Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

...act on Pakistan external trade (Imports + Exports). To achieve the stated purpose, study adopted methodology which required testing of hypothesis which states “Pakistan’s foreign trade is expected to be largely better off once WTO’s regime is fully implemented in Pakistan and rest of the world”. The statistical results show that, the coefficient of variation of Pakistan exports <...

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...her factors mainly tyres trade. DENV was detected in Aedes aegypti (57%) and Aedes albopictus (43%) adults (n=1050) and larvae (n=550). The samples were collected from four (Shuba Bazaar, Tarnab Farm, Wazir Bagh and Hayat Abad) dengue suspected locations of district Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A semi-nested multiplex PCR was used to amplify the cDNA of the four dengue serotypes. Six out of 35 (17.14%) adult mosquito pools were f...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...ical as globalization of trade,particularly in horticultural commodities increase. The potential effects of climate change have further aggravated the movement of viruses and their vectors, transforming the diagnostic landscape. Geminiviruses are a group of plant viruses characterized by circular, single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes (~2.7 kb size) and twined icosahedral virions (18 x 30 nm). Based on genome organization, host range and insect-vector, geminiviruse...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...olytic enzyme (Fibrozyme&trade;, Alltech Inc. Company, USA) at four levels (T1 = 0, T2 = 10, T3 = 15 and T4 = 20 g/animal/day) in a 4 × 4 Latin Square change-over design with four experimental periods. Each period consisted of a 14-days enzyme supplementation period following a 3-day transition period without enzyme supplementation between consecutive experimental periods. The results showed a significant linear (P<0.001) increase in the intakes of DM...

Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...that the pattern of rice trade between China and Vietnam is fluctuated. The trade volume between China and Vietnam is smaller, and the fluctuation of trade is larger, and there is a large space for the development of rice trade between the two countries. Through further comparison of the comparative advantages of Chinese and Vietnamese rice products show...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
... wild because of illegal trade, overharvesting and habitat destruction. Captive breeding is an effective protection against extinction, but safe overwintering is still technically difficult to captive big-headed turtles. Determining optimal hibernation conditions is important in resolving this problem. In this study, the effects of two important environmental conditions (water depth and availability of sand beds) on changes in body weight and health status in ...

 Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Hassnain Shah, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal**

...;Changes in the terms of trade have consequences of great significance for the overall economic performance of a country. In this paper the terms of trade (1991-2003) for Pakistan’s crop sector have been worked out to reveal how the sector has performed over time in terms of profitability. Various indices were worked out to view the profitability from different angles using weights, giving due importance to all the con...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...grow oilseeds because in trade-off between food and fuel, food should win. Before launching commercial production of Jatropha in Pakistan key issues need to be addressed including maintaining the goal of food security, water scarcity, cost-effectivity, and feasibility of Jatropha in comparison with oilseeds, pulses, feed crops and fuel-wood plants.

...

 Ayesha Tahir, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal*

AN OVERVIEW OF TOMATO ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
...tan has no RCA in tomato trade as the value of RCA is much below the unity. However, keeping in view the 8% growth rate in tomato area and 5% in production, there are opportunities in tomato production for export from Pakistan. At present Pakistan's exports are heavily focused on Middle East and Afghanistan markets. Therefore, there is a need to look for other markets to increase the tomato exports during the glut supply season. 

...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Nadeem Akmal*, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Ayesha Tahir*

EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS OF PAKISTANI HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS
...s with respect to global trade. Results demonstrate that Pakistan has comparative and competitive advantage over the period under analysis and indicates a transition from comparative and competitive disadvantage to comparative and competitive advantage during the period under analysis. Tangerines, mandarins, clem have maintained relatively higher revealed comparative advantage as compared to other categories for the whole period under analysis. Onion export ha...

 Muhammad Aamir Khan*, Abdul Saboor*, Rauf-i-Azam**, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin* and Fayyaz-ul-Hassan***

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN
...tan’s agricultural trade liberalization using a modified Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) framework. The newly developed MyGTAP program was used to modify the Pakistan’s data in the Global GTAP Database and Standard GTAP model to include multiple households and labor types. This disaggregation allows to analyze distributional impacts and to implement policy scenarios that target particular households. The eco...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...ivity of Viro Care GZ-08&trade; was checked up invitro, in-ovo and in-vivo. The cytotoxicity assay of the product was performed using Vero cell line. All the trials revealed that the stock solution and 1:2 dilution of GZ-08&trade; had some antiviral activity as well as were cytotoxic. As the concentration decreased, cytotoxicity as well as antiviral activities were lost. Based on these findings, it was concluded that GZ-08&<...

 Anwar Hussain* and Muhammad Rahman**

ROLE OF TRAININGS ON FARMERS' PROFITABILITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA
...ll not only increase the trade volume of the MAPs but would also improve the livelihood of the local community. 

...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Muhammad Sharif**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla*** and Muhammad Azeem Khan*

COMPETITIVENESS OF TOMATO PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...on in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private c...

 Ghulam Sadiq Afridi*, Abdul Saboor**, Zahoor-ul-Haq***, Sultan Ali
Tariq**** and Muhammad Ishaq*****

EXPLORING POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PAKISTAN'S COTTON EXPORT
...ytical tools enabled the trade experts and policy makers to explore the answer of lackness for diversification in export, HS-2- digits aggregated data for cotton sub-sectors have been used with latest data from 2004 to 2013 for the panel of 39 countries. Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) index and gravity model approach was employed considering country and time specific fixed effect. The RCA index revealed that cotton sub-sectors have competitive advantage ...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...e occurrence hampers the trade and consequently causes an enormous economic losses. It is a disease of sheep and goat, particularly in the regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia. Besides clinical signs and symptoms of PPR various diagnostic assays, both serological and molecular, have been developed and are applied for estimating the current status of the disease. This review article focuses on the development of different molecular diagnostic assays from con...

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

... the agriculture sector, trade openness has been quantified through various econometric approaches in the study. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bound testing approach has been applied to analyze the long run cointegration among variables, obtaining annual time series data from 1973 to 2014. An empirical estimation of ARDL approach has indicated the evidence of long-run cointegration of model. Empirical findings of the study indicate positive (5.178151) ...

Irfan Ali Sabir1, Saeed Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees2, Ahmad Sattar Khan1, Maryam3 and Ishtiaq Ahmad

Iqbal Javed1*, Amar Razzaq2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Ali Imran4, Haroon Javaid5, Iftikhar Nabi6, Anum Sardar1 and Shahbaz Ahmad

...study were international trade center, Economics survey of Pakistan, statistical yearbook of Pakistan and Agricultural Price Institution, Islamabad, Pakistan. Nominal protection coefficient (NPC), revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) were estimated for the export of mutton to all existing international markets. According to the finding of the current study under hand internal markets are categorized into thre...

Sajad Ali1*, Syed Asghar Ali Shah2, Jaffar Ali3, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal4, Arshadullah Jadoon5 and Farmanullah

...ripur 46 percent farmers traded the pea’s output in the local markets. The left over peas output in both the selected districts were offered for sale in the regional markets that is Rawalpindi and Peshawar markets. The 82 percent of the peas producers availed the price discrepancy at different stage, and the remaining of 18 percent have not gained profit from their prevailing price deviation, as at premature stage the pea’s producers sold their out...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...y comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT) for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Data regarding socio-demographic status, risk factors and farming practices were gathered through a pre-form questionnaire. Results revealed that prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was 5.88%. Statistical analysis revealed significant association of age (OR= 3.267; CI = 1.686-6.331) and herd size (OR = 2.600; CI = 1.421-4.760) with CCIT positivity. Si...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
...tii, acts as a major trade barricade and adversely affects the productive and reproductive capabilities of animals. This study was planned to investigate the sero-prevalence of Coxiellosis and its relationship with some important risk factors in small ruminants kept at nine government livestock farms of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1000 blood samples (500 each from goats and sheep) were collected from animals kept at the respective livestock farms. An indi...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

...ccording to agricultural trade experts Pakistan need to reduce cost of production in order to compete in the international market. At national level food group exports decline from 3,439.4 million US$ during 2015 to 3040.7 in 2016. Increase in productivity and efficiency has been the major concern for agricultural researchers and policy makers in Pakistan. In current study allocative efficiency of sugarcane growers in district Charsadda was worked out with fro...

Hafiz Muhammad Umer Qaisar1, Tanveer Ahmad2, Muhammad Rizwan3*, Muhammad Saqib1

Antimicrobial efficacy of combination of lincomycin and spiramycin (Lispiracin™) as systemic dry cow therapy for controlling bovine mastitis
...mycin
(Lispiracin&trade;) for controlling bovine mastitis through systemic dry period therapy,
present study was designed. A total of 20 dry pregnant cows were selected
randomly at the end of lactation and divided into two equal G1 and G2 groups.
Group G1 was treated with lincomycin@ 5mg/kg (IM) and spiramycin@ 10 mg/kg
(IM) (Inj. lispiracin®) at end of lactation and at 14th day pre calving while group G2
was kept ...
Shahid Yousaf1*, Salman Khurshid1, Saqib Arif1, Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Qurrat ul Ain Akbar1, Najmus Sahar1 and Ghulam Rasul2
...l role in processing and trade. Many techniques have been introduced to evaluate wheat quality. Near Infrared (NIR) is one of the suitable techniques that have an advantage of rapid response over other techniques. But investigations are needed to check its reliability on determining important quality parameters. The study therefore has been designed to evaluate the efficiency of NIR in comparison with standard techniques. Thirty samples of wheat (including 11 ...
Muhammad Waseem1, Ahmed Raza1, Hamera Aisha1, Muhammad Naeem Awan1, Tariq Ahmad2, Rabia Nazir2 and Tariq Mahmood2,*
...hreatened by the rampant trade of the species, and has been listed as endangered since 2014 and also included in Appendix-I of CITES. The IUCN estimates indicate a decrease of ≥ 50% in the global Indian pangolin population over the next 21 years, highlighting the need for protecting the species against illegal trade. In the current study, we investigated the scale of its poaching and illegal trade...
Ambreen Leghari1,2, Asghar Ali Kamboh2,*, Shakeel Ahmed Lakho1, Faiz Muhammad Khand1, Kanwar Kumar Malhi2,3, Iqra Bano Chandio4, Seema Baloch5 and Jan Mohammad Shah4
...creened through single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT) and both positive and negative reactors of SITT were further investigated through rapid test. Attempts were also made to isolate the Mycobacterium bovis organism from the milk and nasal secretions of cattle using the Lowenstein-Jensen media. An overall prevalence of 34.38% was recorded by rapid test that was higher (P< 0.001) than SITT (3.13%) and culture test (2.50%). A somewhat higher preval...
Rakhshanda Kousar1, Tahira Sadaf1*, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1 and Raza Ullah1
Ahmad Ali1,2,* and Aleem Ahmed Khan1
...re commonly captured and traded. Total eight falcon capturing techniques i.e. bal-chatri, dho-gaza, piddam, jacket, socks-ball, nest-net, adda and laggar falcon (Falco jugger)/white eyed buzzard (Butastur teesa) as bait technique were recorded. Out of these eight techniques two i.e. sock-ball and laggar falcon (F. jugger) /white eyed buzzard (B. teesa) as bait technique were documented for the first time. The size of sock bal...
Muhammad Furqan Shahid1*, Tahir Yaqub1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu2, Asim Aslam2, Saima Yaqub1, Aziz-ul-Rahman3, Muzaffar Ali1
...exceptional abatement in trade of poultry products in endemic countries such as Pakistan. The current study was conducted to evaluate the infectious and antigenic potential of three different AIV (A/H9N2) variants isolated from commercial, backyard poultry and fancy birds (partridge). Commercial broiler birds were infected experimentally at the dose of 106 EID50 by using these three isolates. Results revealed that onset of clinical signs ...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...ortality rate and animal trade restrictions. Though several diagnostics including molecular tools are available, recombinant protein based diagnostic assays namely ELISA is safer and robust to handle large sample size and also to minimize labor/time. However, the genus Capripoxvirus encodes putative 147 proteins in their genome, among which some of them are reported as potential immunogenic candidate genes. Selection and use of such candidate immunogenic prote...

Tanweer Ahmed1*, Kashif Saeed Khan1, Zilakat Khan Malik1, Fazal Wahid1 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal2 

...h, road length, defence, trade openness, worker remittances, total cropped area and economic growth. Pakistan’ economic growth rate fluctuated from 1972 to 2014. During this period for some years, the economic growth was high while it slowed down in some years. The study utilised Annual time series data from 1972 to 2014. Empirical evidence suggests that public spending has a significant positive influence on economic growth. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF...

Bilal Atta1*, Muhammad Rizwan1, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Sabar1, Bakhtawar3, Faizan Ali3 and Mehran Sarwar

...nce for alive insects in trade commodities, synthetic pesticides are often used to eliminate pest infestation in consignments. Phosphine is currently one and the only acceptable chemical used in stored grains, but due to their overuse, stored grain pests become resistant to this fumigant. There is, therefore, a great need to find alternatives. In this study insecticidal efficacy of different plant extracts viz. Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Neem (Azadirachta i...

Hassan Boulahyaoui1,2*, Sanaa Alaoui Amine1,3, Marouane Melloul4, Farida Hilali5, Elmostafa El-Fahime1,3, Saad Mrani1,2 and Nadia Touil1,5* 

... vaccinated with Rotarix&trade;. After RNA virus extraction, the rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genes were amplified. The DNA was purified, sequenced and genotypes were determined using the RotaC online classification tool. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method applying the Tamura 3-parameter model in MEGA 6.06 package and statistically supported by bootstrapping with 1000 replicates. The amino acid sequences of the antigenic regions o...

Hosts and Viruses

June

Vol. 7, Iss. 3, Pages 39-58

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