory conditions of 27±2ºC, 75% RH and 12:12 h photoperiod. Instar 3rd responded with 100% mortality at 5x107 conidia ml-1, while same level of mortality was recorded in 5th instar at 1x108 conidia ml-1. Instar 5 also showed the lowest mortality (33.3%) at 1x106 conidia ml-1. Median effective concentration (EC50) ranged betwe...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...95.6%) and second stage juveniles (J2) (95.8%) infection. In greenhouse experiment, similar trend was found. L. muscarium proved to be more effective against M. hapla whereas S. rugosoannulata and C. rosea showed better results among other tested fungi in experiments. Moreover, plant growth parameters were also improved due to antagonistic relationship of fungi and nematodes in soil.

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Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nematode population compared to that of untreated control. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in numbers of eggs per cyst warrants that nematicides were able to penetrate into cysts. Reproduction rate (Pf/Pi) of L. muscarium treated plants was documented minimum as compared to that of control but slightly higher compa...

Abida Saleem, Sajida Parveen and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...aline soils [Piedmont alluvium, silty clay loam, Ustochrept]. The Zn adsorption capacity was determined by adding 50 ml of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240 and 360 mg Zn L-1 (initially Zn applied, IZnA) to 5 g soil with absence (non-treated) or to soil pretreated with FYM, PM or BC at rate of 10 g kg-1. The suspension was shaken on horizontal shaker for 20 h continuously to assess the equilibrium Zn concentration (EZnC). The difference between the IZnA and EZnC ...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...e of Clarias gariepinus juveniles to commonly used herbicides, glyphosate and paraquat was evaluated through changes in fish behaviour and mortality. Juveniles of the African catfish were exposed to varying acute concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat. The fishes responded, exhibiting different behavioural abnormalities like hyperactivity, abnormal swimming, restlessness, loss of equilibrum and haemorrhage. Observation of...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...f galls and egg masses, juveniles and eggs per root system, and reproduction factor. Four initial populations (Pi) (500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 eggs) mixed with antagonistic fungal conidia levels (1×103, 1×104, 1×105, 1×106) were used during the experiments. The roots were stained with Phloxine B, the egg-masses were quantified, the root systems were rated for galling, and the egg masses were measured on a 0 to 5 scale, where 0 = no gall ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...nd egg masses, eggs and juveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infestation significantly (P=0.05) in soil compared to the control, but there was no significant difference (P=0.05) among them. Plant growth was significantly (P=0.05) improved in the plants treated with L. muscarium.

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 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies investigations were done on these aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria mellonella was observed with White traps than with modified Baermann trays. Maximum juveniles of S. feltiae emerged at 50 IJ dose followed by 100 IJ. The emergence of IJ decreased significantl...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

...catfish (C. gariepinus) juvenile on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were exposed to 0.175, 0.0875 and 0.035 mg/L corresponding to 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50 of the 96 h LC50 value (1.75) of the pesticide. Behavioral responses which include colouration of the fish skin and opercula colouration were observed. Aluminium phosphide elicited effects on the haematological parameters of the fish such as a decrease in Hb when compared to the control; reduction of MCV, MCH and MCH...

Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Waseem Ahmad Khan2, Waseem Ahmad Khan3 and Najam-ul-Huda Khan4

...ults (56.06%) while the juvenile/sub-adults were 43.94% of the total specimens trapped. The highest trap success of Mus booduga of 74% was achieved at Namal Lake, followed by Khabeki (38.67%), Uchali (30.67%), Kallar Kahar (16%) and the lowest at Jahlar Lake (12%). The results of the present study indicated that distribution of Mus booduga was abundant in thorn-scrub habitat around five lakes in the Salt Range.

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Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...and body composition of juvenile black fin sea bream, Acanthopagrus berda (weight 23.5g−125.8 g) were investigated. Fish were randomly distributed in rectangular glass tanks (150 liter) and were fed at six ration levels of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0,3.5, 4.0 and 4.5% body weight per day (BW d−1) and four feeding frequency i.e., once, twice, thrice and four times per day. Fish in all replicates were fed with diet comprising 40% protein and 20% lipid for 75 days....
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6
...and body composition of juvenile black fin sea bream Acanthopagrus berda was investigated. Fish juvenile (10.1±0.5 g) were collected from Sonari Channel, Hawksbay, Karachi and were brought to aquaculture laboratory of the Centre for 15 days acclimatization. After acclimatization, they were randomly distributed into the rectangular tanks (3 × 1.5 ×1.5 ft each). In each tank, 10 fish were stocked with...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
... with 1000 second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Eggplants inoculated with nematodes only served as control. Each treatment was replicated tenfold. Data were recorded after one week interval up to five weeks to record different developmental stages of M. incognita. After each harvest, neemex in combination with G. mosseae proved the most effective as the development of nematode was adversely affected. Developing j
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...dy, growth potential of juvenile black fin sea bream, Acanthopagrus berda was examined in brackish water ponds. Fish were stocked @ 1500 individuals per pond (2 treated and 2 control) of approximate dimensions, 13.72 m × 10.97 m × 1.52 m (229 m3). In treated ponds, fish were fed with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in three equal meals. On the other hand, control ponds remain...
Memoona Akber1, Muhammad Mushtaq1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1 and Noor-un-Nisa2 
...orway rat dominated the juvenile during all the seasons of the year. Data on the body weight reflected that the males were heavier than the females in all the four seasons of the year; the heaviest males were observed during the winter season. Reproductive activity revealed that the males were recorded reproductively active throughout the year while more than 50% specimens of females were recorded inactive throughout the year; yet lactating and pregnant female...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...minimum 10 second stage juvenile (J2)/200 cc soil can cause reduction of plant growth parameters and highest reproduction (R=87.27). 
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Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...evirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus and Begomovirus. Begomoviruses are transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) and usually possess a bipartite genome of twoDNAcomponents approximately 2.7 kb in size, designated as DNA-A and DNA-B. Monopartite begomoviruses are also known to occur. Recently, a novel class of molecule, known as satellite DNA-? of ~1.35 kb size are also found to occur in India. Whitefly transmitted geminiviruses categorized as begomoviru...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...Setaria italica (L.) Breauv.), black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.), dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata (Willd.) Pers.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.), and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were found effective as trap crops for their ability to germinate the seed of A. pedunculata. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was identified as a catch crop for its ability to support further growth and developme...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...lated with second stage juveniles of M. incognita @ 2J2/g soil. The exposure of M. incognita eggs and juveniles to the culture filtrates showed high inhibition in egg hatching and caused high mortality of juveniles than the control (P< 0.05). The microorganisms which caused high nematicidal activity also showed antifungal activity in dual plate culture test in vitro. All the antagonists...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...nd target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola by spraying three fungicides (carbendazim at 0.1%, mancozeb at 0.025% and blitox at 0.25%) and four biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride at 107 cfu / ml, T. harzianum at 107 cfu / ml, Pseudomonas fluorescens at 108 cell / ml and Biomonas-a formulated product of P. fluorescens preparation at 0.15% for three times at an interval of 15 days. The results revealed that the lo...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...isolated from the old alluvial zone of North Bengal and their biocontrol activity were tested in dual culture and found effective against soil-borne plant pathogens, namely, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Padw.) Matuo. and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Efficacy in plant growth promoting activity of all the isolates was also tested on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.), chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) w...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...egradable ingredients/adjuvants of the conventional formulations but also increase the bio-efficacy of the products through incorporating latest technologies including size reduction (WP to SC, SL to ME), increased coverage of applied surface area (EC to ME/Nano-formulations), reduced wastage (Dust/WP to Con-trolled Release Formulations) and dose rates of same pesticides applied to improve food quality with minimum pesticide residues. 

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Anil Sehajpal, Saroj Arora and Parminder Kaur 

 

Evaluation of plant extracts against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice
... Morus alba, Thevatia peruviana, and Withania somnifera did not exert any effect. Among all the plant extracts, A. sativum exhibited strong fungitoxicity even at the lowest concentration, i.e. 100 ppm, with relative magnitude of inhibition 2.0 mm against the pathogen R. Solani. With regard to the effect of 8 plant oil samples tested, it was noticed that the oil of Syzygium aromaticum showed strong inhibition i.e. 7.5 mm at 1000ppm whereas Helianthus annus and ...

S. Pal, H. Banerjee and N. N. Mandal 

Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.)
...arch Sub-Station (New Alluvial Zone), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Chakdaha, Nadia, West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 7 treatments and 3 replications. The results revealed that the major weed flora associated with the transplanted rice during kharif season was mainly comprised of Echinochloa colona (30 %), Cyperus difformis (20 %), Monochoria vaginalis (30 %) and Ludwigia parviflora (20 %). Penoxsulam 24 SC at ...

Elvera Monin, B. Dasgupta, Palash Chandra Paul, Jayanta Saha and Srikanta Das

Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
... effect of bisphenol-A, juvenile Catla catla was exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol-A (10,100,1000μg/l) for 14 days. BPA exposure strongly elevates vtg mRNA level in fish exposed to 100μg/l but at 1000 μg/l exposure of BPA, vtg level decreased compared to 100µg/l exposed fish. These results showed that BPA has estrogenic action and cause endocrine disruption in juvenile C. ca...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
...ow kaner (Thevetia peruviana) and safeda (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) against the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), at 2% concentration in a free choice bioassays. Acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used for extraction from leaves. Amongst the various treatments applied, the acetone extract of D. alba showed the highest repellency of 84.14%, whereas, the lowest repellency of 10.73% was observed by the c...
Muhammad Aslam Farooqi1,*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Sohail Akhtar1Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Naveed Aslam3 and Muhammad Rafay4
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...ng capacity each). Fish juveniles (length: 10.63 ±0.980 cm, weight: 9.030±1.40g) were stocked after acclimatization. A total of 3 treatments were tested following 2 replications i.e. first treatment (T1, Squid feed), second treatment (T2, Tubifex feed) and third treatment (T3, pellet feed). Juveniles were fed with 5% of total biomass twice in a day. At the end, higher growth inc...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

...ET caused sex reversal, juvenile carp (120dph) were exposed to 0, 5, 25, 125, and 625μg/L LET for 15 days, and the expression profiles of seven gonad differentiation related genes (Cyp19A, Cyp19B, Arα, ERα, Dax, Foxl2, Dmrt1) and gonad histological changes were examined. The results showed that LET could inhibit oocyte growth in female and promote the development of testes in males. For the gonad differentiation related genes, the expression pro...
Habibun Nabi1, Saher Islam2, Amna Arshad Bajwa2, Imran Rashid1,*, Haroon Akbar1, Wasim Shehzad2, Kamran Ashraf1, Nisar Ahmad1 and Aneela Durrani3
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...able diet especially at juveniles stage. This study focus on the healthy production with low cost by using sunflower meal to some extent replace fish meal. In this 3× 3 factorial and completely randomized design study 324 fish were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) whereas the phytase levels were (0, 500 and 1000 FTU). The addition of 3 % citric acid and 1000FTU phytase produced significant interaction effect on calcium and phosphorus d...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...and additionally 1 Beauveria bassiana (ET 10) fungus isolate were examined for their insecticidal activities in this study. The studied bio agents were tested by spraying on R. simulans nymphs and adults. B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae, B. brevis and B. sphaericus GC subgroup D were the most effective on nymphs, whereas B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstakii, P. chlororaphi, and B. brevis were th...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...opathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (isolates Bb-01, Bb-10), Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (isolate Ma-11.1, Ma-2.4)and Isaria fumosorosea (isolates If-2.3, If-02) and chemical insecticides i.e., bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, triazophos, spinosad, pyriproxyfen and nitrinpyrum, as larvicides against C. pipiens. Highest larval percent mortality (73.3 ± 4.7) was observed after application...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...07g) were investigated. Juveniles of red tilapia were randomly distributed into seawater tanks (60 cm × 30 cm × 45 cm each). Ten fish were stocked in each tank with 2 replications. Fish were fed with commercial floating pellet (35% protein) at 3% body weight per day for 40 days. Results showed that fish growth was significantly (P<0.05) higher in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, mean daily WG, SGR, feed conversion and survival rate f...

Arooj Fatima1* and Ashfaq Ahmed

...outine physiotherapy maneuvers in subjects having rotator cuff tendinopathy. Eccentric loading training for the cure of shoulder pain due to rotator cuff tendinopathy has confirmed to be more helpful in aiding pain, and fixing functional impairment in patients having rotator cuff tendinopathy than routine physiotherapy treatment methods. 

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Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...production of infective juveniles (IJ) in G. mellonella was significantly affected by nematode species. Significantly higher numbers of IJ were produced by Heterorhabditid species than Steinernematid species in the cadaver. The production of IJ was the maximum in the case of H. bacteriophora which was not statistically different form H. indica. Minimum IJ were produced by S. feltiae. The IJ produced by S. kraussei and S. c...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
... the emerging infective juveniles (IJs) were collected from White traps, and pooled in canted neck vented plastic flasks. The susceptibility of an important livestock arthropod, the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus Canestrinito JMO71 was determined. Ticks were manually collected from cross-bred beef cattle, and then the heterorhabditid nematodes assayed against these ticks using the Petri dish assay. Concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 80...

 Khawer Jawad Ahmad*, Asif Razzaq*, Khalida Hamid Abbasi*, Muhammad Shafiq*, Muhammad Saleem** and Muhammad Arshadullah***

THYMOL AS CONTROL AGENT OF MITES (VARROA DESTRUCTOR) ON HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA)
...h formic acid 65 % and fluvalinate (strip) as standard control measure against Varroa mite. The mite mortality rate was recorded in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera during 2011-12 at research farm of Beekeeping and Hill Fruit Pests Research Station, Rawalpindi. Analysis of variance for different treatments indicated (F=3.64, F>P=0.15) significantly different effect among treatments as well as for the control of mite. The average efficacy of thymol was 73...
Dachuan Cheng1,2, Md Mahbubul Hassan3, Zhenhua Ma1, 2, 3,*, Qibin Yang1 and Jian G. Qin3
...ropterus larvae and juveniles from hatching to 36 day-post hatching (DPH). Mandible, ceratobranchial, cleithrum and gill arches were the initial skeletal structures appeared at 3 DPH that supported the vital life functions such as feeding and respiration. Ossification of premaxilla and maxilla and dentary started at 3.21 ± 0.25 mm (9 DPH), and completed at 5.91 ± 0.34 mm (18 DPH). The head skeleton formation completed at 22.35 ± 2.26 m...
 Nazia Qamar1, Sher Khan Panhwar1,* and Ralf Riedel2,*
...th species, life stage (juvenile and adults), gender, and weather (rainy and dry season) as factors. Patterns of empty stomachs were investigated to estimate feeding intensity. Feeding intensity was estimated with logistic regression, using the same independent variables as above. Prey importance was also investigated. Prey importance was assessed using a Wilcox Rank Correlation analysis on the Index of Relative Importance (IRI) by species and life-stage. Perm...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Ali Murad Jakhar3, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo3
...the dosage of infective juveniles (IJ) applied and exposure periods. Significantly (P< 0.001) greater numbers of nematodes (predominantly IJ) were recovered from the cadavers of T. molitor that had been inoculated with S. feltiae than H. bacteriophora. The inoculum dose also had an influence on the numbers of nematodes recovered. There were significantly greater numbers of S. feltiae in the 50 and 500 IJ treatments than the 10 IJ...
Chuanpeng Zhou1, Heizhao Lin2,*, Zhong Huang2, Jun Wang1, Yun Wang1 and Wei Yu2
...lt;0.05). The hepatic pyruvate kinase activity peaked 6 h after oral administration in both doses of glucose groups and thereafter started to decrease 24 h after oral administration. While the hepatic PEPCK and G6Pase activities decreased 9 h after oral administration in both doses of glucose groups and then returned to the level at 0 h (P<0.05). These results suggested that glucose oral administration resulted in prolonged hyperglycemia and high lev...
Zahida Parveen1, Safdar Sidra1*, Bushra Nisar Khan2
Farhan Ahmad1,*, Muhammad Waris Sanjrani1, Shah Nawaz Khuhro1, Asif Sajjad2, Abid Ali3, Rashad Rasool Khan3, Farooq Ahmed3 and Junhe Liu4,*
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...l number of egg masses, juveniles and females, were observed in highly susceptible plants. The values of canopy length, dry root weight, fresh root weight, root length, dry shoot weight and shoot height was variable for all plants and the maximum canopy length was recorded in C. macrocarpa, while maximum fresh root weight, dry root weight, root length and shoot weight were recorded in O. japonicus and R. escelsa, respectively. The suscepti...
Wael S. El-Tohamy1,*, Russell R. Hopcroft2 and Nagwa E.M. Abdel Aziz3
...e estuary upstream. The juvenile copepods and the cyclopoid Oithona spp. together with the numerically dominant polychaete and cirriped larvae seemed little affected by salinity gradients.
...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...ified, formalized and adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide gel. Safety, sterility and stability of the toxoid were ascertained. Bacterin toxoid of C. perfringens type D was procured from Veterinary Research Institute Peshawar. The immunogenicity of toxoid vaccines and bacterin toxoid vaccine were studied and compared initially in rabbits and then in goats and sheep. Experimental trials were conducted on 54 healthy animals of each species and were divided...

Wasim Javaid1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2 and Muhammad Usman Raja2 

...thogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was evaluated to manage pulse beetle (PB), Callosobruchus chinensis by using different fungal concentrations of 1×106, 1×107 and 1×108 spores/ml in stored chickpea grains. Highest mortality (90%) of PB was observed in 72 hours through application of 1×108spores/ml of M. anisopliae compared to B. bassiana with 60% mortality. On 24 hours of exposure, minimum mortality (4%...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...ion of the second stage juveniles, and the reproduction rate were detected at the highest levels in untreated soil, whereas low numbers were encountered in soils initially treated with the fungus, L. muscarium. Meloidogyne incognita and other plant parasitic nematodes multiplied significantly more in untreated soil than in treated soil, which clearly indicated that L. muscarium effectively reduced the nematode infestation level in the soil.
...

Muhammad Javed Iqbal and Muhammad Naeem* 

... out for five groups of juvenile Labeo rohita fed with various protein: Energy ratios; fish meal (T0), 25%CP (Crude proteins) (T1), 30%CP (T2), 35%CP (T3) and 40%CP (T4). Experiment was designed to replace enriched fish meal diets with cheaper plant origin crude protein diets in fish culture. A total of 15 aquaria having 20 samples each were arranged in triplicate for 90 days to study the effect of five feeding groups on Length-weight relation and external mor...
Ali Murad Rahoo1, Tariq Mukhtar2,*, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...production of infective juveniles (IJ) from Galleria mellonella cadavers may differ among different species of EPN and hosts of various sizes. Therefore, the objective of conducting the present study was to compare the productivity of two EPN (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) in G. mellonella larvae of different sizes. The size of G. mellonella had significant effect on the emergence of IJ. Significantly...

Mohsin Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2, Muhammad Usman Raja2, Muhammad Fiaz3 and Muhammad Nadeem1 

...hizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were used as the bio-control agents against this economic pest and proved good alternatives to chemicals. Less number of eggs (2 per grain), more number of holes (8.3 per grain), less number of F1 adults (20.3 per jar) and more number of days (7) to 100% mortality of C. chinensis adults were recorded when chickpea grains were treated with the highest concentration of B. bassiana as compared to that of M. anisopliae. The...

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

Jafar Aqeel Naqi1, Abdul Mateen1, Dilawar Hussain2,*, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Sajjad Hussain1 and Abuzar Tabasum1 

...us). A total of 150 juvenile’s tilapia were taken randomly and divided into five experimental units (10 fishes per unit) with three replicates. Fish was hand feeded containing five different levels of garlic (T1, control) 2.5 (T2), 5.0 (T3), 7.5 (T4), and 10g/500g (T5) in powdered form. Fish were fed at 6% of body weight twice, daily. Feed utilization was estimated in terms of feed conversion rat...

 Tahir Abbas*1, Khawaja Raees Ahmad2, Asmatullah3, Khalid Pervaiz Lone4, Muhammad Ali Kanwal2, Sadia Suleman2

Reno-hepatic protective effects of Jambul against chromium induced anomalies in mice
...ion of Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, bilirubin, globulin, creatine and uric acid along with reduction of SGOT/SGPT, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), urea and albumin as compared to control. Treatments with JFE after Cr+6 exposures significantly improved the hepatic and renal functional profiles possibly by partial liver rehabilitation and regeneration. The JFE si...

 Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2*, Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1, Arshad Ali3, Zafar Iqbal Kahan4, Kafeel Ahmed4

Intra- and inter-specific foraging in three scorpion species
...acked and fed more upon juvenile and sub- adults (medium- sized), scorpions. They also consumed dead scorpions of their own species. Odontobuthus odonturus preferred to attack and consume healthy adults and did not feed on dead scorpions. Androctonus finitimus aggressively attacked and consumed all types of prey scorpions of its own species, except the dead ones. In inter-specific feeding experiment, M. tumulus consumed healthy adults, injured adults, pregnant...
Chao Zhao1,2, Juan Feng1, Haidong Xu1, Lihua Qiu1,2,*, Qibin Yang1, Zhenhua Ma1 and Jian G. Qin3
Yan-Guo Han1, Xiao-Li Peng1, Kai Li1, Yu-He-Tian Zhao1, Xun-Ping Jiang2, Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Jun-Hua Ye3, Li Xu3, Qin-Tao Zhao3 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...jection of CpG adjuvant and somatostatin (SS) DNA vaccine can enhance the effect of the vaccine and promote the growth of animals. This study investigated the enhancing effect of the fusion type of CpG motifs on SS DNA vaccine and growth of ram lambs. In this study, we constructed the ptS/2SS-asd plasmid, pCpG plasmid and the CpG-SS fusion type recombinant plasmid named ptCS/2SS-asd. Twelve ram lambs were randomly divided into three groups, namel...
Muhammad Asad Saleem1,*, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1, Mudssar Ali1, Muhammad Amin2, Muhammad Tayyab1,3 and Sumaira Maqsood4
Hao Gu*, Zhi Yang, Weiqiang Yu, Kan Xu and Yuan-fei Fu*
...xpected to be used as adjuvant medicine to treat caries.
...
Rahila Huma1,2, Tariq Mahmud1,*, Rubina Munir2, Sana Javaid Awan3,Kiran Iftikhar4 and Mufakkira-Tul-Islam5
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...e survival of infective juveniles (IJ) following inundative applications would be quite short. The application of EPN in cadavers may be appropriate because of the non-availability of industrially produced isolates. Therefore, in the present studies, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor were compared for invasion and production of IJ of Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Both the nematodes caused 100% mortali...
Catherine J. Allen
...y drawn from Southern Peruvian Quechua, including allin kawsay (well-being), pacha (world), ayllu (community), ayni (reciprocity), uyway (nurturance), hucha (sin) and animu (individuating energy), with particular emphasis on values and ontological orientations that are generally consistent across the Andean ethnographic and ethnohistorical record. Underlying this vocabulary is a mindset that prioritizes relation...
Tahira Moeen Khan* and Amat ul Mateen
...tion and absorbance. The uv-vis spectrum revealed the shift of absorption towards longer wavelength with the increasing concentration of plant extract. XRD indicates CuO Nps particle size is in between 14-20 nm. CuO nanoparticle show very significant antibacterial activity against four bacterial strains three gram negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella) and one gram positive (Clostridium tetani). The minimum concentration of le...
Naveed Ahmad1,*, P.J.A. Siddiqui1, Amjad Ali1, Khan Mir Khan2, Rafaqat Masroor3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Amin5 and Mohammad Attaullah6
...on and Survival Rate of Juvenile Snakehead (Channa marulius) Fed on Different Feeds. Pakistan J. Zool., vol. 49(5), pp 1871-1877.
 
(iii) Abdul Malik, Ghulam Abbas,*, Abdul Ghaffar, Sara Ferrando and Lorenzo Gallus, 2017. Impact of Different Salinity Levels on Growing Performance, Food Conversion and Meat Quality of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) Reare...
Iqra Jaffar, Zainab Sehzadi, Muhammad Adeel, Khalid P. Lone and Mehwish Faheem*
...h (Labeo rohita) juveniles were exposed to low concentrations (10μg/l and 100μg/l) of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) for 7 days to evaluate oxidative stress in liver and gills by analyzing activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO). Catalase activity increased significantly in liver and gills of fish exposed to 10μg/l of DBP. Level of GSH and LPO increased significantly i...
Mohsan Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1, Rashid Mahmood2,*, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2, Imran Bodlah1, Farah Naz3 and Muhammad Usman Raja3
...genic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and entomopathogenic bacteria (EPB), Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus nematophila were studied as bio-control agents to manage this pest. In addition, percent conidial germination and % mortality of C. chinensis were also evaluated when B. bassiana was used with DEBBM. The minimum number of eggs (0.66 grain-1), number of holes (1 grain
Yan-Guo Han1,2, Jun-Hua Ye1, Qin-Tao Zhao1, Yong-Jie Huang2, Kai Li2, Yong-Fu Huang2 and Li Xu1,*
...eptide and CpG adjuvant and delivered by attenuated Salmonella choleraesuis at weeks 0, 3 and 6 of the study, and rats in control group (Group C) was orally given empty vector vaccine. Blood samples were collected before primary immunization and at weeks 3, 5 and 7 after primary immunization and body weight of offspring were weighed at weeks 0, 2 and 4 after birth. Both SS-14 and SS-28 DNA vaccines induced humoral immune resp...
Muhammad Afzal1, Nighat Sultana1, Ali Hassan1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2,*, Mahroze Fatima3, Syed Makhdoom Hussain4, Muhammad Bilal5 and Majid Hussain2
...u (Labeo rohita) juveniles fed citric acid (CA) acidified phytase (PHY) pretreated soybean meal (SBM) based diet.Basal SBM based diet was supplemented with two levels of CA (0 and 2%) and two levels of microbial PHY (0 and1000 FTUkg-1) in factorial arrangement resulting in the formulation of four experimental diets. Chromic oxide (1%) was added as an inert marker in the diets to evaluate the nutrient digestibility. Important water quality par...
Iram Liaqat1,*, Nazish Mazhar Ali2, Najma Arshad3, Riffat Iqbal1 and Zain-ul-Abideen1
Asima Azam1, Asma-Ul-Husna2, Saima Qadeer3, Qaisar Shahzad4, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah5, Tasneem Akhtar4 and Shamim Akhter2,*
...quo;s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium for about 20 h, the presumptive zygotes were randomly distributed into 6 culture groups; Group I: Synthetic Oviductal Fluid (SOF) medium alone, Group II: SOF + co-culture, Group III: Conditioned SOF, Group IV: M199 alone, Group V: M199 + co-culture and Group VI: Conditioned M199 for in vitro culture (IVC). The percentage of embryos capable of crossing 8-16 cell block and reaching morula stage were higher (P &...
Khansa Nazir1,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Humayun Javed2
...he maximum mortality of juveniles was recorded at a concentration of 100 mg/ml followed by 75 mg/ml of AgNP. The minimum mortality was recorded with 25 mg/ml of AgNP. With the increase in concentration, there was a corresponding increase in the mortality of juveniles showing a direct relationship between mortality and concentration of nanoparticles. The effect of time on mortality was also found significant. With the increas...
Jae-Kang Lee, Hyun-Su Hwang, Tae-Kyung Eom and Shin-Jae Rhim*
...hly captured adults and juveniles of A. agrarius and A. peninsulae were significantly higher in the post- than in the pre-thinning session. Population sizes were dramatically increased in the post-thinning session. Ground and understory vegetation coverage and number of downed trees ha-1 positively influenced the density. The overstory vegetation coverage negatively influenced the density. Tree thinning resulted in well-developed groun...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 51, Iss. 5, Pages 1599-1997

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