Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

... appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, compost @ 0.7 t ha-1 and poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 were applied with half of the recommended dose of NPK @ (75:60:30 kg ha-1) with or without EM. In 2009-10, the application of EM with Press mud @ 20 t ha-1 significantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm), number of leaves (16.4), fresh foliage yields (330 g pot-1), d...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

...nder different fertility treatments at National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Cropping systems were kept in vertical blocks and fertility treatments in horizontal blocks replicated thrice with RCBD strip block system. Sole mungbean and intercropped mungbean with maize were treated with five fertility treatments (T1, control; Phosphorus and Potash (PK) (80-60 kg ha...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...uring 2011. Six nitrogen treatments (80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and 280 kg ha-1) and a control one were studied in this trial. Growth and yield traits and quality such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein, crude fiber and ash percentage were significantly increased with increase nitrogen levels (200, 240, and 280 kg N ha-1). However, highest benefit-cost ratio w...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

... pots. Five water stress treatments were created by withholding the irrigation for specified time at critical growth stages viz. tillering, booting, anthesis and milking (grain filling), whereas a well-watered treatment was also included during whole plant growth and development period. The results showed that water stress significantly reduced plant height, number of total tillers per plant, number of fertile tillers per plant, number of nodes per plant, spik...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

...ive different fertilizer treatments i.e. farmyard manure (FYM) 30 tons ha-1, NPK 35-40-20 kg ha-1, poultry manure 20 tons ha-1, compost (press mud) 12.5 tons ha-1 and inoculation by phosphorus mobilizing microorganisms 2.5 packets ha-1, in addition to control were evaluated under lentil-sorghum and lentil-mungbean cropping patterns. Fertilizer treatments were only applie...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...ld of chickpea crop. The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1), Farmyard Manure (20 t ha-1), Poultry Manure (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + P.M (20 t ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1) + P.M (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (10 t ha-1), and NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + P.M (10 t ha-1). All the relev...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...ek of May each year. The treatments consisted of: weedy check (no weeding), interculturing twice (30+60 DAS), Dual Gold 960-EC (S-metolachlor) @ 2.50 L ha-1, sorghum water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice) and sunflower water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice), sorghum water extract @ 15 L ha-1+1.25 L ha-1 Dual Gold and sunflower water extract @ 15 L ha-1+1.25 L ha-1 Dual Gold. In interculturing...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...th when exposed to these treatments. Results revealed that levels of citric and lactic acid concentrations effect were maximum for 5.0%, followed by 3.0% and least for 1.0% on E. coli and Salmonella load on beef surfaces. In addition, citric acid was more effective than lactic acid at all concentrations (1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%) in reducing E. coli and Salmonella growth. The citric acid at 5.0% was found significantly effective treatment in reducing E. coli O157: H7...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

...o four different dietary treatments. MOLM in proportion to CSC was supplemented along with maize silage as basal diet. Four dietary treatments having MOLM were 0.0, 0.71, 1.42 and 2.16 Kg DM/day used as replacement for CSC containing 2.16, 1.42, 0.71 and 0.0 Kg DM CSC/day. Overall the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) were non-significant (P>0.05) whereas digestibility of NDF w...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

... plot and N-rate subplot treatments. Mean results of replications revealed a significant reduction in days to flowering and maturity by delay SD. However, positive responses were observed by increase in N-rate. Early planting showed maximum biomass and yield at 120 kg N ha-1 which was due to reflecting higher leaf area, plant height and stem diameter (cm). Traits e.g. the head diameter, grain head-1 and grains weight were indicators contr...

Shahida Bibi* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

... replications. Herbicide treatments (herbicide used and herbicide not used) were assigned to main plots, while intercropping treatments (sole maize, sole mungbean, 5 rows of mungbean + 6 rows of maize, 10 row of mungbean + 6 rows of maize) were allotted to subplots. Results of the study revealed that weed density m-2, fresh weed biomass in maize and mungbean crops were significantly affected by both the main-plot ...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

...varieties to sub plot as treatments. Thirteen wheat varieties (i.e. Pak.2013, Dharabi, Tatara, Lalma, Chakwal-50, Shahkar-2013, PS-2005, Hashim-2008, Zam-2004, KT-2000, Atta-Habib, Siren-2010 and Khttakwal a local as check) were planted on five dates (i.e. 29th Oct, 10th Nov, 25th Nov, 10th Dec, and 25th Dec. 2014) using a seed rate of 130 kg ha-1. Nutrients were applied as one bag urea (N 46%) ...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

...BD) consisting of eleven treatments (cultivars) replicated three times during 2015. The results showed that Tarocco attained maximum height (156.13 cm), followed by Mexican Lemon (146.80 cm). Similarly, maximum plant spread and leaf area were recorded in Mexican Lemon 124.07 cm and 11.35 cm2, respectively. However, Hamlin showed the highest stem girth (9.90 cm) and number of branches (66.53). The internode length was the greatest in Kinnow cultivar ...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...kistan. Thirteen compost treatments including control as main plot treatment and two fert-N levels (0 and 75 kg N ha-1) as subplot treatments were used. Compost materials i.e. farmyard manure (FYM), cereal residue (CR) and legume residue (LR) were composted as sole or in various combinations six weeks before sowing and then were incorporated to plots at sowing both the years. All treatments

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...y randomized design. The treatments consisted of control (untreated), eucalyptus water extract at 10, 20 and 30 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 10 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil and eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 30 ml kg-1 soil. Data showed that all the treatments of eu...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

... was studied under 4 NPK treatments (000 NPK kg ha-1, 120-0-0 kg N ha-1, 120-70-0 kg N ha-1, 120-70-40 kg NPK ha-1 and 5 secondary and micronutrient (Control, 50, 3, 4 and 1.5 kg ha-1 Mg, Fe, Zn and B, respectively) treatments. NPK @ 120-70-40 kg ha-1 resulted maximum plant height, number of green leaves plant-1, number of opened bolls plant-1, seed index, and seed cotton yield ha-1. Red leaves reduced when soil was fertiliz...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...lants than that of other treatments.

...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

...under four photoperiodic treatments which included T1=Natural photoperiod (Control), T2=4 hours daylight (8 am -12 noon), T3=6 hours daylight (8 am – 2 pm) and T4=8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm). The results revealed significant (P<0.05) photoperiodic effect on all the growth and quality traits of Zinnia. The Zinnia grown under 8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm) with 38.29 cm plant height, 6.61 side branches plant-1, 41.25 leaves plant-1, 39.7...

Sadiq Hussain, Muhammad Sharif, Sarmad Khan, Fazli Wahid, Hina Nihar, Wiqar Ahmad, Imran Khan, Nadeem Haider and Tabassum Yaseen

...ull dose of vermicompost treatments, respectively. Highest straw yield of 21.5 g and 21.2 g pot-1, maximum plant N uptake of 0.71 g and 0.68 g pot-1 were obtained by mycorrhiza inoculated with half and full doses of vermicompost treatments. Plants P uptake of 0.09 g and 0.08 g pot-1 were found in mycorrhizal inoculation along with full and half doses of vermicompost, respectively. Maximum concentration of Zn (0.7 mg kg-1), C...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...il compared to the other treatments. In regard to the growth parameters, root and shoot growth (cm) were enhanced after the application of L. muscarium, followed by D. oviparasitica and S. rugosoannulata. The reproductive rate (Rf = Pf/Pi) of nematodes was much higher in the non-treated plants than those that were treated. The root quality of the fungus-treated plants was significantly improved. All fungi conclusively proved to be effective against H. schachti...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

... targeted and successful treatments for the disease are necessary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV induces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newl...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

...ns during 2013-2014. The treatments comprised of wheat + Rumex dentatus 0 plants m-2 (T1), wheat + Rumex dentatus 05 plants m-2 (T2), wheat + Rumex dentatus 10 plants m-2 (T3), wheat + Rumex dentatus 15 plants m-2 (T4), wheat + Rumex dentatus 20 plants m-2 (T5), wheat + Rumex dentatus 25 plants m-2 (T6), and wheat + Rumex dentatus 30 plants m-2 (T7). The results revealed that plant height, spikes m-2, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...r model (r2=0.75). Ten B treatments (0, 0.47, 0.81, 1.42, 1.57, 1.95, 2.35, 2.66, 3.1, 3.3 kg ha-1) were applied with recommended N, P and K doses. Boron was applied at sowing time as basal dose. The results showed that there was a positive effect of fertilizer B on grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight and grain turn out however, the vegetative growth i.e. plant height, tillering and total biomass were affected non-significantly in response to B application. Rega...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...cal fertilizers. The six treatments were; control (T0), 10 tons (t) ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM) (T1), 20 t ha-1 pressmud (T2), 0.7 t ha-1 compost (T3), 5 t ha-1 poultry manure (T4) and mixed chemical fertilizer in the ratio of 100 : 40 : 56 kg ha-1 as N, P and K (T5). Each treatment was applied alone and with EM. Results showed that EM + pressmud combination significantly improved soil physical and chemical properties as well as spinach growth compared to othe...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...pae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and plant extract were applied on aphid pests, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi and parasitoid was released. The data regarding emergence, parasitism, sex ratio, tibia length, adult weight and adult longevity of parasitoid D. rapae after the application of treatments was studied and analyzed statistically. The study revealed that plant extract c...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...cantly longer than other treatments. Highest fecundity and longevity of parasitoid was recorded in case of parasitoids feeding on 50% honey solution followed by 25% sugar and date syrups solutions respectively. It has provided useful information for the mass rearing of this potential biocontrol agent which may be used in the successful implementation of biocontrol program for the suppression of pyralid pest insects damaging different agricultural crops of econ...
Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...>
Despite clinical treatments, hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer death. We tested whether licofelone, an inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, changes the survival rate and induces apoptosis in a hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). We determined in vitro survival rate with MTT assay, the morphological changes with an inverted microscope, apoptosis using flow cytometry a...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...5) different in both the treatments, though protein and lipid contents of fish in treated ponds were greater than that of control ponds. The moister content of liver, muscle, viscera and whole body were not significantly different in control and treated ponds. These results concluded that feed including 42% protein and 20% lipid are best for culture of black-fin sea bream A. berda (body weight 8.5 to 235 g) in brackish water earthen ponds.
...

Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul M. Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa, Khurram Ziaf, Irfan Afzal and Muhammad Qasim

...aCl2 proved best priming treatments followed by 100 mM KCl and 50 to 100 mM KNO3 for both tested species. This was interpreted by reduced time to 50% germination (1.2 d for gerbera and 2.4 d for zinnia), higher final germination %age (11% for gerbera and 7% for zinnia), seedling vigor (83% for gerbera and 46% for zinnia), and fresh weight (0.95 g for gerbera and 2.29 g for zinnia) and dry weight (0.3 g for gerbera and 0.5 g for zinnia) of the seedlings. These ...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...cates of ten chicks. Six treatments were three herbs i.e. Allium sativum, Cassia angustifolia and Artemisia scoparia @ 0.5 and 1.0% respectively, control (basal diet), and a positive control (Oxyfeed® @ 2g/kg). In the study, the treatment groups, which were given diet supplemented with herb and antibiotic, exhibited improved weight gain, average daily gain, and feed conversion (P<0.05). No significant difference wa...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

... years. The experimental treatments were weed interference and non-interference in two levels (hand weeding and non-hand weeding) and plant density in four levels (20, 40, 60 and 80 stems per square meter). The results obtained in two cuttings in the third year of established alfalfa showed that the weeds caused quantitative and qualitative reduction in alfalfa. Alfalfa in the second cutting had better growth compared to the first cutting, so that the plant pr...

Habib Ullah Khan1*, Saleem Ullah1, Hamid Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Arif2

... soil pH was noted where treatments variation ranged from 8.10 to 8.32 in CFP and CNS respectively. The effect of treatments on soil minerals in mg/kg indicated greatest variation in Fe from 2.759 to 5.358, Mn from 0.324 to 0.73, Na from.9 to 11.9 and K from 8.60 to 15.30 while other minerals like Cu, Zn, P, Pb and Ni showed moderate variability. It was concluded that acid base treatment of the wood coal resulted in pH, EC a...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

...e residual effect of six treatments (T0 = control without rock phosphate & farmyard manure, T1= rock phosphate @150 kg P2O5 per hectare, T2 = FYM @5 tons per hectare, T3 = RP @100 kg P2O5 per hectare+ FYM @5 tons per hectare, E0 = without effective microbes and E1= EM-Biozote @ 50 l ha-1) on yield parametrs of wheat crop planted after the harvest of rice. All yield parameters significantly increased by the treatments con...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...aisalabad, Pakistan. The treatments comprised on the combination of chemical fertilizers (No chemical fertilizer, half recommended dose of fertilizer and full recommended dose of chemical fertilizer) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) (No PGPR, PGPR-1, PGPR-2 and PGPR-1 + PGPR-2). The PGPR used in this study were pre-isolated and characterized, taken from soil microbiology and biochemistry laboratory, Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences (...

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...nd crop yield. The other treatments also exhibited better results in comparison to control followed by Bara Bishkatali, Neem seed oil, a mixture of Neem seed oil and sesame oil, and castor oil. The yield was 10.8 and 12.0 maunds per acre in the crop fields of Lalmonirhat and Rajshahi Oilseed cultivation Centres, respectively.

...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...rrespective of fungicide treatments. The seeds treated with prochloraz 45EC and flusilazole 40EC maintained their viability up to 360 days. Irrespective of nature of inoculum, the seeds treated with prochloraz 45EC persisted longer than that of other fungicides.

...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
...ate the efficacy of five treatments against insect pests of potato. The minimum population of aphids, whitefly and epilachna beetle was observed in the treatment T which received soil application of phorate followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos,imadicloprid and cartap hydrochloride, respectively at 40, 55 and 70 DAP than other treatments. Maximum yield of healty potato tuber was recorded in the plot treated with chlorpyripho...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
... was used to compare the treatments in preventing the intensity of foot rot. The results revealed that minimum foot rot disease occurred where four drenching and eight sprayings of BM at monthly and fortnightly intervals respectively were applied in the 1st year. In the 2nd year, the minimum foot rot disease was recorded in the treatment where four applications of the Trichoderma preparation ha-1 at quarterly intervals were given. The maximum foot rot disease ...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...ike manual removal, heat treatments, light traps, use of bio-pesticides, bio-control agents and sex pheromone trap need to be given more importance in pest management programme. A tentative IPM strategy for tea cultivation in Bangladesh has been proposed in this paper. Thus the proposed integrated pest management (IPM) strategy should help tea industry for successful long lasting plantations which will ensure consistent crop with much care but lesser cost.

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...ed Block Design with six treatments and five replications. Among the various treatments for managing soil pests of potato (cv. Kufri Bahar) i.e. cutworm and molecricket soil treatment of phorate 10 G @ 15kg ha-1 at planting plus drenching the ridges with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5ml/L of water on appearance of pest (T5) was found most effective in decreasing the incidence of cutworm and molecricket followed by soil treatment ...

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
...lications. Among all the treatments soil application of phorate at transplanting, followed by foliar spray with acephate, thiodicarb and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki at 50, 70 and 90 days after transplanting, respectively) and seedling treatment with imidacloprid before transplanting, succeeded by foliar spray with imidacloprid, novaluron, B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and novaluron at 30, 50, 70 and 90 days after transplanting were most effective in ...

Biswajit Pramanick, Sruti Karmakar, Koushik Brahmachari, Rupayan Deb 

An integration of weed management practices in potato un-der New Alluvial soil
...aid out in RBD with nine treatments replicated thrice. The predominant weed flora in the experimental field of potato was Cyperus rotundas, Chenopodium album, Anagallis arvensis and Fumaria purviflora. The results revealed that the maximum tuber yield and return per rupee invested vis-à-vis the maximum N, P, K uptake by potato and the minimum uptake of N, P and K by weeds emerged in the potato field were recorded under the treatment T3 (hand weeding at ...

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik and M.L. Chatterjee

Evaluation of new and conventional insecticides for the management of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.)
... Block Design with eight treatments. Insecticides used in the experiments were imidacloprid 17.8% SL at 27g a.i/ha, lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC at 25g a.i/ha, chlorpyriphos 20% EC at 375g a.i/ha, dichlorvos 75% EC at 375g a.i/ha, thiamethoxam 25% WG at 27g a.i/ha, dimethoate 30% EC at 375g a.i/ha and chlorpyriphos 50% + cypermethrin 5% EC (Canon) at 375g a.i/ha. Chlorpyriphos (93.50%) found to be most effective treatment followed by chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin (...

Abhijit Ghosal and M. L. Chatterjee

Bioefficacy of imidacloprid 17.8 SL against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in brinjal
...t whiteflies among other treatments, received lowest number of whitefly population (1.55/plant) and offered maximum reduction of whiteflies (83.15%) as well as highest marketable fruit yield (146.50 q/ha). However, imidacloprid at lower doses showed nearly similar results. The other neonicotinoid, thiamethoxam also provided similar levels of protection as that of imidacloprid. The conventional insecticide, methyl demeton (125 g a.i./ha) was less effective.

...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...ize the crop loss. Seven treatments were taken up for study including two chemicals i.e. profenophos and diafenthiuron, three ecofriendly approaches i.e. garlic extract, spirit and alternate use of garlic with spirit, one predator insect Chrysoperla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with application of diafenthiuron at 15 days interval from seedling to early fruiting stage. Among the ecofriendly opt...

S. Pal, H. Banerjee and N. N. Mandal 

Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.)
...ized block design with 7 treatments and 3 replications. The results revealed that the major weed flora associated with the transplanted rice during kharif season was mainly comprised of Echinochloa colona (30 %), Cyperus difformis (20 %), Monochoria vaginalis (30 %) and Ludwigia parviflora (20 %). Penoxsulam 24 SC at 0.0225 kg a.i. ha-1 applied at 8-12 days after transplanting was most effective to check all types of weed population and their growth. This trea...

Dhananjoy Mandal

Eco-friendly management of mealybug and wilt in pineapple
... an on-farm RBD trial (3 treatments, 8 replicates) in 2006-07 at Chopra, Islampur, Uttar Dinajpur, West Bengal, for eco-friendly pest management of mealy bug, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell in pineapple, the treatments were: T1 [Farmers’ practice: phorate 10 G @ 20 kgha-1 during planting + monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.03% at 100 DAP + endosulfan 35% EC @ 0.02% during 150-180 DAP]; T2 [Treating planting materials (basal por...

B. S. Nandihalli

Utilization of botanicals in the management of the coconut perianth mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer
...during 2003-04 with nine treatments. The results of the present study indicated that among different botanicals, NSKE 5 percent was found significantly superior in reducing the mite population with higher healthy nuts (81 nuts 4 bunches), least percent of damaged nut (65 per cent) and highest benefit which was on par with wettable sulphur. The next best treatment was neem oil 2 percent.

...

Shrinivas Mudigoudra and Shekharappa

Evaluation of plant products aganist sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani
...yield. However, both the treatments were found next best only to carbofuran 3 G.

...

V. N. Jalgaonkar, M. S. Gawankar, V. W. Bendale and P. D. Patil

Efficacy of some insecticides against cashew tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii Sign
...ndicated that out of six treatments selected, the treatment of 0.003% lambda-cyhalothrin was observed significantly superior over all other treatments followed by 0.01% triazophos that was also significantly superior over rest of the treatments.
 

 

...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...plots while, insecticide treatments were kept in sub plots. Incidence of aphid population was found in mid January. Three species of aphids: Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.) were found infesting the wheat crop. At the time of aphid invasion crops were at different growth stages such as 1st node (crop 1), at stem elongation (crop 2) and at end of tiller (crop 3). Maximum aph...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...d (P<0.001) among the treatments but did not show (P>0.05) any linear or quadratic trends with increasing level of enzyme in the diet. Milk protein concentration linearly (P<0.001) increased with increasing level of enzyme in the diets. It is concluded that fibrolytic enzyme addition in the diets of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes improves the dry matter intake and diet digestibility which results in improved milk production.
...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

...5 birds were reared in 5 treatments and 3 replications of each treatment having 15 birds in each replication. The chicks were being provided with the standard conditions for light, water, vaccination and experimental feed for 42 days. The body weight gain, feed intake and the feed conversion ratio was observed weekly. After 42 day of the growth, the birds were slaughter with the Islamic Halal Method and the blood samples of the birds were preserved for antioxi...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
...ves. Amongst the various treatments applied, the acetone extract of D. alba showed the highest repellency of 84.14%, whereas, the lowest repellency of 10.73% was observed by the chloroform extract of T. peruviana. Significant ovipositional deterrent effects of the extracts applied have been observed. Maximum oviposition inhibition was shown by petroleum ether extract of A. indica (57.14%), while the lowest ovipositon deterrence of 5.71 % w...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...ustry in Pakistan. Seven treatments including five essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), oregano (Origanium vulgare), lemon (Citrus lemon) and thyme (Thymus linearus), formic acid at three different concentrations of 25%, 50% and 100% and control were used against T. clareae in naturally infested honey bee, A. mellifera colonies in Honeybee Research Institute, National Agr...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...on. After six weeks, all treatments showed better results but there was no significantly difference in set of plants treated with combination of all three (Derosal + Cadusafos + T. harzianum) and T. harzianum alone. Moreover, it was observed that the ability of T. harzianum to manage root rot and knot pathogen enhanced when it was integrated with bio-products. It was hypothesized that direct antagonism and defense by bio-product enhance th...

Murad Ali1, Farmanullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad2* and Imran Khan1

...District Swabi. Fourteen treatments viz the control (T1), recommended dose (RD) (120:90:60 kg ha-1 N: P2O5: K2O. T2), four combinations of farmyard manure (FYM) i.e 20, 15, 10 and 5 t ha-1 with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the RD (T3, T4, T5, T6, respectively), four combinations of poultry manure (PM) i.e. 10, 7.5, 5 and 2.5 t ha-1 with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the RD (T7, T8, T9, T10, respectively) and four combinations of the mixed FYM (5 t ha-1) and PM (2.5 t ha-1) with 0, 2...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

...at varieties at two seed treatments (primed with 50 mM CaCl2 and un-primed) with four salinity levels (0, 45, 90, 135 mM) was studied in sand as growth media. The results revealed that incremental increase of salinity stresses had decreasing effect on growth parameters compared with control. Highest germination (85.42% and 84.31%) was recorded from wheat varieties (Lalma-2013 and Pirsabak-2005). Minimum germination (64.40% and 73.89%), tillers plant-1(2.83 and...
Ibrahim A. Alhidary1,*, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Moez A. Ayadi1,3 and Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2
...ibuted to five different treatments, ten lambs each, as follow: 1. Alfalfa hay and barley grain (ABG); 2. Pelleted alfalfa hay and barley (PAB); 3. TMR1 (25.67% NDF); 4. TMR2 (30.88% NDF); and 5. TMR3 (55.93% NDF). Lambs were housed in an individual pen for 90 days. Lambs were weighed every two weeks and feed intake was recorded weekly. Rumen fluid samples were collected monthly after 2, 4 and 8 hours of feeding for pH, VFAs and NH3-N determination....
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...matization. A total of 3 treatments were tested following 2 replications i.e. first treatment (T1, Squid feed), second treatment (T2, Tubifex feed) and third treatment (T3, pellet feed). Juveniles were fed with 5% of total biomass twice in a day. At the end, higher growth increments were found such as length and weight in average, T1=15.01±0.33cm and 15.80±0.01g, T3=14.13±0.76cm and 13...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...ifferences for radiation treatments, genotypes and interaction for treatments × genotypes regarding plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1 and yield of cotton seeds plant-1. Higher levels of gamma rays (20 and 25 KR) effected most of the parameters adversely. Significant reduction in plant height was observed for all the genotypes under the influence of t...
Sumit K. Satpathi1, Suprakash Pal2*, Rupsanatan Mandal2, Nonigopal Shit2 and Ashutosh Sarkar3
...d to the pesticide based treatments; thus this approach is augmenting the natural control of pests.
 
Keywords: Cowpea, insect pests, biopesticides, bioefficacy, cost-benefit ratio, natural enemiesl
...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos1,*, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Elsayeid O. Swilam1 and Mu’ath Q. Al-Ghadi3
... randomly assigned to 10 treatments on day 15 after introduction of coccidiosis. The results indicated that feed intake and production efficiency factor (PEF) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between Elancoban and natural products. However, treatment had a significant effect on BWG and FCR (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), chicks which had received Elancoban had the highest BWG (327.9 g) and converted the feed to gain with highest efficiency (1...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
...ain unchanged in all HPP treatments with control and thermal. After this, we suggested that HPP treatment (250 MPa/60 °C/3 min) has a potential against thermal to progress the value of grapefruit juice and could be applicable at industrial scales.
...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
...< 0.01) among all the treatments of composite flour. Wet and dry gluten content decreased from 22.16 ± 1.58 % (T0) to 16.43 ± 1.32 % (T3) and 7.46 ± 0.47 % (T0) to 5.03 ± 0.38 % (T3) respectively. With increasing percent of pea flour in biscuits, moisture, carbohydrates and caloric value decreased from (1.84% - 1.33%), (62.87% - 54.57%), (525.64 Kcal /100 g to 502.84 Kcal /100 g) respec...
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...ked as compared to other treatments. It was concluded that basil seed could be supplemented in different food products for the preparation of value added, healthy and nutritious diets.
...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...licylic acid and drought treatments. The design of the experiment was a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five water regimes (150ml, 175ml, 200ml, 225ml, 250ml) and five levels of SA at (0.0mML-1, 0.5mML-1 1mML-1, 2mML-1, and 3mML-1) as the main factors and four replications. The experiments were conducted in the research area of AAUR Pakistan. Statistical analysis showed drought stres...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...rences (P≤0.05) among treatments and control for crude protein while rest of the parameters remained same. Apparent digestibility of crude protein and fat was found non-significantly different among treatments. It is concluded that addition of fenugreek in fish feed can improve growth performance and also protein content of the fish meat as well.
...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

... three replications. Six treatments consisted of a control (no strains) and 5 different strains of cyanobacteria i.e Oscillatory-MMF-1 (Oscillatoria princeps), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-2 (Lyngbya mucicola), Leptolyngbaya- MMF-3 (Lyngbya Phormidium), Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Rice seedlings were transplanted to each pot on July 18, 2016. The data were recorded on agronomic parameter...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

...ty of muskmelon jam. The treatments included MJ1 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + no preservatives), MJ2 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.1% sodium benzoate), MJ3 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.1% potassium sorbate), MJ4 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.01% potassium metabislulphite), MJ5 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.05% sodium benzoate + 0.05% potassium sorbate), MJ6 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.05% sodium benzoate + 0.01% potassium metabisulphite), MJ7 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.05% potassium sorbat...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...heavy textured soil. The treatments used in the experiment include compost @5 t ha-1, cattle manure @ 5 t ha-1, compost + cattle manure each @ 2.5 t ha-1, NPK @ 150:120: 90 and control (without amendments), replicated four times. The results revealed that organic and inorganic amendments, irrespective of their kind and combinations, exerted significant (p≤0.05) variation in plant growth, yield parameters of wheat and water use efficiency. The inorganic fert...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
...licated three times. The treatments were comprised of C = no Zn and B (Control); Zn (S) = soil application of Zn @ of 12 kg ha-1; B (S): soil application of B @ 3 kg ha-1; Zn (F) = foliar application of 1% Zn at 9th leaf stage; B (F) = foliar application of 0.5% B at 9th leaf stage; Zn (S) +B (S) = soil application of Zn @ 12 kg ha-1 + B @ of 3 kg ha-1 and Zn (F) +B (F) = foliar application of1%...
Talat Bilal Yasoob and Nasir Ali Tauqir* 
... In this way six dietary treatments resulted in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and sodium levels of 245, 262, 279, 297, 314, 331 meq/kg and 0.166, 0.206, 0.246, 0.286, 0.326, 0.336%, respectively. Protein and energy values in all broiler starter rations were kept at 20% and 2800 kcal/kg, respectively. In second phase, six finisher rations (5-6 weeks) were formulated viz., control ration and five other rations having 0.10-0.74% levels of NaHCO3. T...
Toshina Mushtaq, Muhammad Javed and Sidra Abbas*
...y after ZnCl2 treatments. Statistically significant increase in the liver and kidney peroxidase activity of 96-h LC50 exposed fish were found as 0.621±0.004UmL-1 and 0.219±0.002UmL-1, respectively as compared to the control fish liver (0.123±0.002UmL-1) and kidney (0.056±0.004UmL-1).
...

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

...with triplicate run. The treatments included viz. Four sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean m-2, 6 sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean plants m-2, 8 sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean plants m-2, 4 plants m-2 of sunflower alone, 6 plants m-2 of sunflower alone, 8 plants m-2 of sunflower alone and 30 plants m-2 of mungbean alone. Plant population was maintained by keeping 75 cm apart single rows of sunflower and 50 cm apart double rows of mungbean both in sole and...

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...lly at par among various treatments. Significantly higher number of fertile tillers (172), Plant height (93.83 cm), spike length (7.4 cm) were noted with Wheat Star @ 370.5 g ha−1. Although treatments did not differ significantly with respect to wheat grain and biological yields, yet the highest grain yield (3295 kg ha−1) and biological yield (11173 kg ha− 1) were produced by Wheat Star @ 370.5 g ha−1...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

...en biomass incorporation treatments, maximum plant height (168.34 cm) cob length (16.32 cm), number of grains per cob (410), 1000-grain weight (200.22 g), biological yield (16.63 t ha-1) grain yield (5.75 t ha-1) harvest index (34.22 %) and grain protein content (8.56%) was obtained with (moringa green manuring).While Among fertilizer levels (100% of RDF) produced maximum plant height (189.02 cm) cob length (18.21 cm), number of grains per cob (438.7), 1000-gr...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Munir3 and Muhammad Sohail Khan

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

... solution without P. The treatments included 0, 18, 36, 72, 144 and 216 mM as KH2PO4 solution foliarly applied three times with one week intervals starting after two weeks of seedlings transplantation. Each treatment unit consisted of 10 seedlings arranged in CR design with three replications. Plant height, shoot and root dry biomass of 6 weeks old seedling were significantly increased with each increment of foliar P suggesting effective absorption through lea...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...ed with 3000 ppm in both treatments. Moreover, the maximum mortality was held between 3000 and 4000 ppm with no significant difference in the mortality of T. urticae. Finally, Huwa-San TR50 can be safely used in biological control programs, as it has little or no effects on biological control agents such as predatory mite, N. cucumeris, which is widely associated with the infestation of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae on tomato plants....
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...ant difference between 2 treatments, 1 and 24 h, in both adult and larvae. The mortality of both adult and larvae was 100% after 48 hours of exposure to oxamyl. In the field, however, Oxamyl was applied in two different applications. A foliar application by spraying and watering application by adding the to the irrigation water. After 2 days of applications, daily monitoring was conducted for 10 days to record any dead or paralyzed adults and/or larvae. Dead a...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...ificant effect of binary treatments of fungi and chemical insecticides on biological parameters of C. pipiens and its progeny (P<0.05). The insect pathogenic fungi showed compatibility with insecticides and the combined application can improve the management program of C. pipiens.
...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...evaluated. Seven tillage treatments were applied in the fallow periods (summer seasons) of both years before sowing of wheat crop. These tillage treatments were (i) Once Mould board plowing followed by 8 cultivations with planker (1 MBP + 8 CS) as a check, (ii) No-till followed by twice application of glyphosate herbicide (NT + GH), (iii) Once Mould board plowing followed by twice application of glyphosate herbicide (1 MBP +...
Sidra Iqbal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabbsum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...wed that among these two treatments, only chemical treated substrates gave better enzyme yield as compared to chemical followed by steam. The highest FPase (2.526 IU/ml/min) activity was found at pretreatment conditions of 0.6% NaOH conc., 10% biomass loading and 4h reaction time while CMCase (2.803 IU/ml/min) at 1% NaOH conc., 15% biomass loading and 6h of reaction time. The proposed model was found highly significant as revealed by their F-values, P-values a...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
...is could survive all treatments at 0°C and 4°C, and pre-ovipositon periods were prolonged after 0°C, 4°C and 40°C treatment, whereas it was shortened after 37°C stress (P<0.05). The oviposition periods were varied among different temperature treatments, and the 0°C and 4°C treatments showed no influences, whereas the prolonged exposure to high tempera...
Rimsha Nawaz1, Muhammad Javed1, Sidra Abbas1* and Safina Kousar2
...ere exposed to different treatments as 96-h LC50, 2/3rd, 1/4th and 1/5th of LC50 concentrations of iron chloride for 30 days in the glass aquaria with three replications for each treatment. After 30-day exposure of iron chloride, the fish organs viz. kidney and liver were isolated and the peroxidase enzyme activity was analyzed. Activity of peroxidase was assessed by measuring the conversion of guai...
Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Saima Masood1,*, Hafsa Zaneb1, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Asim Aslam3, Kamran Ashraf4, Habib-ur-Rehman5, Muti-ur-Rehman3 and Muhammad Shabir Shaheen6
...lt; 0.05) by the dietary treatments under study individually and in combination. It is concluded that supplementation of MOS and OAB in combination is beneficial compared to their individual effects in broiler chicks.
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
...ere also recorded in all treatments and highest eggs were obtained i.e. 4.0-4.3 per female on 0‰-15‰. Water temperature (28.02±0.12°C), dissolved oxygen (6.4±0.02 mg/L), pH (7.47±0.04) and ammonia (less than 0.022±0.001 mg/L) were monitored throughout the study period. Water quality parameters remained within the recommended range. Our results suggest that Nile tilapia, O. niloticus may give maximum e...

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

...) were observed in these treatments. The FYM5,10,15,20 reduced the BD significantly (p<0.01) by 7-12% and increased the porosity by 9-14%, saturation water by 9-20% and available water by 19-29%. However the INM5:75,10:50, 15:25, closely followed the FYM5,10,15,20 with reduction in BD by 9-11% and increased in porosity by 11-13%, saturation water by 14-17% and available water by 25-30%. All interactions remained non-significant. These results concluded that...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...conditioners and control treatments. Data on the effect of gypsum application as sole or in combination with the other SC revealed that addition of gypsum had significantly increased all parameters as compared with no gypsum application. It is concluded that farmyard manure (10000 kg ha-1) and gypsum (1000 kg ha-1) with five irrigations at the known critical stages (at emergence, 4 leaves, 8 leaves and tassel visible and blister) performed better as compared w...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

...o;Influence of hot water treatments on the storage life of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Sherkhana-I” was carried out at Post harvest Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. The research was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors i.e. hot water dipping times (0, 5, 10, and 15 Minutes) and storage durations (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 Days). Hot water dipping times significantly a...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

...s eggs. There were three treatments (T1, T2 and T3) and a control with three replicates in each group. Control group was exclusively fed on natural food composed of tilapia fry while fish in T1 was fed on 30%, T2 on 35% and T3 on 40% protein diet, respectively. A total of 240 Channa marulius (945 g) were arbitrarily stocked in 12 earthen ponds (90 ft × 70 ft × 4 ft) @ 20 fish ...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...02. Post-three months of treatments, mean pain score was 2.01±0.95 and 2.78±0.99 in Letrozole and Danazol groups, respectively. The mean decrease in pain score in Letrozole group was 1.02±1.09 (p-value=0.00) while in Danazol group; it was 3.06±1.23 (p-value=0.00). This difference in pain score was considerably different in both treatment groups. A higher decrease in pain score was observed in Danazol compared to Letrozole treated gr...

Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik** and M. Aslam Gill***

EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS, TILLAGE PRACTICES AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON WHEAT STAND ESTABLISHMENT UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...e practices x fertilizer treatments) under rainfed condition, during 2000-01 and 2000-02. On the basis of wheat emergence (m-2) and emergence rate index, wheat stand establishment was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the fallow-wheat cropping system compared to maize-wheat, mungbean-wheat, and cowpea-wheat system. Tillage practices (shallow and deep) and fertilizer treatments {recommended dose of fertilizer (F); fertilize...

 Nasreen Sultana* and A.Ghaffar**

... The most effective seed treatments were Benlate, Topsin-M, Carbendazim and Aliette @ 3 g kg-1 seeds which enhanced seed germination and reduced seed infection in bottle gourd. Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium virens, Stachybotrys atra and Bacillus subtilis showed better results in the control of pre- and post-emergence infection of L. theobromae in seedling of bottle gourd in vitro and in vivo. G. virens has been found most effective to reduce se...

 Sikander Khan Tanveer, Shaheena Yasmin, Imtiaz Hussain, M.Yaqub Mujahid*, Muhammad Munir and Muhammad Asif**

...eters of wheat. Nutrient treatments included full fertilizer NP (100:100:00), full fertilizer NP + FYM (100:100:20), half- fertilizer NP (50:50:00), half- fertilizer NP + FYM (50:50:20), FYM only (00:00:20) and control (00:00:00). N & P were applied in kg ha-1 and FYM in t ha-1. Wheat variety, Chakwal-86 was planted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Because of different combinations of fertilizer NP and FYM, statistically s...

 Badaruddin Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain** and Zafar Khokhar*

...in which four irrigation treatments I3 (irrigation at crown root, booting and soft dough stage), I4 (irrigation at crown root, tillering, booting and soft dough stage), I5 (irrigation at crown root, tillering, booting, anthesis and soft dough stage) and I6 (irrigation at crown root, tillering, booting, anthesis, soft dough and hard dough stage) were in blocks and six wheat genotypes; V–7001, V–7002, V–7004, NARC–9 and CO–9043 and ...

 Rahmat Ullah Khan, Abdur Rashid*, Mohammad Sohail Khan** and Erdogan Ozturk***

...2007-08 and 2008-09. The treatments consisted of HA alone (3 kg ha-1 or 1.5 kg ha-1) and in combination with full (60:40 kg ha-1) and half (30:20 kg ha-1) the recommended rates of NP fertilizers. Results showed that in the first growing season (2007-08), the combination of 3 kg ha-1 HA with half (30:20 kg ha-1) rate of NP produced the highest grain yield (1314 kg ha-1) and increased the yield by 46.9% over the control. In the second growing season (2008-09), a...

 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

...;The impact of different treatments on population of three nematode species associated with guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and the yield of guar were investigated. The chemical nematicides and plant extracts significantly reduced the population densities of all three nematodes. Carbofuran was most effective against all the nematodes. Apart from other three treatments, Tridax procumbens emerged as an effective phytonematicide...

Akhlaq Ahmad, M. Anwar Arain*, Rahila Nazli**, Syed Anser Rizvi***,
Mubarik Ahmed* and Farzana Ibrahim****

Corresponding author: dr.akhlaqahmad@yahoo.com

COST EFFECTIVENESS OF UNDER-SHEET AND WHOLE GODOWN FUMIGATION OF BAGGED WHEAT
...ost effectiveness of the treatments was determined, considering the cost of the materials and labour. It was estimated that a single fumigation treatment in under-sheet stacks was around Rs. 1.05 million less than the whole godown fumigation, even though it involved extra cost of polyethylene (PE) sheet. This cost may be partially recovered by recycling the used PE sheet. This is mainly because whole godown treatments requir...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik**, M. Aslam Gill*** and
Nasir M. Cheema*

Corresponding author: parvezkhaliq786@yahoo.com

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON MAIZE FODDER YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...w tillage and fertilizer treatments i.e., recommended dose of fertilizer (RF), farm yard manure (FYM) and recommended dose of fertilizer plus farmyard manure (RF+FYM) on maize fodder yield was studied under rainfed conditions of Pakistan. It was observed -2 that the emergence count m , maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dos...

 Amanullah, Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Saifullah Khan, Munir Ahmed and Jahangir Khan*

 
Corresponding author:aman_azrc@yahoo.com
BIOFERTILIZER- A POSSIBLE SUBSITUTE OF FERTILIZERS IN PRODUCTION OF WHEAT VARIETY ZARDANA IN BALOCHISTAN
... half mineral fertilizer treatments were compared with a control treatment (no fertilizer). Significant grain yield were measured at all sites, although, at all sites both fertilizer treatments apparently out yielded the control and the biofertilizer + half mineral fertilizer treatment out yielded the high fertilizer treatment by 220- -1 1180 kgha . Fresh yields differed significantly at all sites. At Mastung field, -1 both ...

 Javid Iqbal, Asghar Ali Mian, Tanveer Ahmad*, Shamsul Hassan** and Sohail Hassan Khan* 

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC TRAITS OF FOUR IMPORTED BROILER STRAINS UNDER LOCAL CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...s and designated as four treatments i.e., A (Hubbard), B (Arbor Acres), C (Ross 308) and D (Hybro PN). The chicks were raised under recommended rearing requirements for 7 weeks and the economic traits measured were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, antibody titres, dressing percentage and economic evaluation as cost of broiler per kilogram live weight produced. The average body weights gained by the birds were 2264g, 2277g, 2256...

 Faisal Khalil, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Ammaz Khan, Fakhar-ul-Hassan and Nabila Bibi*

EFFECT OF GIRDLING AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA)

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*

IMPACT OF CULTIVATION SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA) CV. CHANDLER
...ign (RCBD) by using five treatments, each comprising three replications with 20 plants per replicate. 

...

 Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Muhammad Ansar*, Ashiq Saleem**, Zafar ullah Arif*, H.I. Javed and Rashid Saleem**

IMPROVEMENT OF MASH BEAN PRODUCTION UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS BY RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION AND LOW RATES OF STARTER NITROGEN
...as compared to all other treatments. Inoculation in combination with 50 kg N -1 ha significantly delayed crop maturity. The maximum mean average grain -1 yield (681.5 kg ha ) was augmented with the application of inoculation alone and non significant differences were noted among the varieties. Biological yield were also significantly increased by inoculation and nitrogen fertilization but inoculation alone was more effective by giving maximum economic yield. V...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...ard; and four fertilizer treatments viz., control (C), recommended dose of fertilizer for each crop (F), farmyard manure (FYM) @ -1 5 tha . The recommended doses of fertilizer for individual crop with FYM (F+FYM) were also included in the study to know their impact on the crops yield in the cropping systems. Economic analysis of the data revealed that the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat cropping system could be economically replaced with wheat-maize fodder-whea...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...were the same in both -2 treatments. The number of fertile tillers m were significantly higher in certified seed source than the farmer's own seed that resulted in significant increase in grain yield. Other yield contributing parameters including number of spikelet per spike, numbers of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight were at par in both seed sources. It was concluded that healthy and pure seed source gave high seed germination and good crop stand which...

 Arshad Ali, Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Imdad Ali Mahmood and Badar-uz-Zaman*

RICE PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL HEALTH AS AFFECTED BY WHEAT RESIDUE INCORPORATION ALONG WITH NITROGEN STARTER DOSE UNDER SALT-AFFECTED SOIL

 Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Muhammad Arshadullah, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

EFFECT OF BORON NUTRITION ON PADDY YIELD UNDER SALINESODIC SOILS
EVALUATION OF LEGUME HERBS NUTRITIVE VALUE AS A RUMINANT FEED AND NITROGEN SUPPLY ON SOIL IN WEST TIMOR, INDONESIA
...M was affected by the -2 treatments (P<0.01), being highest in CT (2511.4 g DMm and 2172.1 g -2 -2 -2 OMm ) followed by DL (2351.8 g DMm and 2044.9 g OMm ). Based on this study, CT and DL have potential to develop high biomass production, high digestibility, and adequately contribute NO to the soil. 

...

 Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF SULFUR AND CALCIUM ON WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOILS

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
...yield of strawberry. The treatments were T = Control, with normal planting distance of 30 cm x 1 60 cm and growing media silt, sand and farm yard manure (FYM); T = 15 cm 2 x 30 cm and silt, sand and FYM; T = 30 cm x 60 cm and coir; T = 15 cm x 30 3 4 cm and coir; T = 30 cm x 60 cm and peat moss; T = 15 cm x 30 cm and 5 6 peat moss. Results showed that plants grown at low planting distance on all growth media showed more pronounced results as compared to high p...

 Khalid Naseem*, Naseem Bibi**, Saeeda Raza*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui*, Amina Bibi*** and Muhammad Ahsan Khan****

DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF HIGH ENERGY BISCUITS FOR COMBATING MALNOURISHMENT AMONG CHILDREN IN PAKISTAN
...and iron. Results of all treatments were in acceptable range regarding sensory evaluation. These results indicate that biscuits can be successfully supplemented with chickpea and oat. According to sensory evaluation, biscuits containing 20% chickpea and 15% oat were found to be the best among all treatments and could be a potential composition for preparing high energy biscuits for malnourished areas of Pakistan.

...

 Adnan Umair*, Safdar Ali**, Muhammad Sarwar***, Kashif Bashir**, Muhammad Javed Tareen**** and Muhammad Asghar Malik*****

ASSESSMENT OF SOME PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) : A GREEN HOUSE STUDY
...ol. All the invigoration treatments significantly improved plant vigor in terms of final germination biomass, root, shoot length and nutrient uptake of mungbean seedlings compared to control (non-primed dry seedling). The application of seed priming also improved the protein concentration at the early stage of seedlings. Phosphorous application through priming significantly improved germination up to 95%, seedling -1 vigour index up to 23.05 and protein conten...

 Khawer Jawad Ahmad*, Asif Razzaq*, Khalida Hamid Abbasi*, Muhammad Shafiq*, Muhammad Saleem** and Muhammad Arshadullah***

THYMOL AS CONTROL AGENT OF MITES (VARROA DESTRUCTOR) ON HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA)
...f variance for different treatments indicated (F=3.64, F>P=0.15) significantly different effect among treatments as well as for the control of mite. The average efficacy of thymol was 73.72% as compared to 69.21% by fluvalinate, 72.23% by formic acid and 13.1% in control. The reduction in the effectiveness of fluvalinate may be attributed to the development of resistance against fluvalinate strip.

...

 Nazakat Nawaz*, Malik Shah Nawaz*, Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Mirza M. Yasin*, Doulat Baig*, Nasir Mehmood Cheema**, Muhammad Amjad** and M. Altaf Sher**

EFFECT OF BORON ON PEANUT GENOTYPES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...s as compared to control treatments during the two years. The boron using efficiency of peanut genotypes declined in the order of BARD-479 > ICG- 7326 > ICGV-92023. A boron fertilizer requirement observed for the -1 highest dry pods yields was 1.0 kg B ha for all genotypes and yield decreases gradually after certain level by increasing boron fertilizer rates.

...

 Farman Ullah Shah*, G. Mustafa Sajid** and Sadar Uddin Siddiqui**

EVALUATION OF MULCHING MATERIALS AS INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT COMPONENT IN MAIZE CROP
...ign, (RBCD) having eight treatments and four replications. The treatments were black plastic, white plastic, sugarcane straw, wheat straw, live mulch, weeds as mulch, hand weeding and weedy check. Weed data -2 -2 included weed density m , fresh and dry weight g m , while crop data -2 -2 -1 included crop density m , fresh and dry weight g m , number of plant plot , -1 stover yield (g), plant height (cm), number of cobs plant ...

 Asghar Ali*, Muhammad Tahir**, Shahid Riaz Malik* and Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*

EVALUATION OF PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
...periment comprised eight treatments including three herbicides, manual weeding and check (no weeding). The yield was higher in manual weeding but in herbicide treatments Isoproturon as pre-emergence @ 2 kg -1 ha produced statistically at par grain yield to that of manual weeding -1 followed by Isoproturon after one month of planting @ 2 kg ha . Both the treatments showed 193.9% and 109.2% ...

 Muhammad Ali*, Ghulam Mustafa Sajid**, M. Faisal Anwar Malik*** and Kalimullah****

ESTABLISHMENT OF IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPES
...of cultures to different treatments was dependent both on accession and treatment duration. In conclusion, this protocol proved to be useful in optimizing the dose and duration of the treatment of grape explants with the surface disinfectant.

...

 Muhammad Tahir*, Muhammad Irfan* and Aziz-Ur-Rehman*

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC ON YIELD AND OIL CONTENTS OF FLAX
...e of ZnSO . All the zinc treatments significantly improved plant height, stem 4 -1 length, fruiting zone length, fruiting branches, number of capsule plant , -1 number of seed capsule , 1000-seed weight, straw yield, seed yield, and seed oil contents compared to control. Therefore, for producing a higher seed yield and oil contents of flax, it is suggested that 3.00% zinc at bud initiation and after capsule filling stage of flax should be used.

...

 ZafarUllah*, Muhammad Azim Malik*, Muhammad Ansar*, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz* and Muhammad Rasheed*

WINTER FORAGE QUALITY OF OATS (AVENA SATIVA), BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE) AND VETCH (VICIA SATIVA) IN PURE STAND AND CEREAL LEGUME MIXTURE

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL
...ly randomized design and treatments were applied to the soil according to treatment plan. Appropriate time was given to achieve the reclamation of saline sodic soil and relative efficiency was assessed through laboratory analysis. After this, rice seedling (Shaheen Basmati) was transplanted in all the pots i.e., 3 plants per pot. Necessary N, P and K fertilizers were applied at the recommended rate. After crop harvest, soil samples were taken for analysis of p...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...55%. The CP value of the treatments showed significant variation ranging from less than 10% in grasses to almost 30% in pure Ipil ipil leaves. The mixtures had CP content corresponding to proportions of grasses and legume tree leaves. The CF values also varied significantly among the treatments. Grasses had in general higher CF content than legume leaves. It can be concluded that addition of Ipil ipil leaves to grasses impro...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...onsumption among all the treatments. The digestibility percentage of dry matter intake (DMI) varied among the treatments ranging from 68.25% to 41.66%. Mixtures of low palatable grass and Ipil ipil were in general more digestible with more than 65% dry matter digestibility. The lowest digestibility of dry matter (41.66%) was observed in HC 100%. A similar trend was noted for CP digestibility. However, reverse trend was obser...

 Muhammad Ayub*, Rizwan Maqbool*, Muhammad Tahir*, Zoaib Aslam*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem* and Muhammad Ibrahim**

IMPROVED GROWTH, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) THROUGH SOIL APPLIED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...nd phosphorus fertilizer treatments (NP in ratio of 0:0, 30:0, -1 0:30, 30:15, 30:30, 60:30, 60:60, 90:45 and 90:90 kg ha ) on growth, seed yield and quality of fennel during 2011-2012. Fertilizer NP dose (90:45 kg -1 ha ) increased plant height by 44%, number of leaves per plant by 76%, 1000 seed weight by 44%, biological yield by 50%, seed yield by 296%, harvest index by 162% and protein content by 6%. However, fertilizer NP -1 (90:45 kg ha ) decreased oil c...

 Tosif Tabassam*, Tariq Sultan**, M.Ehsan Akhtar**, M.Mahmood-ulHassan** and Arshad Ali**

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT FORMULATED CARRIERS FOR SUSTAINING MICROBIAL SHELF LIFE
...% of soil, six different treatments were formulated and physico-chemical characteristics were determined. Four combinations in the range of 40% clay, 30-40% fly-ash, 10-15% press mud and 10-15% lignitic coal were selected which had good adhesion capacity, moisture holding capacity, nutrient contents and investigated for microbial shelf life. Significant difference regarding microbial survival was observed between different formulations as well as between diffe...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

IMPROVING FODDER QUALITY OF PANICUM GRASS THROUGH INTERCROPPING OF LEGUMES AND THEIR INOCULATION
...-4% as compared to other treatments.

...

 Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Adnan Shakeel**, Muhammad Abdullah***, Muhammad Islam**, Sadiq Muhammad*, Ghulam Murtaza* and Mushtaq Ahmad**

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND WATER STRESS ON PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
...ized and no water stress treatments. However, phenolic compounds were found higher in fully irrigated plants as compared to water stress ones. Fertilizer treatments had no considerable effect on phenolic compounds.

...

 Ali Raza Shah**, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat**, Abdul Quadir Mughal***, Inayatullah Rajper** and Asif Ali Mirani****

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS IN A CLAY LOAM SOIL*
...d block design with four treatments i.e., conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), zero tillage (ZT) and controlled traffic farming (CTF) was carried out to evaluate the performance of tillage systems. Results indicated that the soil pulverization was higher (P<0.05) under MT and lower under CT treatments while, it was nonsignificant between MT and CTF treatments. Similarly, soi...

 Imdad Ali Mahmood*, Arshad Ali**, Armghan Shahzad**, Muhammad Asif Masud Ghumman***, Muhammad Arshad Ullah**, Tariq Sultan** and Badar-u-Zaman**

CROP RESIDUES AND PHOSPHORUS EFFECT ON YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF DIRECT SEEDED RICE AND WHEAT GROWN UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOIL
...ned. Among P application treatments under no crop residues incorporation, the maximum net benefit (Rs. 75874 and Rs. -1 -1 =65725) and the highest residual values (Rs. 49809 ha and Rs 39160 ha ) for -1 direct seeded rice and wheat, respectively, were attained with 120 kg P2O5 ha -1 which were not again as much as that of 80 kg P O ha application with crop 2 5 residues incorporation. 

...

 Azhar Usman Ali*, Ghulam Sarwar*, Muhammad Aftab* and Sher Muhammad**

EFFECT OF SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLIED COPPER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
...s experiment comprised 5 treatments viz., -1 -1 control, soil application of copper @ 2 mg kg (level 1), @ 4 mg kg (level 2), foliar application of copper @ 1% solution (level 1) and @ 2% solution (level 2). These treatments were replicated thrice. All the pots were arranged using completely randomized design. Soil application of copper was done before sowing wheat seeds. Seeds of wheat (Lasani-2000) were sown and 3 plants w...

Salar Khan Yousafzai*, Shah Masaud Khan*, Khalil ur Rehman**, Junaid Khan*, Sher Aslam Khan*, Ijaz Hussain* and Ishrat Naz***

RESPONSE OF TOMATO CULTIVARS TO DIFFERENT ORGANIC FERTILIZERS UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF MINGORA, SWAT
...arrangements having four treatments with three replications. Almost all the traits showed significant differences for organic fertilizers and varieties, while their interactions had a varied response. The analyzed data showed that poultry manure -1 -1 gave maximum yield (24.65 tha ), followed by FYM (24.38 tha ) and mushroom -1 compost (24.11 tha ) while minimum was recorded in plots where no organic fertilizer was used. The results revealed that cultivar, Rio...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON

 Muhammad Mansoor*, Noman Latif*, Zafar Islam**, Sher Muhammad**, Amanullah* and Muhammad Umair***

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AMENDMENTS ON SOIL CAPPING IN MUNGBEAN PRODUCTION USING CENTRAL PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN CLAYEY SOILS
...same treatment; however, treatments with -1 -1 45:45 and 30:30 (kg plot ) ranked second and third with grain yield of 1195 kg ha -1 and 1153 kg ha , respectively. It was noticed that the bulk density value of the -3 -3 soil was decreased from 1.754 g cm to 1.123 g cm when pure sand and FYM was -1 applied @ 60:60 kg plot .

...

Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Tariq Sultan**, Arshad Ali**, Ghulam Qadir*** Imdad Ali Mahmood**, Tauseef Tabassam**, Muhammad Arshad Ullah** and Nasir Abbas* 

EFFECT OF PGPR STRAINS ON SUNFLOWER GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS UNDER SALINITY STRESS
...isolated strains in five treatments viz., KS 44, KS 7, KS 41, KS 42 and KS mix under four different artificially developed -1 salinity levels (5, 8, 10 and 12 dS m ) at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Hybrid seeds (SMH 0917) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were used. After six weeks of sowing, plants were harvested and data regarding root length, plant height, root dry weight and shoot dry weight were recorded. The plant growth improved s...

Abdul Hameed Solangi*, Fateh Khan Nizamani*, Aqeel Ahmed Siddiqui*, Muzaffar Ali Khan**, Parwaiz Ahmed Baloch*, Riazuddin* and Khalil Ahmed Solangi***

FIELD COMPARISON AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF GUAR (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L. TAUB.) GENOTYPES UNDER AGROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
... were observed among all treatments at 5% probability level.

...

  Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saqib Shakeel Abbasi and Abid Hussain*

FARMERS PERCEPTION TOWARDS THE APPLICATION OF BIOZOTE IN SELECTED DEMONSTRATED RICE FIELDS AT HAFIZABAD AND SHEIKHUPURA DISTRICTS
...n trials. Four different treatments on each selected plot were carried out for demonstration purpose by a team of technical partners from NARC during 2014. The results are based on farmers’ perception recorded through a structured questionnaire and face to face interviews at their fields. Majority of the host farmers found that plots with biozote had better germination and also found it a good technology for improving rice yield. Non-availability of bioz...

 Muhammad Bilal*, Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Muhammad Aslam*, Muhammad Ijaz****, Adnan Shakeel***, Mushtaq Ahmad*** and Kashif Bashir*****

RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT COTTON ( L.) GENOTYPES AT VARIOUS SALINITY LEVELS
...red to salinity gradient treatments. Sodium (Na ), Potassium (K ) and Chloride (Cl ) contents in leaf sap were present more in salinity gradient treatment cotton genotypes as compared to farmer practice. Overall, findings revealed that higher to lower salinity levels did not suit to tested varieties. At optimum salinity stress level, all varieties performed optimally under salt conditions.

...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Neelam Yasin*

EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF MAIZE
...ulture, Faisalabad . The treatments comprised of no micronutrient application (control), water spray and foliar application of micronutrients mixture @ 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500 ml ha at stem elongation stage of maize. All micronutrients treatments significantly improved plant height, cob length, number of grains rows cob , cob weight, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, grain protein an...

Mehwish Kiran*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Kashif Waseem*
and Muhammad Sohail**

EFFECT OF ORGANIC MANURES AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF RADISH ( L)
...id out in RCD with seven treatments replicated thrice. The treatments included control, farm yard manure (FYM) @ 25 t ha , poultry manure (PM) @ 10 t ha , goat manure (GM) @ 15 t ha , press mud (PrM) @ 20 t ha , sewage sludge (SS) @ 20 t ha and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK) @ 120-65-100 kg ha . Data on leaf plant , leaf length (cm), fresh leaf weight plant (g), dry leaf weight plant (g), root length (cm), root diamet...

 Sadaf Javaria*, Muhammad Qasim Khan*, Kashif Waseem*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Habib ur Rahman*, Muhammad Sohail Khan* and Muhammad Sohail**

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON IMPACT OF BIO AND ORGANOMINERAL FERTILIZES ON COMPOSITION AND SHELF LIFE OF TOMATO ( ) FRUIT.
...conducted by combining 7 treatments in completely randomized design with 3 replications. The results revealed that nutrient sources significantly affected different quality parameters including; physicochemical (vitamin C, lycopene, total soluble solids and pericarp thickness); sensory (fruit color, fruit flavor and fruit firmness) and shelf life. It was concluded that bio-fertilizer integrated with Farmyard Manure emerged as better nutrient source over other ...

 Shafique Qadir Memon* , Nadeem Amjad** and Riaz Ahmed Dayo***

INVESTIGATION ENERGY AND ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF MAIZE PRODUCATION
... block design with three treatments and replicated thrice were used in this study, fertilizers were evaluated on the basis of yield, input/output energy of maize crop. NPK had the maximum output energy gain as compared to cow manure and control treatment gave the lowest output energy. Cow manure used high energy as compared to NPK and control. The results further revealed that other NPK fertilizer treatments were affected by...
Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Farkhanda Khan2, Muhammad Kashan3, Qadir Ullah4 and Abdur Rauf5
...e of urea application. N treatments significantly affected the N uptake, N use efficiencies, lint yield and fiber quality traits. Drilling of 24 kg N ha−1 as DAP into soil at cotton seeding followed by three top-dressing of 42 kg N ha−1 each just prior to first, second and third irrigations significantly enhanced seed cotton yield, quality, N uptake and N efficiencies compared to conventional practices. In conclusion, drilling...
Fatmagün Aydin1,* and Fatma Burcu Harmantepe2
...he control and all other treatments. Feed intake, specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were decreased significantly with the increase of sage oil levels in diets (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in hepatosomatic index (HIS), viscero somatic index (VSI) and condition factor (CF). The data of this study show that sage oil can be used to diets of tilapia up to 0.25% without any adverse effect on growth, feed utilization and haematolo...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos*, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Elsayed O.S. Hussein and Mutahar H. Ali
...resulted in four dietary treatments for the period from 15 to 30 days of age. Results revealed a significant two way interaction for body weight gain (BW) and feed intake (FI) (P<0.01) for the first week of the trial (15-22 day). The effect of treatment in the second week (23-30 day) was less pronounced and treatment had no effect on performance. Cumulative performance results for the period (15-30 day) showed that feed intake was affected by temperature (P...
Xiaopeng Tang1,3, Rong Xiang1, Sijia Chen1,3, Shufen Yang1,3, Hu Liu1,3, Rejun Fang1,3,* and Aike Li2,
...mly assigned into 1 of 4 treatments, 1) starvation group, 2) untreated CSM group, 3) FCSM group, and 4) EHCSM group to determinate the Apparent metabolic energy (AME), True metabolic energy (TME) and AA digestibility. Results showed that: (1) CP content in FCSM and EHCSM increased 8.42% (P < 0.05) and 1.11% (P > 0.05), WSP content increased about 5.64 -fold (P < 0.05) and 6.39 -fold (P < 0.05), total AA content incr...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Ali Murad Jakhar3, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo3
.../i> in the 50 and 500 IJ treatments than the 10 IJ dose. On the other hand, the lowest dose of H. bacteriophora did not yield any IJ. Similarly, days did not affect the recovery of nematodes from T. molitor cadavers. However, this effect was consistent over all the exposure periods but in the case of S. feltiae there was a significantly greater recovery from cadavers of larvae that had been exposed to nematodes for longer periods.
...
Hao Zhang,1,2,3,* Hai Tao Nie,3 Tie Wei Ma,3 Zi Yu Wang3 and Feng Wang3
...treatment intake levels (treatments were ad libitum or restricted to 70 or 40% of the ad libitum intake) within 7 slaughter groups. A slaughter group contained 1 lamb from each treatment, and lambs were slaughtered when the ad libitum treatment lamb reached approximately 50 kg BW. Non-carcass components (head + feet, hide, internal organs + blood) and empty bodies of the lambs were weighed, ground, mixed, and subsampled for chemical analyses. The Ca, P, Na, an...
María Magdalena Crosby-Galván1, Bernardino Espinoza-Velasco1 and Mónica Ramirez-Mella2,*
...in vitro assay. Four treatments were evaluated: a control using a standard diet for ruminants elaborated with corn stover, corn grain and soybean meal, and three experimental diets with 10, 20 and 30% dry residue of chihua pumpkin instead of corn stover. Dry matter digestibility and gas production was determined at 24 h of incubation in ruminal fluid obtained from two Holstein cows with a ruminal cannula. Randomized block experimental design was used as an...
Mousa O. Germoush1,*, Mohsen G. Al-Mutary2, Ahmad R. Al-himaidi3, Muath G. Al-Ghadi3, Daisaku Iwamoto3,4, Yousef Al-anazi3, Aiman Ammari3, Javed Ahmad3,5, Abdulaziz Al-Khedhairy3,5
...as assessed in different treatments and then cumulus-oocyte complexes were used for in vitro fertilization. Relative quantitative expression of mRNA transcripts related to apoptosis (Bax and Bcl-2), embryo development (LAMA1, IL-6 and FGF4) and stress (HSPB1) were examined. The results showed that 10% and 20% SFF supplementation exerted no effect on maturation and cleavage percentage whereas 40% SFF supplementation significantly decreased maturation and...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

... three replications. Six treatments consisted of a control (no strains) and 5 different strains of cyanobacteria i.e Oscillatory-MMF-1 (Oscillatoria princeps), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-2 (Lyngbya mucicola), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-3 (Lyngbya Phormidium), Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Five seedlings of rice (Kianat cv.) were transplanted to each pot on 18th of July 2016. The growth of rice cr...

Imran Khan1, Zahir Shah2, Wiqar Ahmad3*, Farmanullah Khan2 and Muhammad Sharif

...over the FP. Amongst all treatments, the 5 t ha-1 FYM and 75% NPK of the RD (INM5:75) stood superior with respect to yield as well as soil fertility status. However, efficacy was negative under deep tillage compared to shallow tillage for all treatments since yield as well as harvest Index (HI), mineral nutrients and OM content in soil were significantly lower and pH and EC higher under deep tillage. Results suggested that, ...

Mehran Ali, Inamullah*, Sajjad Ahmad and Arsalan Khan 

...d plots compared to urea treatments. Conclusively, organic sources incorporated with mould board plough could be better alternative urea to improve maize productivity and soil fertility on sustainable basis 

...
Pasqua Rotondi1, Maria Antonietta Colonna1, Giuseppe Marsico1, Francesco Giannico1, Marco Ragni1 and Anna Maria Facciolongo2,*
...of the following feeding treatments: C) control: commercial pelleted feed; L) pelleted feed containing 3% extruded linseed; LO) pelleted feed containing 3% extruded linseed and 0.6% dried oregano inflorescences. Kids were slaughtered at 60 days of age. Diet did not affect in vivo performances, dressing percentage, pH and meat colour, but it influenced meat tenderness, that was lower (P<0.01) in meat from kids receiving oregano, probably due to the le...

Muhammad Adnan Khan1*, Majid Suhail Hashmi1, Ali Muhammad1, Muhammad Muneeb1, Haris Bilal1 and Gul Wali

...ts demonstrated that the treatments and 90 days storage interval have great effect (p<0.05) on all the experiments of orange date blended squash. The treatment OD2 (orange 80% + date 20%), was found exceptional followed by OD1 (orange 90% + date 10%), while OD6 (orange 40% + date 60%) results found not satisfactory. Moreover, further study is needed to test suitability of orange-date (80:20) blended squash for commercial feasibility to this product. 
Muhammad Nazar Aftab1, Ahmed Ali1, Muhammad Asad1, Sadia Fatima2 and Furhan Iqbal2,*
...ned in both experimental treatments at the end of dose supplementation. Our results revealed that oral supplementation of 80mg/Kg body weight of AlCl3 for 16 days did not affect (P > 0.05) any of the studied parameters of complete blood count. On the other hand, serological parameters like triglycerides (P = 0.0075 ), total proteins (P = 0.042) and creatinine (P = 0.0038)were significantly higher in treated male mice when compared with their untr...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel2, Waqas Wakil3 and Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1,*
...) populations in all the treatments. In conclusion, the results revealed the potential of Bt, NPV and flubendiamide for the management of S. litura. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential of these products against S. litura and negative impact on natural enemies under varying climatic conditions, and on different host crops.
...
Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq1, Amer Jamal Hashmat1, Ejazul Islam1, Muhammad Afzal1, Abid Mahmood2, Muhammad Ibrahim2,*, Muhammad Nawaz3,*, Shahid Nadeem4 and Qaiser Mahmood Khan1
...here were four different treatments employed as; T1: wastewater, T2: wastewater with 0.1% electrolyte, T3: diluted wastewater (50% tap water), and T4: diluted wastewater (50% tap water) with 0.1% electrolyte. The color and COD in the effluent were reduced to 47% and 46% in T1, 70% and 52% in T2, 75% and 57% in T3, 80% and 59% in T4, respectively by using iron plate electrodes in four hours. The toxicological studies proved that electrochemical treatment could ...

Abdul Basit1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,4*, Sohail Ahmed2, Gohar Ali2 and Muhammad Javaid

...374g/bed) than all other treatments. Among treatments, yellow colored refractive sheet treatments exhibited maximum fruit fly incidence (i.e. 5 flies/net-sweep and 3-4 maggots/fruit) and fruit infestation (17%) as compared to other color sheets. Minimum fruit fly infestation (6%) and higher marketable yield (855g/bed) was recorded for reduced-risk insecticide spinosad, followed by blue col...

Rizwana Qamar1, Maria Ghias1, Fida Hussain1, Sajida Habib1, Muhammad Khuram Razzaq2*, Muhammad Aslam1 and Imran Habib3 

...h levels of water stress treatments. With the increase in stress, root length and leaf temperature increased, while shoot length, plant fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll fluorescence and relative water content decreased at seedling stage. Hybrid FH-630 and Hysun-33 are identified as the most drought tolerant genotypes used in present study. 

...

Muhammad Fiaz1*, Muhammad Afzal1 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2 

...rosea formulations. Both treatments were applied either alone or in binary combinations. There was a significant reduction in psyllid population for all treatment combinations as compared to control (F8, 107 = 70.36; P-value = 0.001 for 2016 and F8, 107 = 63.58; P-value < 0.001 for 2017). Combined application of spirotetramat along with I. fumosorosea formulation has shown a significant synergistic effect against D. citri infestation and is recommended to c...
Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1
...exposure. In virus alone treatments, after 7 days of sunlight exposure, the efficacy recorded was 88%. However, in clove-virus treatment, the mortality was higher (96%) than other treatments. These data also revealed that the second instar larvae were more resistance than the neonates. The efficacy of SpliMNPV at 0 and 7-day against the second larval instar was 88% and 5%, respectively. In clove-treated applications, ...
Yan Li1, Kai Zhan1,*, Junying Li1, Wei Liu1, Ruiyu Ma1, Shengnan Liu1, Haijun Cui1 and Xin Zhang2
...thickness among declawed treatments and yolk color in group 2. Overall feather score of layer breeders was not a significant difference, but the neck region had the lowest feather score in all groups. Preferential trimming methods were the removal of the first and third or second and fourth toes of day-old chicks in Hy-Line strain.
...

Muhammad Shoaib Saleem*, Muhammad Faheem Akbar, Amjad Sultan and Saqib Ali 

...ications, each have five treatments inclusive of control. The recommended doses of Nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (combination of Nitenpyram+Chlorfenapyr) and Buprofezin were applied when population of insect pests reached at economic threshold level (ETL). Pre-treatment data were taken before 24 hours and post-treatment data were recorded after 24, 72, 168 and 336 hours of each spray. In this manner the data of three sprays were collected. Amongst neonico...
Laiba Shafique1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2, Mehroze Fatima3, Huma Naz4, Qaisra Saddique1
...pared with other dietary treatments. In conclusion, citric acid showed best response as compared to other dietary supplemented organic groups.
...

Fiaz Ahmad1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...nces were observed among treatments for all physiological and yield traits except chlorophyll b. Shoot phosphorus contents, shoot sodium contents and number of pods/plant also showed significant differences among varieties. All physiological and yield parameters showed gradual reduction with increasing concentration of lead and water stress. Uptake of Na+, K and P was reduced significantly in all treatments but lead accumula...
Qudsia Yousafi1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Aslam3 and Allah Ditta Abid4
...e Block Design with four treatments each repeated three times. The treatments were T1= removal of infested shoots, T2= Use of light trap, T3= T1+T2 and T4=control. The seedlings were transplanted on April 21, 2013 keeping plant to plant distance of 30cm. Kerosene oil lantern, hung over metallic tray filled with water, was used as light trap. Data for fruit infestation was recorded fortnightly, starting from mid-May, from twe...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Ibrahim A. Alhidary1, Gamaleldin M. Suliman1,2, Abdullah H. Alyemni3, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady3, Faisal A. Alshamiry1,Mohsen M. Alobre1 and Riyadh S. Aljumaah1
...ibuted to four different treatments as a complete randomized design as follow: Barley grain and alfalfa hay (BA); TMR1 (25.67% NDF; low level); TMR2 (30.88% NDF; medium level-recommended); TMR3 (55.93% NDF; high level). A significantly higher (P<0.05) average daily gain and lower value for the feed conversion ratio of lambs fed TMR2 compared with other dietary groups. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between lambs fed TMRs with different le...
Habib-ur-Rehman1*, Saima Mirza1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Qurban Ali3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir4, Muhammad Yasir5
...r 24, 48 and 72 h of the treatments application. The findings of experimental trials presented significant mean repellency 79.15% of T. castaneum (with methanolic extract of C. paradise)followed by 76.21% (with R. communis extract)and 63.36% (in J.curcus extract) at 15% concentration, after exposure period of 24 h. Comparatively low mean repellency 58.45, 54.24 and 42.57% was observed at same concentration after exposu...

Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahito1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1 and Inayatullah Rajper2  

...oth green manure and IPM treatments. The green manure treatments suffered comparatively higher population of B. tabaci (0.83±0.09) and S. dorsalis (3.43±0.47) than IPM treatment with population of 0.46±0.05 whiteflies and 1.98±0.72 thrips, respectively. However, IPM cotton suffered higher A. biguttula biguttula population (1.01±0.10) than green manure treatment (0.49±0.07). Moreover,...

Muhammad Sajid Mahmood1*, Muhammad Ashraf1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Sohail Latif4 Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar5 and Waqas Ahmad6 

...summer season, 2009. The treatments were: Control (weedy check), Hand weeding (30 and 45 DAS), Pendimethalin herbicide @ 1.5 kg a.i. ha-1 (recommended dose), Barley W.E. @ 12 L ha-1 (20, 30, 40 and 50 DAS), Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1, Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 0.75 kg a.i. ha-1, Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 0.50 kg a.i. ha-1. The combined effect of barley water extract with pendimethalin herbicide on...

Muhammad Zahid1, Naeem Iqbal1, Sohaib Muhammad2*, Summiya Faisal3, Wajid Mahboob3, Makhdoom Hussain4 and Zaheer ud din Khan2 

...priming and foliar spray treatments at vegetative and reproductive stages. Plant growth and grain yields were reduced under drought. Two glucose treatments (10 mM and 50 mM) improved tillering and dry biomass as compared to other treatments. Foliar sprayed-glucose treated plants showed increasing trends in grain yield under drought. Physio-chemical attributes were also modulated by exogeno...
Xiaqing Chen, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...effects were observed in treatments T4 (3.5+40.0), T5 (7.0+20.0) and T6 (7.0+40.0), respectively. The treatment T3 (3.5+20.0) was determined as additive effects according to their cumulative adjusted mortalities, Me and Chi-square values. The current research on the joint action of ethylacetate extracts from T. hamatum with carbendazim offered a promising, safe and effective alternative to fungicides in treatment against S. shiraiana, popcor...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...cts were observed in all treatments according to the mycelial growth inhibition, Me and Chi-square values. The use of T. hamatum offers a promising and effective co-formulation product or alternative to chemical fungicides in controlling popcorn disease of mulberry.
...

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Muhammad Zeshan1,2, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahmed1 and Sabir Hussain Shah3 

Ali Sher1*, Khalid Naveed1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Ayub Khan1, Muhammad Saeed1 and Shah Masaud1 

Muhammad Ishfaq1*, Nadeem Akbar1, Imran Khan1, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Usman Zulfiqar1, Muhammad Ahmad1, Mumtaz Ahmad2 and Muhammad Umer Chattha1 

... highest in broadcasting treatments. Maximum net income (USD. 1097.2 ha-1) was obtained from S3 (22.50 cm row spacing) treatment under dry field conditions and BCR 1.5 was recorded in 22.50 cm spaced rows. In sum, 22.50 cm spaced rows are optimum for successful and economic rice productivity under direct seeded rice. 

...
Naeem Ahmad1,* and Zulqurnain2*
...were maintained for both treatments. It was found that there was no significant difference in final total length (TL) and standard length (SL) of the fish in both treatments (P>0.05). However, average monthly weight gain, final total wet weight (WW) and weight gain with increase in TL were higher in GIFT-Th as compared to GIFT-Tw (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in FCR, SGR and K values measured for both <...
Shoukat Ara1, Sheikh Adil2,*and Manzoor Ahmad Khan3
...not differ among various treatments at 19 weeks of age. A non-significant (p>0.05) improvement was observed in the egg weight, shell thickness and weight in all the groups fed Azolla in the diet (T2, T3, T4 and T5) when compared with the control group (T1). The differences in the total number of eggs laid, % hen-day-egg production, various external and internal egg parameters under different treatments were statist...

Madiha Naz1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1*, M. Jamil Khan1, Obaid Ullah Sayal2, Asim Afridi3 and Aziz Ullah Sayal3 

...tatistically at par with treatments recieving manure with foliar NPK. Number of fruits per plant were recorded highest in the pots recieving poultry manure either with Foliar NPK or NAA. The yield of tomato was found greater in the treatments recieving soil applied NP, which was statistically similar in the treatment recieving poultry manure with foliar NPK. The treatments in the current s...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

...otted to main plot while treatments (application of chemicals at different growth stages and water spray) to sub plot. Chemicals were sprayed in solution form on the leaves of the canola plants. Results indicated that reducing irrigation water shortened days to 50% flowering (103 days), days to 50% pod formation (120 days) and days to maturity (161 days). Optimum water supply delayed days to flowering (107 days), days to pod formation (122 days) and days to ma...

Shamsher Ali1, Zakir Ullah Jan1*, Zahir Shah2, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Farmanullah Khan2, Inayat ur Rahman3 and Shah Fahad3 

...six levels of fertilizer treatments in sub pots repeated four times. Fertilizers treatments were made from the application of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P2O5) and farmyard manure (FYM) which was collected from cattle barnyard. A total of six fertilizer treatments were used viz T1 = control (no application of inputs), T2 = 130 kg N ha-1, T3 = 130 kg N ha-1 + 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 T4 = FYM @ 20000 ...

Raza Ullah Khan*, Ahmad Khan, Mohammad Zameer Khan, Fayyaz Hussain and Sonia Saba 

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

...harvesting three pots of treatments starting in early spring and thereafter during tHEgrowth to the maximum five samplings to study roots and shoot growth. Averaged across varieties and extracts, results revealed that plant length (roots with shoot) was significantly (p<0.05) changed with a minimum at the thermal unit (TU) 677 to a maximum at TU 3257. Averaged across TU and extracts, the variety Cuf-101 showed the maximum plant length, root length and shoot...

Ali Muhammad*, Yasser Durrani, Majid Suhail Hashmi, Ihsan Mabood Qazi, Muhammad Ayub and Saifullah 

...period of one month. The treatments were T0 (not treated), T1 (neutralized with NaOH) and T2 (neutralized with NaHCO3). Statistical analysis showed that storage intervals and treatments had a significant (p<0.05) effect on physicochemical and sensory quality of neutralized whey. 

...

Ambrin Rajput* 

... having three fertilizer treatments; 0:0:0, 30:75:0 and 30:75:30 kg ha-1 of N:P:K replicated thrice with randomized complete block design respectively. The experimental soil was clay loam in texture. Application of N, P and K showed significant effect on chickpea growth and yield parameters. The maximum plant height (85.00 cm), pods plant-1 (43.8), seed index (455 g per 1000 grains), seed yield (1896.0 kg ha-1), total biomass (5205 kg ha-1), straw yield (31050...
Naila Chand1, Shamsullah1, Rafiullah1, Rifat Ullah Khan2, Muhammad Mobashar3, Shabana Naz4,*, Ebrahim Rowghani5 and Murad Ali Khan2
... were distributed into 3 treatments, designated as MOS-0, MOS-50 and MOS-100 having MOS at the rate of 0, 50 and 100 g/kg respectively. Each treatment was further replicated 3 times having 10 chicks per replicate. Treatment MOS-0 was kept as control and the birds in this treatment were fed on basal ration without alteration in feed contents while the other treatments MOS-50 and MOS-100 represented 50 and 100 g MOS/kg feed, r...

Shoaib Nawaz1, Muhammad Razaq1, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sajjad1*, Syeda Aneeza Ubaid1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2 and Usman Haider

...ation in control and ETL treatments was equal with non-significant difference between them while in calendar treatment population was significantly low. ETL and calendar base treatments give maximum yield because numbers of pest in both treated plots remain control. 

...

Jafar Aqeel Naqi1, Abdul Mateen1, Dilawar Hussain2,*, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Sajjad Hussain1 and Abuzar Tabasum1 

...ompared to other dietary treatments. There observed a significant difference (P<0.05) in FCR among all the dietary treatments with highest in T4 (0.59±0.32). Dietary treatment T5 (10/500g) showed significance difference (P<0.05) in red blood cells (RBC) count (2.82±0.33), white blood cells (WBC) count (6.56±0.83), hemoglobin (24.89±2.67) and hematocrit (37.27±3.8...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar*1, Shahid Riaz Malik1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood3, Muhammad Jawad1, Muhammad Asadullah1, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Muhammad Imran1

...ditions of the area. The treatments were five sowing dates (15 June, 25 June, 05 July, 15 July and 25 July) and two promising genotypes (NM-11, NCM-2013). Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement by using three replications. Data regarding growth, yield attributes and yield were collected and analyzed. Considering the individual effect, results depicted that among genotypes G2 (NCM-13) exhibited significant...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ammarah Hasnain2, Ateeq ur Rehman1 and Rashida Perveen1 

... rice. Besides this, all treatments showed significant effect on the agronomic traits of rice plants. The reduction of disease in all the trials along with healthy crop stand in glass house and field indicated that these decoctions might play an important role in biological management strategies for the control of BLB of rice. The present research may provide an avenue for the formulation of new bactericides for future uses. 

...

Muhammad Kashif Asghar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Shahid Riaz Malik2, Waqas Ahmad3, Sumaira Zareen4, Safdar Ali5 and Abid Ali6 

...ted to different priming treatments including hydropriming, osmopriming (with 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mM B) using boric acid as a source of B. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement in triplicate run. Results from the experiment revealed that all the seed treatments significantly improved achene yield, yield attributes and oil contents of sunflower. However, seed priming with 1 mM ...

Zubina Hameed1, Muhammad Azim Malik1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Farina Shaheen1, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Khisrao Kalim3 

...when compared with other treatments. The highest biological yield (10.55 t. ha-1) and grain yield (3.57 t. ha-1) were recorded in plots treated with Buctril-super along with highest benefit-cost ratio (2.52). Therefore, Buctril-super is recommended for best control of broad-leaved weeds and taking an economical yield of wheat. 

...

 *Muhammad Waseem1, Dost Mohammad Baloch1, Ghulam Khaliq1,
M. Rashid1, Qurban Ali2 and Mustajab A. Khan3

INTENSIFICATION IN BAMBOO (Bambusa bambos L.) TRAITS IN RESPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CHEMICAL NITROGEN ALONG THE COAST OF ARABIAN SEA
...ed traits in response to treatments. The results indicated that significant correlation was found among the traits such as plant height, number of culms per plant, stem diameter of culms and growth rate of newly emergence culms per day also showed higher vigour under the application of treatment combination {50% N from urea (the recommended dose) + 50% N from Farm Yard Manure (FYM)}. It was suggested that the growing of bamboo should be produced through the us...

 Tahir Abbas*1, Khawaja Raees Ahmad2, Asmatullah3, Khalid Pervaiz Lone4, Muhammad Ali Kanwal2, Sadia Suleman2

Reno-hepatic protective effects of Jambul against chromium induced anomalies in mice

Muhammad Zafar*1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Asmatullah3

Efficacy of methamidophos, fenpropathrin and metasystox against aphid population within the response of Brassica campestris at Multan
...our replications and six treatments in the research farm of Babar Agricultural Farm at Old Shuja Abad Road, Multan. Different insecticides showed different mortality of aphid population. Of the three insecticides tested, methamidophos resulted in more than 80% mortality in the aphid population and more than 30% increase in the yield, whereas fenpropathrin and metasystox produced mortality of 80% and 72% respectively. The result of this study indicated that the...

 Jhan Zeb, Muhammad Javed

Forecasting percentage contribution of plankton biomass towards increase in fish yield under composite culture conditions
...p<0.01) under all the treatments, showing the direct dependence of fish yield on plankton
productivity. The order of percentage contribution of plankton productivity towards increase in fish yield is T3 ≥ T4>
T1> T6> T7> T5> T2. Regression model developed for T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7 illustrated 63.40, 51.60, 64.50,
64.00, 52.20, 58.70 and 54.00% dependence of increase in fish yield on plankton productivity, respe...

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
...ia for wastewater
treatments has proved more effective in biomass production, nutrient cycling and bioremediation of organic
pollutants, heavy metals and many other contaminants. The biodegradation approach of involving consortium might
attain self-sustaining level and may prove technically cheaper and advance technology. It will finally help in dealing
the dual mission of producing valuable metabolites and pollutants/nutrients remo...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Arif1, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi3, Muhammad Munir4 and Imran Khan

... block design having ten treatments (including 9 exotics plus 1 local genotype) and three replications. The results showed that there were significant variations in all the parameters except moisture content that was found to be non-significant in 2013. The comparative assessment of the exotic germplasms investigated in this study displayed better performance over the local check in both the study years. The maximum germination (84.1 % and 85.4 %), number of f...
A.M. Abdul Azeem, A.N. El Shahat* and Ashraf M. Mounir
...peels powder. Concurrent treatments of lead-injected rats with GPE induced significant reduction in serum activities of liver enzymes, level of hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and plasma levels of caspase 3 associated with significant increase in the levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone in addition to marked improvement in the level of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione content and the activity of super...

Misbahullah, Shad Khan Khalil, Asim Muhammad*, Afza Tabassum and Shah Fahad  

... spike-1 were found when treatments applied 50% at emergence + 50% at tillering or tillering stage. Days to heading were found non-significant. It is concluded that sorghum extract concentration 1:4 with 988g ha-1 of weedicide affinity applied at tillering stage is recommended for high days to heading, anthesis, physiological maturity, amount of tillers-2, area of flag leaf and more spikelet’s spike-1 of wheat crop. 

...

Imran Khan1*, Muhammad Iqbal1 and Malik Muhammad Hashim2 

...Design (RCBD) having six treatments i.e. (I1= 05 days’, I2= 10 days’, I3= 15 days’, I4= 20 days’, I5= 25 days’, and I6= 30 days’’ interval) and three replications. Data were recorded on total chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, plant height (cm), number of leaves plant -1, leaf length (cm), leaf area (cm2), leaf weight plant-1(g), root weight plant-1 (g), root/top ratio, root length (cm), root diameter (cm), sucrose%,...
Muhammad Amir Iqbal1, Nabila Roohi1*, Ahmad Qureshy2

 

...renal function, whereas, treatments achieving euthyroid state after anti-thyroid therapy also influence these deviations.
...

Saima Yousaf1,2, Ali Zohaib2*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum2, Tahira Tabassum2, Tasawer Abbas3, Sohail Irshad4, Usman Javed5 and Naila Farooq6 

...oybean. Seed inoculation treatments [control (no treatment), nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium japonicum) and phosphorus solubilizer (Pseudomonas fluorescens)] were applied to three different cultivars of soybean (EBR4V4, Freedom and Swat-84). The results showed that seed inoculation with R. japonicum and P. fluorescens improved the grain yield, biological yield, oil content and protein content of soybean, as compared to un-inoculated control. Seed inoculati...

Ali Bakhsh1*, Mashal Rehman1, Said Salman1 and Rehmat Ullah

...r plant in both watering treatments. Water stress on an average, caused a reduction of 13% in days to first square formation, 14% in days to first flower formation, 19% in plant height, 18% in monopodial branches, 26% in sympodial branches, 27% in number of bolls per plant, 14% in boll weight, 4% in ginning out turn and 37% in seed cotton yield. GeFH-326 showed better performance for sympodial branches, bolls per plant, fibre strength and seed cotton yield und...

Salman Ali*, Inamullah, Muhammad Arif, Mehran Ali, Muhammad Owais Iqbal, Fazal Munsif and Arsalan Khan 

Muhammad Asad Saleem1,*, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1, Mudssar Ali1, Muhammad Amin2, Muhammad Tayyab1,3 and Sumaira Maqsood4
...recorded in the combined treatments. Moreover, decrease in weight gain, frass production and cumulative gain in size was found when larvae were treated with integrated effect of Bb and Nit. Depending on the lethal of treatment, development duration of RPW was disturbed. Integration of Bb and Nit delays the development and diet uptake in RPW which can be used for agent of control for this cryptic insect.
...
Muhammad Tufail1, Naila Chand1, Rafiullah1, Shakoor Ahmad2, Rifat Ullah Khan2, Muhammad Mobashar3 and Shabana Naz4,*
... were distributed into 3 treatments with 3 replicates having 20 chicks per replicate. One group was kept as control and the birds in this treatment were fed on basal ration without alteration in feed contents while the other treatments MOS-50 and MOS-100 represented 50 and 100 g MOS/kg feed respectively during the finisher phase. Treatment MOS-100 improved feed intake significantly (P<0.01) at the age of 4th an...

Mehran Ali1*, Inamullah1, Muhammad Bilal2, Salman Ali1, Farooq Nawaz1 and Muhammad Owais Iqbal1 

...d plots compared to urea treatments. Conclusively, urea incorporated with cultivator gives higher yield but organic sources incorporated with MB plough could be better alternate for urea to improve maize productivity on sustainable basis. 

...

Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik1, Khalid Usman1*, Tahir Amin1, Muhammad Riaz2, Zafar Iqbal3 and Fiaz Hussain

... conducted in 2016 using treatments irrigation intervals (10, 15, 20 and 25 days) and Bt cotton varieties (MNH-886, CRIS-342, and CRIS-134) as main- and sub-plots treatments, respectively. Total irrigation water used in irrigation treatments, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days intervals were 1125, 750, 560, and 450 mm, respectively. Each experimental unit was 10 × 3 m2. Results showed that all ...
Jian Wang1,*, Zhi Liu2, Sheng Xu2, Mei-Fen Hu2, Xiao-Rui Liu1 and Wen-Jie Cai1
... 48 h after Hemodialysis treatments, the levels of CXCL8 and mRNA in peripheral blood of the patients have a certain degree of up-regulation, but there was still no significant difference between the patients with and without infection (t=1.6975, P=0.0985; t=2.0575, P=0.472). CXCL8 can be as a sensitive indicator of the immunological reaction of micro inflammation in the patients, and tightly correlated with the merger of infection....
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
.... feltiae in all the treatments. The mean numbers of H. bacteriophora emerging from G. mellonella larvae were 272,600 from T. molitor medium were 194,600 and in T. molitor small were 21,900. Whereas, emergence of the mean numbers of S. feltiae IJ emerging from G. mellonella were 136,000 from T. molitor medium were 51,200 and in T. molitor small were 12,940, respectively. G. mellonella was found...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...ssociated compounds. All treatments were supportive in suppressing plant infection as compared to infected control, but the most promising outcome of treatments was observed when SA and BTH were applied at the concentration of 5mM and 150mg/L respectively. Three weeks’ analysis of treated mungbean leaves with SA and BTH exhibited peak accumulation of phenols and defense related enzymatic antioxidants. Highest enzymatic...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Sami Ullah1, 3*, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Ahmad Mujtaba1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Muhammad Jahangir Shah2, Bashir Ahmad2 and Ijaz Ahmad4 

...rmed as the experimental treatments. Results showed that maize hybrid sown under deep tillage gave the maximum grain yield (7.2 t ha-1), number of grains cob-1 (528), 1000-grain weight (265 g), plant height (205 cm), plant population (7.2 plants m-2) and stem diameter (1.58 cm), cob length (19.1 cm), biological yield (19.5 t ha-1) and harvest index (37.0%), while lowest grain yield (3.08 t ha-1), number of grains per cob (319), 1000 grain weight (204 g), plant...
Wen Chao Liu1,2, Kwan Sik Yun3 and In Ho Kim2,*
...e randomly allotted to 4 treatments. Each dietary treatment consisted of 8 replicate cages, with 16 birds per replicate. The 4 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based diets and supplemented with 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% 1,3-DAG, respectively. During d 1-14, with increasing the dietary 1,3-DAG levels from 0 to 0.15%, the body weight gain (BWG) was improved (linear, P<0.01), whereas the feed conversion ratio (FCR) wa...

Zafrullah Khan* and Shah Alam Khan 

... experiment having eight treatments and each treatment was replicated 10 times. The replicated pots containing each of the eight potato cultivars were infested with 100 and 200 adult of M. persicae. Significant antixenosis effects among the tested potato cultivars were observed while the different durations of M. persicae infestation on potato cultivars also displayed significant antixenosis effects against M. persicae during the spring and autumn experiments ...

 Syed Turab Raza1,*, Zhu Bo1,*, Zulfiqar Ali2 and Tang Jia Liang3

...red for two months. Four treatments (T1 to T4) were prepared using crop residues i.e. wheat straw, rapeseed and cow manure in different concentrations. Vermicomposting through biochar (Biochar 50%, rapeseed residues 20% and Biochar with earthworms) gave maximum increase in soil fertility with maximum decrease (39.63%) in C:N ratio. Significant increase of N content in nutrients and reduction in C: N ratios during this process shows conversion of harmful...

 Muqader Shah1,*, Hafsa Zaneb2, Saima Masood2, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Salahud Din1, Shakirullah3, Imad Khan2, Ambrina Tariq4 and Habib ur Rehman5

...T2 compared to all other treatments under HS. Drip losses was significantly (P<0.01) lower in the treatment groups compared to T2. Muscle fascicle diameter (MFSD) and muscle fascicle cross sectional area (MFSCSA) were significantly (P<0.01) lower in T2 and T3 while higher (P<0.01) in all other treatments under HS condition. Muscle fiber number (MFN) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T2, T5 and T7 compared to t...

 Abdul Khaliq1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Akhlaq Ahmad2 and Yasir Iftikhar3

...ts in various quarantine treatments. Therefore, resistant strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius) and Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) were tested against phosphine and bio fumigants to check their fitness and potential following by F1 generation. Phosphine fitness in term of mortality mean calculated at 300 ppm was minimum against weevil but highly effective against red flour beetle after 24hours w...

Saqib Bashir* and Bashir Ahmad 

...igeon pea green manuring treatments as 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days post emergence were allotted to main plots, where crop was incorporated in soil at different days after emergence (DAE), this was done in previous season before sowing of wheat crop, whereas nitrogen levels as 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1 were allotted to sub plots in the field where wheat crop was sown. Data were recorded on emergence m-2, days to maturity, plant height, thousand grains weig...

 Asad Sultan1, Rabia Ali1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1, Naila Chand1 and Ambrina Tariq3

...to four dietary bioassay treatments and fed mash red and white sorghum grain with or without phytase enzyme (500 FTU/kg) for 12 days (including 4 days adaptation period). Standard lab protocols were adapted to measure proximate analysis, minerals and phytate content in grain and fecal samples. Sorghum cultivars were different in nutrient profile with red higher in protein content (11.41%). It was observed that phytase inclusion in grain increased the availabil...

Gulnaz Saleem1, Aijaz Hussain Soomro1*, Nouman Rashid2 and Mehar un Nisa Narejo3 

... (p>0.05) amongst all treatments. The study concluded that biscuits might be prepared from lentil flour especially at the level of 21 and 28% considered most excellent by the panelists with respect to all sensory attributes. The biscuits supplemented with wheat; lentil flour at all proportion ratios was found to be acceptable for sensory quality. 

...
Bushra Siddique1,*, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Naeem1 and Muhammad Ali2
... by visual searching.The treatments with different combinations of plant extracts and semiochemicals were used for natural enemypreference experiment. The experiment was conducted with seven treatments and five replications at Glass house situated in Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi field area during Feb-April, 2015. The Coccinella septempunctata were collected from wheat crop plants. They rem...

Fraza Ijaz1*, Umair Riaz2, Shazia Iqbal3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Muhammad Furqan Ijaz5, Hina Javed1, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi1, Zuhra Mazhar3, Ahmad Hassan Khan6, Hassan Mehmood7 and Ijaz Ahmad8 

... Berseem. Total of eight treatments was planned to conduct an experiment. Results revealed that the nodule mass (0.523 g plant-1), highest plant height (103.45 cm), number of seeds per head, thousand seeds weight were recorded with Co-inoculation + Tryptamine @ 10-5 M (T8). Nutritious Parameters crude protein (30.23%), neutral detergent fiber (33.45%) and acid detergent fiber (26.56%) gave significant results as compared to control (T1). Results indicated that...

Bina Khanzada1*, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed1 and Nazir Ahmed2 

...th the years compared to treatments

...
Muhammad Shoaib Saleem* and Muhammad Faheem Akbar
...licates each having five treatments with control. Pre-treatment data were collected before 24 h and Post treatment data were collected after 24, 72, 168 and 336 h of each spray. In this manner, the data for three sprays were collected. The order of effectiveness in decreasing sequence was found to be Nitenpyram, Buprofezin, clothianidin and momentum (75%), (65%) (64%) and (63%), respectively against whiteflies’ population.
...

Hafiz Abdul Ghafoor*, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed 

...actors i.e. insecticidal treatments (F 9, 245 = 146.90, P < 0.001) and time (F 4, 245 = 445.75, P < 0.01) and their interaction (F 36, 245 = 9.20, P < 0.001) had a significant effect on the mortality of mealybug nymphs. The most effective novel chemistry insecticides against D. mangiferae mealybugs were sulfoxaflor, spirotetramat, thiamethoxam and pyriproxyfen with mean mortality and LT50 values of 64.00±3.50% and 31.67 h, 62.67±2.64% an...

Imdad Ali Mahmood1, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Sarwar1, Matiullah Khan1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2, Shoaib Ahmed1 and Shahid Riaz Malik

... was determined from the treatments where Zn was applied under PGPR inoculation. 

...
Fazal Wahab1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Nazir Ahmad1, Urooba Parvez2, Zia ur Rehman3 and Shabana Naz4,*
...ayers were assigned to 4 treatments; FS-0, FS-0.5, FS-0.75, and FS-1 with 3 replicates, each with 5 birds. Birds were kept in cages for 28 days in open sided house. FS-0 was kept as control while treatments FS-0.5, FS-0.75 and FS-1 were provided with fenugreek seed powder in the ration at the rate of 0.5, 0.75 and 1%, respectively. Egg production and feed intake was recorded on daily basis. Egg weight, egg shell weight, egg ...

Amjad Ali1*, Wiqar Ahmad1, Muhammad Zeeshan1, Farmanullah Khan2 and Muhammad Motasim Billah1 

..., 5-10 mm particles size treatments and the control was 2.48, 2.06, 1.99 and 1.81 mg kg-1, Zn was 0.41, 0.36, 0.33 and 0.31 mg kg-1, Mn was 1.23, 1.05, 1.02 and 0.89 mg kg-1, and Cu was 0.51, 0.38, 0.37 and 0.26 mg kg-1, respectively. Bizote-N and Rhizogold treatments OM (1.5 and 1.48%) showed 3 and 0.7% increase over the control (1.47%), respectively,. Bizote-N induced increase in Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu (2.16, 0.61, 1.23 and ...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

...ree replications and six treatments. Treatments are arranged as control T1 (Without fertilizer + No Poultry Manure + No compost), T2 (NPK full dose @ 150 kg ha-1N, 75 kg ha-1P and 60 kg ha-1K), T3 (full dose of poultry manure (PM) @ 30 ton ha-1), T4 (50% NPK+50% Poultry Manure i.e. 75 kg ha-1N, 37.5 kg ha-1P and 30 kg ha-1K +15 ton ha-1 PM), T5 (full dose compost @ 30 ton ha-1), T6 (50% NPK+ 50% compost i.e. 75 kg ha-1N, 37....

Munazza Yousra1*, Sair Sarwar1, Muhammad Mahmood Ul Hassan1, Muhammad Zameer khan1, Abdul khaliq2, Shahbaz Ahmad1 and Shamim Ul Sibtain Shah3 

... on the first day in all treatments except control. Zinc release from Zn-EDTA was much higher as compared to ZnSO4. Similarly, the pot experiment conducted with the same set of treatments and crop responded well to Zn fertilizer application. The results showed a consistent increase in Zn concentration with the increasing Zn doses in both varieties. The maximum Zn concentration recorded was 67.6 and 79.5 mg kg-1 @ 8 mg Zn kg-...

Ammara Saeed* and Noor-ul-Amin 

...ltivars were tested with treatments of 3 levels of phosphorus (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and potassium (20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) each as well as combined. Results showed that when plants were supplied with phosphorus at 60 kg ha-1 and potassium at 40 kg ha-1, it significantly improved studied variables, such as early days to sprouting (11.5 days), days to flowering (35.0 days), maximum number of branches plant-1 (11.4), number of leaves branch-1 (19.0), flower stal...
Asima Azam1, Asma-Ul-Husna2, Saima Qadeer3, Qaisar Shahzad4, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah5, Tasneem Akhtar4 and Shamim Akhter2,*
...up III compared to other treatments. Both treatment groups were equally effective (P > 0.05). Results also indicated that synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) medium was found better than M199 when co-cultured and conditioned with buffalo oviductal epithelial cells for culturing buffalo embryos. Conditioned SOF is recommended to be used as IVC media in future studies as it eliminates contamination problem, remove batch to batch variation, long-lived and is readi...

Masooma Munir1,2*, Abdul Ahad3, Asra Gull1, Aqsa Qayyum2, Nouman Rashid Siddique2, Amer Mumtaz2, Naeem Safdar2, Barkat Ali2, Muhammad Nadeem1 and Tahir Mahmood Qureshi

...of snack food bars. Four treatments were prepared by increasing the level of spinach in apricot bars and storage was done up to 3 months. Moisture and sugar content decreased with storage time while ash and fiber contents remained same during storage. The mineral and ash contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) among the treatments. Total sugars ranged from 64.77% to 67.29%. Reducing sugars were high than non-reducing...
Unal Kilic1*, Abdiwali Mohamoud Abdi1 and Deniz Ekinci2
...f 2 different LiP enzyme treatments (Available –Not Available) and 4 different treatment groups (control, 4% urea, 10% molasses and 14% urea+molasses (4% urea, 10% molasses). Hohenheim gas test was used in in vitro gas production measurements while infrared methane analyzer was used to determine methane production. The experiments were conducted as per the randomized factorial design in randomized complete blocks. In terms of crude protein content...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Moez Ayadi1 and Abdullah H. Alyemni2
...domly into three dietary treatments two months before parturition (Late gestation). Lambing percentage, lamb birth weight, lamb weaning weight and mortality rate were recorded. Blood samples were collected regularly during the different stages and analyzed for different important nutritional metabolites. In addition, colostrum, at parturition, and milk samples on day 30, 60 and 90 postpartum were collected for nutrient contents. The results showed an improveme...
Naimat Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan2, Muhammad Mobashar3, Shahbaz Javaid4*, Tarique Tonio1 and Asif Mahmood5
...gt;0.05) among different treatments. Body conditions score was recorded significantly higher (P<0.05) in fat supplemented groups B (3.65) and C (3.78) as compared to group A (3.09). A significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in motility percentage, progressive motility percentage and semen concentration (million/ml) of group B and C. Treatment groups showed no significant effect on straightness of sperm (P>0.05) except live to dead ratio (P<0.01)...
Xiaopeng Tang1, Wen-qin Su1 and Re-jun Fang1,2,*
...tment and 5 levels of CT treatments (1×10-12 to 1×10-8 mol/L), and each treatment has 6 replications. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT method. Cell morphology and phosphorus concentration in the cell supernatant were measured after 24 h of CT treatment. The NaPi-IIb protein expression was determined by Western Blot, and the NaPi-IIb mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. The results showed that, compared ...

Rashid Iqbal1,2, Mathias Neumann Andersen1*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza2, Muhammad Adil Rashid1 and Salman Ahmad2 

... wheat. These irrigation treatments were started at anthesis stage and maintained for 30 days. For FI and DI, 100 and 50% of evapotranspiration (ET) was replaced by irrigating the entire pot surface every 4-5 days. For PRD, root system was split into two equal halves and during each irrigation event, only one-half of the root system was irrigated with the same amount of water as applied to DI, and subsequently, irrigation was switched to the second half. PRD i...

Zubaria Malik, Zahir Shah* and Muhammad Tariq 

...els in subplots. Biochar treatments were no biochar (T1), 20 t biochar ha-1 in each season (T2), 40 t biochar ha-1 in winter (T3) and 40 t biochar ha-1 in summer season (T4). Root samples of wheat and maize were collected at harvest stages and assessed for AMF colonization. Soil samples were also collected at the time of root sampling and analyzed for AMF spores. The results showed that neither root colonization of AMF in wheat and maize nor AMF spores density...
Xiaopeng Tang1,2, Rejun Fang3,4,*, Guochang Pan1,2 and Kangning Xiong1,2,*
...were divided into 1 of 5 treatments: i) control group (0 ng/mL EGF), ii) 50 ng/mL EGF group, iii) 100 ng/mL EGF group, iv) 150 ng/mL EGF group, and v) 200 ng/mL EGF group for using chamber test. The results showed that (i) the LDH activity of isolated intestine increased (P < 0.05) sharply during 30 min, at 60 min, the LDH activity of isolated intestines reached a high level; (ii) EGF increased (P < 0.05) the transepithelial electrical resi...
Adel E.M. Mahmoud1, AdamCieślak2, Paulina Szulc2, Anna Łukomska3 and Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel2,*
...nts did not differ among treatments. Crude fiber content increased linearly with increased dried sugar beet pulp percentage in rations, with significant differences in D2, D3 and D4. Content of NDF was significantly higher in all experimental groups when compared with control group, whereas non-fibrous carbohydrates content decreased in all groups as the effect of corn grains replacement by dried sugar beet pulp. Complete substitution of yellow corn by sugar d...

Mehwish Kiran1, Muhammad Saleem Jilani1, Kashif Waseem1*, Muhammad Sohail Khan1, Fazal Haq2, Muhammad Amjad Nadim3, Ghazanfar Ullah3 and Salma Shaheen

...zed design, comprising 6 treatments (control, NPK + FYM, NPK + PM, NPK + GM, NPK + PrM and NPK + SS) and 3 replications. Data for leaves’ count plant-1, leaf length (cm), leaves weight (g plant-1), root size (length & diameter), root weight (g plant-1), total biomass (g plant-1), root yield (t ha-1) were collected and analysed. Results showed significant improvement in almost all studied parameters with the application of NPK and different organic ma...
Chen-Yu Sun, Wen-Chao Liu*, Mei Xiao, Zhi-Hui Zhao and Li-Long An*
...e randomly allotted to 4 treatments. Each dietary treatment consisted of 6 replicate cages, with 15 birds per replicate. The 4 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based diets and supplemented with 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. During d 1-14, with increasing the dietary betaine levels from 0 to 2000 mg/kg, the BWG was improved (quadratic, P<0.05), whereas the FCR was decreased (linear, P<0.01)...

Muhammad Sharif1*, Sadullah1, Ghulam Rasool2, Muhammad Nasir Khan1, Zubair Rehman1, Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Khalid Hussain4 

... was conducted under the treatments, i.e. conventional tillage (CT), Zero tillage (ZT) and Chisel plough (CP) during the year 2016 at the field research area of Balochistan Agriculture College, Quetta. The study was designed to compare conventional versus conservation tillage practices and their effects on soil physico-chemical properties such as total organic carbon (TOC), infiltration rates, soil water contents (SWC), soil reaction (pH), electrical conductiv...

Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad2 

...make its layout. All the treatments were replicated four times. Sorghum was used as test crop. Pre and post-harvest soil analysis was carried out for different physical and chemical characteristics. Sorghum biomass, plant height, plant diameter and no of plants/m2 were noted and it was observed from results that leaching fraction technique proved useful to mitigate the ill effects of brackish water. All the collected data were subjected to statistical analysis...
Muhammad Khalid Rafique1, Rashid Mahmood1,*, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1,Imran Bodlah2 andFarid AsifShaheen2
...dded grafting than other treatments. The queen spermatheca diameter, emergence rate and mating rate were not found to be affected by the treatments and rearing interludes. Additional research is suggested and needed for clear recommendation.
...
Manzoor Hussain*, Marie Maňasová, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...anicillium muscarium treatments alone or with nematodes had significant (P = 0.01) positive effects on plant shoot and root growth among all other treatments in the experiment. After L. muscarium and the chemicals (Vydate and Basamid), Stropharia rugosoannulata ranked second in reducing the nematode numbers of galls, egg masses, and second-stage juveniles (J2) and rate of nematode repro...
Shad Mahfuz1,2, Shuyuan Wang1, Mo Chen1, Fei Zao1, Dong Zhen1
Zhongjun Liu4 and Hui Song1,3*
...hens were grouped into 5 treatments with 7 replications of 3 hens each. Dietary treatments included a basal diet as control; antibiotic (0.05% flavomycin); 2% FVW; 4% FVW; and 6% FVW for 8 wk. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance using SPSS software followed by Duncan’s test probability of p<0.05. During the experimental period no significant differences were observed in egg production, egg mas...
Abdul Majeed1*, Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq2, Abid Niaz3, Abid Mahmood4, Naeem Ahmad1 and Hafiz Muhammad Walyat Ali Khan1
...ariety under salt stress treatments than V05003. Salt tolerant variety also showed higher potassium contents and photosynthetic rate in salt stress soil medium. Thus plant Na+, K+ contents, and photosynthetic rate in soil and hydroponic medium can be used as standards to screen salt -tolerant varieties.
...
Wiqar Ahmad1*, Farmanullah Khan2, Muhammad Sharif2 and Muhammad Jamal Khan2
...lots and four fertilizer treatments viz the control, farmer’s practice (FP) (N:P2O5 @ 60:45 and 15:30 kg ha-1 for cereals and lentils), recommended dose (RD) (N:P2O5:K2O @ 120:90:60 and 30:60:0 kg ha-1 for cereal and lentils) and integrated nutrient management (INM) (N:P2O5:K2O + FYM @ 60:90:60 kg + 20 t ha-1 for cereals and 7:30:0 kg ...
QihangLiu1,2, YueliJiang2, Tong Li2, Jin Miao2, Zhongjun Gong2, Yun Duan2, and YuqingWu2*
...n developing light-based treatments to help control locust populations via exploitation of their phototactic responses to different light sources.
...

Illahi Bux Bhatti1, 2*, Imran Khatri2, Maqsood Anwar Rustamani2 and Riffat Sultana

...icant difference between treatments i.e., T1 and T8, T2 and T3 and T6 and T9. The results indicated that, all control methods significantly reduce whitefly infestation and improve cane and sugar yield over control treatment. 

...

Sohaib Afzaal1,4*, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3, Klas Udekwu4, Paulina Pastuszek4 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1 

...des using pasteurization treatments. Both types of pasteurization treatments including High Temperature Short Time (HTST) and Low Temperature Long Time (LTLT) were applied to all of the strains. On applying LTLT treatment, maximum viability was found in the BSM-43 (42.84%) while minimum viability was shown by CYG-362 (26.10%). In case of HTST treatment maximum viability was shown by BSM-43 (41.67%) while minimally viable str...

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar*, Maria Aslam, Muhammad Rehan Khalid, Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed 

...ct concentration for all treatments. The floral extracts of basil (O. basilicum) and Tecoma (T. stans) exhibited maximum termite mortality (i.e. 55.5 and 50.0%, respectively) with minimum LC50 and LT50 values, followed by the extracts of chrysanthemum (G. segetum) and African marigold (T. erecta). Overall study results suggest that above mentioned floral extracts can be further characterized for potential botanical pesticide formulations against insect pests s...

Matiullah Khan1*, Motsim Billah2, Shoaib Ahmad1, Raza Ullah Khan1 and Muhammad Sarwar1 

...a-1 as compared to other treatments. The residual effects of PEC applied at the rate of 6 Mg ha-was superior by producing 36.2%, 14.2% and 7.0%increased grain yields over those of control, PLC and SSP, respectively. The post-harvest soil extractable P value and plant P uptake were significantly higher in the treatment where PEC was applied to the previous crop at 6 Mg ha-1 over rest of the treatments. It was concluded that P...
Mo Chen1, Shad Mahfuz1, 2, Yan Cui1, Liying Jia1, Zhongjun Liu3 and Hui Song1, 4*
...ere grouped into 5 equal treatments with 5 replications of 6 hens each. Dietary treatments included basal diet as a control group; control diet including antibiotic (0.05% flavomycin) as an antibiotic group; 2% FVS fed group; 4% FVS fed group and 6%FVS fed group. The experimental duration was total 63 days, from 30 wk to 39 wk. Serum total antioxidant (T-AOC) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in 6%FVS than control; glutat...

Muhammad Saleem1*, Ehsan Elahi1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi1, Saleem Maseeh Bhatti1, Hajra Ibrahim2 and Muhammad Ali3 

...o all plots of different treatments. The economical important plant growth parameters ; height of plant (cm), stem girth, diameter of flower disk (cm), quantity of achenes (head-1), weight of 1000 achenes, oil (%) in achene, yield (ha-1), and sulphur content (%) in plant straw were evaluated. The values among the treatments for higher plant height (161.80 cm), wide stem girth (4.80 cm), flower head diameter (15.40 cm), maxim...

Tanveer Ahmad1*, Muhammad Mujtaba Rafiq1, Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Abid Mahmood Alvi3, Qumer Iqbal4, Muhammad Azam5 and Arshad Ali Khan6 

Shaukat Ali1,*, Sadia Batool2, Fatima Javed Butt2, Sundas Nasreen1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1
...es and bio-nanoparticles treatments (i.e., green synthesized metallic nanoparticles) attracted many researchers to conclude a novel cancer treatment strategy. Unluckily every strategy had some working limitations as a result of which cancer remained a catastrophe for humanity. The present review article devised the modern cancer treatment paradigm which proposed directions towards probiotics or biotics-cancer treatment strategy. The probiotics are present in t...

Imran1*, Amanullah1, Muhammad Arif1, Zahir Shah2 and Abdul Bari3 

...d-96) crop. Experimental treatments included three organic sources, three phosphate rates and two beneficial microbes. Weeds found during the whole growing period of soybean crop were Euphorbia heterophylla L, Phyllanthus fraternus L., Portulaca oleracea L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., IPomoea nil L., Erigeron canadensis L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., Asparagus officinalis L., Cynodon dactylon L., Digera muricata L., Cyprus rotundus L. and Solanum nigrum L. T...
Sumaira Abbas1, Muhammad Sultan Haider2,*, Fatima Kafayet1, Sana Ashraf2, Atifa Masood3 and Moazma Batool4
...es (P<0.05) among all treatments in weight gain and FCR. Maximum color intensity 1.52±0.08 and carotene concentration in lateral and tail region, 0.4±0.01 and 0.05 ±0.02 were recorded in T3 without any harmful effect. It is concluded that citrus peels are good, natural, low price Carotene source for color enhancement.
...
Zekeriya Demir1 and Hatice Kaya2*
...llocated to four dietary treatments and fed a control diet (Pol-0), basal diet plus 0.5% (Pol-1), 1.0% (Pol-2) and 1.5% (Pol-3) bee pollen. The present study lasted for twelve weeks. During the experimental period, the hens were fed ad-libitum and water was available all the times. The hen house was lit for 17 h. The layers fed with diets including BP showed linear increases in final body weight and body weight changes calculated from initial and final ...

Roshan Ali1, Afsar Ali2, Shamsher Ali2, Muhammad Arshad Khan3*, Haroon Shahzad3, Noman Latif3, Muhammad Waheed4, Ashraf Khan5 and Murad Ali6 

...ging in Swat valley. The treatments consisted of control, 50 kg silicon ha-1, 100 kg silicon ha-1 and 150 kg silicon ha-1. Field had 12 plots with size of 12 m× 6 m = 72m2. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 treatments having three (03) replications. Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) variety JP 5 was tested. The maximum plant height (90 cm) was recorded in T4 when silicon was applied at...
Khursheed Ahmed, Shoaib Freed*, Rana Fartab Shoukat and Kanwar Waqas Ahmad
.... Moreover, the combined treatments decreased the adult emergence, male and female longevity, while increased the nymphal duration. The results indicated that these entomopathogenic fungi can provide better control in combination with insecticides and can be used in integrated pest management for reducing the population density of O. hyalinipennis.
...

Awais Ahmed Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal1 and Muhammad Atiq2 

...mical alterations. These treatments effectively enhanced the activities of peroxidase (POD), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total phenolic contents. Salicylic acid showed highest POD activity (8.4 U/min g protein), SOD (6.96 U/ min g protein) and TPC (3.21 mg GAE/ 100g of sample) as compared to control where POD (1.13 U/min g protein), SOD (1.46 U/ min g protein), and TPC (1.14 mg GAE/ 100g of sample). Amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the signaling molecul...

Asim Munawar1,2*, Farooq Ahmad1, Aqsa Arshad1, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi3 and Chengjuan Liang4 

...rin as well as phosphine treatments. Field strains collected from various geographical locations were observed more resistant then lab strains. Calculated LC50 values was very less in field strains as compared to lab strains. Maximum mortality of lab and field collected strains of R. dominica and T. castaneum was observed against phosphine than against deltamethrin. Our results suggest that field strains experienced with different out door conditions was less...

Ghulam Murtaza1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Fakhar Mujeeb2, Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1 and Ayesha Zafar1  

...xperiment comprised of 9 treatments having 4 replications; T1 = canal water, T2 = saline water having EC value 2 dS m-1, T3 = saline water having EC value 3 dS m-1, T4 = T1 + organic matter @ 5 Mg ha-1, T5 = T2 + organic matter @ 5 Mg ha-1, T6 = T3 + organic matter @ 5 Mg ha-1, T7 = T1 + organic matter @ 10 Mg ha-1, T8 = T2 + organic matter @ 10 Mg ha-1 and T9 = T3 + organic matter @ 10 Mg ha-1. The experiment was laid according to randomized complete block de...

Muhammad Sohail Memon1*, Khadim Ullah1, Altaf Ali Siyal1,2, Naimatullah Leghari1, Ahmed Ali Tagar1, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto1, Syed Tahir Ata-ul-karim3, Muhammad Tahir4 and Noreena Memon1 

...ofile with three testing treatments viz. T1 with raised bed size = 0.6 m, T2 with raised bed size = 0.8 m and T3 with raised bed size = 1.0 m. The soil samples were collected from depth desired depth to analysis the Physical chemical properties before and after the trial. Irrigation water was measured through cutthroat flume at each irrigation interval and the total water consumed by ridge ground was 500 mm. The solute transport and soil water content in the r...

Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz*, Khalil Ahmed, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Faisal Nawaz and Muhammad Sarfraz 

...fit as compared to other treatments and is suggested as most cost-effective technique for turnip production under moderately salt-affected soils. 

...
Asim Faraz1*, Abdul Waheed1, Riaz Hussain Mirza1, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1 and Muhammad Shahid Nabeel2
...alves were kept on these treatments for 4 months. Initial body weights of the calves were recorded at the start of the trial and then weighed fortnightly. The overall weight gain per day in four months of feeding trial differed significantly between two groups. It is concluded that camel is a good candidate for feedlot.
...

Ajmalud Din1*, Munir Ahmad2, Fahad Masoud Watto2, Sheraz Ahmed1, Imtiaz Ali1 and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

...ree replications and two treatments. The experiment was conducted during 2015-16 in the experimental site of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Data were recorded on drought-related physiological traits viz. proline content, osmotic adjustment, excised leaf water retention (ELWR), relative water content (RWC), cell membrane stability (CMS), chlorophyll content and canopy temperature. Mean squar...

Asif Yaseen1, Muhammad Israr2*, Allah Bux Khan1, Ahsan Javed3, Nafees Ahmad4 and Zia Ullah

... Punjab, and multinomial treatments effects were used to analyze the data. The results indicated though participation in traditional marketing channels (with intermediaries) is still profitable, high value marketing channels appeared more attractive alternative, having been shown to offer increased net income to smallholder citrus growers. Findings showed the importance of production experience and know-how of quality issues are the significant determinants of...

Yousaf Ali1, Muhammad Zamin1*, Ibadullah Jan1, Shahen Shah2, Muhammad Mazhar Hussain3, Fazli Rabbi4 and Muhammad Amin

... of four planting medium treatments (compost, mixture, clay and sand) and six tomato genotypes (Nadir, Money Maker, Pakit, Nagina, Roma and Rio grande) with three replications. The results revealed that the combination of compost and mixture has significant effect on shoot height, number of leaves, stem and root length, however stem diameter was significantly affected by compost and non significantly affected by genotypes. As far as the genotypes performance i...

Nosheen Noor Elahi1, Muhammad Shafique1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Umer Farooq3* and Muhammad Rashid1 

...t all levels of salinity treatments, while in varieties CM44 and CM98 nodules were formed at salinity levels of 0-50 mM NaCl and completely inhibited at 100mM NaCl. The total protein and nitrogen contents increased with concurrent increasing levels of NaCI. The plants treated with 50 mM NaCI had maximum amount of protein contents as compared to those at 0mM NaCI level. Varieties CM91 and CM2000 had higher protein contents than CM44 and CM98. At I/50 level of s...
Elmas Ulutaş1,*, Abdullah Eryavuz2, Aziz Bülbül2, Abdur Rahman3,*, İsmail Küçükkurt4 and Cangir Uyarlar5
... concentration among the treatments, except for 1000 ppm zinc supplementation. High zinc supplementation to diet increased (p<0.05) the liver Zn and Fe concentrations and mohair Fe levels but decreased the kidney Cu concentrations. It was concluded that the goats can tolerate the supplementation of high zinc in diet.
...
Peng Peng1,3, Xiaopeng Tang2*, Dun Deng3, and Rejun Fang1*
...ucks were divided into 4 treatments, 1) Control group (0% GM in the diet), 2) 3% GM group (3% GM in the diet), 3) 6% GM group (6% GM in the diet), and 4) 9% GM group (9% GM in the diet). All groups had 8 replicates and 15 birds were included in each replicate. The experiment lasted for 28 days. The average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. Results showed that: (1) the DM, CP, EE, CF, Ash, Ca,...

Muhammad Rasheed*, Tayyaba Naseer, Asma Hassan, Fayaz ul Hassan, Rifat Hayat, Ghulam Jilani, Samman Gul Vaseer and Muhammad Bilal Ali 

...Masoor 2009 and NIA 2005 treatments were used viz BS0 (control), (Pseudomonas stutzeri), BS2 (Lysinibacillus pakistanensis) and BS3 (Pseudomonas stutzeri + P2O5@40kg/h). Application of BS3 enhanced the plant height (31.423 cm), leaf area plant-1 (15.459 cm2), leaf area index (1.9323) and leaf area duration (110.84). Among the different lentil cultivars, NIA 2005 gave the better response regarding these traits. The maximum fresh weight plant-1 (7.2560 g) and dr...
Saeed Murtaza1, Abdul Sattar1*, Nasim Ahmad1, Muhammad Ijaz2Maqsood Akhtar3 and Muhammad Shahzad4
... postpartum period among treatments. Furthermore, milk composition results showed that fat, protein, lactose, freezing point, SNF and solids were significantly higher (P<0.05) in group-2 and group-3 as compared to group-1 except density and pH which remained non-significant (P>0.05) in all groups. On the basis of result, it may be concluded that oxytocin had no effect on uterine involution and progesterone; however, it had some role to affect the normal ...
Sumaira Akram1, Sajid Aleem Khan1*, Nazir Javed1 and Saeed Ahmad2
...ght and root weight. All treatments evaluated in this study exhibited suppression of MG. Therefore, these treatments can be used in combination against MG infestation on wheat.
...
Meriem Msaad Guerfali1,*, Heitham Hamden1, Salma Fadhl1, Wafa Djobbi1, Lotfi Sillini1, Wafa Marzouki1 and Mohammed Ammar2
...the nature and number of treatments. The samples were subjected to ingestion toxicity bioassays of malathion and spinosad at different concentrations. Histopathological effects of spinosad were also studied and showed that for doses up to LC50, annoying effects begin to appear in glial and neurosecretory cells. The LC50
Asim Faraz*
...actorial arrangements of treatments under completely randomized design. After 120 days trial period the mean body weight and average daily gain (ADG) of male and female calves was significantly increased (P<0.05) in IMS as 80.8±2.7, 77.8±2.7 kg and 0.67±0.02, 0.65±0.02 kg/d than EMS as 64.7±2.6, 52.3±2.6 kg and 0.54±0.02, 0.44±0.02 kg/d of male and female calves. Intake of crop residues (P<0.05) was...
Ali Asghar1*, Tariq Mukhtar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Asim Gulzar2
...r highest densities. The treatments where bacterium was applied individually at different densities, wilt took maximum days to appear as compared to the treatments where bacterium and nematodes were applied in combinations. Similarly, the incidence of bacterial wilt was lower where the nematode was absent. Minimum wilt incidence was recorded at the lowest density of R. solanacearum. The wilt incidence increased signif...
Xuhui Zhang1, Zhiyuan Sun2, Jinfeng Cai1, Guibin Wang1, Zunling Zhu1, Linguo Zhao3 and Fuliang Cao1,*
...allocated into 5 dietary treatments including five variations: control group, fed with the basal diets; NF group, the addition of 3 g/kg NF products; FR1, FR2 and FR3 groups, addition of FR products 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg and 6 g/kg, respectively. There was no difference in body weight gain, feed intake and feed intake/gain ratio between treatments. Compared with the control group, the percentage of the abdominal fat, sarcous fat an...

Rehman Ullah Khan* and Muhammad Ayub 

...e vera blended pulp. The treatments were as GABP0 (control), GABP1 (0.1% P.S), GABP2 (0.1% K.M.S), GABP3 (0.1% S.B), GABP4 (0.05% each P.S and K.M.S), GABP5 (0.05% each P.S and S.B), GABP6 (0.05% each K.M.S and S.B), GABP7 (0.033% each P.S+ KMS and SB). The guava aloe vera blended pulp samples of all treatments were packed in pet bottles and stored at ambient conditions for six months. The results revealed significant declin...

Pushpa1, Nighat Seema Soomro1, Shahla Karim Baloch2, Mehmooda Buriro1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Muhammad Tahir Khan3, Qamar Uddin Jogi1*, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1 and Farheen Deeba Soomro1 

...ua under three different treatments i.e. 25, 50 and 75g. The effect of these weed powders on seed germination (%), shoot length (cm), root length (cm), shoot fresh weight (g), root fresh weight (g), shoot dry weight (g), root dry weight (g), and seed vigor index of test species was investigated under laboratory conditions. The powder of weed plants produced significantly (p<0.05) harmful outcomes on all growth parameters of wheat varieties as compared to th...
Mohammad Ejaz1, Salma Javed2, Muhammad Hamza1, Sadia Tabassum2, Muhammad Abubakar3, Irfan Ullah4*
...al endophytes for cancer treatments
...

Noor-us-Sabah1*, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Sher Muhammad

... in the study. Following treatments were applied in three replicates i.e. T1- control (recommended NPK), T2- ½ of recommended NPK, T3- full dose of FYM, T4- full dose of press mud, T5- full dose of compost, T6- full dose of poultry manure, T7- full dose of sesbania green manure, T8- T2 + ½ FYM, T9- T2 + ½ press mud, T10- T2 + ½ compost, T11- T2 + ½ poultry manure, T12- T2 + ½ sesbania green manure. After sufficient tim...

Ahmad Naeem Shahzad1, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi2, Samee Ullah1, Muhammad Latif3, Shakeel Ahmad1 and Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari1* 

...cotton leaves under salt treatments indicated that growth was primarily restricted by the osmotic component of salt stress. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) in plant leaves were increased in response to salt stress. Treatment of stressed plants with trehalose considerably improved the growth attributes and reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, indicating its ameliorative role in salt stress alleviation....
Hifzulrahman1, Muhammad Abdullah1*, Muhammad Uzair Akhtar2, Jalees Ahmed Bhatti3, Muhammad Saadullah1 and Muhammad Naveed-ul-Haque2
...avi buffaloes received 2 treatments in a completely randomized design with a period length of 120-d. The treatments were 1) Ctrl = basal diet without supplementation of fat, 2) Ca-FA = basal diet with calcium salts of palm fatty acids supplementation. The Ca-FA treatment increased the 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield by 11.0% compared with the Ctrl, whereas, the actual milk yield remained unaffected. The Ca-FA treatment increas...
Renlong Lv1*, Ken-Ichi Horiguchi2, Shin-Ichi Tagawa3, Shoichi Ichihara4 and Norio Yoshida
...ey were divided into two treatments (rapeseed diet and jatropha diet) randomly and were tested by using a cross over method. Rapeseed meal and jatropha meal were relaced to the feed as a concentrate with proportion of 5% in experiment I and 10% in experiment II. The ingestion rate of sheep fed the jatropha diet was lower than that of the rapeseed diet. The feed of jatropha diet and rapeseed diet were all ingested in experiment I. However, jatropha meal treatme...

Saira Bano, Muhammad Naeem* and Samrah Masud 

...beo calbasu, under three treatments (T1, T2 and T3) fed at different crude protein (CP) levels ratios i.e., 15%, 20% and 25% CP. Fish were first collected, acclimatized, kept in triplicate aquaria under controlled conditions in three groups (T1, T2 and T3) and then 5 fish were selected from each treatment at the end of 12 weeks of feeding trial from January to April, 2018, during which fish were fed at the rate of 4% of their body weight. The blood variants we...

Rabia Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem*, Samrah Masud and Abir Ishtiaq 

..., reared under different treatments. Mean water and fat contents showed highest percent values in T1 (15%CP), while ash and protein contents were found highest in T3 (25%CP) in the hybrid fish. Protein and lipid showed inverse relation as with increasing dietary protein levels as T3 (25%) feed showed highest protein content and lowest lipid content. Inverse relation was seen between water content and fat content. % water showed relationship with % fat, % prote...

Muhammad Safdar Hussain1*, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz2, Muhammad Ayyoub Tanvir2 and Noor-E-Hira

...s carried out with three treatments: Well-watered, 25% and 50 % drought to achieve said objective. It was found that drought negatively affected plant growth. The mean heights of E. camaldulensis and T. aphylla were maximum (38.16 and 34.7 cm, respectively) at control irrigation while minimum height was found (17.1 and 24.9 cm, respectively) at 50% drought. So, the reduction in plant height of E. camaldulensis was more (55.6%) as compared to T. aphylla (28.1%)...

Faisal Hafeez, Asad Aslam*, Ayesha Iftikhar, Afifa Naeem, Muhammad Faheem Akhtar and Muhammad Jawad Saleem 

...mmended field doses. The treatments were applied on cotton crop when the jassid population was above ETL level. The most effective insecticide found was Nitenpyram, having minimum population per leaf (0.35, 0.23 and 0.31 in 2018 and 0.53, 0.33 and 0.42 in 2019 after 1, 3 and 7 days of spray), followed by Chlorfenpyr both years. However, Acephate was ineffective to control jassid population. Moreover, the order of percentage population change/reduction is as un...
Sohail Ahmed1,*, Muhammad Waseem Saleem1, Abid Ali1, Muhammad Shahid Nisar2, Rashad Rasool Khan1 and Abdul Rashid3
...us, making a total of 15 treatments including separate application of each above and a control where none was applied except water only. Results showed significant difference amongst treatments (p <0.05). Application of spinosad alone and in combination with other control methods proved to be the most effective treatment. Releases of bio-agents viz., C. septempunctata and C. carnea resulted in ...

Ghulam Mohi Uddin Paracha* and Yasser Durrani 

...nds was carried out. The treatments in this study included BPo [peach persimmon blend (6:4)], BP1 [peach persimmon blend (6:4) + potassium sorbate (0.1%)], BP2 [peach persimmon blend (6:4) + potassium metabisulphite (0.1%)], BP3 [peach persimmon blend (6:4) + sodium benzoate (0.1%)], BP4 [peach persimmon blend (6:4) + potassium sorbate (0.05%) + potassium metabisulphite (0.05%)], BP5 [peach persimmon blend (6:4) + potassium sorbate (0.05%) + sodium benzoate (0...
Tehreem Usman1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3 and Qaisra Siddique1
...Results showed that both treatments caused a significant (P<0.01) decline in CAT activity and TPC of C. idella as compared to control group. CAT activity and TPC decreased with the passage of time. Among both treatments, ES+CPF caused greater decline in CAT activity and TPC. It was concluded that insecticides in mixture form are toxic to fish and response of biomarkers depends on the type of toxicants and exposure ...

Ahmad Khan1*, Raza Ullah Khan1, Sadia Khan2, Muhammad Zameer Khan1 and Fayyaz Hussain1 

...tainer, consisting seven treatments, whereby HS was given either as soil applied (at the rate 0, 15,30,45,60 mg l-1) and as foliar ( 100,150 mg l-1) The experiment was laid out in CRD under greenhouse conditions. Three seeds of chickpea variety Dhasht was sown in each pot which was thinned to one plant. Results show that highest plant height of 45cm was obtained when HS applied at the rate of 30 mg l-1as followed by 44.67cm where HS was applied @ 45mg l-1. The...

Ayesha Zafar1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sarfraz2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Sher Muhammad3 and Ghulam Murtaza

Muhammad Jan1*, Safdar Hussain2, Muhammad Anwar ul Haq3, Javed Iqbal4, Ilyas Ahmad4, Muhammad Aslam4 and Aiman Faiz3 

...t BT cotton variety. The treatments were T0: Control T1: FYM @10 tons ha-1, T2: Compost @10 tons ha-1 and T3: FYM @10 tons ha-1+ Compost @10 tons ha-1. Three BT cotton varieties (BT-142, Lala zar and BT-786) were tested against the organic sources applications impacts. The application of compost and FYM in combined increased the physical parameters number of bolls per plant, plant height, sympodial branches, monopodial and seed cotton yield as compared to comp...

Wajiha Anum1*, Liaquat Ali1, Umair Riaz2*, Abid Ali1, Nadia Manzoor3, Laal Hussain Akhter4, Asad Ur Rahman5, Naeem Maan6 and Ijaz Ahmad

...on wheat. The fertilizer treatments were F1=150-00-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F2=150-30-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F3=150-60-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F4=150-90-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F5=150-120-60 NPK kilogram/hectare. While the placement methods were M1=Line sowing + Band application of phosphorus, M2=Line sowing +Broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing, M3=Line sowing + Broadcast application of P at first irrigation. Yield and yield determining parameter...

Hafiz Abdul Ghafoor1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Luqman2, Muhammad Arshad Javed2, Syed Wasim Hasan3 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed

...er field conditions. The treatments included some most effective conventional and novel chemistry insecticides, botanicals and cultural control practice (i.e. two under-canopy deep hoeings with 15 days interval along with lower-branch pruning) alone or in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (@ 1x108 conidia mL-1). First experiment was conducted in March 2016 and 2nd was performed from November 2016 to March 2017 in a citrus (Citrus ...

S. Ahmed† , L. Yue, Q. Liu and H. Jian

Evaluation of media for mass production and fermentation of Pseudomonas spp. for integrated management of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae)
...ferent media and control treatments. All tested strains of Pseudomonas spp. showed stability on pH ranges from acidic pH5 to neutral pH7 and towards basic pH8 against the second stage juvenile (J2) mortality assay. 

...

U. A. Al-Karim, A. A. Alshimaysawe, A. E. Mohammed† , W. A. R. Aljaafri and F. A. Al-Fadhal

Evaluation of biological seed treatments for management of Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton
...Burkholderia spp., seeds treatments drastically suppressed the number of eggs isolated from cotton roots compared with the non-treated control. Abamectin also inhibited the number of vermiform life-stages found in the soil as compared to the nontreated control. Biological seed treatments produced no negative effects on plant growth. The use of different biological control agents as seed treatments

A. S. M. El-Nuby1† , S. A. Montasser2 and I. A. El-Khadrawy

Control of root-knot nematodes using wild plants colonized Sinai, Egypt
...o trial post inoculation treatments were effective than pre one, the maximum reduction in nematode population was recorded by A. judaica (87.0%) followed by A. monosperma (83.0%) then Z. album1 (79.0%), while the lowest suppressor was C. monacantha (60.4%) at stock concentration. The addition of extracts as soil drench was better than spraying them. The stock solution showed the highest reduction in nematode reproduction but the differences between 100% and 75...

 Gulzar Mehmood1*, M. Zahid Khan1, Haseeb Ur Rahman1, and Sohail Abbas2

AN EFFICIENT AND SECURE SESSION KEY ESTABLISHMENT SCHEME FOR HEALTH-CARE APPLICATIONS IN WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS
...n making and therapeutic treatments. However, one of the main issues with
WBAN in medical applications is security and patients’ information privacy. In such applications ensuring human
vital sign privacy and security is very important. To address this important issue, in this paper we propose a novel
secure session key establishment scheme for WBAN in health-care domain to ensure security and privacy of vital
sign related to ...

Shafiullah1*, Mohammad Nafees2 

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COAGULATION/ FLOCCULATION PROCESSES VIA OPTIMIZATION OF INOCULATION DOSE AND SETTLING TIME
...coagulation/flocculation treatments were given by applying different doses of ferric chloride in
combination of calcium hydroxide. Effective removals of pollutants were obtained by using ferric chloride and calcium
hydroxide in ratio of 2:0.5 mL for settling time of 13 minutes. As treatment results, not only removed suspended
solids (86%) but a tremendous decrease was observed in color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity by
...

Bibi Safia Haq1,2, Hidayat Ullah Khan3, Abdul Shakoor4, Shahnaz Attaullah5, Ishrat Rahim1 

PROJECTION ETCHING OF KERATIN THIN FILMS FOR FABRICATION OF SKIN STRUCTURE USING ARF EXCIMER LASER
...ffective studies of skin treatments, large areas of model skin need
to be generated. Therefore an ArF excimer Laser wavelength (193nm) with the ability to pattern square mm areas
per pulse was used even though the maximum repetition rates are typically an order of magnitude slower. Keratin
samples with different film thicknesses were ablated with different pulses. The depth of the ablated keratin layers with
different pulses were al...

Shabana Rafique1, Shahnaz Parveen Khattak1, Tanveer Hussain2, Faiza Tauqeer1, Bashir Ahmad3 

EVALUATION OF FLEXURAL RIGIDITY AND ABRASION RESISTANCE OF POST AND META-FINISHED PIGMENT DYED P/C FABRICS
...ctional finishing
treatments for polyester/cotton (P/C) blended fabrics; further to assess its effect on flexural rigidity and abrasion
resistance. The simultaneous finishing and pigment dyeing is more economical than conventional method, since, more
energy can be conserved by using same machinery for dyeing, finishing, drying and curing. Furthermore, elimination
of post wash treatment in this method caused little or no contaminatio...

Imran Shehzad1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1, Sher Muhammad2 and Ghulam Murtaza

...xperiment consisted of 4 treatments replicated four times and randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used to make layout. Treatments were; T1 = canal water, T2 = water of EC 2.0 dS m-1, T3 = water of EC 3.0 dS m-1 and T4 = water of EC 4.0 dS m-1. Maize was sown as test crop. Pre and post-harvest soil analysis was carried out for different physical and chemical characteristics. Soil samples were collected from all the pl...

 Muhammad Nafees*, Asim Nawab*, Wisal Shah**

STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGNED FOR INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS
... purpose three different treatments .i.e. Lime, Alum and Alum+Lime
were applied. The optimum doses identified were 25, 35 and 26:13 ml respectively. The settling time was 25, 35 and
20 minutes respectively for lime, alum and alum+lime. The results revealed that the combine treatment (Alum +
Lime) effectively removed suspended load up to 90%, along with 82% BOD, and 80% COD respectively. Therefore,
it was conclude...

 Abdul Malik*, Abdul Sattar Shakir**, Muhammad Jamal Khan***, Muhammad Latif**, Zia-ul-Haq*

YIELD RESPONSE AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF SUGAR BEET IN SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT UNDER DIFFERENT DEFICIT IRRIGATION REGIMES
...r all deficit irrigation treatments the root yield was low but the sugar content and water use efficiency were improved. Average root yield for full irrigation was found as 59.75 tonnes ha-J where for 60 % deficit irrigation root yield was 32.02 tonees OO-J• Average sugar content for full irrigation was 14.14%, and for 60 % deficit irrigation sugar content was 16%. Where, the root water use efficiency was in the range of 8.13 for full irrigation to 10.87 ...

Saba Iqbal1*, Muhammad Luqman1, Hafiz Muhammad Nasrullah1, Asmat Ullah1 and Hafiz Muhammad Akram2

Response of Cotton to Application of Organic and Inorganic Source of Nutrients in Semi-Arid Climate

Sikander Hiyat1, Nazim Hussain1, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani2*, Muhammad Nasir Abbas2, Smana Raza3, Javed Shabbir Dar4 and Tauqeer Ahmad Yasir5 

...ereas, mepiquat chloride treatments (control, MQC0), mepiquat chloride 0.61 liter ha-1). Vegetative (plant height, number of monopodial and sympodial branches, no. of nodes plant-1) and reproductive growth and yield (no. of flowers plant-1, no. of square plant-1, no. of open and un-open bolls plant-1, seed cotton yield and cotton seed yield) parameters were recorded. The results revealed that exogenous application of mepiquat chloride @ 0.61 L ha-1, significan...

Hina Imtiaz1*, Salma Khalid2, Kashaf Riaz1, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3 and Zubair Rehman

...agulant. Three different treatments were practiced i.e. Alum, Lime and Alum+ Lime. For alum, lime and alum + lime the settling time interval was 40, 35 and 20 minutes respectively. Results revealed that the combine treatment (Alum + Lime) effectively reclaimed Total Suspended Solid (TSS) up to 85%, along with 80% BOD, and 75% COD. Waste management is core issue that affects the health of people residing in surroundings of Nullah Lai stream. During the question...

Ghulam Murtaza1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Ashraf Malik2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad3 

...is trial comprised of 09 treatments which were; T1 = irrigation of canal water, T2 = irrigation of EC 2 dS m-1 water, T3 = irrigation of EC 3 dS m-1 water, T4 = T1+ FYM at 5 Mg/ha, T5 = T2 + FYM at 5 Mg/ha, T6 = T3 + FYM at 5 Mg/ha, T7 = T1 + FYM at 10 Mg/ha, T8 = T2 + FYM at 10 Mg/ha and T9 = T3 + FYM at 10 Mg/ha. The design of research study was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. The test crop was sorghum cultivar “Hegari&r...

Matiullah Khan1*, Humera Arif2, Muhammad Rasheed2, Motsim Billah3 and Shoaib Ahmad

...pan, irrespective of the treatments and locations. However, the highest P in all reacted RP was recorded on day 90. Beyond day 90, the P content showed a declining trend, especially in reacted RP of Paswal and Kakul. These results reveal that with the change in mineralogy of RP, the requirement of H2SO4 for solubilizing P also changes hence, separate formulation will be workable for all the three locations. These results also indicate that Guldania RP has a go...
Anum Feroz1, Abdul Rauf Shakoori2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*
...f Lab-S population after treatments with bifenthrin and bifenthrin: chlorpyrifos combination 3:1, respectively. After exposure to chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin: chlorpyrifos combination 1:3 the AchE activity was increased 45.24 and 64.28%, respectively. This increase was much more prominent in the 6th instar larvae viz., 93.95, 45.57, 182.52 and 132.61% following treatments with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, 3:1 ...

Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Khalil Ahmed1*, Abdul Rasul Naseem1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Muhammad Khalid2, Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich3 and Muhammad Arif

... the safe limits in both treatments. Gypsum @ 75 % GR+ humic acid @ 30 kg ha-1 reduced the pHs (6.70%), ECe (27.60%) and SAR (54.96%), hydraulic conductivity (9.75%), and bulk density (3.94%) over their initial values. Therefore, it was concluded that integrated use of gypsum @ 75% GR + humic acid @ 30 Kg ha-1 is equally effective as gypsum @ 100 % GR in improving the yield of wheat and rice crops and restoring the deteriorated properties of salt-affected soil...
Feng-Mei Yang1, Rui Li2, Xiu-Xue Hu3, Yong Liang4, Bo Gao3* and Wei Chen3*
...dent effects of UVB. UVB treatments inhibit cell growth and promote apoptosis in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, and high level as well as prolonged UVB irradiation lead to NHSFs senescence.
...

Khalil Ahmed1*, Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Abdul Rasul Naseem1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Muhammad Khalid2, Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich3 and Muhammad Arif4

Use of Hyacinth Compost in Salt-Affected Soils

Iram Bilqees1, Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Qaiser Shakeel3, Ashara Sajid1, Zahoor Hussain4, Aqleem Abbas2, Muhammad Aamir Sohail2, Judith Jeruto Kiptoo5 and Shehzad Iqbal2

Use of Nutrients and Plant Extract to Manage Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease (OYVMD) in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...e grown under RCBD. Five treatments viz., 2% garlic extract, 2% multi-nutrients, silicon (1 and 1.5%) s and water as control were applied. Sabz pari showed the maximum disease incidence of 50% whereas, Indian Rachna with disease incidence of 25% exhibited the minimum DI. None of varieties showed immunity against the OYVMD. Among the treatments, multi-nutrients and garlic extract were effectively reduced the disease progressi...

Abid Khan*, Mukhtar Alam, Yousaf Jamal and Hidayat Ullah

Appraisal of Yield and Yield Components of Wheat with Integrated Management of Nitrogen Sources

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1*, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahmad1, Rao Wali Muhammad1, Sami Ullah2, Adeel Abbas3, Ijaz Ahmed4 and Muhammad Zeshan5

Effect of Balance Use of Fertilizers on Performance of Wheat Under Arid Climatic Condition
...periment comprised of 10 treatments. The results showed that compared with control, addition of nutrients significantly increased plant height and the highest plant height (86.5 cm) was observed at 86:58:62.5 kg NPK/ha treatment. Maximum tillers/plant (3.1), spikelet’s/plant (2.9), and spike length (8.9 cm) was found in 86-58-62.5-3 kg NPK + Zn/ha treatment. Furthermore, highest grains/spike (83.4), 1000 grain weight (4.3 g), and yield (6381 kg/ha) was f...

Safina Naz1*, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Bushra Siddique2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3*, Sajid Ali1, Hassan Sardar1, Sakeena Tul Ain Haider1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4, Hajra Azeem3, Sibghat Ullah5, Shah Pasand6 and Zehri Khan5

Effect of Sewage Water Irrigation Frequency on Growth, Yield and Heavy Metals Accumulation of Tomato and Okra
...ter irrigation frequency treatments on growth, yield and heavy metals accumulation of tomato and okra during 2012 and 2013. A statistical randomized complete block design was applied in the field to perform experiments having three replicates while 03 sewage water irrigation frequency treatments i.e., 5, 10 and 15-days interval. The tomato yield, their growth along with the production of the plant biomass were increased cons...

Rana Shahzad Noor1,2, Fiaz Hussain2, Irfan Abbas3, Muhammad Umair2, Abu Saad2, Muhammad Umar Farooq4 and Yong Sun1*

Assessing Sustainability of Rainfed Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Production under Various Soil Tillage Systems: An Energy and Economic Analysis
...wheat seasons. The study treatments were evaluated in term of energy analysis and economics of wheat production. Highest energy inputs obtained were fertilizer, seed and fuel + oil energies in all tillage systems for wheat sowing, respectively. Results interpretation indicated that the highest (2,300 kgha-1 and 40.56 lha-1) and lowest (1,930 kgha-1 and 8.97 lha-1) wheat yields were measured in CT and ZT farming treatments, r...

Muhammad Arsaln1, Sair Sarwar2*, Rizwan Latif1, Junaid Nawaz Chauhdary3, Munazza Yousra2 and Shahbaz Ahmad2

Effect of Vermicompost and Microbial Inoculants on Yield, Soil Fertility and Economics of Wheat under Rainfed Conditions
...eld and economics. Eight treatments i.e., control; recommended dose of fertilizers (160:150:50) NPK in kg ha-1; VC @ 4t ha-1; PSB; Recommended fertilizers + VC @ 4t ha-1; Recommended fertilizers + PSB; VC @ 4t ha-1 + PSB; Recommended fertilizers + VC @ 4t ha-1 + PSB were tested in the experiment using various combinations of vermicompost (VC) @ 4t ha-1 and phosphorus solubilizing bacterial (PSB) as microbial inoculants along with recommended dose of NPK fertil...

Shaiza Rasool1, Iftikhar Ahmad1*, Khurram Ziaf1, Irfan Afzal2, Muhammad A.S. Khan1, Muhammad Aashir Sajjad1 and Muhammad Zain Ali1

Seed Conditioning Effects on Germination Performance, Seedling Vigor and Flower Production of Zinnia elegans
...elect the most promising treatments for field production testing and flowering. In the first experiment, a 3% moringa leaf extract (MLE) showed the earliest (2.8 d) and the highest germination rate (90%) with an average root length of 4.2 cm. Hydro-priming resulted in the largest seedling fresh weight (0.8 g), seedling shoot length (5.8 cm), and seedling vigor index (980). The seedling vigor index was determined by multiplying the percent germination with the ...

Malik Abdul Rehman1, Shafqat Ali1, Muhammad Babar Shahzad Afzal1, Muhammad Nawaz Khan1 and Mujahid Ali2*

Efficacy of Chemicals and Botanical Extracts to Control Citrus Canker on Kinnow in Sargodha Region
... plants. There were nine treatments, control (no chemical was applied), Neemsol @ 5 ml, copper oxychloride @ 3 g, streptomycin sulphate @ 1 g, potassium acetyl benzoic acid @ 10 ml, difenoconazole @ 0.5 ml, extracts of Acacia nilotica @ 10 ml, Datura alba @ 10 ml, and Allium cepa @ 10 ml. These treatments were used by mixing in 10-liter water. The foliar spray was applied four times a year, i.e. March-April and August-Septem...
Abida Parveen1, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Nazir Javed1, Anam Moosa1*, Khushboo Javaid1, Hina Safdar1 and Asma Safdar2
...iner (SK) as stand-alone treatments and in combination was assessed to suppress the reproduction and development of MI. Highly susceptible variety of tomato cv. ‘Money Maker’ was tested for the invasion and development of MI. Aqueous and ethanolic MO extracts were tested in combination with SK at three different concentrations and time intervals. After 12-h ‘S’ concentration of aqueous MOextract + ethanolic MO extract + SK produced 100%...

Dalal H. Sary and Rama T. Rashad*

A Comparative Study on the Impact of Compost, Humate, and Silicate on the Nutritional Characteristics of Calcareous Soil Cultivated by Soybean
Oluwatoyin Adenike Fabiyi1*, Olubumi Atolani2 and Gabriel Ademola Olatunji3
Toxicity Effect of Eucalyptus globulus on Pratylenchus spp. of Zea mays
...st potency among all the treatments. Spectroscopic analysis by GCMS revealed the presence of terpenoids and phenolics as major constituents of E. globulus. The essential oil showed the presence of 1,8-cineole (23.3%), citronella (18.1%), geranial (17.6%), isopulegol (10.4%), myrcene (13.0%), cuminaldehyde (9.1%) and 2-pinene (8.5%) as major constituent. Results obtained in this research revealed that essential oil from Eucalyptus (a bio-nematicide) holds promi...

Muhammad Nazar1, Chaudhary Muhammad Ayyub2, Mujahid Ali3*, Malik Abdul Rehman4, Shoib ur Rehman5 and Saqib Ayyub2

Amelioration of Thermo-Tolerance Ability in Spinacia oleracea L. Cultivars by Foliar Application of Chitosan
...ress (40/32°C), four treatments (25, 50, 75, 100 ppm) of chitosan were applied as a foliar spray on spinach cultivars in comparison to control (non-treated with chitosan). The research findings evidenced that foliar application of chitosan significantly affected attributes under heat stress. All Pure Green was affected more followed by Desi Local, while Lahori Palak was least affected. Chitosan at 100 ppm revealed the optimized results. It was observed tha...
Amir Aziz1*, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-us-Sabah1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Sher Muhammad2
Effect of Rice and Wheat Straw and K-Silicate Application on Maize Growth
...istan in 2017. Different treatments including T1= control, T2= wheat straw (deficient @ 200 mg kg-1 of soil), T3 = wheat straw (adequate @ 400 mg kg-1 of soil), T4= rice straw (deficient @ 200 mg kg-1 of soil), T5 =rice straw (adequate @ 400 mg kg-1 of soil), T6 = K-silicate (deficient level @ 2 mg kg-1 of soil) and T7 = K silicate (adequate @ 400 mg kg-1 of soil). All the pots were arranged according to completely randomized design (CRD). In each pot five hyb...

Malik Abdul Rehman1*, Hafiz Muhammad Ehsan2, Tehseen Ashraf2, Zulfiqar Ali Gurmani3, Sajjad Khan3 and Mujahid Ali2

Effect of Growing Media on Plant Growth of Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and Poncirus (Citrus trifoliata)
...e by taking samples from treatments were analyzed for determination of N, P, K. Results indicated that stem length, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and survival percentage were significant in different growing media after everyone months of transplantation. Various media i.e. peatmass+soil+sawdust, leafmanure+soil+sawdust, compost+silt+sawdust, leaf manure+silt+saw dust, compost+soil+sand was proved promising growing media than the other

Muhammad Javaid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1 and Muhammad Arslan Khan1

Role of Nanotechnology in Crop Protection and Production: A Review
...nvironmental stress seed treatments with nanoparticles, to improve the crop yield use of smart gene delivery system. This technology can also be useful for sustainable water use and irrigation water filtration. It also plays an important role in pollution reduction. Green revolution of any developing countries can be achieved by adopting nanotechnology.

...

Samia Ikram1*, Riaz ur Rehman1, Farwa Batool2 and Atyab Amjad3

Evaluation of Bird of Paradise for Commercial Flower Production by using Organic Manures
...016-2018. Following four treatments were designed: T1 (control), T2 (Top dressing with FYM), T3 (Top dressing with leaf manure), T4 (Top dressing with sewage sludge). Maximum plant height (93.53 cm), Number of suckers (4.20), Number of leaves (8.00), Number of flowers (4.11), Stem diameter (5.025 cm) and Spike diameter (5.03 cm) were contributed by T2whereas maximum spike length (61.21 cm) was recorded in T3 and maximum shelf life (14.81 days) was noted in T4....

Mohammad Mohsin Faqeer1, Muhammad Aquil Siddiqui2*, Nighat Seema Soomro1, Shameem Raja3, Muhammad Tahir Khan2, Ghulam Shah Nizamani2, Fareen Deeba Soomro4 and Muhammad Mahran Aslam2

Impact of Row Spacing on the Growth and Yield Parameters of Lentil (Lens culinaris L) under Semi-arid Region of Pakistan
...aluated at three spacing treatments (15, 30 and 45 cm) under the RCBD. The morphological characteristics of lentil genotypes depicted that maximum germination, plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1, weight of 1000 seeds, seed yield, and early days to maturity were observed at 30 cm row spacing. Interaction of varieties x row spacing indicated that NIA Masoor 2016 showed the best performance at 30 cm row spacing. This genotype exhibit...

Zubia Rahim1, Gulnaz Parveen1*, Salma Gul2 and Khushnood-ur-Rehman3

Ameliorating Effects of Salt Stress (KCl, NaCl) on Growth and Germination Parameters of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum americanum)
...ination percentage after treatments to 100, 150, 200 and 250mM concentration of above mentioned salts. Control petri dishes/ pots were irrigated with distilled water. The experiment was extended to study growth (number of leaves, leaf length, stem breadth, stem length, number of tillers) and yield (spike length, total seeds on single spike, whole plant weight, weight of 50 seeds per spike) parameters in the field, which was performed in completely randomized d...
Yaqiu Liu1, Zhijian Wang 2, Xinhui Li 1*, Jianrong Zhao2 and Weitao Chen 1
...rent breathing restraint treatments. A total of 150 healthy mature individuals (mean initial body weight = 16.1 ± 3.7 g and mean initial total fork length = 13.1 ± 1.2 cm) were selected for the experiment. The experimental specimens were separated into three modes: control group (n = 50) without any stress treatments; inhibited group (n = 50) with gut respiratory inhibition; and an air-exposed group (n = 50) wi...

Muhammad Jahanzaib1*, Nazakat Nawaz1, Muhammad Arshad1, Shehzadi Saima4, Muhammad Suhaib2, Muzammil Husain3, Haris Khurshid1 and Shahid Ali Khan1

Effect of Temporal Application of Gypsum on Mineral Uptake and Economically Important Morphometric Traits in Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L) under Rain-fed Conditions
...k design. Five different treatments were applied in two split doses i.e. T1 (0 %:100 %), T2 (25 %:75 %), T3 (50 %:50 %), T4 (75 %:25 %), and T5 (100 %:0 %) at the time of sowing and pegging compared with Check (T0). Results showed significant differences among treatments for yield and related agronomic traits as well as mineral concentration in response to gypsum application. The highest pod yield (3522.2kg/ha), root biomass...

Luqman* and Zahid Hussain

Impact of Tillage Tools and Weeding Regimes on Nutritive Values of Maize Grains
...n the full season weeded treatments, followed by weeding for 12 weeks and so on. Similarly, lowest crude protein content, fat content, ash content and dry matter content (12.3, 4.6, 0.85 and 87.1%, respectively) were found in the full season weedy treatments, followed by weedy for 12 weeks, and so forth. For the interaction between tillage and weeding regimes, the maximum crude protein content, fat content, ash content and d...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1*, Zulfiqar Ali Abbasi1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Naimatullah Leghari2, Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio3, Ahmed Naqi Shah1, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro4, Nadia Mangrio1 and Shazia Parveen Tunio5

Evaluation of Irrigation Frequencies and Seed Priming with Plant Nutrients on Growth and Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genotypes
... design was used and the treatments were replicated thrice. The experimental units were consisted of three factors: irrigation frequencies (two, three, four and five); seed priming (no priming, Priming of seed with canal water, 1.0% Urea and 0.2% Zinc sulphate); and two genotypes of sunflower (HO-1) and (Hysun-33). The analysis of data indicated that irrigation frequencies, seed priming and their interaction affected significantly (P≤ 0.05) on growth and yi...

Zohaib Ahmad Hassan1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Muhammad Aftab2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Usman Saleem3, Ayesha Zafar1, Imran Shehzad1, Aneela Riaz4, Khurshid Ahmad Mufti5 and Aamer Sattar2

Toxic Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on Growth and Yield of Rice
...xperiment comprised of 7 treatments that were repeated three times according to Completely Randomized Design (CRD). These treatments included; T1= Control, T2= 15 SAR, T3= 20 SAR, T4= 25 SAR, T5= 30 SAR, T6= 35 SAR and T7= 40 SAR. Subsequently NaHCO3 was added to the soil as per treatment plan and adequate time was allowed to accomplish chosen sodicity levels. Later on, rice nursery was transplanted in all the pots. Various ...

Bilal Pervaiz Khan1, Neelam Ara1, Shujaat Ali1,2*, Kamran Khurshid Baigh1 and Abdul Wahab1

Effect of Seed Priming on Radish with Different Nutrients at Various Soaking Durations
...durations. There were 25 treatments having three replications. Priming seed significantly affected the germination and vegetative attributes of radish. The result of experiment showed that the highest germination percentage (86.4 %), percentage of survival (83.6 %), minimum days to emergence (9.1), tallest plant height (41 cm), yield of leaves plant-1 (14.4), leaf area (295.8 cm2), root length (20.6 cm), root weight in g (522.4) root diameter in cm (4.51), and...

Noor Ayaz1*, Faiza Aman1, Sidra Saleem1*, Maqbool Rehman1 and Muhammad Fahim2

Olive Cuttings as Affected by Different Concentrations of Indole Butyric Acid
...(CRD) was used with four treatments that were replicated three times. The IBA concentrations used were (T1: control, T2: 1000 mgL-1, T3: 2000 mgL-1, T4: 3000 mgL-1). Data were recorded on days to 50% sprouting, number of sprouts cutting-1, sprouts length cutting-1, number of leaves cutting-1, days to rooting, and survival percentage. Significant differences (P≤0.01) were observed among olive cultivar treated with different IBA concentrations for days to 50%...

Hafiz Muhammad Wasim1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Muhammad Aftab2, Sher Muhammad3, Usman Saleem4, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1, Imran Shehzad1, Aneela Riaz5 and Aamer Sattar2

Impact of NaCl Toxicity on Yield and Yield Components of Rice (Oryza sativa) Grown in Aridisol
...of salt increased in the treatments.

...
Qianbao Wang, Zhengyang Huang, Shoufeng Li, Huayun Huang, Chunmiao Li and Zhenhua Zhao*
...to three groups received treatments of 135.5, 125.5 and 115.5 g/d diet respectively with ME 2770 kcal/kg and CP 15.4% from 23 wk of age. Fertility trials were conducted in another three groups of F line hens with 20 hens in each group. A significantly positive interaction between dietary quantity and semen volume was observed (p<0.05) which showed that males fed with 135.5 g/d diet produced much more semen. Except for semen volume, there was no difference i...
Alam Zeb* and Amanullah Jan
...a-1) and four treatments of sulphur (00, 20, 30 and 40 kg ha-1), were kept as sub plot factors, which were replicated four time for each experiment. Urea and ammonium sulphate fertilizers were used as a source of nitrogen and sulfur nutrients. Results showed that all quantitative and qualitative parameters of sesame had significantly influenced by year. Study showed that raised bed sown plots significantly (p ≤ 0.05) produced more: lea...

Hafiz Muhammad Wasim1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Muhammad Aftab2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1, Imran Shehzad1, Aneela Riaz3, Abid Niaz2, Khurshid Ahmad Mufti4 and Muhammad Arif2

Deleterious Impact of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Toxicity on Chemical Properties of Soil and Ionic Composition of Rice
...ation in soil and in all treatments when compared with control. Same trend was observed for various cations like Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ when analyzed in soil samples. In plant samples of rice, concentration of Na was enhanced in all treatments when compared with control while trend of K was in contrast to Na which decreased with the increasing level of Na. Injurious impact of NaCl was more pronounced as the concentration of salt...

Hafiz Hammad Ahmad1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1*, Noor-us-Sabah1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Sher Muhammad2, Muhammad Aftab3, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1 and Aneela Riaz4

Growth and Yield Response of Sunflower to Organic Amendments in Aridisol
... Design (CRD) with eight treatments replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of T1 = NK + P0 (Control); T2 = NPK (Recommended dose); T3 = NK + Rock phosphate at 7 g pot-1; T4 = NPK + Rock phosphate at 7 g pot-1; T5 = NK + Rock phosphate at 7 g pot-1 + Wheat straw at 14 g pot-1; T6 = NK + Rock phosphate at 7 g pot-1 + Wheat straw at 28 g pot-1; T7 = NK + Rock phosphate at 7 g pot-1 + Rice straw at 14 g pot-1; T8 = NK + Roc...
Imran Haider1, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza1*, Rashid Iqbal1, Salman Ahmad1,2, Muhammad Usman Aslam1, Muhammad Israr3, Umair Riaz4, Maliha Sarfraz5, Nasir Abbas6, Salman Haidar Abbasi7, Zafar Abbas8 and Muhammad Aamer9
 
 
...eriment consisted of six treatments viz, Control, a drought at flowering and grain filling stages, Amino acid @ 1.5 ml L-1 + drought at flowering and grain filling, Amino acid @ 3 ml L-1 + drought at flowering and grain filling, Yeast @ 3g L-1 + drought at flowering and grain filling and Yeast @ 6g L-1 + drought at flowering and grain filling, respectively. STATISTICS 8.1 programs were used for data analysis. Drought...
Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1*, Mumtaz Hussain1, Jahangir Shah1, Rao Wali Muhammad1, Sami Ullah2,3, Hera Gul4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Zeshan6
 
 
...g the whole year into 16 treatments to identify the optimum sowing time for the Cholistan desert of Bahawalpur. The results revealed that maximum germination rate of 85.63%, 85.93%, and 82.83% were found in treatment 16th September during the whole study period (2011-14). The 16th of March, 16thSeptember, and 1st August were the other suitable sowing times for jojoba as these showed 82.37%, 75.47%, and 71.57% of germ...
Arsalan Khan1, Aminullah Khan2, Dil Fayaz Khan2, Sajid Khan1, Anjum1, Waqar Ali3, Habib Akbar1 and Ahmad Khan1*
 
 
... (DT) and eight nitrogen treatments (Control, 100% Urea, 100% FYM, 100% PM, 50% Urea/FYM, 50% Urea/PM, 50% FYM/PM and 33.33% each PM/FYM/Urea). These ratios provided a total of 120 kg N ha-1. The wheat cv. Pakhtunkhwa-2015 was sown with seed of 120 kg ha-1. The CT resulted in early phenology (days to emergence (11.5 days), booting (105 days), anthesis (116 days), and physiological maturity (155 days) whereas, DT delayed the phenological e...
Wali Muhammad1*, Humayun Javed1, Munir Ahmad1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...t par among all the four treatments. Yield losses were statistically at par at URF Koont ranging from 24.6% to 25% in all the treatments. However, the minimum yield loss of 22% was recorded on crop sown at 20th of March. At URF Koont, the maximum yield loss of 17% was recorded on early sown crop (1st of March) while the minimum yield loss of 13.1% was observed on crop sown at 20th of March. I...
Muneer Abbas1*, Dilbar Hussain2, Muhammad Saleem2, Abdul Ghaffar2Sohail Abbas3, Niaz Hussain1 and Abdul Ghaffar1
...Toba Tek Singh with five treatments. Each experimental unit comprised of 1 ha area. Five treatments viz. A=sanitation, B=MAT, C= protein based baits, D= plant extracts and E= A+B+C+D were used during 2015-16. Data of % infested fallen fruits, total flies/trap, total flies captured/year, % fruit punctures, pupal population, % fruit infestation and market value of fruits was collected at regular intervals. Results indic...

Ahmad Ur Rahman Saljoqi, Muhammad Salim* and Iftikhar Ahmad 

 

...ree replications and six treatments. Treatments Emamectin 1.9 EC @ 750 ml ha-1, orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel extract @ 5%, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract @ 5%, neem oil @ 3%, green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea @ 3 eggs plant-1,were applied three times. A total of 30 plants in each treatment were selected randomly for the data collection at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days inte...
Hafiz Hammad1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhammad Aftab2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Aneela Riaz3, Abid Niaz4 and Muhammad Arif4
... design (CRD) with eight treatments which were replicated four times. The treatments plan includes T1 = NK + P0 (Control); T2 = NPK (Recommended rate); T3 = NK + RP at 7 g pot-1; T4 = NPK + RP at 7 g pot-1; T5 = NK + RP at 7 g pot-1 + Wheat straw at 14 g pot-1; T6 = NK + RP at 7 g pot-1 + Wheat ...

Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

March

Vol. 34, Iss. 1, Pages 1-253

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