Gregg D. Caruso

Science, Religion and Culture
...r place in it, it is no surprise that these issues are of profound importance to many of us. It is vital, therefore, that we ask ourselves: Are science and religion compatible when it comes to understanding cosmology (the nature and origin of the universe), biology (the origin of life and of the human species), ethics, and the human mind (minds, brains, souls, and free will)? Do science and religion occupy non-overlapping magisteria? How do science and religio...

John Martin Fischer

...nsibility, I find that (surprisingly) our views don’t really differ that much from each other. It might seem that our views are miles apart; but upon reflection, it turns out that they are very close, and with the intelligent and patient help of Pereboom, one can see the great appeal of his approach to a whole range of interrelated issues. I’m not going to mince words: this book is a masterful and comprehensive articulation of Derk Pereboom&rsquo...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

...ences, Lahore. For this purpose, 2160 newly hatched quail chicks were randomly picked up from available stock and then placed into 108 experimental units (replicates comprising 20 chicks each). Growth parameters i.e. weekly body weight (g), weight gain (g), times of weight gain, feed intake (g) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were calculated during the study period. Data were analysed by ANOVA technique and means were compared by using DMR test. The results of...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...ore, study explores the purpose of farmers for acquiring loan and major sources of credit in district Jhang. This study is based on primary data collected in 2013 from eight villages in district Jhang – Punjab, Pakistan. The district was divided into four zones and two villages were selected from each zone. An equal number of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries, i.e. ten each, were selected from each village. Thus the total sample size was 160 farmers. C...

Faheem Khan*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

... were selected for this purpose. A multi-stage sampling method was used to draw sample of 336 sugarcane growers for the present study and an interview schedule was used to solicit responses that addressed the research objectives. The findings from the study showed that 80 percent of respondents were illiterate while the 20 percent of respondents who were literate had achieved various levels of education. In the years 2012 and 2013, the average yield of educat...

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

...each of most. It is not surprising that religion has been around for possibly more than 100,000 years, while academic research is a recent historical development. Over the past century, individuals who make academic research their life’s work have been themselves the subject of academic studies which looked at their social origins, conscious ideals, beliefs, and psychological traits. The findings regarding religiosity have been striking. Academics, espec...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...shawar Valley. For this purpose, 18 farms were selected under public canal system and 13 under civil canal systems. Results revealed that average CWP of wheat, maize, sugarcane and tomato was 0.96, 1.11, 3.31, 3.61 kg m-3 under public and 0.90, 0.77, 2.36, 2.98 kg m-3, under civil system, respectively. In public canal system, the average CWP of the selected crops was 7, 40, 44 and 21% higher than civil canal system, respectively. Low CWP in...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...and Peraclean®. The purpose from using the Egyptian H5N1 viruses in the evaluation was to achieve maximum simulation of Egyptian field reality as the two viruses represent the two main subclades currently co-circulating in Egypt. The disinfectants were tested individually for effectiveness against HPAI H5N1 for 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes contact time. Numerical method and neutralization test were used to assess the ability of each disinfe...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...ructured interview were purposively employed to obtain individual response of the farmers whose plots fall within the demarcated forty-sampled quadrats from both irrigated and non-irrigated farms. Information on socio-economic activities of the rice farmers, level of rice yield, agricultural practices for rice production and farm management techniques employed in the study area were observed. The study employed simple percentages to analyse the farmers’ ...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...ase and for therapeutic purposes.

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Muhammad Ibrahim, Jawaria Ali Khan, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Avais, Ali Husnain, Naimatullah Khan, Muhammad Kamran Ameen and Abdullah Iqbal

...gn: justify;">The major purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of some allopathic and herbal ingredients for treatment of subclinical mastitis and to test out how these ingredients can be used for enhancement of milk quality as well as their effects on the haematological values. Total 30 cows were selected for this study kept in different dairy farms in the premises of Lahore. Out of these 30 cows, 24 had subclinical mastitis and 6 were healthy. Co...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...war, Pakistan. The main purpose of this research was to find out the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation (with and without Mycorrhiza) along with application of various levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%) of rock phosphate (RP) fertilizer on spores density and percent root colonization of selected sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in P-deficient soil. It was observed that spore density and AMF root colonization was higher in the soil o...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...storal system. For this purpose, participatory discussions, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to identify and record land use changes during past three decades. Detail interviews were also conducted with nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralists to identify and evaluate the impacts of agriculture land use changes on their pastoral activities. The result shows that since the late 1980’s cash crops cultivation ex...

Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

.... To achieve the stated purpose, study adopted methodology which required testing of hypothesis which states “Pakistan’s foreign trade is expected to be largely better off once WTO’s regime is fully implemented in Pakistan and rest of the world”. The statistical results show that, the coefficient of variation of Pakistan exports trade estimates at 0.1657 during 1985-90 and 0.0936 during 1990-95 pre-WTO periods, which with the exception ...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...ay be suitable for this purpose. In this review, the importance of detection of antibiotic residue contamination, reported analytical methods, advancement in biosensing platform especially regarding electrochemical transduction are discussed in detail. Finally, future prospects toward the development of selective and sensitive aptasensors for antibiotic detection are presented.

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Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...lo bull semen. For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls using artificial vagina at weekly intervals for a period of three weeks (three replicates). Qualifying semen ejaculates were diluted (50×106 motile spermatozoa ml-1) in tris citric acid extender with melatonin at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM. Diluted semen was cooled to 4°C for 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4°C. Straws were then...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

...son models and ASPIC (a surplus production model incorporating covariates) contain Fox and Logistic models. The average annual landings of S. longiceps stocks were 38 353 t while the highest and lowest 65 050 t in 1994 and 26 937 t in 2009 was recorded correspondingly. The MSY was estimated using the initial proportion (IP) value of 1 because the starting catch was approximately 100% of the maximum catch. The estimated values of MSY using CEDA with the Fox mod...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...ndents for the study. A purposive selection of two Local Government Areas each from the two Agricultural Development Programme administrative zones (Zones C and D) in Kwara State where fish farming is prominent and well-practiced was carried out. Forty fish farmers were then randomly selected from the fish farmers’ association chapter present in each selected Local Government Area. Interview-schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. T...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...luding Pakistan for the purpose to increase oil production. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa it was adopted from many years but due to some reasons its production and acreage decreased both in Pakistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. During 1997 area of sunflower was 6763 hectares with decreasing trend it reached at 503 hectares during 2011-12 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This study was conducted to quantify the factors contributing to the non-adoption of sunflower. Data was collected...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...merbagh on the basis of purposive sampling technique. From these tehsils, 92 farms were selected randomly from 460 poultry farms. The sample farms were categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, descriptive statistics and gross margin were used. The average total cost of small poultry farm was Rs. 3,10,067 per flock while that of medium and large farms were Rs. 4,99,002 and Rs.7,34,290 respectively. The highest cost was...
Irshad Ahmad
...ure wood and ecological purposes. It is widely grown on farmlands in Northern Areas of Pakistan, where it is a cash crop ranked third in value of exports after onion and tomato. It is attacked by a number of insect pests including walnut borer (Zeuzera coffeae Nietner) that adversely affects the yield and quality of the fruit and wood. This study describes the life cycle of the pest, the nature and extent of damage done to walnut, and the preventive mea...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

... as well as maintenance purposes for cattle in the dry season. Thus understanding the dynamics on rangeland response to grazing could prove worthy in finding an equilibrium point for optimizing animal productivity, with limited range degradation. Therefore, the current study was aimed at determining and comparing fodder tree species composition along grazing gradient in fenced and unfenced grazing area in the Gaborone North Region. For each study area, two par...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix showed significantly positive correlation of canker severity with maximum relative humidity at 1% level whereas, anthracnose correlated well with minimum relative humidity, temperature and number of rainy days at 5% level. The negative correlation was obtained for stem canker and dry rot with all parameters at 1% significant level. In case of Phytophthora fruit...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...atabase is for academic purpose and it includes the taxonomic details of the parasitoid, host insect, host plant, morphological characters, geographical distribution, period of activity, parasitoid behavior and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid species are also provided for helping in easy identification of the species. Keywords: Database, insect-pest, parasitoids, Manipur
 

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A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...hree months of storage. Surprisingly, spraying cowpea plants with the formulation as simultaneous spray reduced the number of lesions produced by Groundnut Bud Necrosis virus in cowpea by 88.39% when compared to the inoculated control, suggesting the antiviral potential of the formulation. 

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A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...ant varieties and other purposes like regulatory and nematode diagnostics. Attempts have also been to made to understand the molecular signaling events during compatible plant nematode interactions by identifying the genes during the transition from preparasitic to parasitic stage in ear cockle nematode and molya disease of wheat. Currently attempts are being made to utilize RNAi technology to identify the genes targets for the management of root knot and cyst...
Jakub Jan Skorupski
... was analyzed. For this purpose set of 3 amplicons were sequenced, including 5’-UTR and all exons and introns. The study involved 389 animals. The sequencing results revealed the presence of 5 exons (10 bp, 161 bp, 117 bp, 162 bp, 201 bp) and 4 introns (245 bp, 171 bp, 176 bp, 290 bp), with a total length of 1745 bp. Fourteen polymorphic variable sites were identified: 12 SNP substitutions, one single nucleotide deletion and one ins/del polymorphism. The...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...stead condition for the purpose of consumption and seed for the next year sowing. Callosobruchus sp.(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the major stored grain pest of blackgram under homestead condition resulting 15 – 30% grain damage during storage. An attempt was made to identify a practical and low cost solution of such damage with the active participation of village women responsible for the storage. Proven biological, chemical and botanical (veget...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...wat and Kohat. For this purpose 360 stool samples were collected from the District Headquarter Hospitals of all the three districts and were screened through microscopy. Results yielded an overall prevalence of 11.11%, with significant difference (P<0.05) among different study areas. Prevalence was highest in district Bannu (11.66%), followed by district Lakki Marwat and Kohat with 10% in each district. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference (...

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...ber of seedling for the purpose to increase the productivity. It is further recommended that government should provide training facilities to the farmers to improve their skills, as a results of which the productivity will be increased

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Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...ince of Turkey with the purpose of determining some factors influencing average honey yield (AHY) per beehive in the year 2014. For this purpose, predictive performances of several data mining algorithms (CART, CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID and MARS) and artificial neural network algorithm (Multilayer Perceptron, MLP) were evaluated comparatively. Several factors thought as independent variables in the survey were age of beekeeper...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...the ruminants. For this purpose rice husk was subjected to different processing techniques using acid, alkali, water treatment and fermentation to prepare processed moiety on pilot scale. All these processed materials were included in experimental ration at a fixed level (20 %). All iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous rations were offered to experimental animals (n=36, 22 male 14 female Lohi sheep almost evenly distributed in experimental groups) having almost uni...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...stan. For this, through purposive sampling technique a sample size of 80 bee keepers was selected from the three tehsils of the agency (i.e; Khar, Salarzai, and Nawagai). The data were collected from the sampled bee keepers using a pretested questionnaire by face to face interview in 2014 production period. The collected data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, descriptive statistics, rank orders and paired t-test. Findings revealed that bee keeping ...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence calculated was 5% and 4.4%, respectively, in these areas. Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) was frequently isolated (78%) f...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
... was designed. For this purpose, dry seeds of four cotton genotypes (Gomal-93, Bt-131, Bt-121 and Bt-CIM-602) were exposed to gamma rays with 10, 15, 20 and 25 Kilo Radium (KR) doses sourced from 60Co. The irradiated seed samples were assumed treated seeds while non-irradiated seeds of each genotype were used as control. Field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replicates in the green house. Radiation effect...
Muhammad Fiaz1, Khadija Munawar2, Muhammad Mushtaq2,*, Mukhtar Ahmad3, Mushtaq Ahmad Chaudhry3, Muhammad Aslam3, Tanveer Ahmad1 and Nasrullah4
...survivability. For this purpose, Salt Range neonatal lambs (n = 24, age = 01 week) were selected and divided equally into three groups having 08 lambs each. The experimental lambs were fed ewe milk, calf milk replacer-1 (Telilac) and calf milk replacer-2 (Creamo) through nipple feeding for optimum performance in lambs after mandatory colostrum feeding. Results depicted that average daily gain (ADG) and the body measurements were not different (P>0.05) among...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...onally used for medical purposes including remedy of bacterial infection. However, scientific evidences for its antimicrobial effects particularly against NDM-1 producing bacteria are lacking. In addition to antibiotic profiling, the present study aimed at determining the in vitro anti- bacterial activity of Manuka honey against NDM-1 producing clinical isolates of Pakistan. A total of five carbapenem resistant bacterial species; E. coli, K. pneumoni...
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...t but also for culinary purpose. The current study has been undertaken to develop a nutritious, healthy and value added drink. Proximate, mineral analysis, total polyphenol content and mineral analysis of basil seeds was conducted. Result revealed that basil seeds are not only good source of fiber and protein but they provide appreciable amount of minerals and phenolic compounds. Swollen basil seeds were used to prepare beverage at three supplementation levels...

Rabia Tahir1*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muti-u-Rehman Khan2, Farah Khan1, Hassan Bin Aslam1 and Arslan Mehboob

...ovarian route. For this purpose, liver and spleen samples (n=90) were collected from day-old-chicks derived from breeders at 14, 21 and 30 days of post-infection with AAV-4. The presence of AAV-4 DNA was detected through PCR. Chicks from virus-challenged breeders failed to show a clear and expected PCR positivity. The connotations derived from these findings are that vertical transmission via transovarian route is reported the field conditions. However, based ...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...Pakistan. Data for this purpose are collected from 255 wheat growers, selected from Southern, Central and Northern climatic zones of KP. Results from descriptive statistical analysis demonstrate that net-return per acre from wheat crop is highest in the Central zone because of conducive agro-climatic conditions. The estimated Cross-sectional Ricardian Model reveals that temperature and rainfall have non-linear relationships with net-return per acre. The relati...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...e results were also not surprising as the aptamer was administered naked and at low dose. As these are only our preliminary studies, a detailed investigation is planned using multiple doses, chitosan nanoparticle conjugated aptamer inline with the previous report on RNV66, and an approved VEGF inhibitor Avastin. Overall, the findings highlight that VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc can also serve as a potential anti-angiogenic molecule. 

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Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...llected, among which Episurphusbaltatus, De Geer, Eritalinus aeneus, Scopoli, and Ischiodon scutellaris, Fabricius were found to be most prevalent whereas; Eristalis arbustorum was found least in number during study period. The abundance of hoverflies fauna varied seasonally, the highest abundance was recorded in spring while lowest in autumn. Pearson’s correlation coefficient results revealed that there was a strong positive and significant correla...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

... was conducted in three purposively selected villages namely; Nasir Kaly, Shankar and Kodeenaka. From the field surveys, it was found that majority of the respondents were smallholders or tenants. After procuring and properly utilizing credit, the yield of the major crops such as wheat, maize, and sugarcane and the resultant income of the respondents exhibited significant increase, as confirmed by higher t-values. The study concludes that the socio-economic co...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
...s are used as medicinal purposes. One such herb is Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Fennel has many efficacious uses. It is a common herb and spice. It is used in many culinary purposes and also it has therapeutic purposes. In the present study antidepressant effects of fennel oil was monitored by comparing it with a synthetic antidepressant drug, fluoxetine. The rats were divided into ...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
...sed which were based on surplus production models. From CEDA Fox, Schaeder and Pella-Tomlinson were used with initial proportion (IP) 0.9 were used because the starting catch was 90% of the maximum catch the MSY estimated value from Fox with three error assumptions (normal, lognormal and gamma) were 3378 (R2=0.590), 3360 (R2=0.582), 3369 (R2 =0.586), respectively, whereas the obtained values from Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson wi...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...ulensis for nesting purpose while black kite Milvus migrans utilized semal tree Bombax ceiba. The weaver bird Ploceus philippinus also utilized only Acacia nilotica for nesting. The common crow, common myna, black kite, black drongo, red turtle dove Streptopelia tranquebarica and Indian robin Saxicoloides fulicatus successfully bred in particular nests whereas red wattled lapwing Vanellus vanellus, pigeon
Rimsha Nawaz1, Muhammad Javed1, Sidra Abbas1* and Safina Kousar2
...eo rohita. For this purpose, four groups of Labeo rohita (one-year old) were exposed to different treatments as 96-h LC50, 2/3rd, 1/4th and 1/5th of LC50 concentrations of iron chloride for 30 days in the glass aquaria with three replications for each treatment. After 30-day exposure of iron chloride, the fish organs viz. kidney and liver were isolated and the peroxidase enzyme activity w...

Soraya Khosravian Dehordi*, Abdolnaser Mohebbi and Kahin Shahanipour

...um (Cd) metal. For this purpose, thirty male rats equally divided into six groups, group I received nano-Se (0.1mg/kg) alone as dose, group II selenite odium (0.1mg Se/kg) alone, group III Cd chloride (300mg/250cc), group IV Cd along with nano-Se, group V Cd along with selenite sodium and group VI (control) given (1 ml) saline. All doses was orally (gavage) given to rates.Protein carbonyls (PC) andthiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS),superoxide dism...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
... study design. For this purpose 137 patients were included in the study after obtaining necessary permissions from the ethical board of the hospital. COPD was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and a post bronchodilator values of FEV1/FVC<0.70 on spirometry. Frequent exacerbator’s were defined as patients experiencing 2 or more exacerbation episodes per year, which merited visited to the hospital. Average number of hospital visits for exacerb...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

...at farm level. For this purpose data has been collected from 382 randomly selected strawberry producers of two purposively selected villages of district Charsadda. Out of 382 producers 176 were located in Tebana Dhere and 206 in Sarkai village. It is find out that 47% of land area was under the cultivation of strawberry with average production of 2898 kilogram per acre. The per acre average values of land preparation, NPK fe...

Muhammad Zamin* and Abdul Mateen Khattak 

...inity problem. For this purpose, various ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were investigated by conducting mowing tests in the year 2013 under UAE climatic conditions. Fifty ecotypes of Sporobolus spicatus were cut at various heights, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Significant differences were found among various ecotypes and mowing heights for different growth and quality parameters including green cover, canopy stiffness, leaf length and width. Most of the ecotypes...
Francisco J. Ayala
... the one hand, there is purpose in nature. Human eyes have a purpose, namely, to see. Teleological explanations are required in biology for (1) goal oriented behavior; (2) self-regulating systems; and (3) the function of organs and limbs. On the other hand, the natural history of evolution does not require a Creator or a planning agent external to the organisms themselves. There is no scientific evidence of any vital force o...
Ted Peters
... in Kansas City; George Murphy, physicist and pastor in Akron OH; and distinguished evolutionary biologist and winner of the Presidential Medal for Science, Francisco J. Ayala. I offer responses to each critique.
...

Afsheen Masood1*, Rubab Musarrat2, Shama Mazahir3 and Adeela Ashraf4  

...through non-probability purposive sampling procedure. Both cohorts were matched on the basis of the age and income level of the parents. Quality of Life Scale WHOQOLS and Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collect the data from Anmol and Sundus Foundation and Fatmeed Foundation, Lahore. The results from independent sample t- test revealed that the quality of life and marital satisfaction of parents of children with leukemia was significantly lower than th...

Muhammad Yahya Noori1*, Saharish Rizwan2, Zaheer Ali3 and Shaheen Sharafat4 

...xt-align: justify;">The purpose of this project was to evaluate the pattern of transmission in patients suffering from Multidrug resistant (MDR) Tuberculosis by assessing their contact information. Data were obtained and analyzed from 164 individuals suffering from MDR TB. Records were scanned to evaluate the presence of a close contact with known history of Tuberculosis. Tabulations and analysis were performed in Microsoft Excel® and online calculators. A...

Attia Anwar1, Sajida Malik2*, Zobia Usman1 and Sadia Chiragh3 

...e-Dawley rats. For this purpose, twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in two groups. Group A (n=10) was given distilled water and Group B (n=10) was supplemented berberine hydrochloride with dose of 75 mg/kg body weight/day. 24 weeks post-treatment, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture from both groups and tested for Hb (%), WBC, RBC and platelet counts, SGPT, alkaline phosphatse, serum uric acid, blood urea and serum creatinine. All the numeric...
Richard Swinburne
... of an ancient argument purporting to show that a temporal God (that is, one who exists at all moments of time), could not have infallible knowledge of any future causally undetermined contingent event, and so – if there are any such events - could not be essentially omniscient, in the sense of having infallible knowledge of all true propositions. Given the assumption that human free actions are causally underdetermined, this entails that such a God...
Samra Imran1,* and Afifa Tanweer2
...liac patients. For this purpose 50 diagnosed celiac patients were selected from Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex and Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Nutritional assessment was carried out through anthropometric, biochemical and dietary evaluation of the participants. Results indicated that participants aged less than 18 years and those diagnosed within first year of life, had significantly healthier body dimensions. Higher family income, female gender and greater meal sati...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

...professionals. For this purpose, a cross sectional and non-probability convenient sampling was conducted involving 59 medical professionals of Azra Naheed Medical College, Lahore. The assessment of leadership-style (T-P leadership rating scale) was applied. The age of subjects was 37.42±11.91 years; 29(49.15%) were males and 27(45.76%) were femalse whereas 3(5.1%) were undisclosed gender. The mean age of males was 41.28±12.85 years and average ag...

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

... and an non-probability purposive technique of sampling was used. Diagnostic laparoscopy was conducted to make a diagnosis of endometriosis. Females were divided into two groups. Females in group A received treatment with Letrozole tablets (2.5 mg/day) and in group B received Danazol tablets (600 mg/day) for 3 months. Pelvic pain was assessed using VAS score and the mean decrease in pain score was assessed between two groups using independent sample student t-...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

... 238 wheat growers were purposively selected from different cropping zones of the Punjab province as sample of the national survey. The survey results reveal that decline in wheat area, the incidence of frost/cold spells, shortage of irrigation water over normal supplies, imbalanced use of fertilizers particularly of DAP fertilizer below the recommended doses, higher prices of inputs such as seed, fertilizer, diesel, electricity and less wheat prices during 20...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...t promising option. The purpose of this study was to evaluate primarily the regional and global experiences to assess the potential of Jatropha farming in Pakistan and to conduct a comparative economic analysis of alternate feasible options e.g. production of oilseeds, which are also being imported in large quantities. Temporal analysis (1950-09) for edible oil consumption, production and imports is made. Projections for edible oil are worked out up to 2030. A...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...r the world due to multipurpose uses. Field experiments were conducted at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta to evaluate the growth and production potential of Matricaria recutita. Two crops a year are possible in highlands of Balochistan. The first production cycle starts from late February upto June and second production period is from August to November. Flowers are produced in flushes and picking is possible with 10-15 days interval. In irrigated conditions...

Mian Sajjad Ahmad1, Somia Iqtadar1, Sami Ullah Mumtaz1*, Zafar Niaz1, Iqra Waheed2 and Sajid Abaidullah

...uded by non-probability purposive sampling. Patients aged 15-70 years of either gender were included. Oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) was done in each patient with unrestricted carbohydrate diet for three days and avoiding coffee, smoking and heavy exercise six hours before the test. Fasting sample was taken then 75g oral glucose was given. Sample after two hours was sent to KEMU clinical lab. A positive result of the patient was labeled as IGT. The patients mea...

Halima Shoukat1*, Hafiz Sheraz Arshad2, Faiza Sharif1, Arooj Fatima1 and Filza Shoukat

...amstring tightness. The purpose of the study was to determine effects of different static stretch holding-times on hamstring muscles flexibility and their impacts on improving range of motion (ROM) of knee extension in adults. This experimental work was conducted on students of University of Lahore from December 2013 to March 2014. The study comprised of 60 subjects with asymptomatic tightness of hamstrings muscles and subjects were aged between 18-26 years (i...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

... was employed. For this purpose a dissection of 3-D model of A. mellifera and T. castaneum AChE enzyme was studied which showed that change in amino acid sequence of primary structure of enzyme exists at the saponin binding site, resulting in weak interaction for A. mellifera as compared to T. castaneum enzyme protein. Computational studies inidicate that A. mellifera enzyme had a little binding affinity for saponin as compar...
Asad Sultan1, Sahal Ahmad1, Sarzamin Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Tahir3 and Shakoor Ahmad2
...in. 
...
Umair Riaz*1, Zafar Abbas1, Qamar uz Zaman2, Muhammad Mubashir1, Mahwish Jabeen2, Syed Ali Zulqadar1, Zeenat Javeed1, Saeed-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Muhammad Javid Qamar1
...t waters for irrigation purposes after comparison with the standard values used for irrigation water for agricultural crops. The values of EC, SAR, and RSC were ranged from 0.031 to 15.39 dS m-1, 0.02 to 52.66, and 0 to 43.3 me L-1, respectively. Overall, in southwest areas the majority of water samples were found to be fit for irrigation while in northwest area majority of the water samples fall under unfit range. The SO4 rang...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...m size selected through purposive random sampling applying typical farm methodology. Rice is cultivated on 87% and fodder on 8% of the total area during kharif while wheat on 75% along with berseem on 14% of total area during rabi season. Almost 81% rice and more than 50 % wheat is harvested with combine followed by burning of residues that not only create environmental pollution but also affect the productivity of the cropping system. Stagnation in yield of r...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad, and Ijaz Ashraf**

ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL CONTACT METHODS IN DISSEMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES
...ucted in 2010. For this purpose, seven districts from the central region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa including Charsadda, Hangu, Kohat, Mardan, Nowshera, Peshawar and Swabi were selected. Data were collected on various aspects of individual contact methods in diffusion of agricultural technologies from 280 randomly selected farmer respondents. Researchers collected the data with the help of a pretested and validated interview schedule using survey technique. The res...

 Naheed Zahra*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar*, Sonila Hassan** and Irfan Mehmood**

INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT ARRANGEMENT AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON AGRICULTURAL INCOME IN THE SELECTED VILLAGES OF RAWALPINDI DISTRICT
...rom 150 farmers through purposive random sampling. Regression analysis was done to obtain the results. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was applied to generate the results. Results of this study revealed that there exists a positive and statistically significant relationship between institutional credit and agricultural income of the farmers. The other variables such as source of credit, ownership of farming machinery, access to market and family labour also...

 Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure-Camphor* and Mohammad Irshad**

SURVEY OF MANAGED F. (APIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) POPULATION IN GALIAT, MURREE AND ISLAMABAD
...ut also for pollination purpose. People interviewed were of the opinion that there is still some potential for these bees. Abbottabad area was having comparatively more population of than other areas.

...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
... to produce the healthy surplus of this predator for experiment and small holding field releases, S. cereallela is recommended as more efficient and economic host as compared to P. solenopsis.

...

 Nusrat Habib*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar* and Ikram Saeed*

COMPARATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF RECOMMENDED MUNGBEAN VARIETIES AT NARC EXPERIMENTAL STATION, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...ieties for experimental purpose to find out the comparatively best variety in terms of economic benefit. The results of the study were anticipated to provide basis for devising strategy to improve and sustain future mungbean production. The scope for increasing production through adopting drought resistance high yielding varieties and improved management practice seems to contribute significantly. The output-input ratios of AZRI-06, NM- -1 -1 06 and NM-98 were...

 Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Maqsood Ahmad*, Gulshan Riaz* and Sartaj Khan*

PERFORMANCE OF SUMMER FORAGE LEGUMES AND THEIR RESIDUAL EFFECT ON SUBSEQUENT OAT CROP IN SUBTROPICAL SUBHUMID POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...a), lablab bean (Lablab purpureus) and cluster bean (Cymopsis tetragonoloba) with reference to a cereal fodder reference crop of millet (Pennisetum typhoides) and their residual effects on the succeeding oat crop at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan, under rainfed conditions without application of fertilizers in Randomized Complete Block Design. The highest dry matter yield was obtained from millet (8.9 -1 -1 -1 tha ), followed by ...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, M. Z. Rahman**, R. Ali***, A. K. Azad**** and M. K. Sultan**

DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CORE SUBSETS OF HYACINTH BEAN COLLECTION OF BANGLADESH
...4 hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L.) accessions. Distribution of vine colors, flower and pod colors, pod curvature and beak position on pod noticed the presence of substantial variation in the collection. Shannon Diversity Index also revealed high phenotypic diversity in vine and pod characters. High diversities were estimated in quantitative characters of inflorescence and pod characters. Considering a core collection strategy, the accessions were stratified...

 Muhammad Akhter*, Muhammad Azhar Ali**, Zulqarnain Haider* and Shahzad Muzammil***

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHANGES IN GRAINS OF SOME ADVANCE LINES/ VARIETIES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AFTER PARBOILING
...nes/varieties. For this purpose, white milled and parboiled rice samples of ten lines/varieties were analyzed for nutritional quality parameters such as ash, dry matter, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, vitamin B6; milling quality parameters such as total milling recovery, head rice recovery, ratio of broken grains and cooking quality parameters such as curling, bursting and cooked grain length. The study showed significant variation in efficacy of parbo...

 Tosif Tabassam*, Tariq Sultan**, M.Ehsan Akhtar**, M.Mahmood-ulHassan** and Arshad Ali**

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT FORMULATED CARRIERS FOR SUSTAINING MICROBIAL SHELF LIFE
...) was used for adhesion purpose but considering free of lump formation an important property of a good carrier, mixing 40% of soil with other material was found suitable. Using 40% of soil, six different treatments were formulated and physico-chemical characteristics were determined. Four combinations in the range of 40% clay, 30-40% fly-ash, 10-15% press mud and 10-15% lignitic coal were selected which had good adhesion capacity, moisture holding capacity, nu...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

ECONOMICS OF MILK PRODUCTION OF MAJOR DAIRY BUFFALO BREEDS BY AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN PAKISTAN
...s of Pakistan. For this purpose, 219 buffalo farmers were randomly selected from mixed and rice-wheat cropping zones of Punjab and Sindh provinces, mixed cropping zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, coastal zone of Sindh and mountainousAJK. Of these, 155 and 64 were Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breed farmers, respectively. The study revealed that among the structure of cost components, feed cost occupied the major share in total cost of milk production....

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...s of adoption. For this purpose Climate and Alternate Energy Water Resources Institute, NARC, organized a professional training on “Water Rehabilitation and Irrigation Technology Improvements” in April, 2014 in collaboration with ICARDA and USDA. Twenty seven professionals from different organizations and departments namely; AlMustafa Development Network (ADN), Taleem Foundation, Islamic International University (IIUI) Islamabad, National Agricultu...

 Azhar Usman Ali*, Ghulam Sarwar*, Muhammad Aftab* and Sher Muhammad**

EFFECT OF SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLIED COPPER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
...pplication. For -1 this purpose, non-saline non-sodic soil (pH = 8.10, EC = 0.85 dS m , SAR = 4.60, saturation percentage = 29 % and sandy clay loam) was collected, brought to -1 green house and filled in the pots @ 6.5 kg pot . All these pots were irrigated to achieve uniform soil column. This experiment comprised 5 treatments viz., -1 -1 control, soil application of copper @ 2 mg kg (level 1), @ 4 mg kg (level 2), foliar application of copper @ 1% solution (...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
... vegetable pickers. The purpose of this study is to estimate the excessive use of pesticides and economic cost of health hazards for the vegetable pickers in district Vehari. Data from 90 respondents were collected and analyzed. The most common health problems identified during the survey were headache, eye irritation, skin infection, cough and shortness of breath. Health cost consists of costs related to precautionary measure, medication, traveling, the oppor...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Muhammad Sharif**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla*** and Muhammad Azeem Khan*

COMPETITIVENESS OF TOMATO PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competitiveness difference in two regions indicated that Central Punjab has more competitiveness at farm level in tomato production. Economic eff...

  Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saqib Shakeel Abbasi and Abid Hussain*

FARMERS PERCEPTION TOWARDS THE APPLICATION OF BIOZOTE IN SELECTED DEMONSTRATED RICE FIELDS AT HAFIZABAD AND SHEIKHUPURA DISTRICTS
...d out for demonstration purpose by a team of technical partners from NARC during 2014. The results are based on farmers’ perception recorded through a structured questionnaire and face to face interviews at their fields. Majority of the host farmers found that plots with biozote had better germination and also found it a good technology for improving rice yield. Non-availability of biozote at local level, less farmers' awareness and low education level o...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA
...pea cultivars. For this purpose six advance lines/commercial pea varieties were collected from Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad and one local variety was included in the experiment as a control. The experiment was conducted during 2014-15 at National Tea & High Value Crops Research Institute (NTHRI) Shinkiari, Mansehra. Altogether seven pea genotypes were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Nor...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...n: justify;"> Main purpose of the study is to investigate the role of access to information on farmers' risk management adoption decisions keeping in view the potential correlation between these risk management adoption decisions. Bivariate and multinomial probit models are used to assess the impact of access to information on farmers' risk management adoption decisions using data collected from 330 randomly selected respondents from four districts of Khy...

Sher Muhammad , Ijaz Ashraf*, Amir Khatam**, and Naima
Nawaz*** 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES OF MODEL FARM SERVICES CENTERS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...roperly trained for the purpose. Highest farmers' participation was perceived in supply of inputs and was ranked 1 with mean value 3.10. There existed a highly significant association between age, education, land holding, and tenancy status of the respondents and their participation in various activities being carried out under MFSCs. It is recommended that relatively young, educated, big and owner farmers may be given priority for registration in MFSCs so tha...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
...Ninety-one farmers were purposively selected based on milk production potential from a list of 170 farmers officially registered with the Oodi agriculture station. Farmers were visited to conduct face to face interviews and administer a questionnaire. The results showed that farmers milking average three goats constituted the highest (47%) share, and the majority (46%) of them had a daily yield of 1-2 L/day followed by those yielding <1L/day (40%). A signif...

Samina Ashraf1*, Ghulam Haider2 and Maimoona Ashraf

...isual and hearing) were purposively selected as the participants of the study. The age of participants was between 25 to 40 years and they had past experience of any type of abuse of violence, and were cognitively normal to respond interview. At first we identified the participants with the help of survey. A series of detailed and in- depth interview of 60 to 90 minutes were conducted from the participants. On the basis of collected data the researchers have g...
Asmatullah1, Chaman Ara1,*, Shagufta Andleeb2, Maha Tahir1, Beenish Zahid1 and Madeeha Arshad1
...veloping mice. For this purpose, different aqueous concentrations of cadmium chloride i.e. 0.00, 6.25, 12.50, 25.00 µg/g B.W of mice were given orally to pregnant mice on days 6-12 of gestation daily. Another series of mice were treated with different concentrations of cadmium chloride and also with an antidote (guava fruit extract) on days 6-18 of gestation daily once a day. Fetuses were recovered on day 18 of gestation, analyzed based on morphol...

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

...utilization for various purposes. Current study was conducted in District Karak during June to November, 2009 with the objectives to assess the changes in groundwater table depths due to withdrawal and the water quality parameters and to find the effect of small dams on recharge of ground water aquifer. Water table depths data from the ground surface, discharge of the wells, water quality parameters such as Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and Electrical Conducti...
Ambreen Asghar, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*
...fat rich diet. For this purpose, two groups of Wister rats were fed with diets carrying difference in percentage of fats. Protein profiling of treated groups indicated a marked increase in serum protein (related to iron metabolism and immune response) level compared to low fat-fed rats. Additionally, a decreased level of serum proteins was observed in the serum compared to control rats. Taken together, our findings conclude that diets rich in fats result in dy...
Shagufta Andleeb*1, Shabana Shaukat1, Chaman Ara2
...se toxicities. For this purpose, fertilized eggs of Gallus domesticus were randomly divided into four groups of forty eggs each. Control group was intact and untreated. Eggs of one group were injected with a sub-lethal dose of cadmium chloride (1.5 µg/egg) in albumin on 7th day of incubation. In another group, eggs were treated with cadmium chloride and fresh garlic juice (0.2 µg / egg) after a short interval of 10 minutes. Antido...
Muzafar Shah1,*, Mazhar Ali2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Khushi Muhammad3, Israr Alam1, Kausar Saeed1
...arial disease. For this purpose a total of 997 individuals were screened for malarial test in the study area and divided into four category of age i.e. (1-15), (16-30), (31-45), (46-onward), gender wise, union council (Kota, Barikot, Shamozo and Ghalegi) and month wise. It was concluded that out of 997 samples, 204 (20.46%) were found positive, in which mostly under positive, under 15 year of age (23.36%), whereas less cases were recorded in adult (46 a...

Muhammad Iftikharul Husnain1, Aneel Salman1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Tahir Mahmood3 

...ity as an instrument. Unsurprisingly, the magnitude of temperature coefficient increases substantially when endogeneity is controlled and becomes significantly higher (6 percent to 13 percent) than the previously reported findings in the literature. The findings suggest that endogeneity is a crucial issue and must be controlled before carrying out an empirical analysis on the temperature-agriculture nexus to obtain reliable estimates of the regression coeffici...

Murad Khan1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

...gara and Sumerbagh were purposively selected during the year 2015. From these tehsils, 92 poultry farms were selected proportionately from total 460 poultry farms and data were collected on structured questionnaire. The sample farms were categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, profit function and multiple regression model, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t test were used. The average profit of large size...
Leila A. Kaimbayeva1,*, Elena S. Malysheva2, Rashit Kazikhanov3 and Saule R. Kazikhanova4
...eat products. For these purposes, meat samples were collected from quadriceps of 2.5-4 years old female red deer, immediately processed for isolation of muscular fibers and were evaluated for the pH, water-binding power, activities of tissue enzymes and microstructure changes. The results of chemical analysis revealed the nature of protein substances, altered рН value of the meat and the intensity of glycolysis. All these parameters were indicative...

Urooba Pervaiz1, Abdus Salam1, Dawood Jan2, Ayesha Khan1 and Mahmood Iqbal

...il Mardan were selected purposively based on tomato cultivation. Two villages were randomly selected from each union council. All tomato growers given training by the extension department were selected for interview, thus 104 respondents were interviewed for the study through well-structured interview schedule. Paired t-test was used for the comparison before and after training.The results show that 43% of the respondents were young, literate (85%), owner cult...

Abdur Rehman1*, Wang Jian2, Noor Khan3 and Raheel Saqib

...ultural crops. The main purpose of this article is to compute and determine exactly the sizes and degrees of major crops market risk. The market risk analysis of major crops such as coarse grain rice, wheat, corn, cotton and soybean are determined using the VaR (Value at Risk) model. The practical consequences indicated that the normal distribution model is not appropriate used in evaluating the major crops market risk due to various degrees of market risk in ...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

...eobacter strain (MMF-4) surpassed by augmenting all agronomic parameters of rice crop like plant height (85 cm), plant fresh weight (45 g), dry weight (24.5 g) and root dry weight (2.80 g) followed by MMF-5 treatment. As regard shoot tissue analysis, the nutrients concentration was significantly changed in plant. The highest concentration of N (3.62 %), P (0.77 %), K+ (2.68 %), Ca++ (0.60 %), Mg (0.44 %) and Na+ (2.49 %) was found in the shoot of rice crop gro...

Baharullah Khattak1*, Saifullah2, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharraf Ahmad2, Asad Ali2, Mohammad Junaid2, Ijaz Ahmad Khan3, Taj Ali Khan1 and Mubbashir Hussain1 

...imers was used for this purpose, which resulted in 113 bands on gel for the 15 isolates of T. harzianum. The analysis of the bi-variate data, using Unweighted Paired Groups Method Averages, divided the indigenous isolates of Trichoderma, into four well-defined clusters. These results clearly revealed that there were considerable genetic differences among the Trichoderma isolates. While, there was no correlation, found between RAPD clusters and aggressive group...

Saleem Ashraf1*, Ashiq Hussain Sangi1Zakaria Yousaf Hassan3 and Muhammad Luqman2

...unjab Pakistan For this purpose, data collected from government reports for the period of 1990-2017 was criticaly examined. Empirical results indicated that area under cultivation showed negative compound growth rate while production and average yield showed positive compound growth in Pakistan. While, in Punjab, compound growth rate of area under cotton cultivation and production showed negative while average yield showed positive growth. Forecasting of cotto...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...htunkhwa (KP). For this purpose, surveys were conducted in the hilly areas of Mohmand Agency and Malakand Agency and plains of Shabqadar, Charsadda and Peshawar during 2011, 2012 and 2013, to determine the incidence of TYLCV and the population of its vector. Triple antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) was successful in detecting TYLCV in naturally and whiteflies inoculated tomato plants. Transmission properties of the virus were dete...

Rehman-Ud-din* and Naeem-Ur-Rehman Khattak 

...shawar valley. For this purpose, three districts, i.e. Peshawar, Charsadda and Nowshera in the said valley, were randomly selected followed by a selection of three villages in each district under simple random selection. In this way, a sample size of 175 farmers was randomly selected from nine villages on a proportional basis. The study reveals that a large number of both types of farmers are neither completely mechanised nor completely non-mechanised. Majorit...
Ye Gong, Nehafta Bibi and Haitao Wang*
...ied as successful nest usurpation: in six cases nests of other birds were usurped by Mandarin duck and in three cases nests of Mandarin duck were usurped by other birds. The remaining mixed clutches may be incomplete usurpation. For the nests taken over by Mandarin ducks, all heterospecific eggs were rejected and four clutches were incubated successfully...
Gulnaz Malik1, Abdul Qadir1 and Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,*
... thiamethoxam. For this purpose, toxicities of insecticides were tested at three different temperatures 20°C, 25°C and 30°C, on whole wheat grains which was artificially infested with S. oryzae under laboratory conditions. The toxicities of spinosad, emamectin benzoate, lufenuron and thiamethoxam increased 2.65, 1.59, 1.64 and 3.00 folds (positive temperature coefficient), respectively, with increasing temperature. The positive temper...
Riffat Mehboob1*, Shahida Perveen2, Naseer Ahmed3
...
Objective: Purpose of the study was to analyze the spectrum of BBD in a tertiary care hospital of Lahore to understand the prevalence of inflammatory lesions, benign neoplasms and their age-wise comparison.
Methodology: The study was carried out at Pathology Department, King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Data of 368 cases of BBD during a time span of 3 years (2011-2014) was obtained retrospectively. 
Res...

Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Muhammad Rizwan2*, Muhammad Akram1, Jaffar Hussain1 and Fiaz Ahmad1 

...ion of traits. For this purpose, fifty eight exotic and indigenous diverse mungbean genotypes were evaluated for seed yield and other related traits. The genetic analysis of mungbean germplasm revealed high genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variability for biological yield (GCV% = 31.70, PCV% = 33.58), harvest index (GCV% = 27.80, PCV% = 30.16) and seed yield (GCV% = 25.28, PCV% = 27.54). While heritability estimates were high for all the tr...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Veraldo Liesenberg2 and Syed Shehzad Hassan1  

... the crop calendar. The purpose of this research was to delineate the vulnerable zones for YSB attacks on rice crop using satellite thermal datasets. The area under investigation was 13700 km2 area out of which 8627 km2 was covered by rice plantations. Thermal datasets covered the area of 8627 km2 comprising 10663 pixels which returned 10663 spatially distributed temperature values. Six, thermal datasets were obtained for the duration between (April 03-June 22...
Muhammad Younus1*, Sabah Usman2 and Samia Jawed3
...through non-probability purposive sampling. Informed written consent was taken from all subjects. The demographic information of these subjects such as name, age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were recorded. Spirometry of all the subjects was performed on Spirolab iii. Correlation between FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC ratio and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio was measured by Pearson coeffi...
Mumtaz Akhtar, Iffat Naheed, Khadija Waheed* and Amna Khanum
...15. Non-probability and purposive sampling techniques were used. A total of 220patients undergoing normal vaginal delivery at term after administration of per rectal misoprostol were enrolled with 95% confidence interval (C.I). The error margin was 5% and the prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage was 16.5%. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 17. In this study, the mean age of study participants was found to be 29.89±5.89 years while the mean gest...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

...all ruminants. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from suspected animal samples (n=18) and were screened by real time-PCR. Additionally, to assess the phylogenomics, the N gene was amplified and sequenced from sheep and goats (n=12). Nucleotide identity among Hail strains was identified to be 96.2-100%, while identity with previously sequenced Saudi Arabian strains and with reference PPRV retrieved from GenBank was found to be 94.1-98% and 81.2-100%, respecti...

Muhammad Khalid1,2 and Muhammad Naeem2* 

... and carbohydrates. The purpose of this study was to affirm the proximate composition and nutritious status of Ctenopharyngodon idella. Standardized methods were used to determine the proximate composition of 72 samples. On wet weight basis, mean percentage for water was 80.76 %, ash 3.40 %, 4.31 % for fat and 11.53 % for protein in C. idella. Percent water contents showed inverse relationship with % protein (dry and wet body weight), % ash and % organic conte...

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

...xt-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of formal Agricultural Credit on Agricultural Output (AGGDP). The relationship among agricultural output and agricultural formal credit, cropped area, labor force participating in the agriculture sector, trade openness has been quantified through various econometric approaches in the study. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bound testing approach has been applied to analyze the long run...

Mohammed Al Mahish* 

...e reduction in producer surplus as a result of wage and income increase is larger than the reduction in consumer surplus.  

...
Iqra Arooj1,* and Shahida Hasnain2
...ferent populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of 6q25.1/rs6922269 and 9p21.3/rs1333049 loci with risk of CHD in a population of Punjab province of Pakistan. A total of 645 subjects were included in this study of which 435 were patients visiting hospitals of Lahore and Gujranwala districts. All the subjects were genotyped by allele-specific PCR. It was observed that the loci 6q25.1/rs6922269 and 9p21.3/rs1333049 were significant...
Naeem Ahmad1,* and Zulqurnain2*
...cision for farmers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the growth performance of two GIFT strains (GIFT-Th, imported from Thailand; GIFT-Tw, obtained from a local hatchery) in two earthen ponds, fed with commercially available feed. Similar feeding regime and physical conditions were maintained for both treatments. It was found that there was no significant difference in final total length (TL) and standard length (SL) of the fish in both treatmen...

Iqbal Javed1*, Amar Razzaq2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Ali Imran4, Haroon Javaid5, Iftikhar Nabi6, Anum Sardar1 and Shahbaz Ahmad

...kistani mutton. For the purpose of a research conducted on mutton exports from Pakistan the secondary data were used. The major sources of the data used in the study were international trade center, Economics survey of Pakistan, statistical yearbook of Pakistan and Agricultural Price Institution, Islamabad, Pakistan. Nominal protection coefficient (NPC), revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) were estimated for...

Nusrat Habib1*, Asim Zubair2 and Aisha Siddiqua3 

...ected districts through purposive sampling for 100 farms in different locations of selected districts. The objective of the study was to estimate determinants of sunflower area and yield in the study area. To determine the role of different factors that were affecting the area and yield of sunflower in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, multiple regression analysis was applied. The model pointed out that the area under sunflower have opposite relation with the seed cost, lan...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Bushra Hassan2, Nadeem Anwar2, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel3 and Shafique-ur-Rehman

...l Sargodha was selected purposively. Of the 62 rural union councils, four were selected purposively and from each selected union council two villages were selected purposively. Hence, from each village 15 respondents were selected randomly which makes a sample of 120 respondents. During the study, demographic factors such as age, Education, family structure, and professions of the responde...

Amar Razzaq1, Abdur Rehman4*, Abdul Hassan Qureshi2, Iqbal Javed3, Raheel Saqib5 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal6 

... 120 farmers located in Nurpur Thal, Bhalwal, Sargodha and Lodhran districts of Punjab province. These areas were purposively selected based on relatively higher concentration of HEI infrastructures installed on the farms. Sprinkler irrigation system was mainly installed on wheat crop while the drip irrigation systems were installed on mango orchards. Therefore, one half of the sample consisted of modern and conventional far...
Saima Shahzad Mirza1,*, Hafiz Muhammad Qamer2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3,*, Rana Shoaib Akram4
...PD pediatrics. For this purpose, cross sectional survey data of 34 conservative mothers was analyzed, obtained by means of questionnaire. Initiation of weaning process at proper time is found to be somewhat finance limited factor. Total 17 and 1 out of 34 cases were sufficiently and well literate, respectively and aware about weaning process. In our study 47, 39 and 14 % mothers belonging to lower middle, middle and higher middle class background, respectively...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...l requirements for this purpose in 2028–30 is estimated at approximately 5.30 million/tons from which domestic share could be only 1.99 million/tons. Generally, the genetically modified cotton (Bacillus thuringiensis) was acquaint in Pakistan during the first decade of this century to moderate harmful effects of lepidopterous insects; which were causing major loss to the cotton production ultimately to the economy of the country. Currently the genetic mo...
Shagufta Naz*, Saima Sharif, Hafsa Badar, Syeda Fareeha Tauheed
...hthalmologist. The main purpose of such type of research was directed to find the prevalence of Macular corneal dystrophy in the families of Lahore. The techniques used for the diagnosis of MCD were visual Acuity test by Snellen chart, phoropter, slit lamp biomicroscopy, topography, keratometer and pachymetry. In this study, 50 patients of MCD were identified among which 40 were males and 10 were females, including 9 cases with family history. Main complaint w...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*
... if used for irrigation purpose represents a major health risk not only to humans but also to local flora and fauna. The purpose of current research work was to analyze the toxicity of leachate in Wistar rats. Wistar rats of about 250g were selected and divided into three groups namely Control, Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 was given 4ml/kg leachate while Group 2 received 4ml/kg of 1:10 diluted leachate intra-peritoneally. Af...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
...s) were employed. Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz., Fox Model (FM), Schaefer Model (SM) and Pella-Tomlinson Model (PTM) were used in CEDA along with three error assumptions (EAs) viz., normal error assumption (NEA), log-normal error assumption (LNEA) and gamma error assumption (GEA). On the other hand, in ASPIC two SPMs viz., Fox Model (FM) and Logistic Model (LM) were employed. MSY estimates for Carangoides fishery by using CED...

Zubina Hameed1, Muhammad Azim Malik1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Farina Shaheen1, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Khisrao Kalim3 

...uo;s weeds and for this purpose, a field study was carried out from October, 2010 to April, 2011 at University Research Farm Pir Mehr Ali Shah-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the relative efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides viz. Clean wave 15 EO (Aminopyralid + fluroxypyre) @ 0.8 L ha-1, Aim 40 DF (Carfentrazone ethyl) @ 0.05 Kg ha-1, Buctril-super 60 EC (Bromoxynil + MCPA) @ 0.750 L ha-1, Atlantis 3.6 WG (Mesosulfuron...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
...d of Pakistan. For this purpose, a total of 384 goat milk samples were screened for SCM through surf field mastitis test (SFMT) and mastitis-positives cases were further investigated for isolation of S. aureus using standard procedures. Coagulase gene was PCR amplified from the clinical isolates to categorize them into Coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). A questionnaire was used to record risk...

 Tahir Abbas*1, Khawaja Raees Ahmad2, Asmatullah3, Khalid Pervaiz Lone4, Muhammad Ali Kanwal2, Sadia Suleman2

Reno-hepatic protective effects of Jambul against chromium induced anomalies in mice
...red for ethno-medicinal purpose.

...

 Shagufta Andleeb*

Teratogenic potential of pyrethroids: a review
...se hold and agriculture purposes and are extracted from the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum) in late 1900s. An extensive data on multiple aspects of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproductive toxicology and neurotoxicology is available except teratogenicity. This review concludes the teratogenic potential of sublethal doses of different types of pyrethroids in various groups of animals in systematic way. On...

Khush Bukhat Zahid1*, Ghaffar Ali2, Samina Sabir1 and Mohammad Fayaz2 

...81-2009. For estimation purposes, the production function technique is used to evaluate the relationship between climate and yield variability. The results show that higher amount of rainfall has a negative and significant impact on the production of all crops including wheat, rice and maize. It may be because unexpected rainfall in Pakistan during monsoon season severely damages crops. This result is consistent with our expectation that high level of rainfall...
Muhammad Muddassir Ali1,2 and İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci1,*
...re used for therapeutic purposes all over the world. Many endemic plants all over the world have magical therapeutic potential. These could be explored further for medicinal purposes and hence can be preserved for their proper propagation. Thermposis turcica is endemic to Turkey. It’s general anti-oxidant and anti-cancerous activities are explored, but no study has been observed on liver cancerous cell line in t...

Umair Talib1, Ijaz Ashraf2, Robert Agunga1 and Saleem Ashraf3* 

...these farmers. The main purpose for this study was to examine environmental degradation/climate change associated problems faced/ perceived by resource-poor farmers and ways adopted to mitigate them. The specific objectives of study were to determine farm damages of resource-poor farmers under environmental degradation; explore mitigation strategies available for resource-poor farmers; and examine the implications for extension educations in Pakistan. The surv...

Nighat Seema1*, Muhammad Hamayun1, Husan Ara1 and Raham Sheer Khan

...mendation for agronomic purpose. 

...

Muhamad Jawad*, Shahid Riaz Malik, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar, Muhammad Asadullah, Israr Hussain and Rabia Khalid 

...profitability. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity among 36 lentil genotypes for mechanized harvesting. Analysis of variance for qualitative and quantitative traits showed significant variability among the genotypes. Correlation analysis indicates negative correlation of yield with lowest pod height and highly significant correlation between lowest pod height and plant height. Cluster analysis performed for qualitati...
Jair Millán-Orozco1,*, Jersson Millán-Orozco2 and Luz María Tejada-Ugarte3
...an grass (Pennisetum purpurem) pasture maintained at a sward surface height of 30 cm. Observations were conducted during daylight hours (06:00-18:00) from May to April of the next year for three consecutive days every month of the following year. The highest (P<0.05) grazing activity was observed during September (38.9±11.4 min/h), while in May (27.1±14.3 min/h) was the month with least activity (P<0.05). Within days, t...
Shamesa Maryam1, Ajaz Ahmad Sandhu1, Imran Bodlah2*, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Ayesha Aihetasham3

 

... March (2016). For this purpose aphids were collected from twenty two host plants at six different localities of Gujranwala area of Punjab province, Pakistan. Total 12 species namely; Aphis craccivora, Aphis fabae, Aphis gossypii, Aphis nerii, Rhopalosiphum padi, Lipaphis erysimi, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus persicae, Pentalonia nigronervosa, Sitobion avenae, Greenidea (Trichosiphumpsidii...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2 
...39%). Contrarily, Short Purple cultivar showed maximum larval population (0.43) followed by Round White Brinjal (0.39) while the minimum larval population was observed on Round Brinjal 86602 (0.27) and was found comparatively resistant against the pest. The correlation between fruit infestation and larval population and different environmental factors was also studied. Average relative humidity was found positive and significantly correlated with fruit infesta...

Aisha Siddiqua1*, Munir Ahmad1 and Nusrat Habib2 

...13’ used for this purpose. Crop-specific strategies of change in the time of sowing, use of inorganic fertilizer, change in irrigation, and varietal change. Change in irrigation practice gave rise to the highest yield suggesting that this might be the necessary requirement to sustain wheat growth in Pakistan in future. Farmers are expected to receive significant positive benefits from the adaptation of the combination of strategies. Farmer’s adapti...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...lambat and Lalqila were purposively selected The total rice growers number in this district was37557, Balambat 6121 and Lalqila 5167which make total in both tehsils 11228. Through Yamani Formula 100 sample size was fixed and distribute the sample according to proportionate formula between two tehsil, Balambat 54 and Lalqila 46. Similarly, semi structured questionnaire was used for data collection while descriptive statistics and Cob Douglass Production Functio...

Farhan, Shahid Ali* and Syed Attaullah Shah 

...hwa, Pakistan. For this purpose, 160 wheat growers were selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. Primary data was collected through well designed interview schedule. Normalized restricted trans log profit function was first approximated for further estimation of output supply and input demand elasticities. Results indicated that response of output supply to the price of wheat and land was positive and elastic. Output supply in respons...

Naseer Ahmed Abbasi1, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1*, Bilawal Abbasi2, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1, Najeeb Ahmed Khan Nangraj1, Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahto1 and Sajjad Ahmed Morio1 

... lands for agricultural purposes; it could be more helpful for farmers of the research area. Fuzzy AHP methods could be beneficial for future studies for land suitability. The study finding have capabilities of different methods combined with fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the potential time and cost saving methods can assess the suitability of land. Finding shows that the fuzzy set method is different from parametric method. The influence of expli...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...i>E. coli. For this purpose, 88 E.coli isolates from 30 intact poultry intestines were cultured and identified preliminary on the basis of microscopy and biochemical testing. E. coli strain EC4 was screened as best oxyrase producer with activity of 0.41±0.008U/mL/min with 41% reduction in dissolved oxygen at pH 7.5, temperature 37°C, 25mM lactate as H+ donor after 20 min. This strain was later on confirmed by 16S ribotyp...
Abdul Wahaab1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Umair Iqbal2, Abdul Tawaab1 and Iahtasham Khan3
...HCT and MCHC). For this purpose, 40 infected animals were selected. After dividing them randomly in four groups of 10 animals each, drug was administered to first three groups whereas last one was kept under positive control for comparison. Study revealed that Triclabendazole was most effective drug of all three in both cattle and buffaloes with efficacy of 97.92% and 100%, respectively; Oxyclozanide was 2nd most effective with efficacy of 96.87% an...
Sakhra Mahmood1, M. Younus1, A. Aslam1, A.A. Anjum2, S. Umar3, Aamerzish Mushtaq3 and M.L. Sohail4,*
...1 added diets. For this purpose 180 quails, divided in 3 groups were reared and fed with 3 different experimental diets having 0.5 mg/kg of AFB1 contamination and varying levels of SC (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg of feed). Another 120 birds were divided into two groups, one group was fed with basal diet (control group) and other was fed with AFB1 diet without any detoxifying agent. Growth parameters (body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio), hematology...
Hande Küçükönder1, Pınar Çelebi Demirarslan1,*, Aykut Burgut2 and Mustafa Boğa3
...In accordance with this purpose, the hybrid approach has two main objectives: i) Determination of the effective period for which the output factors [(chicken survival rate (%), egg yield (%)] are optimized at the same time and the appropriate value ranges for the input factors [temperature (oC), humidity (%) and feed per hen (g)] that provide effectiveness ii) Determination of targeted improvement values for the ineffective months to become effectiv...
Doğukan Ölmez1 and Gonca Alak2,*
...conomic value. For this purpose, hydrolysates were prepared by enzymatic methods at different time periods using different trout byproducts. In this study, two different groups (viscera and muscles) of trout processing wastes were hydrolyzed by enzymatic method based on specific time periods (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min) for this purpose. Protein profiles, molecular size and distribution changes of the obtained hydrolysat...
Marian Kuczaj1, Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*, Alicja Mizera1, Renata Pilarczyk2, Bogumiła Pilarczyk3 and Patryk Barton1
... 1 month.
...

Tanweer Ahmed*, Kashif Saeed Khan and Mohammad Naeem 

...xt-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of government spending on agricultural growth in Pakistan. The relationship among agriculture value added per worker and public spending on education, health, road length, the number of tube wells in the agriculture sector, improved seed distribution has been estimated through various econometric approaches in the study. Pakistan’s agriculture growth has registered mixed trends from 1...
Kamran Zakaria1*, Noreen Munawar1 and Shafqat Ejaz2
...d agriculture. For such purpose, Precipitation regions were recognized in river Indus basin in Pakistan by examining the rainfall frequencies with the help of global wavelet power spectra. Records from 52 rain gauges were studied and the outcomes of the whole power spectra exhibited a low annual frequency all over the basin; whereas additional frequencies are present with major significance that indicate changes in the rainfall system. While, the calculated gl...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

... industrial growth. The purpose of the study was to analyze technical efficiency of Bt and Non-Bt cotton farmers in two core cotton districts Muzaffargarh and Rahim Yar Khan of Punjab, Pakistan. In this study, the stochastic frontier approach was employed for empirical analysis and multiple stages random sampling technique used for data collection of 400 Bt and Non-Bt cotton farmers for the year of 2012-13. The results of the study have indicated Bt cotton far...

Aqsa Khan1, Sabyan Faris Honey2*, Babar Bajwa2, Nelofer Jamil1 and Muhammad Sohail Mazhar2

... for different research purposes, three artificial diets with different compositions were evaluated for codling moth larvae. Two diets containing wheat germ in their composition as major protein source and one diet without wheat germ were used. Addition of wheat germ in the diet composition for larvae resulted in significantly high percent survival (maximum value) (60± 4.56 and 56± 2.56) and significantly increased larval body weight of codling m...
Ai Yuan
...갛) and performing non-purposive action (wuwei 無 為), even when dealing with situations beyond human control (ming 츱). This understanding of living a good life is dramatically different from the purposeful pursuit of well-being through action. Instead, to live a good life, the Zhuangzi requires one to uphold a form of courage (yong 澹) which requires one to willingly accept what is beyond h...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

... a large deciduous multipurpose timber tree. In Indian-subcontinent, the tree is cultivated in forest plantation as well as avenues, road sides and canal banks. Because of greater strength, elasticity and durability, the wood is highly valued as constructional and general utility timber. This review article shows the work conducted on sheesham decline syndrome especially die back and wilt in Indian sub-continent. A diversity of plant pathogenic fungi has been ...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...this pathogen. For such purpose colony forming units (cfu) per gram of soil and seed were determined and capability of previously characterized M. phaseolina isolates to cause the disease was tested on HO-1 variety. Additionally, most virulent isolate was characterized through sequence and phylogenetic analysis. There was significant variation (Df= 54, F=7.4, P=0.0000) among cfu per gram of M. phaseolina in soil samples collected during field survey at differe...

Saeed Ullah1, Muhammad Israr1*, Shakeel Ahmad2, Nafees Ahmad3 and Asif Yaseen

...nces towards LD in four purposively selected union councils i.e. Toru, Ghari Kapoora, Lund Khwar, Katlang-1 of district Mardan. A total of 90 farmers were selected through proportionate simple random sampling from 857 register farmers. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire from the heads of the farming households (HH) and analysed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. It was found that majority (62%) of the farmers were in the a...
Ahmed Ali Samejo* and Riffat Sultana*
...was carried out for the purpose of investigating the role of immatures in destruction of plants in Thar Desert, Sindh. Hatchlings of solitarious S.gregaria were light green at the time of emergence, but turned over to black with yellow strips after two hours of hatching, when they were placed in crowded condition. However, they remained green, when they were in solitary condition. Solitarious hoppers were passed through five nymphal stages during develo...

Javed Asghar Tariq1*, Bashir Ahmed2, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Muhammad Ismail1, Muhammad Usman Asif1 and Raza Muhammad1 

...rom rice crop. For this purpose, soil was collected from rice growing areas of Tando Jam. The isolation from rhizospheric soil was done by dilution plate technique. Among isolated isolates, 6 representative colonies were purified, multiplied and characterized using light microscopy and other biochemical tests. The bacteria were tentatively identified as Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Bacillus and Micrococus. These bacteria were checked for their antagonistic activ...

Anum Khursheed1, Malik Muhammad Shafi2 and Haidar Ali2* 

...ion council Kahori were purposively selected. The study indicated that the majority of the sampled respondents were female. To compare the size of livestock holding paired t-test was used. Productivity of livestock kept by sampled respondents has increased significantly. About (100%) of the sampled respondents stated that there is increase in livestock productivity after the interventions of AJKRSP. Results also show that AJKRSP has brought positive change tha...

Tariq Shah1*, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad3 

... selected for interview purpose. Descriptive statistical techniques along with independent sample t-test and dummy variable regression were used for analysis. It is observed during the study that livestock extension department and private livestock doctors are the key sources where farmers get advice regarding livestock production. Majority of the respondents are quite satisfied regarding the effectiveness of these advices. Results further indicate that farmer...

Muhammad Nasrullah1*, Liu Chang1, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai2, Asaad Osman Khalid1, Rachel Bayisenge1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

...ai was selected through purposive sampling among the three Tehsil of district Mardan. A sample of 120 growers was selected and interviewed randomly through a prepared well- structure questioner. Different practices were grouped into five parts. Land rent of the respondent area was 61,750 rupees per hectare; nursery raising cost was estimated at 11,828 rupees per hectare. The bed preparation cost for tobacco is 12,300 rupees per hectare while planting cost was ...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...ts most of animals. The purpose of current study was to establish and familiarize a precise and rapid detection approaches with molecular diagnostic tool. The method relies on periodically thermo cycling heating and cooling of DNA in presence of certain chemical reagents. In order to detect and differentiate parapox infections from those induced by pox virus. A new parapox specific and sensitive PCR assay based on amplification of B2L gene was applied against ...

Iftikhar Ud Din* and Qamruz Zaman 

...for accurate estimation purposes. In MLM, apart from the general factors of sample size estimation, the test size, the effect size, SE (standard error) of the effect size and power of the test, additional factors like, magnitude of the ICC (Intra Class Correlation), total number of clusters, the number of parameters to be estimated, and the information whether the design is balance or unbalance play a significant role and discussed in the present study. <...
Farah Bilal*, Abdulmohsen Alhejaily, Shahida Husnain
... including lung cancer. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of common nucleotide changes (E545K/E542K and H1047R/H1047L) occur in PIK3CA gene in non smoker patients of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutational analysis was done by QMC-PCR following direct sequencing with sangers’ method. Only one sample detected p.E545K mutation at c.1633G>A. Another most common mutation was observed in PIK3CA exon 20 which ...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

...was conducted. For this purpose, organic form of fertilizers like kitchen waste, poultry manure and compost were used while the inorganic sources were NPK fertilizer. This experiment was laid out in the field area of soil and water testing laboratory for research, Bahawalpur in growing seasons from July to October of 2017. Treatments were arranged in Two factorial Completely Randomized Design CRBD fashion with three replications and six treatments. Treatments ...

Ayub Khan* and Ghaffar Ali 

...ts’ WTP. For this purpose, a contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to elicit households WTP. A sample of 109 households was randomly selected from 14 randomly selected villages two from each tehsil. The study results revealed that most of the respondents perceived the problem of soil erosion and their willingness to pay for the suggested forestation based soil conservation practices were on average Rs.4666 per year. Regression analysis revealed that...
Khalid P. Loneand Irfana Liaqat*
... 18-29 months. For this purpose, nearly 500 fish were kept in ponds and sampled every month for the histology of the testis. After taking data regarding other somatic traits, the testes were fixed in buffered formalin and processed for routine histology and light microscopy. The annual maturity stages can easily be divided into five gross stages namely, immature and developing, maturing and developed, ripe and running, post spawning and spent-regressed. The te...
Muhammad Tariq Adnan Khan*, Tariq Mukhtar and Muhammad Saeed
.../i>. Round Black, Short Purple, Brinjal PPL, Global Brinjal PPL and Namyal Ratchburi behaved as susceptible. All the cultivars behaved differently regarding formation of galls, egg masses, number of eggs per egg mass and reproductive factor. Maximum galls, egg masses, eggs per egg mass and reproductive factors were observed on Round Black followed by Global Brinjal PPL and the minimum were recorded on cultivar Brinjal Jamak. Similarly, significant effects of <...

Muhammad Noman, Yong Tong Mu*, Muhammad Mohsin, Aamir Mahmood Memon and Muhammad Talib Kalhoro

...chistan coastline.Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz. Fox (F-M), Schaefer (S-M) and Pella-Tomlinson (PT-M) along with three error assumptions (EAs), log (L-EA), log normal (LN-EA) and gamma (G-EA), were used in CEDA while two SPMs, Fox (F-M) and logistic (L-M) were used in ASPIC. In CEDA, for initial proportion (IP) 0.9, F-M for L-EA and LN-EA estimated maximum sustainable yield (MSY) as 2593 t and 2282 t. However, G-EA produced minimization fai...
Kun Wang1,2, Yinglin Cui2, Xu Zhao2 and Changjiang Hu1*
...sm of action of XN, the purpose of this project was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of XN on ICH model rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms of this therapy. In this study, experimental ICH was induced by the administration of stereotaxic collagenase type VII into the caudate nucleus. XN (at a high dose and a low dose of 3.60g·kg-1 and 1.80g·kg-1, respectively) was administered via enema. The detection of n...
Adel E.M. Mahmoud1, AdamCieślak2, Paulina Szulc2, Anna Łukomska3 and Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel2,*
...tibility.
...

Naveed Afsar* and Muhammad Idrees 

... 400 farmers of the two purposively sampled districts as these two were the highly vulnerable areas from climate change. The major source of climate change information of the majority of farmers was electronic media and the overall regression analysis of the climate change perceptions reveal that climate change is happening and long-term mean temperatures have been increased with a significant decrease in the long-term mean rainfall over the past decades. The ...
Uzma Rafi*, Asmat, Muqaddes Niaz, Syeda Shazia Bokhari and Aisha Waheed Qurashi*
...h cockroaches. For this purpose, cockroaches were captured from house sewerage and two bacterial strains CXA1 (Planomicrobium chinense) and IM2 (Alkaligenes faecalis) were isolated from external surface and rectum portion of cockroach, respectively. Bacterial autoaggregation started increasing after 1 h of culture incubation and reached maximum after 4 h. Isolate CXA1 showed maximum (136 %) auto aggregation as compared to isolate IM2 (37 %) after...
Shad Mahfuz1,2, Shuyuan Wang1, Mo Chen1, Fei Zao1, Dong Zhen1
Zhongjun Liu4 and Hui Song1,3*
...ultry industry with the purpose of increasing production performance has led to human health hazards. A driving force for the interest of using natural herbs is to eliminate the use of low-dose antibiotics in poultry production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Flammulina velutipes stem waste (FVW) inclusion in laying hens diet on production performance, egg quality and serum metabolic profile during the early phase o...
Faheem Aslam1*, Aneel Salman1 and Inayatullah Jan2
...rediction accuracy. The purpose of this study is to develop a precise wheat production model using artificial neural networks (ANN). A total of 71 years’ wheat production data from 1948 to 2018 is divided into training data and test data. The model is trained by using 53 years’ data and forecasts the future wheat production for the remaining 14 years. There are 16 indicators used as input variables for wheat production and top ten most important va...
Rakhshanda Kousar1, Tahira Sadaf1*, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1 and Raza Ullah1
...vantage Index. For this purpose, time series data has been collected for the period 2001-2018 from Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics, International Trade Centre map, and World Banks’ World Integrated Trade Solutions, Trade Development Authorities of Pakistan, and Pakistan’s Economic Surveys. It was found that Pakistan comparative advantage in production of all three fruits as values of the Revealed Comparative Advantage were greater tha...
Beenish Zahid*1,2,7, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Amir Zohaib2, Asim Aslam3, Raheela Akhter3, Haleema Sadia4, Qurat ul Ain5, Razia Sultana6, Irfan Irshad3 and Sobia Alyas7
...NDV) in ducks. For this purpose, a total of 100 samples of cloacal and 100 oropharyngeal swabs of ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected from different villages of four tahsils of Sheikhupura during period (May to July 2017). NDV was isolated from field samples by inoculating the suspected samples into embryonated eggs of 9-11 days. Isolated virus was confirmed through haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition test. Viru...

Mazhar Habib1, Aamir Saleem1, Arshad Mahmood Malik2*, Sarfraz Ahmed3 and Sameera Arshad4 

...the species for grazing purposes. It is suggested that two month clipping stage should be applied on Blue panic grass to get sustained grass vigor and optimum herbage yield. 

...
Hafiz Muhammad Tahir*, Palwasha Jabeen, Chand Raza, Shaukat Ali
...ider silk for different purposes is due to its small obtainable amount. Efforts are being made to overcome this problem by modern biotechnological techniques including of making transgenic organisms.
...
Hafiza Sadaf Zahra1, Asia Iqbal2, Sayyeda Hira Hassan1, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Muhammad Khan1*, Muhammad Irfan3, Chaman Ara1, Shaukat Ali4
...ation of oncogenes. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence based relationship between ALAN and oncogenes expression through epigenetic remodeling by DNA methylation and histone acetylation.
...
Chaman Ara1*, Asmatullah1, Zainab Riaz1, Memoona1, Asma Chaudhary2, Shagufta Andleeb2
...ous different items. So purpose of study was to determine the possible hepatic and nephrotoxic effects of Butyl paraben in mice and to explore the possible curative and protective impacts of turmeric. Fifty mice randomly divided in five groups, i.e. Control, dose group (BP), dose and antidote group (BP+AD), vehicle control group (VC) and antidote group (AD). A sub lethal concentration containing 15ug/g B.W of BP was given with and without turmeric orally, diss...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,2,*, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Rizwan Shukat4, Shahid Ali Rajput5, 

Shadab Shaukat6, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem2,5,8, Mubashar Hassan2,5, Tabassam Fatima2,5
Fayyaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Usman Saleem7, Fatima Arooj1, Ashar Mehfooz2 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi2
...ening daily for teasing purpose to identify does in estrus, while separate them for breeding with enlisted buck. Mean values of Fertility rate and kidding rate in T1 and T2 were 75% vs 85% and 150% vs 176 % (p<0.01) showing significantly higher rate is in T2 group. The birth weight and weaning weight of the kids in T1 and T2 group were 1.56±0.02 kg vs 1.87±0.04 kg and 9.0±0.21 kg vs...

Arjumand Nizami1, Jawad Ali2 and Muhammad Zulfiqar

...South is already a heat surplus zone). These trends are crucial in terms of disasters with likelihood of spring / monsoon floods and winter drought. 

...

Sanaullah1, Fazli Rabbi2*, Shahid Ali2, Zeeshan Khan3 and Muhammad Zamin4 

...e generated as consumer surplus. The poisson regression estimates show that visitors’ frequency to the site is significantly affected by traveling cost, gender, and visitors’ perception of the quality of the site. The policy should legislate to introduce payment system for visiting the tourist site to generate funds for its development. Moreover, development programs shall be initiated to attract tourists vis-à-vis realize the objectives of ...

Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz*, Khalil Ahmed, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Faisal Nawaz and Muhammad Sarfraz 

...dietary crops. For this purpose, a series of field experiments were conducted during 2013 to 2015 with objective to optimizing the different levels of nitrogen and the cost-benefit sowing methods for turnip production under moderately salt-affected soils. The experimental design was split-plot with sowing methods (bed and ridge) in the main plot and nitrogen doses (40, 60, 80 and 100 kg ha-1) as sub plot. Treatments were replicated three times with sub plot si...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, Farrukh Siyar Hamid, Shams ul Islam, Naveed Ahmed, Fayaz Ahmad, Noorullah Khan and Qamar uz Zaman. 

...ce rice lines. For this purpose, fourteen elite rice lines namely Line-21, Line-25, Line-28, Line-31, Line-37, Line-46, Line-48, Line-50, Line-64, Line-73, Line-80, Line-128, Line-130 and Line-140 developed in the background of Basmati-385 by Department of Genetics, Hazara University Mansehra Pakistan were evaluated along with check variety Swat-1 for yield and yield components. Experiment was conducted at National Tea and High Value Crops Research Institute (...
Ibrahim Tapki1*, Huseyin Bahadir Ozalpaydin2, Nuran Tapki3, Mehmet Aslan4 and Muhammet Hanifi Selvi1
... as a milk additive for purposes of reducing weaning age; increasing economic efficiency; promoting calf growth as well as for improving blood parameters and general health status of Holstein Friesian calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian calves were allocated into three groups: (a) Control calves were fed with whole milk (n=10), (b) OreganoLow (n=9), and (c) OreganoHigh (n=9) calves were fed with whole milk, plus 100 and 150 mg/l oregano essential oil per kg...

Shahzad Khan1*, Inayatullah Jan1 and Syed Fahad Shah2 

...tunkhwa, Pakistan, were purposely selected for the study. A total of 30 respondents were interviewed with the help of a pre-tested questionnaire. The findings of the study reveal that skillful and experienced tenants were given preference by the landlord. But due to non-availability of extension department and its trainings, illiterate and untrained tenants are involved in agricultural practices. The physical inputs and investment efforts lead to long term dur...

Kalpana Polisetty1* and Kiran Kumar Paidipati2 

...s range tests. The core purpose of these three techniques is to capture the mutation point in time series data connected to wheat production during the period 1980-2016. Consequently, Sen’s slope estimator has been used to measure the magnitude of the trend for wheat production and their significances examined through Mann Kendall (M-K) test. The analysis provided a clear idea about the trends of wheat production over India. The results exhibit that all ...

Asif Yaseen1, Muhammad Israr2*, Allah Bux Khan1, Ahsan Javed3, Nafees Ahmad4 and Zia Ullah

...xt-align: justify;">The purpose of this research is twofold. First, analyzing smallholder famers’ selection of high value marketing channels to boost self-sufficiency in the Pakistani Citrus industry, and second, to identify the issues of greater importance pertaining to famers’ selection of high value market channels in the Pakistani citrus industry. The study employed survey technique to collect data from 300 citrus farmers in Punjab, and multino...
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool4, Laraib Liaquat3, Fatima Ahmed5, Asra Khan1, Tahira Perveen3, Mirza Jawad ul Hasnain6, Saima Khaliq7 and Saad Bilal Ahmed8
...en feed previously, the purpose of this study was to observe the effects of chicken meat consumption on liver cells of rats. One hundred and twenty female Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and separately for standard chow rat, commercial chicken feed, commercial chicken meat and organic chicken meat over a six-week period. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were estimated before and af...

Saba1, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Waqar Khalid2* and Saifullah Khan

...xt-align: justify;">The purpose of this empirical study was to identify the participation of women in livestock management practices and to explore factors determining their engagement in district Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A multi-stage sampling approach was adopted to choose a random sample of 110 women farmers from the union council of village Shewa, and a well-structured questionnaire was designed to accumulate the primary dataset from rural wome...

Mahfooz Khan* and Himayatullah Khan 

...rgy sources for cooking purpose. Results of the study showed that income of farm households, education level of household head and cooking cost had significant effect on the use of electricity, firewood and natural gas as against animal dung cakes for cooking purpose which was the base category. The study concluded that the use natural gas for cooking was less expensive as compared to other alternative energy sources such as...
Jun Yan Bai*, Hong Deng Fan, You Bing Yang, Xu Wang, Heng Cao, Xue Yan Fu and Yu Qin Wang
...ion site.
...
Jun Yan Bai*, Xiao Hong Wu, Shuai Yang, You Zhi Pang, Heng Cao, Hong Deng Fan, Xue Yan Fu, Kun Peng Shi and Xiao Ning Lu
...ectively.
...
Veli Sel1, Isa Yilmaz2,* and Mete Yanar3
...alos in Igdir. For this purpose, a total of 637 milk samples gathered from 91 animals raised in 54 farms were analyzed and statistically evaluated. The age and education level of the farmers and the effect of the milker on the SCC were found to be significant (P <0.001). SCC value (65.930 ± 2.484 cells/ml) was found to be the lowest when the milker is the person from the household. The udder cleaning before milking was a significant factor (P <0.0...
Tasbihullah1, Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*, Tariq Ali3 , Umer Saddique1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Shafiq4, Sultan Ayaz2, Hamayun Khan1, Ijaz Ahmad1 Asadullah2, Raheela Taj5, Hafiz Nidaullah6 and Alamgir Khan7
...th table eggs. For this purpose, a total of 200 table eggs and 50 stool samples from human were analyzed. Results showed that out of 80 E. coli isolates recovered from eggs, 20 (25%) were found to be ESBL-producers, while, of the 17 human-isolates, 4 (23.5%) were ESBL producers. PCR revealed that blaCTXM (blaCTXM-1=15 and blaCTXM-9=4) was carried by all 22 (91.6%) ESBL-producers with additional bl...
Saeed Murtaza1, Abdul Sattar1*, Nasim Ahmad1, Muhammad Ijaz2Maqsood Akhtar3 and Muhammad Shahzad4
...er to October. For this purpose, 25 animals were randomly divided into three groups: group-1 (Control; n=8), group-2 (Low dose 10IU; n=8) and group-3 (High dose 30IU; n=9) while one animal excluded at milk sampling from group-3 due to unavoidable circumstances. Oxytocin was administered to each buffalo twice daily @10IU and 30IU into group-2 and group-3 respectively, whereas, saline into group-1 within one week of post calving for 48 days. Ultrasonography was ...
Mustafa Boğa1, Kerim Kürşat Çevik2* and Aykut Burgut3
...s in average). For this purpose, the milk yields of 156 Holstein Friesian cattle were investigated according to different age, lactation, calving and insemination associated parameters. Optimum values in literature were organized by an expert in establishing classification data. The expert determined the classes of the outputs data (average milk) through the input data (calving age, milking days, number of lactation and insemination). Applying deep neural netw...
Bo Gao1,2, Fengmei Yang3, Wei Chen2, Xiaojia Song4, Xiaobo Liu5 and Dongmin Li1*
...s New Roman";">The purpose of this study is to detect the relative expression level of Multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1) in common tumor malignancies, and evaluate the prognostic value of MDR1 expression in common malignancies. mRNA relative expression levels of MDR1 were detected byreal-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in tumor, adjacent, and non-cancerous tissues. The tumor markers were detected with COBAS 6000. The prognostic value...

Amjad Usman1*, Arshad Khan1, Ruidar Ali Shah2 and Toheed Iqbal3 

...t S. dorsalis. For this purpose, five commercially cultivated tomato genotypes (Riogrande, Riogrande H, Bombino, Roma VF and Roma) were evaluated against thrips (S. dorsalis) at A.R.I. Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan during spring 2017 in randomized complete block design with three replications. Trichome study was also carried out to know the type of trichomes responsible for resistance. Results revealed that genotypes differed significantly in response to S. dorsa...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir

...dda. These two UCs were purposively selected to collect 150 samples for the study. A well-structured interview schedule was developed to collect data which was pre-tested before starting the actual process of data collection. The total sample size of the study area was 150, randomly selected for interviews. After the data analysis, it was found that the majority of the respondents (83.3%) who were small farmers acquired and utilized micro-credit in establishin...

Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar*, Ayyan Umer, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar, Faiz Ullah Faiz and Sikandar Hussain 

...de range for commercial purpose. Silkworm is susceptible to various pathogenic diseases. Among the all bacterial diseases of B. mori, flacherie is injurious disease that is initiated by entomo-pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis var. sotto (Bts). The impact of this infectious disease is weight loss, reduction in cocoon quality as well as quantity and source of infestation for healthy larva. In current study, the 3rd instar larva of B. mori were fed on ...

Humayun Saleem1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique

...hat target apricot. The purpose of the current study was to record the prevalence of shot hole disease on Islamabad’s Federal Capital Territory markets. The frequency and severity of shot hole disease was estimated from market random samples, and later the index was measured. The results showed that in all markets with varying degrees of disease incidence, frequency and disease index the prevalence of shot hole disease was 100 per cent. It was concluded ...
Mohammad Ejaz1, Salma Javed2, Muhammad Hamza1, Sadia Tabassum2, Muhammad Abubakar3, Irfan Ullah4*
...icancer drugs. The main purpose of this review is to organize the effective compound of the fungal endophytes for cancer treatments. 
...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...to PCR for confirmatory purposes. Two different sets of primers were used for the identification of the viral genome. Thirty samples were found PCR positive and a subset of ten samples was direct sequenced. Sequence analysis showed 94% similarity to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia which is considered to be the second most prevalent bacterial species in mosquitoe’s midgut. This observation may lead  towards the confusion that the outbreak is eith...
Muhammad Shuaib Khan1, Shakeeb Ullah1, Nisha. A.R2, Muhammad Umar3, Muhammad Inamullah Malik1*, Syed Muhammad Kamal Shah1, A. Zaman1, Shakir Ullah1, Imdad Ullah1, Sumera Ali Khan4
...s were selected for the purpose of this study as the representative samples of the area by personal interviewing of respondents and observations regarding different pack animals i.e. camel, bull, horses/ mules and donkey. Score from female respondents by different pack animals i.e. camel, bull, horses/ mules and donkey receive were 33.67±2.55, 29±1.00, 29.52±2.52 and 58.67±2.082 respectively (% means ± Standard ...
Salahud Din1,*, Saima Masood1, Hafsa Zaneb1, Habib ur Rehman2, Saima Ashraf1, Imad Khan3, Muqader Shah4 and Syed Abdul Hadi1
...gh osteometry. For this purpose, after performing postmortem examination, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age was buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan, after a specific period of time the bones were unearthed. Gross morpohological features and various osteometric parameters of the skull were studied in the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciencies, Lahore, Pakistan. The shape of...

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Iftikhar Nabi3, Amar Razzaq4, Raheel Saqib5, Allah Bakhsh6, Muhammad Mohibullah7 and Muhammad Luqman

...from Pakistan. For this purpose, panel data of eleven markets are collected from 2003 to 2016. Independent macroeconomics variables used in the study are exchange rate of Pakistan, exchange rates of trading partner, inflation in Pakistan, inflation in trading partner and dummy variables joint border and religion by application of Park’s Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS). Result of this study showed that exchange rate of Pakistan has negative and s...

Asmaa Abdallah Darwish 

...al conditions. For this purpose, 200 barki ewes were divided into control group, inflammatory diseases groups (pneumonic group, arthritic group, enteric group), late pregnant groups (normal late pregnant group, pregnancy toxemia group), postpartum groups (normal postpartum group, endometric group, mastitic group and non-inflammatory postpartum disorders group). Blood samples were collected from all ewes and vitamins concentrations were estimated in all groups....

Muhammad Medrar Hussain*, Asad Jan* and Sayyar Khan Kazi 

...rought stress. For this purpose, OsTZF8 gene was over-expressed in Oryza sativa subspecies indica variety Swat-1. Through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, OsTZF8 gene (pBIG-Ubi-OsTZF8) was successfully transferred to rice calli. From these rice calli transgenic plants were regenerated and established in greenhouse. For the evaluation of OsTZF8 gene role in drought stress tolerance, two weeks old rice seedling were subjected to drought stress. OsTZF8-OX t...

Filza Fatima Rizvi1*, Waqar khan2, Syed Mohsin Raza Kazmi3 and Muhammad Umer

...r simulation and design purpose which gives a more appropriate, simple and effective representation of results and User-friendly software for linear modeling. The simulation showed 99 % accurate results as the actual readings, e.g. the actual flow rate calculated at the field was 274 GPM while the designed value was 276.76 GPM. The designed total dynamic head was 110.34 feet, while the actual in the field was 108 feet. Through linear modeling, we can get our d...

Iram Fatima1*, Imran Pasha1, Ambreen Saddozai2, Shahid Nadeem3, Amer Mumtaz4 and Saqib Jabbar4 

...e selected for the purpose of sample collection. Mean prevalence of E. coli 61.7% was indicated by Spread plate method. Prevalence of Total plate count checked and pathogenic count was calculated in CFU/g and CFU/ml, mean CFU for E. coli and TPC was (3.39×104 to 3.15×105). Total 47.9% samples of spices were found adulterated for eight different adulterants tested. Sugar samples were f...

Nasrullah1*, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso1, Jamila Soomro2, Ilahi Bakhash Marghazani1, Masood-ul-Haq Kakar1, Abdul Hameed Baloch1, Sarfaraz Ahmed Brohi1 and Muhammad Asif Arain1* 

...m, and Millet. For this purpose, a total of 90 animals (n=45 sheep) and (n=45 goats) were randomly assigned into six groups (n=15) each under 2x3 factorial arrangement. All groups of both species were fed maize, millet and sorghum randomly. Results indicated that goat spent more time to eat than sheep while sheep rumination time were noted significantly (P<0.05) higher in sheep compare to the goat. Meanwhile, drinking time was noted higher in sheep than goa...

Muhammad Raheel Faiz1, Ijaz Ashraf1, Haq Nawaz2, Muhammad Zubair3*, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood4, Sajid Hussain5 and Abdul Qadeer2 

... storage facilities for surplus vegetables, fluctuation in market price of vegetables and transportation problems. This indicated that the government should launch small credit schemes and should provide better marketing facilities to the farmers to ensure the sustainable production of vegetables in this area. 

...

Paul Oludare Adetunji* and Safiriyu Idowu Ola 

...e used for reproductive purposes. The CL, CH and IPD may be used to predict onset of puberty and some semen quality characteristics in the tested varieties of Noiler cocks. 

...

 Abdus Salam* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...dy, 3 zones from 5 were purposively selected on the basis of their different agricultural condition. Selection of sample size was made using Yamane formula. The number of respondents as per formula was confined to 188 respondents in district Mansehra, 153 respondents in district Swabi and 59 respondents from district Karak, where data were collected randomly. Five point Likert scale was used to record responses of the respondents. The results of the study clea...

Riaz Muhammad1*, Naseer Ahmeda, Abdul Basit2, Rizwan Alim Mufti2 

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FRACTURE TOUGHNESS, HARDNESS AND LOAD-INDENTATION DEPTH RESPONSE OF TI-64 USING VICKERS INDENTATION TECHNIQUE
...niques.
For this purpose Vickers-indentation technique is employed to report the hardness followed by fracture toughness
evaluation of the studied alloy using indentation energy model. The indentation method resulted a fracture toughness
of the studied alloy with 14.5% when compared to the results obtained from strain dependent ductile damage model. 

...

Mujahid Khan1*, Mohammad Tufail2, Muhammad Fahad1, Hazi Muhammad Azmathullah3, Muhammad Sagheer Aslam1, Fayaz Ahmad Khan4, Asif Khan5 

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE PIER SCOUR PATTERN
...e pier models. For this purpose a number of experiments
were conducted in the physical modeling laboratory of River Engineering and drainage control, USM, Malaysia.
The study shows that the pier scour depth and affected area around pier increase with the increase in pier size.
The study further demonstrates that the square pier models results in greater scour depth and area as compared to
circular pier models. Magnitudes of scour de...

Daulat Khan1*, Khizar Azam2, Noor Muhammad Khan1, Muhammad Israr1, Naeem Ejaz3 

ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER FOR DISPOSAL IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEQS CRITERIA AND ITS REUSE FOR IRRIGATION WITH DILUTION
... be used for irrigation purpose if it fulfills FAO irrigation water criteria. For this
purpose, important properties like SAR, Sodium ratio, Salt Index, Residual Sodium Carbonate, Permeability Index,
Magnesium Adsorption Ratio, Sulfate ion and Boron were analyzed having result of 9.36 √(meq/L), 5.64, 75 ppm,
4.66 meq/L, 110.46, 0.42, 6.07 meq/L, 1.386 mg/L mean concentrations respectively, violatin...

Naseem Ahmad1, Sahar Noor1, Rehman Akhtar1*, Misbah Ullah1, Khizar Azam2 

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF COMPRESSOR TO RECOVER FLARE GAS USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT TECHNIQUES
...s. 

...

Rafiullah Khan1, Waseem ur Rahman1, Misbah Ullah2, Kamran Afaq3, Muhammad Amjad1, Sakhi jan1 

AGE EFFECT ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIP JOINT BONE: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
...xperimentally. For this purpose
hip joint bone specimens of male bovine of different age groups were tested for fracture toughness, young modulus
and tensile strength in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the collagen’s fibers. Compact tension specimen
was used for the fracture toughness, while for young modulus and tensile strength, rectangular flat specimens were
used. The test procedures were similar to ASTM (Ame...

Aqeel Nawaz1, Muhammad Ali Kamran1 

PARAMETRIC SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF CONVEX STAR PORT PROPELLANT GRAIN FOR SOLID ROCKET MOTOR
...off)and neutrality. The purpose of the study is to expand the design domain by evaluating entire
convex Star family under both neutral and least sliver content conditions.The computer program associated to it
is essentially the ballistic design analysis of the convex star grain configuration.Results showed that neutrality and
sliver fraction are dependent oncertain parameters. It has been observed that for good neutrality, higher angular

Tehmina Amjad1, Ishfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Akram Shaikh2, Nabila Naz1 

VARIATION IN CITATION BASED FRACTIONAL COUNTING OF AUTHORSHIP
...rld data for validation purpose and have used fractional h- and g-index as our baseline
indexing methods. We compared the results of our proposed method with baseline methods and have analyzed that
our intuition has clear impact on the authors indexing. Author on higher index in fractional index gets impacted by
Vf -index and its rank changes accordingly. Baseline methods do not considers variation factor and it is possible
that aut...

Nazish Huma Khan1, Mohammad Nafees1, Adila Bashir1, Farooq Ahmad1 

STUDY OF POLLUTION LAOD IN PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS AND ITS RECYCLING BY SUNDRY PLANTS AT HAYATABAD INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, PESHAWAR
...plants. For this
purpose a detail study was conducted at paper mills and sundry plants at Hayatabad Industrial Estate. The plants
were examined for operation and sampled for waste water. Total 7 waste water samples were collected from selected
points of Paper mills, Industrial drain and Sundry plants. Samples were analyzed for various physicochemical characteristics (colour, pH, EC, Alkalinity, Turbidity, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD5) by adoptin...

Muhammad Naveed Anjum1, Abdur Rehman1*, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan1, Raheel Saqib2, Mohammad Fayaz3 and Iqbal Javed4

Impact of Microfinance on Socioeconomic Status of Farmers in District Dera Ismail Khan
...ign: justify;">The main purpose of this study is to assess the impact of microfinance on the socioeconomic status such as, family income, family health status, children educational status, living standard, food/diet pattern, crop production and transportation and finally the constraints faced by the borrowers to get the loans from microfinance institutions. The primary data were collected from the 300 borrowers of microfinance institutions especially from Khus...

 Muhammad Nafees*, Asim Nawab*, Wisal Shah**

STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGNED FOR INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS
..., if required. For this purpose, samples
were taken from the effluent, before and after it went through the treatment plant. It was found that the treatment
was not sufficient to remove various physical and chemical parameters including Suspended solids (SS), Biological
Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Sulfide (S) in order to comply with Pakistan National
Environmental Quality Standards (Pak-...

Muhammad Usman Shafi*, Syed Muhammad Ali**, Syed Akhtar Ali Shah***, Kamran Ahmed****

DEVELOPMENT OF DATABASE OF HEAVY TRUCK LOAD DATA IN PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN
...han 0.5”. General purpose strain gages were installed on front and back side
of each plate in full wheat stone bridge form and were connected to Data acquisition system (DAQ) to record deflection.
Lab calibration was carried out to determine the value of strain for each load applied through Universal
testing machine (UTM). Load verses strain graph was developed for each load cell which was used to interpret the
...

Nisar Mohammad٭, Mohammad Mansoor Khan٭, Noor Mohammad٭

EXTRACTION OF HIGH QUALITY TALC FROM TALC-CARBONATE ROCK OF MINGORA EMERALD MINES BY FLOTATION AND LEACHING
... of talc for industrial purpose and if in access, limits its applications. In present research work, beneficiation studies of carbonatic talcose rock of Mingora emerald mine located in District Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan were conducted to recover high quality talc out of the talc carbonate rock and to develop a technique for up gradation of indigenous noncommercial talc resources from other locations. These rocks host emerald crystals and the debr...

M A Khalid*, A R Ghumman**, H. N. Hashmi**, E. Tanveer*

INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT OF LOWER BARI DOAB CANAL
...ls can be used for this purpose. SETRIC model has been used in this paper. The sediment deposition and erosion in time and space along the canal has been simulated. The relevant data were obtained from Punjab Irrigation and Power Department Lahore. It is observed that sediment deposition and erosion is a significant problem being faced by the canals in Punjab.
...

Muhammad Naeem*, Sohail Asghar**

A REVIEW OF FEATURE SELECTION TECHNIQUES IN STRUCTURE LEARNING
...f networks for the purpose of automatic distillation of knowledge from masses of data with target concepts. However, there are various circumstances where we are confronted to fix a set of most influencing variables in modelling of class variable. This arises in provision of confidence measures on set of variables used in the structure learning of data. In this study, we have tweaked empirical as well as theoretical aspects of various ...

 Amjad Ali*, Amir Nawaz Khan*, Atta-ur-Rahman*, Muhammad Saeed*

ANALYSIS OF SITE, SITUATION AND THEIR IMPACT ON RESETTLEMENT OF PROPOSED NEW BALAKOT TOWN, PAKISTAN: AN EX POST EVALUATION OF 2005 KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE
...sp;town for residential purposes. However, the politicians, businessmen and landlords of the community are fear to suffer. As a result, these groups resist the process of resettlement. This uncertainty about the resettlement is the product of human interaction with the site and situation of new Balakot town in post 2005 Kashmir earthquake scenario. The site is feasible while situation is not encouraging in the new Balakot town, which creates unc...
Sitara Nawaz1, Shamaila Irum1, Haroon Ahmed2, Shazia Shamas1, Sadia Roshan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi4, Irfan Ullah5*, Gulnaz Parveen3*
...n our country. The main purpose of the study was to identify the prevalence of sandflies in selected regions of Panjab and their relationship with hospital-reported cases of Leishmaniasis. Clinical information of 124 patients was recorded. Observable factors of prevalence include age group, gender, financial status, clinical symptoms, and travel history. The sandflies also collected and identified. Out of 350 sandflies two genera Phlebotomus and Serg...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...loitation of resources. Purpose of the study was to assess the awareness of the farmers to determine the impact of integrated farming system (IFS) on agricultural development and improving the livelihoods in the study area. To accomplish these objectives, an interview schedule was developed as a research instrument to record the opinions of the respondents by using Likert-type scale. The 200 respondents were selected through systematic random sampling techniqu...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...loitation of resources. Purpose of the study was to assess the awareness of the farmers to determine the impact of integrated farming system (IFS) on agricultural development and improving the livelihoods in the study area. To accomplish these objectives, an interview schedule was developed as a research instrument to record the opinions of the respondents by using Likert-type scale. The 200 respondents were selected through systematic random sampling techniqu...

Shahida Nasreen Zakir*, Samina Siddiqui*, Nasreen Ghaffar* and Zia Ul Haq**

WATER QUALITY INDEX OF SHALLOW AND DEEP GROUNDWATER DURING WET AND DRY SEASON OF PESHAWARBASIN
...irrigation and drinking purpose. A total of 95 groundwater samples at 1.5 to 30 m depths were collected in triplicate during wet and dry seasons. All samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, SO4 2-, HCO3 -1, CO3 -2,Cl-1, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ , Fe+3 and K+ The result of this study showed that according to water quality index (WQI) of WHO all groundwater samples were categorized as good water and considered suitable for drinking apart from a few exceptio...
Amjad Hussain1, Ata Ur Rehman2, Zia Ur Rehman Tahir3, Aftab Ahmad1, Fahad Noor3, Qasar Wasique Ahmad1
INVESTIGATION OF EMPLOYEES’ PERCEPTION ABOUT LEAN IMPLEMENTATION
... been selected for this purpose where data has been collected through a questionnaire (α=0.85) from four textile organizations (N=339; white collars and blue collars employees working at the shop floor); level and maturity of lean implementation in each organization was done before conducting the study. It has been concluded that white collar work group perceptions about Kaizen implementation are more positive than blue collar employees. Moreover, employ...

 Saman Shahid1, Shahid Ali1, Muhammad Abdullah Ahmad1, Sarfraz Munir2

RE-DESIGNING AND OPERATIONAL ANALYSES OF THE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT CONTROL IN IRRIGATION CANAL NETWORK
...gn: justify;"> The purpose of this research was to improve the existing design of the irrigation canals in Punjab. The design of an entire canal network is a tiresome and laborious work, where engineers spend months to design canals. Over the years, engineers and agriculturists in the Punjab have been trying to find a solution to the sediment transport problem which occurs in existing irrigation system. To address these problems, the canals can be analyze...

Arshad Habib Malik*, Aftab Ahmed Memon** and Muhammad Rafiq Khan***

DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
...d for controller design purpose. An advanced discrete controller is synthesized for state space model of PHWR using fast output sampling methodology. Noise sensitivity is a typical problem with this type of controller. In this research work, a small deviation is allowed in order to reduce the noise sensitivity. The problems of noise sensitivity and poor output error dynamics are addressed and a multi-objective optimization problem is solved...

 Muhammad Waseem*, Irshad Ahmad**, Muhammad Asif Khan**

DETERMINISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS AND SELECTION OF TIME HISTORIES FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS FOR A SITE IN SWABI
...ingle NGA equation. The purpose of this study is to utilize all NGA equations to define seismic hazard in terms of peak horizontal acceleration using Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) for a site near Tarbela Dam, Pakistan. The PGAs from all NGAs are weighted to get mean PGA for design. The site of interest, where previously recorded PGA was 0.16g for Kashmir 2005 earthquake-150 Km away from the epicenter, is surrounded by 8 fault...
Kadir Karakuş1, Turgut Aygün2, Şenol Çelik3, Mohammad Masood Tariq4*, Muhammad Ali4, Majed Rafeeq4 and Farhat Abbas Bukhari4
...g live weight of lambs. Purpose of MARS algorithm having very high predictive precision in the prediction of LW from body features may put onward a new view point for 39 lambs breeders.
...

Olga Mikhailovna Blinnikova1*, Vadim Anatolyevich Babushkin1, Lyudmila Gennadievna Eliseeva2 and Galina Severyanovna Usova3

Modeling a Formulation and Assessment of the Consumer Properties of the Special Purpose Starch Drink
... preventive and medical purposes, capable to fill the shortage of collagen and to stimulate the human body to produce its own protein. Drinking kissel is a perspective product type for enrichment the CCR (Central Chernosem Region’s) fruit and berry’s by collagen and natural physiologically active agents. At the same time the new types of drinking kissel useful to health, in assortment are which confirms the feasibility of updating the range due to ...

Syeda Farzana Bibi* and Siraj-ud-Din

Fluorescence Analysis, Extractive Values and Cytotoxic Screening of Crataeva adansonii DC Leaf and Bark through Brine Shrimp Larvae Assay
... was conducted for this purpose. Extractive values of leaf and bark parts were estimated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol, methanol, water, and ether as a solvent. 10g of plant powder was dissolved in 200 ml solvent during various extract preparations Fluorescence study was conducted after treating the powder drug with different reagents including ethanol, methanol, acetic acid, n-hexane, HCl, nitric acid, carrageenan, glacial acetic aci...
Mahak Fatima1, Memoona Syed1, Rabia Zeeshan2, Farah Rauf Shakoori3, Naveed Shahzad4, Moazzam Ali1 and Zeeshan Mutahir1*
... named MCF7-R. For this purpose, we transfected MCF7-R cells with MTH1 specific validated siRNA. Successful transfection of siRNA and consequent cytotoxicity in MCF7-R cells was confirmed by qRT-PCR, western blotting and cell viability assay. As a result of siRNA transfection, MTH1 protein was knockdown to approximately 77% in the transfected sample and resulted in a 1.75-fold increase in sensitivity of MCF7-R cells to gemcitabine. Moreover, higher expr...

Ali Hazrat1*, Mohammad Nisar1, Khan Sher2, Jehandar Shah2, Tour Jan1 and Abid Ullah1

Taxonomic and Medicinal Study of Papilionaceae of District Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...d studied for medicinal purposes.

...
Safia Arbab1, Rehana Buriro1, Shams Uddin Bhugio1, Atta Hussain Shah2,  Jamila Soomro3,Qudratullah Kalwar4, Saqib Ali Fazilani1 and Waseem Ali Vistro5*
...nds of donkey. For this purpose, two different concentrations 30 µl and 60 µl crude as well as ethanol extract of Aloe Vera were used. During this experiment, total 50 wound samples were collected from donkey wounds. All 50 samples were found contaminated with different bacterial organism, among all those 45, 35, 33, and 25 were recorded positive for S. aureus, E. coli, Shigella and Salmonella spp respectively. However, out of 50 samp...

Shahzad Malik* and Ayesha Khan

Gap Analysis of Farmers’ Capacity Building by Public and Private Agriculture Extension Sectors in Central Plain Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...Charsadda were selected purposively. In order to carry out the research, in the three districts of Peshawar, Mardan and Charsadda one tehsil was selected from each district i.e. Town-4 from Peshawar, Takhtbhai from Mardan and tehsil Charsadda from district Charsadda. Sample size for the present study was 270 respondents i.e. 90 respondents from each tehsil. Data were collected from respondents by using well-structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed...

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Syed Amir Zia Abid1, Muhammad Luqman1, Syed Wasim Hasan2, Muhammad Aqeel Pitafi3, Muhammad Tariq Chaudhry4 and Muhammad Ameen5

Training Needs Assessment of Training Professionals Working in Agricultural Training Institutes in Punjab, Pakistan
...Is) of Punjab. For this purpose, data were collected from all training professionals of four ATI in Punjab with the help of structured questionnaire. Different questions related to demographic attributes, training needs and constraints faced by professionals affecting their performances. Collected data were analyzed with the help for SPSS, results revealed that majority of the were included training professionals did not get any training at national/ internati...
Arif Alam1*, Faridullah2, Ikram Shah1, Shahzad Khan3, Noor Elahi1 and Ehsan Inamullah1
Estimation of Farm Level Technical Efficiency in Maize Production at the High Mountain North Region of Pakistan
...s of Pakistan. For this purpose, initially two villages one from District Nagar and other from District Hunza were selected with an aggregate sample of 112 maize crop growers. Both primary and secondary data were collected from different sources. To measure technical efficiency, the stochastic frontier production function along with technical efficiency model was employed. Data was analyzed through statistical software Frontier 4.1, because of its appropriaten...

Inam Ullah1, Mahfooz Khan2*, Munir Khan2, Himayatullah Khan2 and Azra3

Factors Affecting Different Wheat Varieties Yield in District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A Comparative Analysis
...rict Peshawar. For this purpose, the effect of various inputs was separately analyzed using multiple regression model. The empirical results show that for Pirsabaaq-5 wheat variety, the effect of (weedicides) was insignificant. While for Pirsabaaq-8 wheat variety irrigation was found insignificant and for Pirsabaaq-13, wheat variety the effect of seed was insignificant. It was observed that majority of the farmers were illiterate and do not apply the recommend...

Paul Oludare Adetunji* and Safiriyu Idowu Ola

Comparative Productive Performance among three Plumage Varieties of Noiler Hens
...mproved indigenous dual-purpose breed of chicken developed in Nigeria to meet national demands for food supply. The objective of this study is to compare the productive performance among three prominent plumage varieties of Noiler hens. For this purpose, a total of 90 pullets with three plumage colours (brown, black and barred) were divided into 3 replicates with 10 birds per replicate in each of the variety. Data were colle...

Rabab Rafaqat1, Habib Ahmed Rathore1, Tariq Masud2, Imran Hayat1* and Imtiaz Hussain1

Determination of Different Chemical Constituents of Fruit, Leaves and Oil of Olea cuspidata (Wild Olive) Grown at Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
... (wild olive). For this purpose, the moisture content, crude fibre, crude protein, total oil, ash content and nitrogen free extract of fruit and leaves were studied. Extracts of wild olive fruit and leaves were made in four different solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone and water). Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of fruit and leaves extracts in these solvents were determined. Oil was extracted from wild olive fruit by the process...

Shahzad Khan*, Munir Khan, Inayatullah Jan, Mahfooz Khan and Fida Muhammad Khan

Determinants of Sugarcane Yield in District Charsadda, Pakistan
...raz Kalay were selected purposively. Primary data were collected with face to face interview method from 41 randomly selected sugarcane growers through structured questionnaire. The selection of farmers was based on proportional allocation technique in the selected villages. For data analysis, profit margin, gross margin and Cobb-Douglas production function were applied. The study found that the per acre profit of sugarcane was 289.82 US$. Labour and fertilize...
Ateeq Ahmad1, Umar Hayat2, Shahid Ali2*, Hazrat Bilal3, Naveed Ali2, Khan Mir Khan4 and Khalid Khan4
Descriptive Analysis of Water Resources in Pakistan: A Perspective of Climate Change
... on earth. Pakistan was surplus in water resources in the past is moving towards deficiency. Although water crisis is fundamentally a global issue, however its implications will be more severe in developing countries. Nevertheless, the climate change impacts will have greater risk for developing countries like Pakistan. Pakistan with a high and fast growing population lacks enough economic resources to satisfy the basic needs of masses. Furthermore, the future...

Nadeem Abbas Shah1*, Ejaz Ashraf1, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Zaheer ud Din Mirani3, Usman Rafique1 and Raees Abbas Shah4

Assessing Perceptions of the Households-heads Regarding Food Security Status in Drought-hit Areas of District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan: A Case Study for Agricultural Extension
...and malnourishment. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of the respondents for ongoing food security status in the district of Tharparkar, Sindh-Pakistan and to highlight the role of extension service delivery organizations in the area. District Tharparkar is the most vulnerable area in the country for food insecurity. Tharparkar has four tehsils such as Mithi, Diplo, Chachro and Nangerparkar. Out of four tehsils, one tehsil Mithi was selec...
Muhammad Yaseen1*, Xu Shiwei2, Yu Wen2, Ejaz Ashraf1, Muhammad Luqman1, Muhammad Ameen3 and Sadia Hassan4
Farmers Behavior to Participate in Public Sector Agricultural Extension Services: Comparative Analysis of Pakistan and China
...or department. For this purpose, a random sample of 160 households from four districts of Punjab province of Pakistan was selected, and another random sample of 122 households selected from the six villages of Huailai County of Hebei Province in China. Data were collected using the interview method with the help of validated and expert reviewed interview schedule. The results revealed that the household head’s average age is 47 years in Pakistan and 53 y...
Rabea Ejaz1*, Saima Qadeer2,Muhammad Sajjad Ansari3, Bushra Allah Rakha4Shazia Shamas5, Iram Maqsood1, Asma Ul Husna6, Asima Azam1 and Shamim Akhter6
...emen extender. For this purpose, semen was collected from 3 adult buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) of same age by artificial vagina keeping temperature at 42°C for a period of 5 weeks (replicates; n=30). Ejaculates were mixed in tris citric acid extender having 0.0 (control), 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 ng/mL of arachidic acid at a temperature of 37°C (>1 mL volume, >0.5 billion per mL conc., >60% motility) and cryopreserved using standar...

Asif Ali Abro1* and Iqbal Ahmed Panhwar2

Impact of Various Factors on Crop Diversification Towards High Value Crops in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis by using THI
...ty (MAF) for irrigation purposes, which demonstrated a positive and significant association with crop diversification. To determine the effects of climate, rainfall was adopted in the model and showed a negative and significant relationship with crop diversification. It was found that development of infrastructure received a low priority in rural areas and it is recommended that cold storage in relevant areas, vibrant roads net work and consistency in power su...

Ashraf Ismail Afia1 and Ahmed Soliman Mohmed El-Nuby2*

Soybean Genotypes Response to Root-Gall Nematode
...ce sources for breeding purposes.

...
Ammara Gull-E-Fareen1, 3, Imran Bodlah1*, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1, Yasir Niaz2, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah2, Muhammad Asif4 and Nasir M. Khokhar5
...ts in Pothwar. For this purpose, seven ant species were selected, identified as Camponotus compressus (Fabricius, 1787), Formica fusca Linnaeus, 1758, Formica clara Forel, 1886, Lepisiota frauenfeldi (Mayr, 1855), Myrmica aimonissabaudiae Menozzi, 1939, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius, 1793) and Tetraponera allaborans (Walker, 1859). A lot of surveys were conducted during 2015-17 for the collection of ants as...
Shakeel Ahmed* and Sarwat Jahan
...n of HPG axis. For this purpose, after NMS administration plasma testosterone (T) and growth hormone (GH) levels were determined in four normally fed and 48 hours fasted adult male rhesus monkeys.Fifty nmol (50 nmol)of NMS was injected through a cannula affixed in saphenous vein. Blood samples were collected individually 60 minutes before and 120 minutes after NMS administration at 15 minutes intervals. Plasma T and GH concentrations were determined by using s...
Kui Zhang1,2, Ping Geng1, Sher Khan Panhwar3, Khadim Hussain Memon4 and Zuozhi Chen1,2,*
...hery resources, such as purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis in the Arabian Sea.
...
Muhammad Ramzan, Unsar Naeem-Ullah*, Mudssar Ali and Hasan Riaz
...his pest. For this purposes, the current study was conducted and this is first study on this pest in Pakistan.
...
Tafail Akbar Mughal1, Shaukat Ali1*, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Shumaila Mumtaz1, Samaira Mumtaz1, Ali Hassan1 and Syed Akif Raza Kazmi2
...nce in this regard. The purpose of the current research was to inspect the effects of an aqueous extract of Berberis lycium Royleroot bark on lipid profiles of Swiss albino mice in which diabetic phenotype was induced by alloxan. A single injection of Alloxan (150 mg/kg) was applied intravenously to induce diabetic phenotype. Alloxan induction raised the overall level of triglycerides, low density- lipids (LDLs), and cholesterol and reduced the level of...
Mehwish Saleem Khan
Evaluation of Changes in Zinc Levels in Patients Suffering from Cancer
... was observed. For this purpose, the blood of 50 cancer patients was taken from MAYO HOSPITAL Lahore. The patients are suffering from different type of cancers such as, breast cancer, lung cancer, uterus cancer, oral cavity cancer, esophageal cancer, urinary bladder cancer, blood cancer and brain tumor. In addition to serum zinc level of cancer patients many other parameters were also studied such as, age limit, weight of cancer patients, effect of smoking on ...
Arifa Khan1*, Arsalan Bashir1, Shazia Erum2, Jabar Zaman Khan Khatak1 and Aish Muhammad3
Effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Indole-3-acetic Acid on Growth and Root Development of Banana Explants in Micropropagation
...xt-align: justify;">The purpose of the experiment was to find out the impact of various combinations of growth regulators 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP cytokinins family) and Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA auxin family) on growth and root induction of banana explants micro-propagated in vitro. Explants were obtained from young suckers of 8818-william, Pisang and Brazilian varieties. The explants were cultured in vitro containing MS media and different BAP and IAA combin...

Muhammad Abdullah1, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai1, Jahangir Khan1*, Mohammad Fayaz1, Irfan Ullah1* and Sabeeh Ullah2

Analysis of Agricultural Land Price Determinants and Policy Implications for Controlling Residential and Commercial Encroachments: Facts from District Swabi (Pakistan)
...r Pakhtunkhwa. For this purpose, a sample of 79 land parcels, having transaction record for the year 2015-2017, was selected from 10 randomly chosen villages. Data were collected on their prices and their physical, agricultural and location characteristics. Descriptive statistical tools were used to summarize data on agricultural land characteristics. A linear Hedonic Pricing Model (HPM) was used to estimate agricultural land prices based on physical, location...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Yin Hengbin2,* and Zhang Luyao3
... stock status. For this purpose, long data series, 2006-2016, comprised of catch and effort figures was statistically analyzed to know maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of this resource and its ongoing regime. In total, three surplus production models (SPMs) were used in this study, viz., Fox (FM), Schaefer (SM) and Pella-Tomlinson (PTM) with the help of two famous fishery statistical routines, viz., catch and ef...

Syed Muhammad1*, Badar Naseem Siddiqui2, Farhat Ullah Khan1 and Nawab Khan3

Self-perceived Constraints of Extension Field Staff Affecting their Working Efficiency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...dern technology for the purpose to increase agricultural production. The efficiency of EFS is, therefore, reflected by the farmers’ adoption level of modern recommended technology. The current study was designed and conducted during February 2018 for the purpose to find out self-perceived main constraints, affecting the efficiency of EFS in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Five districts out of 26 were ran...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

December

Vol. 36, Iss. 4, Pages 1010-1324

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