Gregg D. Caruso

Science, Religion and Culture
...logians, and cultural historians for centuries. In fact, as far back as the ancient Greeks, when Thales of Miletus and other pre-Socratic philosophers began to offer scientific explanations of the natural world, questions about the relationship between science and religion began to emerge. Given that science and religion are two great manifestations of human culture, and that the scientific and religious worldviews dominate our understanding of the cosmos and ...

Massimo Pigliucci

Science, Religion and Culture
... earlier paper.

...

Robert E. Pollack

 

Science, Religion and Culture

John Shook

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...ion is hardly the whole story. Only science joined by philosophical reflection suffices to skeptically analyze the natural theology arguments for supernatural gods, too aloof and abstract for direct confrontation over evidence. Theology’s desperate maneuvers for avoiding science and scientific atheology only delay the inevitable. Partner atheologies wielding logic, ethics, and civics await to help theology extinguish the gods.

 

...

Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
...y and theology in the restoration of a world capable of supporting life in more than a mere physical sense.

...

Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...agriculture are three factors commonly quoted as important for disease emergence. Several of the mechanism by which urban disease emergence is promoted also increase the risks of vector-borne diseases, and the mosquito-borne Dengue virus is one of the pathogens benefitting from this. The related virus Japanese encephalitis virus is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world, and is maintained in avi...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...g affinity to human receptors but simultaneously retained its specificity for avian-receptors. Vaccines were applied nationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic drift and the establishment of infections in vaccinated poultry. The Egyptian H5N1 viruses remain susceptible to oseltamivir, but genetic markers indica...

David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 265 pp., ISBN 13: 978-1-4214-1326-6

Reviewed by Francisco J. Ayala, University Professor & Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, email: fjayala@uci.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
... Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution.

...

Reviewed by Rick Repetti, Kingsborough Community College, CUNY; Email: Rick.Repetti@kbcc.cuny.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...igned to progressively tutor armies of atheist evangelists in the art of demolishing faith, which Boghossian claims is “pretending to know things one doesn’t know.”

...

Stephen Kershnar

...joyable references to historical figures (for example, Mother Theresa, Adolf Hitler, and Paul Gauguin), artists (for example, Aldous Huxley and Woody Allen), and works of art (for example, Groundhog Day and Guernica). In this critical study, I summarize the book and then put forth objections to its central ideas. In particular, I argue that Metz fails to show that there is meaning in life and that, even if there is, his theory likely fails to capture it.

Reviewed by Elly Vintiadis (www.ellyvintiadis.com)

...quo;deconversion’ stories of 16 people of different gender, race, age, and religion. If, like me, you have never heard of the term “deconversion” before, it is the atheist equivalent to the religious finding of faith – it is a conversion from belief to agnosticism or atheism.

...

Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

...al lives. IL-6/IL-2 receptors have been identified as crucial mediators for clearance of influenza by up regulating several intracellular defense mechanisms. Associated with IL-6 signalling is the expression acceleration of sequestrome 1(SQSTM1) / aggrosome and colocalization of HDAC6 to the cytoplasm. The key player HDAC6 is investigated for modelling several intracellular processes that come into action to bring out the vi...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...e haemagglutin (HA) receptor binding site has increased, which indicates that the H9N2 virus has the increasing potential to infection and cause human epidemics. The threat to the poultry industry and public health should not be ignored. In this review, we summarised the findings of recent studies on H9N2 AIVs epidemics and strategies for their prevention in poultry in China.

...

Ye Liu2, Yulong Cong2, Yiming Shao1*

...cial transcription activator of HIV, Tat has been considered as an important immunogen for HIV vaccine candidates for a long time. However, HIV Tat also plays immunoregulation roles in improving immune responses of vaccines. Herein, we review recent developments of HIV Tat as immunoregulator using for optimizing the efficacy of vaccines. By highlighting preclinical/clinical applications of Tat and its working mechanisms, thi...

Michael R. Molnar

...Star, he says, has no historical basis nor can it even be explained as a miracle.

...

Kathryne E. Taylor1 and Karen L. Mossman1,2*

... and frequently contradictory, meaning that although this protein has been implicated in a wide variety of diverse functions, the mechanisms through which it produces these effects continue to be elusive. Recent investigations into the ability of ICP0 to block the activation of antiviral signaling have revealed a potential explanation for some of this confusion – namely, that ICP0 has important functions in the cytoplasm that have been generally disregar...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...crobiota in sterile isolators. The sterile surgical derivation and gnotobiotic status of the pigs allow studies of the infection, disease and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regulators, and intestinal and environmental microbes. Due to the similarities between pigs and humans in terms of genetics, physiology, intestinal anatomy, and immun...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

..., pathological and laboratory findings of this outbreak. The disease was clinically manifested by the depression, diarrhea, difficult breathing, muco-purulent ocular-nasal discharges with matted eyelids and encrusted nostrils and finally death. Clinical outcome, gross lesions and histological observations were suggestive of PPRV infection, which were confirmed by the application of a reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Collectively...

James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

...cs. The virus and its vector are widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics regions of the world. Dengue and malaria are endemic in Nigeria. Two independent studies among febrile patients revealed dengue IgG seroprevalence of 73% and malaria prevalence of 80% in some areas of the country. The diagnosis of the disease is further complicated by the fact that, dengue fever mimics malaria fever and the prevalence of dengue-malaria co-infection is hig...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...ntributed by multiple factors and has variable impact on the pathobiology of influenza A viruses.

...

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

... systems as main plot factor and four split N fertilizer application timings as subplot factor were studied in a randomized complete block design with split plot application. The results revealed that zero tillage had higher spikes m-2, 1000 grain weight and biological yield compared to other tillage systems. However, N agronomic efficiency, grain yield and net benefit were similar for all three tillage systems. Regarding N ...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...e conducted in the laboratory to assess the effects of Helicoverpa armigera nu- cleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV) applied to eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olive, on emergence of and para- sitism by female Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) emerged from HaNPV- treated host eggs. The percent emergence (mean) of tiny parasitoid from host eggs treated during egg, larval and pupal stages with the virus at field dose (x), 2x dose, and 0.5x dose ranged from 83.2- 87.3%, 87.1- 91....

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...mical fertilizer and tractor plough would raise the wheat yield by 0.052, 0.566, 0.130 and 0.438 percent, respectively and were found statistically significant. Farmers’ education was found to be major determinant of technical efficiency/inefficiency. The esti- mated coefficient of farmers’ education was negative and statistically significant, implies that techni- cal inefficiency decreases with the increase in farmers’ education. The use of ...

Arshad Ali Khan1, Muhammad Sajid1, Abdur Rab1, Sahib Alam2, Abdul Bari3

...Potash (SOP). All the factors (K-sources, cultivars and years) alone and in combination sig- nificantly affected the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato. The highest number of leaves plant-1 (75.25) and yield (49.25 t ha-1) were gained by Falcon in 50-50 treatment during, 2010. However, the plant height (134 cm) and fruit size (147.1 cm3) were higher at 25-75 and 75-25 treatment, respec- tively. Whereas, the less number of leaves plant-1 (15), plant heig...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

...ata for different explanatory variable (eco- nomic, location and climatic) from 1979-2009 relating to wheat were used for Faisalabad and Ba- hawalpur. The results of analysis showed that the effect of climatic variables was found significantly higher than that of non-climatic variables. The largest impact on wheat yield was of mean maximum average temperature at the time of maturity, ceteris paribus with one oC increase in temperature the average wh...

Stephen Suleyman Schwartz

...ot aspects of Islamic history. To declare, as even French president Francois Hollande did, “these terrorists and fanatics... have nothing to do with the Muslim religion” is inaccurate.

...

Ozgur Koca

.... A quick look at any history book would make this blindingly evident. It is also true that under specific circumstances the use of violence escalates among certain human collectivities. At this point in history particularly Muslims appear to be subject to this problem as evinced by the emergence of many militant and terrorist organizations like al-Qaeda, ISIL, Boko Haram and the escalation of sectarian violence between the ...

Michael Shermer

...ry, 2015, including edi- tors and cartoonists of the satirical publication Charlie Hebdo?


A. “Moses rocks!”
B. “Jesus saves!”
C. “Vishnu lives!”
D. “Buddha avenged!” E. “Atheists rule!”
F. “Allahu Akbar!”

...

Frank Griffel

...s of January 7 on the editorial offices of “Charlie Hebdo” and the hostage taking at a Jewish supermarket two days later, yet another Western country asked itself why do they attack us? Why do they hate us? France experiences a moment of bewilderment and soul-searching similar to the one the US went through after the attacks of September 2001 and to what took place in Britain after July 5, 2005. The gut-reaction of nations struck by such horrific a...

Ghazalah Yasmin1*, Mir Ajab Khan2, Nighat Shaheen3, Umbreen Javed Khan4


E-mail | ghazalahrizwan@yahoo.com

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 31, Iss. 1
..., A. rumicifolium and A. tortuosum) of five species distributed in Pakistan using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that Aconogonon is characterized by tricolpate pollen with microspinulose type of exine ornamentation. One distinctive pollen type was recognized on the basis of aperture number and sculpturing of exine under SEM. Based on analyses in the present study, diagnostic keys to the three species were provided. 

...

Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
...ssociate Professor of History at Columbia University, explores the encounter of the Arab world with these and many other Western technologies and ideas in her wide-ranging Reading Darwin in Arabic through a panoramic lens, which then zooms in to focus on specific individuals. Thus we meet Free Masons, missionaries, colonial agents, officials of the fledging Ottoman Empire, Arab propagators of a new science, and religious sch...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...patic parenchyma inflammatory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patients with viral hepatitis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Genetic differences among infected hosts can determine the progression and outcome of the virus infection, causing different individuals to respond in different ways to ...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

...or yield contributing factors were also recorded in PK+ inoculation with Rhizobium. Partial land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercropped maize was 0.96 than respective sole crop. Maximum partial LER of mungbean (0.70) was recorded in intercropping systems. Total LER in maize + mungbean intercropping systems was 1.66 which indicates that 66 % more area would be required to attain same yield from respective sole cropping systems. Likewise, in fertility treatments...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...te antiviral and inflammatory response, and causes more severe damages in lymphoid tissues when compared with virulent viruses of other genotypes. Therefore, severe pathology in immune organs, caused by genotype VIId of NDV, is associated with high levels of virus replication and an intense innate immune response.

...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...griculture is a major sector of Pakistan’s economy as it has a significant contribution to GDP, employment generation, and export earnings in the economy of Pakistan. Due to modernization in agriculture sector over the last few decades, credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. ...

Dallin D. Oaks

 

...iously by scholars in historical linguistics, but what are regarded by some as problematic aspects of the account may actually relate to claims that have been incorrectly attributed to the account. In fact, the account may not be reporting a sudden and immediate confusion of languages, or even a sequence in which a confusion of languages led to a scattering of the people. Indeed, a close examination of the account seems to allow an interpretation of events tha...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

... reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a major concern for the swine industry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immun...

Josef D. Jarhult1, 2

...nd patients with risk factors for severe influenza disease as well as an important part of pandemic preparedness plans. Resistance development is a potential problem both in treated humans and in the environment. The use of oseltamivir for treatment of uncomplicated influenza in otherwise healthy patients should be questioned.

...

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...n mealybug) in the Laboratory, it is necessary to know the development capacity of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), on different host plants. Such studies would identify the best host plant for its efficient rearing. The present study investigated some basic life table parameters i.e. female life span, adult female weight, longevity and reproductive potential of P. solenopsis on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus ...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

...lign: justify;">Participatory approaches to agricultural extension service delivery emphasize the need for accountability of extension to the end users. This study analysed farmers’ perception of the accountability of agricultural extension services rendered in Oyo State, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used in eliciting information from 195 farmers in rural communities across the four agro-ecological zones in the study area using a two-stage ...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

...techniques, including factor analysis (FA) and cluster analysis, indicated that the magnitude of variability existing in the gene pool was satisfactory for initiating a breeding plan. Relative water content, cell membrane stability, osmotic adjustment and grain yield per plant were major contributors towards variability. Grain yield per plant was closely linked to relative water content, c...

Ryan T. Cragun1*, Joseph H. Hammer2, Michael Nielsen3

...ty (r = .92). Two exploratory and one confirmatory factor analysis of the NRNSS supported the hypothesized two-factor solution: (a) institutional religiousness and (b) individualistic spirituality. The NRNSS also demonstrated convergent validity through theoretically-expected correlations with established measures of religiousness and spirituality (the C...

Luke Galen

...y are attributable to factors other than beliefs, chiefly, social engagement and embeddeness in supportive groups. Often, those with the lowest levels of well-being and prosociality are uncommitted or indifferent religious believers, not socially engaged nonbelievers. Therefore, defining individuals who are not committed or engaged in socially supportive groups solely in terms of their lack of religious belief virtually guarantees that atheists and agnostics w...

Joseph Langston1*, Joseph Hammer2, Ryan T. Cragun3

...n: justify;">This exploratory study contributed to research on nonbelievers, their communities, and the atheist movement in general by dividing nonbelievers (N=1,939) into four groups based on degree of formal affiliation and assessing attitudes, perceptions, and preferences in three areas. First, we examined the preferences of nonbelieving group members (“secular affiliates”), former members, and nonbelieving non-members (“secular nonaffili...

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

... research is a recent historical development. Over the past century, individuals who make academic research their life’s work have been themselves the subject of academic studies which looked at their social origins, conscious ideals, beliefs, and psychological traits. The findings regarding religiosity have been striking. Academics, especially eminent ones, turn out to be quite irreligious. This is especially striking for academics in the United States,...

 David F. Bradley*, Julie J. Exline, Alex Uzdavines

...ound that personality factors (Big Five personality traits, adult attachment style, and socially desirable responding) were not strong predictors of the characteristics nonbelievers assign to hypothetical gods. Seeing a hypothetical god as more loving, less cruel, and less distant was associated with more past positive emotional experiences with gods, less past anger at gods, less participation in explicitly nonreligious act...

Marcus Mann

...align: justify;">As the story goes, on the morning of September 12, 2001, Sam Harris, a graduate student in neuroscience at the University of California – Los Angeles, woke up with an itch. He had been shaken to his core by the events of the previous day and found himself drawn to his computer, relating his thoughts on the 9/11 terrorist attacks’ implications to a word processor. What started as an itch evolved into his first book, The End of Faith...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...samples refrig- eration storage at 4±1 °C. The pH of meat samples were checked and recorded on similar intervals. During 12 days storage, significant reductions (i.e. P <0.05) were found in both E. coli O157: H7 and S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these treatments. Results revealed that levels of citric and lactic acid concentrations effect were maximum for 5.0%, followed by 3.0% and least for 1.0% on E. ...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...ction of evolutionary history and spatial dissemination of pathogens. Infection of a single host can be viewed similarly as an epidemic spread on a microscale, creating a unique opportunity for the application of phylogeography at the intra-host level, which has until recently been limited by dataset quality and the lack of a rigorous statistical framework. As recently described in studies using the SIV-macaque model of neuroAIDS, the incor...

Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde1*, Kayode Ayinde2, Tofunmi Emmanuel Ilori1, Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde1

E-mail | opeyemi@unilorin.edu.ng

...ute deviation estimators and simultaneous equation model. The study further established that the prices of staple foods were inter-related. Also, it was showed that agricultural credit guarantee scheme funds (ACGSF), agricultural policies during structural adjustment period (SAP) and post-structural adjustment period (PSAP) were statistically significant while the agricultural input subsidy scheme was statistically insignificant in the...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

.... Risk and protective factors determined in the present study were not in accordance with this insect borne disease. The results of this study indicate that BTV is endemic in sheep herds from Costa Rica, and animals seem not show clinical signs. We recommend carrying out further studies, to determine the presence of BTV in goats and wild ruminants, and to identify serotypes present in the country.

...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1*, Aayesha Riaz1, Asim Shamim2, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 and Arfan Yousaf

E-mail | murtazhassan@yahoo.com

... along with immune-modulators and to compare its efficacy with autogenous vaccine alone and partial excision of the lesions. To this end, nine animals were selected clinical and sporadic papillomas different body parts. These animals were divided into three groups; Group A animals were operated for partial excision of the lesions, Group B were inoculated with autogenous vaccine alone and Group C were treated with inoculation of autogenous vaccine suppleme...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...gonidae) biting midge vectors from April 2009 to March 2010 in Morocco. In order to assess the implementation of integrated control measures and disease risk analysis, this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated th...

Muhammad Zubair, Sajid Mahmood Sajid

...e inhibits estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, inhibiting negative feedback of estrogen on gonadotropin release and leading to up-regulation of ovulation. It has useful effects on the reproduction of female in terms of reduction in puberty and ovulation induction. The beneficial effects are manifested in male in terms of improvement of semen.

...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) in dogs. Other disease agents include various respiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective was to develop a sensitive and specific real-time PCR for detectio...

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

... of several important factors including explant tissue, culture medium, plant genotypes, and their interactions, the detail of which is not fully explored. Current article described this issue in detail. The information synthesized would be important to select and manipulate appropriate factor(s) for successful wheat tissue culture and regeneration that in turn
would help its improvement.

...

 Shubhada K Chothe, Bhushan M Jayarao and Suresh V Kuchipudi

... emerging as novel regulatory factors which can escape the anti-protein environment in the virus infected cells and are likely to be conserved across the species. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about the role of lncRNAs in influenza virus infection and the exciting prospect of exploiting lncRNAs as targets to develop novel anti-viral therapies.

...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

...Block Design with two factors replicated three times. Different levels of potassium (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg pot-1) and maleic hydrazide (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) were used. The results revealed that potassium levels significantly influenced all the parameters except the stem diameter. Minimum days to flowering (118.1), maximum plant height (45.83 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (54.1), fresh flower weight (44.29 g) and dry flower weight (5.12 g) was obtained w...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1*, Arfan Yousaf1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1, Faisal Ayub Kiayani1, Matee ul Islam2 and Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 

...n-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, good outcome in the calf was obtained. There was no postoperative complication suggesting that modified two-layer hand-sewn anastomosis technique was a successful technique. It was concluded that traumatic hernia may lead to septic shock and modified two-layer hand-sewn anastomosis technique may be recommended in calves with no postoperative complications and there is a good chance for long-term survival.

...

Corey McCal

...engaging intellectual history, Dominic Erdozain (Theology, Emory University) seeks to account for European secularization during the modern period. Unlike Hans Blumenberg, and, more recently, Charles Taylor, who tell the story of secularization as a process distinct from religious belief and religious institutions, Erdozain argues that the basis for secularization can be found in the religious ferment of modernity itself, be...

Rick Repetti

...eating minimally satisfactory beings/worlds – originate with Robert Merrihew Adams (1972, 1979). Adams (1972) argued that in creating imperfect beings God was graceful in giving the undeserved gift of life. There have been many objections to Adams’s argument; e.g., Jerome A. Weinstock (1975) objected that God still would have been graceful in granting undeserved life to superior beings, and, among others, E. Wielenberg (2004) objected that grace do...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Mohammad Tariq Jan2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3 and Abdul Bari4

...rost exposed) trenched (stored canes-frost protected), cane portions and setts placement methods on the attributes of sugarcane were assessed at Sugar Crops Research Institute, Mardan-Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in RCB Design with split plot arrangement, over years (2012-13 and 2013-14). Planting sources i.e. standing (fresh canes frost exposed) trenched (stored canes frost protected) and canes portions top, middl...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...eva sciodoxa under laboratory conditions of 27±2ºC, 75% RH and 12:12 h photoperiod. Instar 3rd responded with 100% mortality at 5x107 conidia ml-1, while same level of mortality was recorded in 5th instar at 1x108 conidia ml-1. Instar 5 also showed the lowest mortality (33.3%) at 1x106 conidia ml-1. Median effective concentration (EC50) ranged between 9.87x105 and 21.30x105 conidia ml-1 for 3rd to 5th instars. Median effective time (ET50) ranged b...

Fatemeh Kheiri

...d a polar heart rate monitoring. The difference between the kinetic and kinematic between sound and prosthetic sides was evaluated by two sample t-test. The physiological cost index of amputees varied between 0.42 and 0.74 beats per minute. there was no signi cant di erence between the range of motion of ankle, knee, hip and pelvic rang of motions between both sides. The plantar exion moment in prosthesis and sound sides varied from 0.92-0.98 N/BW and 1.19-1....

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

... review describes the history of the RT-qPCR technology, emphasizes the importance of reference genes and enumerates several algorithms to screen reference genes to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Additionally, several possible improvements in the selection of reference genes are discussed.

...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

...ly infected with a laboratory strain of BDV (C6BV ) to establish the assay. Next, in situ PLA was applied to detect BDV P in brain tissues of infected animals. Finally, protein-protein interactions were visualized in both C6BV and brain tissues of experimentally as well as naturally infected animals (rat and horse, respectively). BDV proteins and their interactions with host proteins could be shown in cell cultures (HMGB1, Cdc2) and in brain tissues of rat (HM...

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

...r Paul Feyerabend and historian John Heilbron. Their approach is distinctive: it views controversial topics involving the relationship between science and religion from a perspective that is secular-minded, but appreciative of religion, and yet conducted in the belief that such topics are too important to leave to religious believers. This approach also characterizes the work of other Berkeley para-clericals, such as Ronald Numbers on the controversy over crea...

Moorthy S. Muthuswamy

...ll, this approach, as history suggests, has a good chance of reinvigorating modernity in affected Muslim communities.

...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...inst CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.

...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...grains weight were indicators contributing towards grain yield by early sowing compare to late sowing or increasing N-rate (40 to 120 kg ha-1). The oil content and oil yield was naturally contributed well to early sowing date in season. However, a decrease in oil content with increasing N was observed. Oil yield (kg ha-1), the net returns per unit area, is of interest of the crop cultivation and observed the maximum at 120 kg N ha-1<...

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

...n. Therefore regular monitoring of heavy metals in soil and crops is necessary.  

...

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

...ing, mulberry fruit was stored for 150 days and evaluated for physiochemical and sensory parameters (water activity, ash content, percent acidity, pH, moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, taste, texture, color and overall acceptability). Statistically minimum decrease was observed in water activity, pH, moisture content and organoleptic characters. While, stable increase was noted in percent acidity and ash content during s...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

... understood regarding factors that influence the outcome of infection with both viral and host genetics being thought to influence the outcome of disease. Following the successful global eradication of rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus has also been targeted for global eradication by the OIE. Whilst the tools are available to attempt eradication there are a number of factors that will influence t...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...ns and databases, the factors that enables the spread of PPR in Africa and the required countermeasures that are required to control and eradicate it. However, with challenges such as uncontrolled movement of animals across porous borders, limited financial capacity of farmers to expand or improve the systems, and inadequate supply of quality vaccines and the problem of delivery to maintain cold chain, there is need for a very strong regional coordination for ...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...d to be a significant factor on the level of antibodies in the tested small ruminants population. Taken together, results indicate the seropositivity of PPRV in the region and warrant future large-scale surveillance studies to better assess the situation of the disease in the region.

...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...es, recombinant viral vectored vaccines, RNA interference as a therapy, suicidal DNAs, synthetic epitopes and peptides, reverse genetics, anti idiotypic antibody based vaccines and helper cell dependent diagnostics represent the present vaccine/diagnostic development strategies for the effective control and eradication of PPR. This review comprehend the current scenario of recombinant technology based vaccines and diagnostics, virus like particles (VLPs), reve...

Neil Levy

...ersity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Neil Levy

...ersity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...ventional ways. Participatory epidemiology (PE) has been suggested as a particularly suitable research method to study epidemiology and social impacts of diseases in these contexts. However, for PE to achieve its full potential, stronger efforts to achieve true participation and to incorporate lessons about participation and power from the social sciences may be required. This review shows that social science engagement in PE to date is virtually non-existent,...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...vegetable oil with good storage stabilities. The current study was conducted to identify the best oil blend in terms of physicochemical properties between olive and palm oils. Laboratory experiment on “Effect of stress conditions on the quality and stability of olive and palm oil blends” was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Tarnab Peshawar and The University of Agriculture Peshawar K...

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...ortant socio-economic factors in access to credit. The data were collected from 87 farming households in Mardan Tehsil of Mardan District. Questionnaire was the main tool used to collect the data from farmers. The credit access ratio formula was employed that measured farmers’ access, in relative terms, to their landholdings. Likewise, credit adequacy formula was used to investigate farmers’ credit adequacy. A probit model was employed to find the ...

 Aqila Shaheen

... is pre-requisite for restoring their productivity. The objective of present study was to quantify the selected soil properties and nutrient status of eroded soils.  The study was undertaken on eight soil series (Missa, Pirsabak, Guliana, Rajar, Balkassar, Rawalpindi, Chakwal and Satwal) in tehsil Gujar Khan of Rawalpindi district. Amongst the soil characteristics of selected fields, pH ranged from 7.36-7.94 for surface soil (0-15 cm) and 7.49-7.94 for su...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

...ment was organized in factorial block design with three replications. The study involved five commonly grown grass pea genotypes (Sel-B 111, Sel-449, Sel-190, Sel-1785 and Sel-945) and three K doses (0, 10 and 20 kg K ha-1). The results revealed that K nutrition and genotypic variation significantly (p<0.05) determined the yield of grass pea. However, their interaction remained non-significant for all the traits of grass pea under study. As expected, the in...

 Arif Khan, Abdur Rahman, Shoail Akhtar, Siraj Uddin, Zahid Ullah and Nazir Ahmad

 
...igated. A two x three factorial design was used to analyze the beef quality characteristic data in Genstat software. Breed and animal age had significant and their interaction has significant (P < 0.05) effects on marbling. Animal age group and their (breed x age) interaction had significant effect on the Water holding capacity (WHC). Breed effect on WHC was found not significant at P 0.05. WHC increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increase in age of t...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...: Glossinidae) vector control measures can rely upon knowledge of genetic diversity between species’ population. Two species were studied: Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA fragment primers- Cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and Cytochrome b (CytB). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Seq...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

... a major problem in the storage of fatty acids in foods. Oxidation occurs by several molecular mechanisms such as generation of reactive oxygen precursors and free radicals. Oxidation affects many interactions among food constituents, leading to both desirable and undesirable products. Food lipids are the foods components that are most susceptible to oxidation, therefore oxidation reactions are one of the major sources of deterioration that occurs during manuf...

Koksal Karadas1, Muhammad Tariq2, Mohammad Masood Tariq3* and Ecevit Eyduran4

... to determine several factors affecting lactation milk yield amounts of indigenous Akkaraman ewes reared in Sanliurfa (137 farms) and Hakkari (113 farms) provinces of Turkey. For the determination process, the statistical predictive accuracy of GLM (General Linear Model), CART (Classification and Regression Tree), CHAID (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector), Exhaustive CHAID, and a ANN type MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) ...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...oil showed highest inhibitory effect. In both aforesaid treatments, lowest and statistically similar values of germination, root/ shoot length and fresh/ dry weight seedling-1 were recorded for both C. arvensis and C. rotundus, respectively. The water extract of E. camaldulensis showed superiority in allelopathic effects over its powder. Inhibitory effect of water extract or powder increased at higher rate (30 ml or 30 g kg-...

 Ian von Hegner

...with the concept of dictatorship, and is defined as a type of government in which power flows from the citizens to the leaders of government, who are selected through free elections. This article argues, that if the concept of democracy is generalized to be universally applicable, then the concept of hypothetical gods’ right to rule results in dictatorship. Whereas the concepts of dictator

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...sitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Acari:Varroidae) populations in honeybee Apis mellifera linguistica (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in the winter, spring and summer season (2013-14). Four honeybee colonies were exposed to oxalic acid (3.2%), thymol (0.5 g) and formic acid (65%) on screen bottom boards in winter, spring and summer seasons. The fourth group had screen bottom board trays but without any chemical. There was a trend of fallen mean...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

...ea, and 6 main impact factors, which include the number of main catch vessel (NMV), power of main catch vessel (PMV), number of trawl vessel (NTV), power of trawl vessel (PTV), release number of larval crab (RELE), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the interpretation ratio (IR) of the 6 factors reached 83.76%, within which the IR of the RELE is the largest (26.02%). The IRs of NMV and PTV also exceed...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...model reveal that the factors like education, experience and distance from the main market, are the most influential determinants of the technical efficiency in both NonBT and BT- cotton farms. Extension of cotton production required the development of cottonseed that will be suitable for environmental conditions of Pakistan.

...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...onally used by mobile pastoralists for livestock grazing during summer. Since the late 1980’s, these pastures have been used for off season vegetables cultivation which leads to change the traditional mobile pastoral system. This study was carried out in Naran valley in 2015, to understand the agriculture land use changes during the past three decades and its impacts on traditional mobile pasto...

Hassan Tarik Atmaca

...from the planet. This Editorial highlights recent research articles and reviews that have provided up-to-date and current research trends in the field to further facilitate disease eradication campaigns. 

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

... to the plants. In laboratory experiment, L. muscarium was the most effective against nematode eggs (95.6%) and second stage juveniles (J2) (95.8%) infection. In greenhouse experiment, similar trend was found. L. muscarium proved to be more effective against M. hapla whereas S. rugosoannulata and C. rosea showed better results among other tested fungi in experiments. Moreover, plant growth parameters were also improved due to...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...smallholders in dairy sector. The hypothesis that milk marketing cooperatives are beneficial for milk producers was tested by surveying the cooperatives’ members. Econometric techniques to draw inferences include the application of t-test, binary Logistic model and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) with algorithm of near neighbor (NN) and interval matching. The impact of cooperative membership on small milk producers was evaluated by calculating the values...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...ich increase the risk factors associated with heart attack. Atherosclerosis is also associated with development of diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney failure. Hypercholesterolemia is mainly caused by high fat diet, obesity and diabetes.Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect of water based infusion of Withania somnifera was investigated in broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty (120) day-old broiler’s chicks were alienated into four treatment groups ...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...nt in the agriculture sector is likely to increase. There is a need to create off-farm employment opportunities. Agro based industries seems to potential area to generate employment opportunities. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs.

...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

...hence there are other factors as well like urbanization that causing these shifts in food demand, apart from the changes in expenditures and the relative prices. Hence, agricultural import and export, and farm related policies should be made harmonious with the changing population statistics and pacing urbanization in Pakistan to make this transition period smooth.

...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...ronic, relapsing multifactorial disorder of brain and, if left untreated, major medical, social, and economic problems arise. Drug addiction is among major health issues faced by the World including Pakistan with an alarming annual increase in heroin addicts. The study was designed to identify the socio-demographic risk factors contributing to increasing susceptibility to heroin addiction in Pakistani populations. In this ep...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...standing of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. This article presents a systematic integration of complex biological interactions of 226 mammary gland genes to uncover underlying regulatory networks. Data were collected from various databases after having an exhaustive literature study. Network, functional and pathway analysis of the mammary gland genes were perform...

Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

...large difference in SOC storage and physico-chemical properties mainly in relation to climate, soil type and vegetation.

...

Halide Nihal Açikgöz1*, Serdal Kenan Köse2 and Ali Açikgöz3

 

 

...esvoidy), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia richardsi (Collin) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were identified. C. vicina was found in whole year in 2012 and 2015. All of the fly species identified have forensic importance. The highest taxa richness was observed in 2012, in May (307; 73.80%), while the lowest was in March (23; 5.53%). The highest taxa richness was observed in June (544; 21.92%), while the lowest was in January (6;...

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

...vealed that treatment factor influenced only egg height among all the egg characteristics (P<0.05). The effect of treatment by week interaction on all the characteristics was non-significant. The significant differences in other egg characteristics between weeks were recorded except for egg shape index and egg height (P<0.05). Very strongly Pearson coefficient of 0.876 was estimated in egg shape index between predicted and actual values (P<0.01) in th...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...d in many studies. Laboratory experiments showed that invasive ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) suppress ghost ants Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) through interference competition. However, relatively less testing have been done to evaluate the competition for mutual exploitation between the two ant species in the field. Here, we investigated the interference of the fire ant S. invicta on the interactions between the ghost an...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...of important economic factors such as prices and income. Flexible Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System model is used to estimate food demand patterns using the Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2011-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food....

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...ajor yield decreasing factors in our agro-ecosystem. Among many pest management approaches, biological control is considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This p...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...nment, their regular monitoring is on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic short sequences of single stranded (ss) oligonucleotides (ss-RNA or DNA), which are developed by an in-vitro selection process known as “Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX)” technique. Among the receptors available for biosensing, aptamer exhibit the advantages of high specificity, selectivity, stability, fa...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

... in liquid nitrogen for storage. Thawing was performed after 24 h of storage, at 37°C for 30 seconds and post-thaw sperm quality parameters were assessed. Sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, viability and chromatin integrity was higher (P<0.05) in extender containing melatonin 0.1 mM and 0.5 mM compared to control. In conclusion, the addition of melatonin 0.1-0.5 mM to extender ...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

...align: justify;">Life history parameters of bumblebee Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were investigated by using rearing boxes of wood, cardboard and polycarbonate materials on three developmental stages i.e., colony initiation, development and maturation stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Queen oviposition rate was 1.4-fold higher in polycarbonate box compared to wooden and cardboard materials. Earl...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

... serve as reliable indicators of toxicity in environmental impact assessment programmes.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

... in sugar beets in laboratory and greenhouse trials. The fungi chosen were Arthrobotrys oligospora, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, and Lecanicillium muscarium. In the laboratory experiment, S. rugosoannulata proved to be the most efficient biocontrol agent by parasitizing the maximum number of eggs, whereas D. oviparasitica appeared to be the least efficient after 72 hours. The ...

Syeda Farzana Bibi*, Lal Badshah and Siraj-ud-Din

... central green belt of Motorway (M-1) from Peshawar to Charsadda Interchange. A total of 30 different species ,which belong to 29 genera and 16 families, were recorded from the area.Poaceae was the most dominating family including 7 genera. Ecological characteristics like life form spectra indicated that Therophytes (53.33%) were the most dominating life form. Leaf size spectra showed that the most abundant leaf size was Microphyll (50%). This study not only g...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...ect pests and their predators in sunflower ecosystem. The data revealed that B. tabaci and Empoasca spp were present throughout the cropping season. Their average maximum populations (5.65 and 3.20 individuals / leaf) were recorded during 3-week of May 2009. Aphis gossypii was recorded during the month of March and its maximum population (28.3 individuals / leaf) was observed during 2-week of March 2009. Likewise, Nysius inconspicuous was observed during seeds...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...tem, and reproduction factor. Four initial populations (Pi) (500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 eggs) mixed with antagonistic fungal conidia levels (1×103, 1×104, 1×105, 1×106) were used during the experiments. The roots were stained with Phloxine B, the egg-masses were quantified, the root systems were rated for galling, and the egg masses were measured on a 0 to 5 scale, where 0 = no gall or egg masses, 1 = 1-2, 2 = 3-10, 3 = 11-30, 4 = 31-100...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

... and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infestation significantly (P=0.05) in soil compared to the control, but there was no significant difference (P=0.05) among them. Plant growth was significantly (P=0.05) improved in the plants treated with L. muscarium.

...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...f G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) is a key regulator of secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), whereas GnRH is a crucial neurohormone regulating the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) at puberty. The deficiency in release or action of GnRH leads to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) characterized by low FSH, LH and testosterone (T) and absent or impaired sexual dev...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

... was harvested for laboratory investigation using AGID for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). As part of investigation to screen for co-infection of CIA and IBD in the flock, the BF was also screened for the presence of chicken anemia virus (CAV) using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IBDV antigen was detected by AGID while CAV by PCR. This confirms the diagnosis of concurrent infection of CIA and IBD in the affected flock. This is the first ...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...tomatic interaction detector (CHAID), radial basis function (RBF) networks and multilayer perceptrons with one (MLP1) and two (MLP2) hidden layers in body weight (BW) prediction from selected body measurements in the indigenous Beetal goat of Pakistan. Moreover, the results obtained with the data mining algorithms were compared with multiple linear regression (MR). A total of 205 BW records including one categorical (sex) and six continuous (head girth above e...

Shakeel Ahmed* and Sarwat Jahan

...nes secretion. Its inhibitory effect on leptin and stimulatory effect on resistin shows an important relationship between NMS and adipokines in the regulation of reproductive axis in male rhesus monkeys. Further studies are required to confirm this relationship.

...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

... We chose the pMD18-T vector for Npm expression and transformed E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells to construct a prokaryotic expression system. The results showed that the recombinant Npm protein of 32 kDa could be obtained. Recombinant Npm or PGA was injected into porcine oocytes at different concentrations. The results showed that the blastocyst rates in injection 560 ng/μL Npm and 1000 ng/μL PGA groups were higher than those of other groups. Moreover, the blas...

Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

... for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Gill cells of mussels were used to determine the DNA damage by comet assay. The tail DNA (%), comet tail length and olive tail moment (OTM) were the parameters selected to detect DNA damage. Low doses (120 µg L-1) of each metal induced significantly higher levels of DNA strands breaks as compared to medium dose (240 µg L-1) and very low levels of DNA damaged was observed at high dose (360 µg L-1). Cu ...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

... the newly identified factors involved. In the last years substantial progress has been reported in the identification of viral factors involved in the host immunosuppression, although future studies employing in vivo infection models are needed to clearly understand the mechanisms developed by these viruses, in particular PPRV, to interact with the host immune system. A better comprehension of this behaviour could lead the ...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...he first largest contributor producing 100 metric tons in 24 h. The second largest producers of fish meal in this region were Abdul Baqi, Ghulam Hussain and Kampa Industry (Unit 2) which produced 300 to 500 metric tons per month. Proximate composition of fish meal samples collected from different units showed that protein contents were 50.51% – 61.26% and energy was determined as 4042.0 cal/g – 4558.0 cal/g. Dry mater was calculated as 87.43% &ndas...

Sabri Unal1, ASır Er2, Erol Akkuzu1* and Lubomir Salek3

...he phenology of the predator Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and to evaluate its efficacy on Macrosiphum rosae (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Kastamonu, Turkey. Rearing of C. septempunctata was carried out at 21.3±4.00ºC and 78.8±9.44% relative humidity. The first, second, third and fourth larval instars of C. septempunctata consumed 20.3, 54.3, 108.2, and 232.7 M. rosea, respectively. The predation effic...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...p with potential risk factors of diabetes on their first visit to a local hospital. Among the newly diagnosed diabetic subjects 33% (n=66) were with retinopathy. Out of which 30% (n=18) were male and 70% (n=48) were female. High density lipoprotein (HDL), both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol level and serum insulin were significantly higher (p< 0.05) in proliferative group of diabetic retinopathy, while triglyceride level, HbA1c (%), and ...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

...sion, the metaphor of restoration is identified as the overarching Mormon metaphor to which the others are subordinate.

...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...cimpunctata, under laboratory conditions was done. These include mustard aphids (Lipaphis erysimi) cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis), grain moth eggs (Sitotroga cerealella) and honey. Results revealed complete development of all larval stages on all diets with maximum survival of lady bird beetle larvae on mustard aphid (76.6%) followed by on grain moth’s eggs (20%), immature mealybugs (6%) and the least survival on honey. These findings can lead ...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

...g Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 injection, and then skin punch excision on rabbit ear. In the present follow-up study consisting of eight refind techniques, best Keloid was produced by the technique where Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 injection was followed by ventral skin, ventral perichondrium, cartilage, and dorsal perichondrium punch excision, leaving behind only dorsal skin.

...

John G. Bruno

...affinities and discriminatory ability for distinguishing between each of the STEC serovars. The most specific biotinylated aptamers from the ELASA screening were then attached to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads (SAv-MBs) and used to capture their cognate and related E. coli serovars. Capture was assessed by fluorescence microplate assessment following acridine orange staining. While there was significant cross-reactivity between the various captured serotyp...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

...s should be strongly monitored in view of the observed effects on this catfish fish physiology. The use of aluminium phosphide near water bodies should therefore strongly be monitored so that the health of aquatic organisms will not be impaired.

...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...ccording to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during 13 January to 15 March 2015. A total of 131 cattle was investigated and 16.8% cattle cattle were recorded as FMD. The proportionate prevalence of FMD in different study areas were 4.5-18.2%. The occurrence of FMD was higher in February (23.3%) than in January (13.5%) and March (18.5%). Y...

Noor Us Saher1, Zunaira Amanat2, M. Asif Gondal3 and Naureen Aziz Qureshi4,*

...">Matuta planipes and Ashtoret lunaris were collected as a part of by catch of gillnet deployed for shrimps from April 2005 to March 2007 in Sonmiani Bay waters (Miani Hor lagoon). M. planipes was found abundantly in Sep. 2005, Nov. - Dec. 2005 and Dec. 2006 (93.3%, 94.7%, 92.3% and 87 % respectively). A. lunaris was found in abundance during May 2005 (85.7%) and Aug. 2005 (81.8%). Male specimens of both species (M. planipes: χ2 = 245.4, P < 0.005) and ...

Asmaa Hamid1,* and Samia Kalsoom2

...al gram HFD and were monitored for random blood glucose and weight for a period of six weeks. Another three groups of rats with induced hypercholesterolemia were fed the same diet as the diabetic rats and were monitored for total serum cholesterol. It was found that both Bengal gram and chickpea had a significant effect on lowering glucose level and total cholesterol of these experimental animals. Bengal gram however, proved...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...th both environmental factors and phytoplankton biomass are investigated in Lake Nansihu. A total of 76 zooplankton species were identified in the lake, including 17 protozoa, 36 rotifera, 12 cladocera and 11 copepods species, respectively. Zooplankton species richness changed slightly in the four seasons but varied a lot in different positions. Protozoa was absolutely dominated in zooplankton abundance and its mean value ranged from 2710.2 ind./L in winter to...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

... contains matching regulatory elements for directing specific expression in porcine astrocytes. However, the practical application of hGFAP-DsRed transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs in neuroscience research requires solving the germline transmission problem of the phenotype.

...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

... daily. The condition factor (CF), viscerosomatic index (VSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were significantly (P< 0.05) higher in fish at ration levels from 2.5 to 4.5% BW d−1 and feeding frequency of three to four times daily. These results concluded that the optimum ration level and feeding frequency of the juvenile sea bream A. berda (weight 23.5g to 125.8 g) are 2.5% BW d−1 and three times daily, respectively, under similar culture conditio...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...on assay was used to monitor the antimicrobial activity of these strains both in mono culture and mixed culture. Streptomycin sulphate (10 μgml-1) and Amphotericin B (5 mgml-1) were used as positive controls. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts was also determined. Syzygium aromaticum was proven to have excellent antimicrobial activity against all tested mi...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

...pellent and growth inhibitory efficiency of five plant extracts (Azadirachta indica, Melia azadirach, Pegnum hermala, baryosma and Zingiber officinale) and three synthetic pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on three geographical populations of Callosobruchus chinensis collected during 2013 from Faisalabad, Multan and Nankana districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Three concentrations of each plant extract (5, 10, 15 and 20%) and synthetic pyrethr...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...December 2015 with no history of vaccination. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed using PPRV antigen to determine antibody titres level. The overall prevalence of antibodies to PPRV in goats and sheep were 66.22% (521 samples) and 65.76% (444 samples), respectively. Sero-prevalence of anti-PPRV antibodies was found higher in adults (69.14% with GMT 17.91) than in young (62.47% with GMT 12.85). Furthermore, seasonal seropositivity seasons was r...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...study was to identify factors affecting milk production in the study area. A multistage sampling method was used to select a sample of 274 livestock farm households from 6 union councils, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the female respondents through face to face interview. Cobb-Douglas production function and cost benefit analysis were used to arrive at the main conclusion. Results show that feed cost was the major component ...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...r food security was a factor behind the estimation of resource use efficiency of crops. Present study explored the resource use efficiency and return to scale in off-season cucumber production in Punjab, Pakistan. Primary data were collected from 70 off-season cucumber growers by using simple random sampling. Cobb-Douglas was good on the basis of R2 (0.748) and f-statistics (17.505). Production elasticity was positive for education, polythene sheet, fertilizer...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...the main contributing factors in the varied performance across years, however, the grain yield of synthetic derived wheat lines across different environments was not significantly disturbed within each year and hence, are suitable for areas of prolonged drought. Some lines of synthetic derived wheat especially those carrying blood from T. tauschii germplasm were equivalent in performance to superior cultivars used in the study, thus can be utilized in breeding...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...ucted to quantify the factors contributing to the non-adoption of sunflower. Data was collected from 100 respondents of different categories comprised of 43 adopters and 57 non-adopters of sunflower. The probit estimates were carried out to find out factors contributing to non-adoption of sunflower. Factors contributing to non-adoption of sunflower were respondent experience, access to cre...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...AP, farmyard manure, tractor hours, irrigation, pesticides used and labour days would rise sugarcane yield by 0.053, 0.103, 0.068, 0.020, 0.024, 0.111, 0.118, 0.005 and 0.121% respectively. All inputs except DAP, farmyard manure and pesticides were found significant at 5% significance level. In inefficiency model grower age, experience and contact with extension workers has significant contribution in decreasing farm inefficiency. However, grower’s famil...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...t of procedures used to store and analyze geographically-referenced data. Primary data about crop yield and per acre production, new seed and crop varieties etc. was collected with the help of a questionnaire survey. A total of 50 household were surveyed which make 45 percent of the total (114 households). The analysis of acquired data reveals that in 2008-09 tube well irrigated land account for 81.67 acre which decreased to 37.46 acre in 2013-14, after the da...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...t shock transcription factors are known to play an important role in regulating heat stress in plants. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) was transformed with heat shock transcription factor HsfA1d by transfecting leaf discs with Agrobacterium strain GV3101 carrying CaMV35S-YFP::HsfA1d construct. After PCR and confocal-based confirmation, HsfA1d overexpression lines (OX1, OX2 and OX3) were evaluated for their response to heat ...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

...basis of its high explanatory aptitude and graphical demonstration.

...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...a human ceramidase inhibitor and of a short-chain C2 ceramide on human lung adenocarcinoma cells, A549 by determining cytotoxicity of these agents by trypan blue assay, apoptosis inducing ability by annexin V and JC-1 staining and ultrastructural alterations by transmission electron microscopy. Our data clearly shows that ceranib-2 is more effective than C2 ceramide in promoting apoptosis. The cytotoxic effects of these components cause ultrastructural changes...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...ont>ulopsis and Rhodotorula. Using universal primers ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 amplified ITS region. And it yielded a unique PCR size of approximately 376-930 bp. PCR amplicons were digested with enzyme MspI and the generated bans corresponded to the predicted size.
...
Muhammad Arshad1*, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2*, Faisal Hafeez3, Ravaid Sherazi1 and Naeem Iqbal4
...s evaluated in the laboratory in no choice and free choice feeding assays. In the no choice feeding assay, the stages of beetle (adults, 3rd and 4th instar) consumed more aphids than early stages (1st and 2nd instar). In the free choice feeding assay, the consumption of pea aphid (77.647) was statistically high followed by spinach (66.276), coriander (66.14) and cabbage (61.48) aphids. Manly’s preference index ...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6
...ght to aquaculture laboratory of the Centre for 15 days acclimatization. After acclimatization, they were randomly distributed into the rectangular tanks (3 × 1.5 ×1.5 ft each). In each tank, 10 fish were stocked with three replications for each treatment. Four isonitrogenous diets containing different oils i.e., fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), olive oil (OO) and palm oil (PO) were given to the juveniles for 60 days. Best specific growth ra...
Ahmad Kamran Khan1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1,*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Nazir Javed2
...st diverse group of predatory mites within soil ecosystems, involved in maintaining the soil health. Biodiversity of Mesostigmata can be used to access the soil health within a geographical region. Family richness, diversity, abundance and evenness of soil inhabiting Mesostigmata mites in cultivated and undisturbed soil were estimated from five different localities of Punjab, Pakistan in 2014. Family richness, abundance and Shannon diversity indexes were highe...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
... increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15ºC to 9.15 days at 35ºC. The lower developmental threshold for C. phyllocnistoides estimated was 8.93°C. Mortality rate of immature stages decreased as the temperature increased, ranged from 27% at 15ºC to 8% at 35°C. Longevity of both sexes were different at all temperatures studied (except 30 and 32.5°C), ranged from 22.1 days...
Hafiz Aftab Ahmed1, Asif Ali2, Akbar Ali2, Salman Ahmed Abid3 and Sajid Umar4*
...sis was based on case history, clinical sign and clinical examination. Upward fixation of patella was diagnosed in all three animals. After careful palpation of the ligament, medial patellar desmotomy was performed in lateral recumbence, under local anesthesia achieved by 2% lignocaine hydrochloride. The skin was apposed with simple interrupted sutures using silk. Post-operative care was continued for five days. Clinical signs abated in all operated animals, p...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...l zone and management history. This indicated that the frequency of those five microsatellites did not increase during the reproduction of those six breeds. Therefore, these five fecundity related microsatellites are not appropriate biomarkers for goat breeding.

 

...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Ghulam Sarwar1, Waqar Ahmad1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1, Ammara Balouch1 and Muhammad Khalid Rafique1
... worker bees, brood and stored food. In order to study the foraging activity of honeybees in the field condition, the number of pollen foragers returning to the hive entrance was recorded for 10 min duration on hourly basis between 0800 h to 1600 h for 3 days per week. The data was collected at 0800–1000 hours (early morning foraging activity), 1000-1200 hours (late morning foraging activity), 1200-1400 hours (Noon foraging activity) and 1400-1600 hours ...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...pattern recognition receptors. This interaction induces the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons. Through Janus kinase/signal transducers and transcription activators pathway, interferon induces the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), responsible for playing an essential and decisive role in the virus pathology. Some studies have already reported the overexpression of these genes against IBDV ...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...rus with an arthropod vector of the genus Ornithodoros, involved in its transmission. Tick involvement has been reported in Europe, East and Southern Africa to be part of ASFV transmission cycles. Ticks in an ASFV infected area have been reported to influence the emergence of genetic variation and long-term persistence of the virus in an area. Since the first report of ASF in Nigeria, periodic outbreaks have continued to occur among domestic pigs with a few in...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...d longevity of B. hebetor. Three different diets [Honey syrup, sugar syrup, date syrup and a control (water)] were used with different solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was observed that honey fed wasp pair produces significantly more number of eggs, adults and also lived significantly longer than other treatments. Highest fecundity and longevity of parasitoid was recorded in case of parasitoids feeding on 50% honey solution followed by 25% s...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...y in mosquito (dengue vectors) is limited. Here, we investigated the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the Aedes mosquitoes and its (DENV) transmission through other factors mainly tyres trade. DENV was detected in Aedes aegypti (57%) and Aedes albopictus (43%) adults (n=1050) and larvae (n=550). The samples were collected from four (Shuba Bazaar, Tarnab Farm, Wazir Bagh and Hayat Abad) den...
Muhammad Afzal1,Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi1,*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Irfan Hussain1
...ys conducted under laboratory and field conditions. Visual rating according to (AWPA, 1997) scale, mass loss, wood consumption per termite and mortality rate were determined to evaluate resistance of wood against H. indicola. Populus euramericana and Dalbergia sissoo were observed most palatable and resistant wood species, respectively, in no-choice laboratory and field trials. Five different wooden pair...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...e description on life-history traits of B. dario, including ─ sex ratio, length-frequency distributions (LFDs), length-weight relationships (LWRs), length-length relationships (LLRs), condition factors (allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; relative, KR), relative weight (WR), form factor (a3.0...
Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...her licofelone, an inhibitor of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, changes the survival rate and induces apoptosis in a hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). We determined in vitro survival rate with MTT assay, the morphological changes with an inverted microscope, apoptosis using flow cytometry and statistical significance with one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test. IC50
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
... collected from various storage facilities of Punjab, Pakistan viz., Mandi Bahauddin-I, Mandi Bahauddin-II, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sargodha. The activities of all esterases tested were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations when compared with phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher esterase activities than 6th instar larvae and adult...
Mehmet Cilbiz1* and F. Banu Yalim2
...i.e. condition factor, length-weight relationship, K, L, to), mortality rate (Z, M, and F), recruitment pattern and yield were investigated for Oncorhynchus mykiss in Karacaören I Dam Lake. Fish were collected on monthly basis between July, 2013 and June, 2014. Growth parameters were analyzed by ELEFAN with monthly length–frequency data. The b values of the length-weight relationship, m...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...tion, associated risk factors and subsequently their antimicrobial susceptibility.The milk samples were screened with surf field mastitis test and furthered to biochemical analysis. Pearson’ Chi-square test at nighty five percent confidence interval was used to analyze the collected data. Antibiotic sensitivity was checked with twenty four antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Over all mastitis was found 52.5% (63/120) with leading subclinical (41.67%, 5...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...tio (0.14), condition factor (4.1), viscerosomatic index (7.1), hepatosomatic index (1.4) were significantly (P< 0.05) higher of fish treated with the artificial diet as compared to those in control ponds. Length-weight relationships of the juveniles showed significant (P < 0.0 I) growth and condition factor associated to feed application in treated ponds. Body composition of the fish was not significantly (P...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...and parity and random factors of animal. Indices values for Wood, Johnson and Hansen, Mahadevan, Ludwick and Petersen and Gajbhiye and Tripathi were 138.66, 75.68, 243.65, 85.84 and 275.41, respectively. Moreover, our results indicated that all indices were significantly affected by period and season of calving and lactation number except that Wood index that did not vary with seasons. Heritability estimates of various indices were low and ranged from 0.004 to...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
...ship of different pollinator groups with crop yield. Apple is dependent on insect pollinators to set fruit. Farmers in Pakistan are generally not aware of pollination needs of apple. Results depicted a high population decline of Syrphids and Non-Apis bees. Syrphids were recorded as 12.65 to 13.85 per 250 flowers in 2013 but decreased in year 2014 by 7.82 to 7.88 per 250 flowers and Non-Apis bees was recorded as 6.15 to 7.59 ...
Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
...nto two groups the inhibitor group (experimental) and the control group, reach of 10 pikas. The pikas of experimental group were injected with 1 mL of 1 mol/L N-isopropyl oxamate, a specific LDH-C4 inhibitor, in biceps femoris muscle of hind legs, each leg with 500 μL. The pikas of control group were injected with the same volume of normal saline. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Ldh-c in...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Ehsan Kamrani1, Narges Amrollahi Biuki1 and Hossein Zamani2
...ra mathaei) were monitored monthly from March to September 2014 in the intertidal zones of Bandar Lengeh in the Persian Gulf. The numbers of males, females, unsexual samples were counted for 71, 126 and 20, respectively. Females were totally 1.77 times heavier than males. Wet weights of gonads were nearly 8.25% of the mean total wet body weights. Only females were observed by gonad wet weights more than 12 g. The gonad wet weights of females (3.74±3...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
...9 individuals of bee visitors were found on sunflower blossoms. The next high (25 honeybee/3 m2) visitation rate of bee was recorded at 1400 h. Individuals of A. florea showed two peaks of visitation between 1400 to 1600 h. First peak (15 honeybee/3 m2) was recorded at 1600 h, whereas second peak (12 bees) was recorded at 1400 h. Lowest visitation rate of both species was noticed during evening after 1800 h. High frequency of both ...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
...per production, other factors miught be involved in delaying the growth spurt.
...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...B. zonata was monitored using methyl eugenol traps during the year, 2015. Occurrence and population dynamics of the fruit fly were compared with meteorological factors, such as temperature, relative humidity and sunshine. The highest mean population of fruit fly remained at 499 in the month of August. It started to decline afterwards and remained at 348 in the month of September. The lowest population was recorded at ...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...d resistance and host factor related recessive resistance are categorized as most beneficial plant defense approaches used by plants. The review also briefly explains about introgression of durable resistance to generate virus resistant cultivars for economically important crops through molecular breeding techniques via utilizing advanced molecular markers involving cis and trans genetics. The review adhere recent research findings regarding disease resistance...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...justify;">Scavenger receptor class B type I protein (SCARB1) plays an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis. The effect of the polymorphisms in the gene have varying influences on lipid levels and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in different populations. In this study, we investigated the association of rs5888 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and CVD risk in an Indian population. A total of 412 samples which included 148 myocardial i...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
... PCR amplification inhibitors. In current study, IC-PCR was used for the detection of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from plant extracts of Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with ToLCNDV. To immunocapture the ToLCNDV, two antisera raised against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-coat protein (TYLCV-CP) and African cassava mosaic virus-coat protein (ACMV-CP) were used. However, immunocapture of ToLCNDV could only be achieved by using...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...ndicating a high risk factor for poultry industry.
...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

... with the clinical laboratory standards and confirmed by PCR. In life birds, only E.coli and Salmonella could be recovered from Cloacal swabs, while in freshly dead birds all four pathogens disseminated in various organs with higher incidence of mixed compared to single infection. Different serotypes of E.coli and Salmonella could be recovered from dead birds however E.coli (O78) and S.enteritidis were recovered mainly from heart and liver. The recovered E.col...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
...crobial agents were secretory in nature. Sonicated fractions were on second order to produce antimicrobial activities. The freeze thaw method was least effective in secreting active antimicrobial agents from tested bacteria. From the present study it is concluded that microbes are natural reservoir of antimicrobial compounds.
...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
... regular mycological monitoring of compound commercial feed in order to make control strategies and prevent toxic syndromes to this type of contamination.
...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...alfa, forage crop, as factorial and based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in two cuttings during 2013-14 crop years. The experimental treatments were weed interference and non-interference in two levels (hand weeding and non-hand weeding) and plant density in four levels (20, 40, 60 and 80 stems per square meter). The results obtained in two cuttings in the third year of established alfalfa showed that the weeds caused quantitativ...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The number of adults, sex ratio and size of emerging adults were recorded. Smaller and larger host species were used to determine the survival potential of the wasp. It was observed that maximum number of adult wasps emerged from the hosts G. mellonlla (95 ±2.30 (se) and S. litura (81 ±1.15 (se)) by placing the lowest number of wasp eggs (4 eggs per larvae) on the ho...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...d products as well as vectors of tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packing substances have been remarkable tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against disturbances, for instance fires in addition to windstorms, and start the bio-worsening of woody tissue. The females lay eggs on the bark surface of the stems and branch...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
..., 11 individuals, had history of affliction by the disease during 1972-1992. All the water samples from drinking water sources tested negative for the presence of Cyclops species. No recurrence of dracunculiasis to an extent corroborates the proclaimed eradication by Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) from Dera Ismail Khan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province.
...
Uzma Farid Durrani1,*,Sagar Mal Goyal2, Asim Khalid Mahmood1,Cathleen Hanlon3, Susan Moore3, Muhammad Waqas1 and Raheela Akhtar4
...ne of the responsible factors for increasing incidence of rabies in humans and dogs living in Lahore, Pakistan.
...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...s of seeds of different storage containers on growth, yield and quality of cotton genotypes. The experiment was conducted between July, 2010 to February, 2011 at Cotton Research, Training and Seed Multiplication Farm, Sreepur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Significant variations related to genotypes and seed sources were observed for stand establishment, branch development, phenology, yield components, yield and fiber quality attributes of cotton. Yield and quality of ...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...al poultry production sectors. Due to potential of H9N2 infections in human, LPAI H9N2 poses serious public health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop H9 plasmid-based DNA vaccine against the currently circulating AIV subtype H9N2 targeting HA gene of the virus A/Turkey/Egypt/1341V/2013(H9N2). The full leng...

Waqar Islam

... management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are rarely applied due to lack of farmer’s knowledge about plant virus diseases. Therefore, here we reviewed about this issue by highlighting that what farmers know about plant viruses, what is their perception about yield losses by virus diseases and what management strategies they choose to apply against viruses. We further added our sugge...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
... musculus and its history of migration to eastern China.
...
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
...masterol from the Eupatorium adenophorum Sprengas nontoxic and pollution-free pesticides that can be released to the environment. The toxicity test of stigmasterol against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro showed that stigmasterol was toxic under 0.5% concentration. Treatment under this condition also showed mite mortality of 16.67% within 12 h and 23.33% within 24 h. The insecticidal activity of stigmasterol was weaker than that o...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...f FH and H in long-term storage has the potential to be helpful in commercial and clinical application of ADSCs.
...
YaQiu Liu and ZhiJian Wang*
...testines where many secretory cells were present. Highly developed junction complex were seen in anterior intestine. Cytoplasm contained abundant mitochondria and pinocytotic vesicles. Epithelium of posterior intestine was thin, translucent and squamous with dense blood capillary network underground, while there were no folds on mucous membrane surface. Distance between blood capillary network and intestinal cavity was 1.95±0.34 μm. Respiratio...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

...ng and to investigate factors affecting their participation. A multistage sampling method was used to select a sample of 274 livestock farm households from 6 rural Union Councils, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from female respondents through face to face interviews. A composite index was constructed to measure the extent of women’s participation, and a linear regression model was used to determine fac<...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...y and biochemistry laboratory, Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences (ISES), University of Agriculture Faisalabad. In this experiment Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangements having three replications was used. Significantly maximum 1000 achene weight, achene yield, biological yield, harvest index and protein content were recorded where seed inoculation with PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and full dose of r...
Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3
...followed by single rotavator in main plots while sowing methods i.e. Raised Bed Sowing S1and Flat Bed Sowing S2 in the subplots. The results showed higher WUE in the plots receivingP2and S1 in both years of experiments. Statistics revealed that P had significant effect on tillers plant-1, weight of grain spike-1, grain yield and harvest index % (H.I. %). While (S) had significant effect on yield...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...text-align: justify;">Pastoral production system remained a central component of mountain subsistence economy in the Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) region of Northern Pakistan. However, the growing trends of crops cultivation in the high mountains of HKH region have largely transformed this subsistence livestock production in to commercial agricultural system and shaped an uncertain environment that is not suitable for both landless nomadic pas
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...ivity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of isolated compound was also measured. Two antibiotics were used as references compounds for antibacterial activities. The aqueous ethanolic extract having 968.125 µg/ml of chlorogenic acid inhibited significantly the growth of tested bacterial strains. Among the bacterial strain tested Salmonella entritidis and Helicobacter pylori were even more sensitive to 20.313 (µg/ml) of chlorogenic a...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...arieties as affected by storage intervals at room temperature” was conducted at post harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the year 2015. The research work was conducted in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and stor

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...urrent study employed vector auto regression models (VAR) along with times series data from 1980 to 2013 for Pakistan to estimate the potential effects of climate change on Maize production. Result professed that average temperature will affect Maize crop negatively bringing about 6% reduction in maize production till the year 2030. Average minimum temperature brought about 9% increases in maize production till 2021. Increase in overall rainfall will also bene...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
... of viruses and their vectors, transforming the diagnostic landscape. Geminiviruses are a group of plant viruses characterized by circular, single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes (~2.7 kb size) and twined icosahedral virions (18 x 30 nm). Based on genome organization, host range and insect-vector, geminiviruses are divided into four genera:Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus and Begomovirus. Begomoviruses are transmitted by white...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
... displayed similar inhibitory action against damping-off and seedling blight pathogens,Phomopsis vexans and Sclerotium rolfsii. In the field, garlic and allamanda spray reduced leaf blight severity by 84-86% and fruit rot by 91%. Severities of nematode and virus infection were also reduced significantly with allamanda spray. Active compounds in allamanda leaves have been separated and identified.Formulated trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...of 16 parasites and predators were observed in these crops during the period of study. The bio-agents recorded belonged to Order Dictyoptera, Neuroptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera.

...

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...hta indica) seed oil, castor ( Ricinus communis) oil, a mixture of Neem seed oil and sesame oil, leaf extracts of custard apple (Annona squamosa ) and Bara Bishkatali ( Polygonum orienta) were tested against the pest infestation. The treatment of custard apple leaf extract produced the most favourable result in respect of pest control and crop yield. The other treatments also exhibited better results in comparison to control followed by Bara Bishkatali, Neem s...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
... in mustard seeds. Inhibitory effect of fungicides on seed germination of all tested seeds was observed with prochloraz 45EC and flusilazole 40EC. There was increase in the plumule length of mungbean seeds with prochloraz 45EC and difenoconazole 25EC over untreated control, whereas sharp reduction in plumule length was recorded in rice seeds irrespective of fungicide treatments. The seeds treated with prochloraz 45EC and flusilazole 40EC maintained their viabi...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
...overed after 10 days of storage from 0.05 and 0.1 percent doses, respectively. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after same days of storage were 0.51 and 1.05 mg kg . The residual half-life values of carbendazim in whole fruit were calculated as 4 and 3 days at both the concentrations from pre harvest spray and post harvest dip treatment, respectively. Pre and post harvest interval of 3 and 7 days were suggested from 0....

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
...t-align: justify;">Laboratory studies were made to compare the toxicity of botanical insecticides viz. Neem oil, Pongamia oil and Nicotine extract in different conc./combinations along with dimethoate and dichlorvos on four coccinellid bio-control agents (Micraspis crocea, Micraspis discolor, Brumus suturalis and Scymnus bourdilloni ). All botanicals tested showed least mortality and was on par with unsprayed control. Dimethoate (0.1%) was highly toxic causing...

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
...perimental design was factorial RBD with 3 replications. Observations on days to first male and female flowers, node number of first male and female flowers, total number of fruits and number of melon fruit-fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett),Diptera: Tephritidae] infected fruits were recorded.Snap melon being a monoecious and warmth loving crop, tends to bear increasing number of female flowers with time; days to first female flower gradually lessened fro...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...February. The abiotic factors viz., temperature (maximum & minimum), relative humidity% (maximum & minimum) and bright sunshine hour had significant effect on aphid population. The same abiotic factors were quite different between the first and second year. This was due to the fact that the climatic conditions in second year varied distinctly from the first year.

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B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...icrobial pesticides mandatory before commercial production/import/sale. Guidelines and data requirements for registration of microbial pesticides have been provided in the annexure of Insecticide Act. Quality control parameters set by CIB are inadequate for knowing potentiality of a bioagent. Apart from the counts of live propagules in the formulation, bioefficacy also should be taken as a quality parameter to ensure availability of better products to farmers....

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
... predisposing abiotic factors, has been widely reported as the most noxious insect pest limiting production of rape and mustard. Field experiment was carried out with 3 varieties of rape and mustard, 6 dates of sowing and 2 moisture regimes to understand aphid population dynamics during different phases of growth of rainfed vis-à-vis irrigated rape and mustard crops, and work out relationships between aphid population and weather parameters for its fore...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
... L.), jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.), and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were found effective as trap crops for their ability to germinate the seed of A. pedunculata. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was identified as a catch crop for its ability to support further growth and development of A. pedunculata up to flowering.

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A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...rsici on tomato in laboratory and pot culture experiment. All the isolates were isolated by serial dilution and cultured in liquid protein supplemented broth medium and culture filtrates (CF) were prepared. In in-vitro test single eggmasses of uniform size were kept in 5ml CF in 5cm diameter Petri plates. Antifungal activity was tested by dual culture of wilt fungus with antagonist fungus and bacteria isolates in PDA media plates. In in-vivo test soil was amen...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...n nature. Based on laboratory studies on immature and mature fruits of lady's finger; the total period of all four nymphal stages lasted for 32.6 ± 4.17 days at an average room temperature of 28 ± 2ºC and 70-75% RH during September, 2009. Male mealybug has a short life span of 3.0 ± 0.21 days. Females live for nearly 80.7 ± 10.43 days with an oviposition period of approximately 21 days. This mealybug is capable of active moveme...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...">The role of weather factors, such as temperature, total rainfall, number of rainy days and relative humidity on the development of diseases like canker (Pestalotia psidii), anthracnose and die back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem canker and dry fruit rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Phytophtora fruit rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equatio...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...e foliage in the conservatories (borojas) of West Bengal. The seasonal incidence of A. rugosa in boroja was recorded during 2003-2004. A. rugosa adults were active in the boroja throughout the year with two peaks, one in pre-monsoon and another in post-monsoon i.e., period prior initiation of winter season. During the faunastic survey in betelvine, a new species of Aleurocanthus (description under process) was recorded from West Bengal. This had also been foun...

D. Sharmah, K.C. Deka and A.K. Phukan

Field evaluation of efficacy of some botanical dust against rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabr.)
...rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabr.) during 2000-2001 on the basis of per cent reduction under field condition. The per cent reduction in number of rice bug adults due to neem seed kernel powder, neem seed kernel powder + multani powder, multani powder, neem leaf powder, neem leaf powder + multani powder, neem leaf powder + ash, soap nut kernel powder, soap nut kernel powder + multani powder tested as dust were found to be 24.44, 14.78, 5.65, 17.06, 11.88, 6...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Population proliferation and spread of Trichoderma spp. in soil under two different delivery systems
...studied both under laboratory and field conditions following two types of delivery systems, through organic based (vermicompost + neem cake (90% + 10% w/w)) and seed based (sterilized wheat seed) inocula. The population proliferation and spread of the antagonists were faster when they were applied through organic based inoculums over that of seed based inoculums from the point of application. Similarly population proliferation and spread of the antagonist was ...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...goni seed oil (5 % ), castor seed oil (5 % ) and neem seed oil (5 % ) were used to assess their effects on the mortality of P. marginatus . It is evident that tobacco medicine exerted the best result in terms of control followed by neem seed oil, mehgoni seed oil, castor seed oil and tobacco leaf extract (20 % ).

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P. Barma and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal activity of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) on pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and weather relations
...th individual weather factors revealed that each of maximum and minimum temperature had significant positive correlation (r = +0.386 and +0.501, respectively) on the population build up of the pest. The relative humidity % of morning hours had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.451) and that of evening slightly positive (r = +0.284). Rainfall had insignificantly positive (r = +0.195), soil temperature significantly positive (r = +0.555) and the bright ...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
... the attack of several notorious pests such as insects, mites, nematodes, diseases and weeds. Globally 1034 species of arthropods and 82 species of nematodes are associated with tea plants. Among them 25 species of insects, 4 species of mites and 10 species of nematodes are recorded from Bangladesh. Enormous crop loss was incurred due to the attack of these pests and largely responsible for the declining productivity of tea. Extensive use of chemical pesticide...

Nilesh Suresh Gole and Bijan Kumar Das

Biology of Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), a serious pest of Indian ipecac, Tylophora indica
...ily infested by a defoliator pest, Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera). A study was conducted in the field and laboratory of All India Coordinated Research Project on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants and Betelvine (AICRP on MAPB) at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal during 2010-2011 on seasonality, extent of damage and biologoy of D. sagitta on T. indica. The larvae we...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...has been an important factor behind these two main diseases. A field trial was conducted during pre-kharif season of 2011 to control root and collar rot of cowpea caused by Rhizoctonia solani with two organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum along with other treatment combinations. It was observed that seed priming with mycelia preparation of the antagonist Trichoderma harzianum at 4g/kg of seed and organic formulation of the antagonist in vermicompost al...

SK Fashi Alam, Atanu Seni and Ajoy K Sahoo

Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on sprouted potato and brinjal plant
...tato tubers in the laboratory. The female nymphs moulted three times for becoming adults while the male took four moultings. The female and male nymphs completed development in 14.45± 0.96 days and 19.53±1 days, respectively on brinjal plant at 20-36.2° C temperature and 15.1±1 days and 18±0.82 days respectively on sprouted potato. The ratio of the male: female were 1:1.75 and 1:1.87. The duration from nymphs to adult female was...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...oducts Ltd (SPFP), Coimbatore since 2004. The onslaught by the new invasive mealybug (PMB)-Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) in 2006 caused major concern in papain production. The need for repeated application of insecticides and dearth of labour for application of insecticides made it difficult for the farmers to maintain the crop and forced many farmers to even abandon papaya crop cultivation altogether. Considering the drastic reduction...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...y up to three months of storage. Surprisingly, spraying cowpea plants with the formulation as simultaneous spray reduced the number of lesions produced by Groundnut Bud Necrosis virus in cowpea by 88.39% when compared to the inoculated control, suggesting the antiviral potential of the formulation. 

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Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik, Pronobesh Halder and M. L. Chatterjee

Determination of relative toxicity and base line data of dif-ferent insecticides against cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley)
...t-align: justify;">Laboratory bioassay was conducted to determine the toxicity of some insecticides and their LC50 values against 3rd instar nymphs of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis in the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Mohanpur during 2012. Both treated food untreated insect and treated food treated insect methods were followed. The lowest LC50 values through treated food untreated insect method we...

D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal and G. Saha

Bioassay of some agricultural chemicals, human drugs and disinfectants on Phytophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd
...zole were not good inhibitor for P. melonis. Sporangia did not form in water containing 0.0125g/L chloroquin phosphate - an antiprotozoal drug. 

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Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...ic with spirit, one predator insect Chrysoperla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with application of diafenthiuron at 15 days interval from seedling to early fruiting stage. Among the ecofriendly options, alternate use of garlic with spirit performed better than their single repeated use starting from seedling to early fruiting stage at every 15 days interval. 

...

Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
...ata on meteorological factors viz., temperature (maximum and minimum), relative humidity, total rainfall and bright sunshine hours were collected for the entire period of study from the Department of Agrometeorology, AAU, Jorhat.The incidence of red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae on tea leaves was maximum during month of April to May-June and September-October (2011). The minimum number of mites was recorded from July- August and November (2011) to February ...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...TV and TRV) and their vectors was calculated by using Jaccard index of similarity. The association of PMTV to its vector Spongosporsa subteranea in Hazara division was found 27.0% while their association in Malakand division was found 24.4%. The TRV associated to its vectors Trichodorus in Hazara division was found 8.94% while in Malakand division was 20.70%. It was concluded that molecula...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...ther purposes like regulatory and nematode diagnostics. Attempts have also been to made to understand the molecular signaling events during compatible plant nematode interactions by identifying the genes during the transition from preparasitic to parasitic stage in ear cockle nematode and molya disease of wheat. Currently attempts are being made to utilize RNAi technology to identify the genes targets for the management of root knot and cyst nematodes. In this...

Anjan Bhattacharyya, Suhrid Ranjan Barik & Pritam Ganguly

New pesticide molecules, formulation technology and uses: Present status and future challenges
...ustify">Mankind has a history of using crop protection products from non-selective, naturally occurring compounds to highly specific synthetic and biological materials for assured food production and protection of environment since long time. There is a sequential rise in the production and consumption of pesticides in India during the last three decades. Researches are going on to develop safer molecules which could undergo photo-degradation, microbial degrad...

Anil Sehajpal, Saroj Arora and Parminder Kaur 

 

Evaluation of plant extracts against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice
...xtracts, viz. Abrus precatorious, Acacia auriculiformis, Bougainvillea glabra, Convolvulus arvensis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Morus alba, Thevatia peruviana, and Withania somnifera did not exert any effect. Among all the plant extracts, A. sativum exhibited strong fungitoxicity even at the lowest concentration, i.e. 100 ppm, with relative magnitude of inhibition 2.0 mm against the pathogen R. Solani. With regard to the effect of 8 plant oil samples tested, it w...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...ernaria alternata and Septoria chrysanthemella on Chrysanthemum indicum; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria sp. on Dracaena deremensis; Alternaria sp. and Cercospora hibisci-manihotis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Calathea ornata; Alternaria sp. on Ficus religiosa; Cercospora jasminicola on Jasminum sambac; Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Diplocarpon rosae on Rosa multiflora. On the other hand, Cercospora sp. on Pothos sc...

S. Choudhury and S. Pal

Population dynamics of mustard aphid on different Brassica cultivars under terai agro-ecological conditions of West Bengal
...and different abiotic factors revealed contradictory results. Except for a few instances the weather parameters showed low order of associations with aphid population. Thus, the ecological factors exhibited little impact on the population build up of mustard aphid. The degree of infestation and the rates of population change of the aphids on different Brassica cultivars seem to be governed...
Bao-Ming Ge* Dai-Zhen Zhang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Sen-Hao Jiang, Jun Cui, Chun-Lin Zhou and Bo-Ping Tang
...onsidered as the main factor explaining such variation.
...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...ed that environmental factors trigger the disease in genetically sensitive individuals. Gluten, a protein fraction commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a number of autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that gluten containing diet would further exacerbate an already undergoing arbitrary immune reaction in SLE patients. Pristane was injected in female BALB/c mice to induce the disease. After five months, mice in various group...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...ioxidant and immunomodulatory as well as a number of other biological functions. Its potential can be exploited in several food applications. Keeping in view the increased demand of natural antimicrobial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol, this study was designed to isolate lactoferrin from milk of camel. Cation exchange resin (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isol...
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...lass 1, Transcription Factor 1 (Pit1)is a member of the tissue-specific POU homeobox transcription factor family that is found in all mammals. Pit1 encodes a pituitary-specific transcription factor, which is involved in pituitary development and regulating the hormone expression in animals. In current study, Pit1 gene was screened for polymorphic sites in Sahiwal cattle. Sampl...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...y fat mass can not be restored to the control level on refeeding 7 days. RMR and mass of liver decreased significantly in fasting groups, which can return to the control level after refeeding. Fasting for 12 h decreased serum leptin levels, and leptin levels can not recover to the control level after refeeding. Interestingly, there were no post-fasting compensatory increases in food intake. All of the results indicated that ...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...elopment of livestock sector in Pakistan. To improve the poor quality roughages, exogenous fibrolytic enzyme may play important role by enhancing digestibility of fibre. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying level of fibrolytic enzyme in concentrate ration on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and composition, and diet digestibility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Four lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes of 3rd and 4th pari...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...urrent study, it was monitored monthly 217 individuals from Bandar Lengeh (26˚32ʹ28̋ N, 54˚52ʹ28̋ E; water depth: 0.5 to 1 m) during March to September, 2014. Their genders were obtained by dissection. The aim of this study was to determine the sexual ratio in their population and to see if they effect the operational sex ratio (OSR). The number of males and females were 71 and 126, respectively. Twenty samples by the total wet we...
Jia-xiang Wang1,2,* and Peng Li1,2
...ormone secretagogue receptor, has been identified in the pancreas of many vertebrates. While ghrelin has been found in the cerebellum and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks, little is known about its distribution in the pancreas ofthe African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the African ostrich pancreas were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Our results ind...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...ar. The present participatory action research was aimed to study the (i) adeptness of integrated module of prophylactic soil disinfection and bio-control, (ii) only prophylactic soil disinfection, and (iii) only curative soil disinfection over uprooting and destruction of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in dis...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...al and the produces are stored by farmers under homestead condition for the purpose of consumption and seed for the next year sowing. Callosobruchus sp.(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the major stored grain pest of blackgram under homestead condition resulting 15 – 30% grain damage during storage. An attempt was made to identify a practical and low cost solution of such damage ...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...n-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of two LSDV isolates from Ixodid (hard) ticks (Amblyomma hebraeum) in Egypt. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that both isolates had nine nucleotide mutations in comparison with the local reference strain, LSDV-Egypt/89 Ismalia. Compared with the GPCR sequences of SPV and GPV strains, 21 nucleotide insertion and 12 nucleotides deletions were identified in the GPCR genes of our isolates and other...
Erol Akkuzu1,*, Hidayet Güzel2 and Özkan Evcin1
...us biotic and abiotic factors influence the population dynamics and severity of damage in a forest. This study investigated the effects of stand composition and site index of pine forests on Ips sexdentatus (Boerner) populations. Two main objectives of this study were a) to compare the effects of two different black pine stands of site index-I (high site productivity) and site index-III (low site productivity) and b) to compare the pure and mixed pine f...
Wenqiao Hui1, Jishun Tang1, Dejian Zhu1, Qian Ban2* and Sheng Chen1*
...pose tissue via its receptor leptin receptor through the JAK2/STA3 signal pathways, promote the upregulation of KISS1, which activates TRPC5, and, inhibit the release of NPY, thereby promoting the release of GnRH, thus hastening the onset of puberty in goat. During this process, leptin, LEPR and its signal pathways may act as a link between the adipose and puberty onset in goat. However, further more studies need to be carri...
Muzammil Sattar
...t-align: justify;">Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the influence of varying amounts of different proteins in the diet of adult Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). Results show that proteins play a vital role in the fecundity, fertility and all the biological parameters of F1 for mass rearing. The tested proteins were: Casein, Protein hydrolysate, Torula yeast and Nu lure. Al these proteins were ...
Ahmad Ali1,*, Sheikh Muhammad Azam2, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Mujahid Kaleem3
... May, 2014 due to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest and female cub died in 2005 due to canabalism.
...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
... L. is a generalist predator and prefer soft bodied insects. Semiochemicals released by the plants in response to herbivorous attack influences third trophic level and natural enemies use these substances to locate their prey. Twelve-arm olfactory apparatus was used to evaluate the response of C. septempunctata toward aphids and different host plants of aphids. Different horticultural plants and field crops were used ...

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...mong the inefficiency factors experience was significantly contributing to the technical efficiency of the farmers. On the basis of this study it is recommended that tomato growers in the study area need to increase the number of seedling for the purpose to increase the productivity. It is further recommended that government should provide training facilities to the farmers to improve their skills, as a results of which the productivity will be increased

...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...nd identify important factors affecting yield. Ordinary Least Square estimates for the model indicate that machinery, seed quantity, labor, number of irrigation, chemicals spray and fertilizers have positive significant effects on tomato yield. Allocative efficiency analysis reveals that machinery, seed quantity, number of irrigation, fertilizers and chemicals are underutilized, while labor and FYM are over utilized for tomato production in the study area. The...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
... material. All valued factors in the compost samples were found to be within the acceptable limits set by international standard. The pH fluctuated between 7.5-8.1, moisture 35% and organic matter 43%, and has adequate quantity of plant nutrients C34%, N (0.06%), K (0.32%), P (0.004), Na (4.6%). The quality of compost could further be enhanced with the addition of yard waste or cow and poultry manure etc. For land reclamation or plant productions the use of co...
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...giostomus and a predatory fish Mastacembelus armatus, from three rivers of Malakand Division, Pakistan. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were determined in fish samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Highest Cu concentration of 4.52 ± 0.24 mg kg−1 wet weight was observed in muscles of M. armatus at Chakdara on River Swat while highest Zn concentration of 18.00 ± 1.88 mg kg−1 wet weight was o...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...mined during 30 days of storage. Results showed that with varying fiber content water activity, texture, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, NFE and fiber content changed significantly (p<0.05). Gross energy level in cake which is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was dark colored, low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatment (T3) containing 5.6g grapefruit albedo powder shows significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory ...
Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
...The average condition factor for females was calculated as 1.37 while 1.32 for males. The sexual maturity age of females and males was determined to be II age group and first sexual maturity. The total length was found as 11.33 cm for female and 10.89 cm for male. According to the trends of GSI values, it was assumed that their season of reproductivity was between March and May.
...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...nd to investigate the factors that can affect the adoption of recommended citrus production practices. A farm level survey was conducted in Sargodha and T.T. Singh districts to gather the information about the awareness and adoption of recommended production practices of citrus. The study sample was consisted of 140 respondents. The binary regression model has been used to evaluate the effect of different socio-economic variables on the adoption response of di...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...ood availability using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops and per capita food availability for 21years from 2014-15 to 2034-2035. Findings of the study pointed out increasing trends; major crops area, production, and yield except the sugarcane crop as mentioned decreasing trend in sugarcane yield. Decreasing of sugarcane yield in forecast...
Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...e of determining some factors influencing average honey yield (AHY) per beehive in the year 2014. For this purpose, predictive performances of several data mining algorithms (CART, CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID and MARS) and artificial neural network algorithm (Multilayer Perceptron, MLP) were evaluated comparatively. Several factors thought as independent variables in the survey were age of beekeeper (AB), education level (EL), n...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...nfluenced by external factors, and peaks appeared suddenly after the disturbance occurred. Resting behaviour occupied most of the daytime hours during the adaptive phase, and the proportion was higher than other behavioural types except two times, resting behaviour decreased after 13:00 hours when activity behaviour increased. The adaptation of Milu was documented to a certain extent, it was found that the animal’s behavioural rhythms changed during accl...
Saba Irshad1,*, Ayesha Ashfaq1, Ammara Muazzam1 and Abida Yasmeen2
...up to 35%, with no inhibitory influence on Candida species and F. solani. These extracts fully inhibit growth of PC3 cells. Moreover, partially purified lectin, from Curcuma longa L. with a molecular weight of 17.3 KDa might be useful to treat patients as a considerably cheap herbal drug which can be prescribed to poor people efficiently at an affordable cost.
...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...rd poultry production sectors. Owing to public health risk, effective control of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this study was to construct Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based vaccine against a currently circulating avian influenza virus H5N1 strai...
Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...RF (921bp) of taste receptor candidate gene T2R1 of T. fasciatus and studied the differential expression spectrum of tissues in combination with bioinformatics analysis so as to understand the possible functions in response to chemical sensation behavior of taste receptors. The receptors when compared with T. rubripes, there was 99.2% identity in two kinds ORF sequence...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...nd also determine the factors which significantly contribute to increase the rice output. Moreover, this study estimated the sources of inefficiency. Data collected from 300 sample rice farmers into the Kharif cycle (2013-14) at five main rice growing districts of Punjab namely: Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Jhang, Vehari, and Gujranwala. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) was applied to find the results of a study. Study results reveal that direct seeding method is...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...tera) are voracious predators of many insect pests of economic importance. Among 6,000 species of coccinellids described worldwide, only 75 species have been reported from Pakistan so far. Keeping in view the limited work on these important beetles, an extensive faunal survey was conducted in the district Sargodha (32°05’02’’ N and 72°40’18’’ E), Pakistan to assess the species richness and distribution of coccinellid...
Muhammad Aslam Farooqi1,*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Sohail Akhtar1Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Naveed Aslam3 and Muhammad Rafay4
...o establish reliable monitoring programs in honey.
...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
... rate is an important factor affecting the growth of giant gourami. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different feeding rates on the growth, and carcass composition of giant gourami (initial weight 14.17±0.15 g and length 9.88±1.11 cm). The nutrition content of the diet was a cross energy of 3,340.50 kcal/kg, made up of 30% crude protein, 7% crude lipid, 6% crude fiber, 12% ash, and 12% moisture as a percentage of fish body ...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...itura F. under laboratory conditions. Both NPV and flubendiamide were applied using diet incorporation method. Larvae were allowed to feed for 48 h. Mortality was recorded until larvae died or pupated. Second instar larvae showed more susceptibility as compared with 4th instar larvae. Maximum mortality was recorded in 2nd instar larvae (91.02±2.04%) in comparison to fourth instar larvae (69.35±1.66%) in combined applicat...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
...en + etofenprox) and Senator 41.6%EC (imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen) against sucking insect pest complex and also determined their side-effect on natural enemies of these insect pests such as ants, parasitoid wasps, green lacewings and coccinellid beetles. Experimental design was split-plot randomized complete block with three replications for each treatment. Transgenic (Bt) cotton variety (FH-118) was sown. Insecticide formulations were applied according to the...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...mated by Field Impact Factor (FIF) of 121, 201 and 328 were recorded in Bannu (Southeren Zone), Nowshara (Central Zone) and Mansehra (Northeren Zone), respectively. Fields with yellow rust incidence of 26% or higher than 26% were found maximum in the northeren zone (30%) which was followed by the central (6%) and southern zone (2%). Frequency of yellow rust severity of 5 (20-29% leaf area affected) to 9 (>75% of leaf area affected) was maximum in northeren ...

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

... harvesting, packaging, storage and processing. There are various middlemen (market intermediaries) involved at different stages in the marketing of citrus. This study is an attempt to examine the marketing margins of the intermediaries involve in the value chain of sweet oranges of citrus group. Three villages in Bunir district are randomly selected and a total of 120 sampled respondents are selected using proportional allocation method. The findings revealed...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...cation and Research Directorate of Yuzuncu Yil University. The sheep were randomly allocated into three groups each of which contained 10 sheep. The groups were formed as; Group 1 The Control Group (No castration), Group 2 (Surgical castration group) and Group 3 (Chemical castration group), respectively. Blood sample was taken from vena jugularis of the animals before the application and every two months for a total of 4 times for 6 months and hormone analyses...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...marked and regularly monitored to get data on nesting behavior (nest height and diameter), birds plumage variations, courtship behavior, eggs measurements (clutch size, eggs length, breadth and weight), incubation and hatching. The hatching of the chicks was observed to be an asynchronous one i.e., chicks did not hatch at the same time but at an interval of a day (20-25 h). Role of parents during weaning period i.e. feeding and parental care of nestling...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...lues of the condition factor which remained as 0.610, 0.720 and 0.620 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Feed conversion (FCR) were found to be non-significant among all treatments (P>0.05). Survival rate were 90% in T1 which was highest than T2 (50%) and T3 (80%). Water quality remained as temperature (25.2 ± 0.20 °C), dissolved oxygen (5.2 ± 0.11mg/L), pH (6.9 ± 0.15), ammonia (0.48 ± 0.02 1mg...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
... portable sisal decorticator for extracting fibre from sisal leaves. A prototype of sisal decorticator was designed and fabricated at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The prototype machine was tested for fibre extraction. Results indicated that sisal fibre production capacity of this machine was 15.94 kg h-1 (dry fibre). Average yield of dry sisal...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...inery by FSC i.e. cultivator (51%), rotavator (56%), mold bold plough (56%), disk plough (48%), single furrow (47%), drill (61%) and ridge maker (53%). Market was the source of seed for majority of the respondents regarding cauliflower (43%), bitter gourd (32%), bottle gourd (13%), potato (34%) and squash (29%). Similarly, majority of the respondents obtained urea (73%), SSP (54%), DAP (60%) and Nitro-Phos (55%) from the FSC...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...ree replications i.e. factor A was Deblossoming Time (Control, May, June, July, August and September) and factor B was GA3 application (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm). Results demonstrated that minimum fruit drop (5.95%), fruit density (0.80gcm-3) with maximum number of new shoots (55.7), number of new flowers (225.3), fruit weight (197.5g), and fruit volume (245.5cm3) were recorded in plants deblossomed in September treated ...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...sample collection the factors like age/period, employment status and marital status were considered after informed consent. We found one single base change G>C at c.745 resulting in a nonsynonymous change p.E249Q in theCOMT gene. In-silico analysis predicted it to be damaging and disease causing. Screening of case and control group data showed no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with p-value 0.879 and 0.32, respectively. There was no signifi...
Muhammad Fiaz1, Khadija Munawar2, Muhammad Mushtaq2,*, Mukhtar Ahmad3, Mushtaq Ahmad Chaudhry3, Muhammad Aslam3, Tanveer Ahmad1 and Nasrullah4
...ance in lambs after mandatory colostrum feeding. Results depicted that average daily gain (ADG) and the body measurements were not different (P>0.05) among lambs fed ewe milk and calf milk replacer-I but higher (P<0.05) than of calf milk replacer-2. Ewe milk and milk replacer-1 were equally efficient diets and better (P<0.05) than replacer-2 in terms of FCR. The survival rate in lambs fed ewe milk and replacer-I remained 100% as compared to 75% in cas...
Shabana1,*, Farah Ehsan1 and Shahida Hasnain1,2
...2Ser variant of proliferator activator receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1α) gene with diabetes in Pakistani population. A total of 900 blood samples (diabetic=451, controls=449) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. A significant difference in genotype distribution was observed between cases (Gly/Gly, 66.9%; Gly/Ser, 20.17%; Ser/Ser, 12.8%) and c...

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

...CB) Design with three factors replicated three times. Peach fruit trees at berry stage were sprayed with three sources of calcium (calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium sulphate) at three calcium concentrations (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0%) stored for 30 days at 10 days interval. The experimental results showed that calcium sources, concentration and storage duration significantly affected ...
Umair Talib1*, Ijaz Ashraf1, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhary1, Riaz Ahmad2
...istan include private sector in extension circle to enhance the effectiveness of public extension through competition. This study conducted in 2016, sought to analyze whether smallholder rice growers are more satisfied with public or private extension organizations and development of a strategy to enhance the effectiveness of extension work. The specific objectives were to ascertain the satisfaction smallholder rice growers regarding the extension work co...
Muhammad Hannan Ahmed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Abu Bakar M. Raza1, M. Afzal1, A. Khaliq1, Yasir Iftikhar2 and Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3
...hermore, metrological factors (especially temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) also play vital role in the population dynamics of sucking insect pest complex like jassid, aphid, thrips and mites. The present study was conducted on six cotton cultivars (3 Bt and 3 non-Bt) to monitor the population dynamics of thrips in relation to abiotic climatic factors. Interaction ...
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
... levels may be a risk factor and may predict the development of GDM.
...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos1,*, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Elsayeid O. Swilam1 and Mu’ath Q. Al-Ghadi3
...production efficiency factor (PEF) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between Elancoban and natural products. However, treatment had a significant effect on BWG and FCR (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), chicks which had received Elancoban had the highest BWG (327.9 g) and converted the feed to gain with highest efficiency (1.444 g: g). Challenged birds had longer small intestines and heavier liver as compared to unchallenged birds. Lesion score a...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...clinical trials are mandatory to corroborate our initial findings.
...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
...iv>...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...e need for continued monitoring of poultry flocks to better understand its epidemiology and understanding the impact of one virus on the pathobiology of second virus 

...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...cosal surfaces of respiratory, intestinal and reproductive tracts are the primary entry points for viruses into host cells. Amongst these, respiratory tract is prone to direct and continuous exposure to viral infection. Respiratory viruses including influenza virus, coronaviruses and herpes viruses are important pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, succ...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...tick species and risk factors associated with tick infestation and burden levels were studied in bovine from three distinct temporal zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Twelve hundreds ticks were collected from four hundreds animals comprising of two hundred and fifty cattle and one hundred and fifty buffaloes. Descriptive statistics with Pearson’s Chi-square test and regression model were applied to analyze the data. The results of study f...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...armigera under laboratory studies for toxicity, sublethal and antifeedant effect. The result showed that ethanol based extract was the most effective to control the H. armigera followed by the ethyl acetate. The sublethal concentration of ethanol based extract of C. colocynthis increased larval and pupal duration as compared with control. The percent pupation, adult emergence and pupal weight decreased in treated populations as compare...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...rd. Aimed to save and restore the small population in Henan Province, China, a reintroduction program was conducted in the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve in 2007. Wild birds bred in semi-wilderness were reintroduced. Habitat selection and breeding ecology of crested ibis in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve has not been studied. To clarify the breeding status of the crested ibis and to provide more reference for the reintroduction of this species, the process...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...merous stress causing factors. Numerous SA levels are found to protect several species of plants against environmental stresses by initiating different processes that are involved in the mechanism of stress tolerance. SA is part of an extremely complex signal transduction network’s part and it works differently in different systems. Drought stress is a major restraint for crop production in arid and semi arid states such as Pakistan. In this study experi...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...cyanobacteria i.e Oscillatory-MMF-1 (Oscillatoria princeps), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-2 (Lyngbya mucicola), Leptolyngbaya- MMF-3 (Lyngbya Phormidium), Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Rice seedlings were transplanted to each pot on July 18, 2016. The data were recorded on agronomic parameters of rice crop, plant tissue and post-harvest soil analysis. Bu...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

...sodium benzoate) on the storage stability of muskmelon jam. The treatments included MJ1 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + no preservatives), MJ2 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.1% sodium benzoate), MJ3 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.1% potassium sorbate), MJ4 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.01% potassium metabislulphite), MJ5 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.05% sodium benzoate + 0.05% potassium sorbate), MJ6 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.05% sodium benzoate + 0.01% potassium metabisulphite), MJ7 (Muskm...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...%) of WB irrigations monitored were under irrigated while large number (50%) of NB irrigation were over irrigated. Simulation modelling showed that achievement of above 90% Potential Application Efficiency (PAE) is possible by improving operation (inflow rate and time to irrigation cut-off) and field design (field length and width/number of furrows per set). This work raised the prospects of improved irrigation efficiency of raised beds in Indus Basin, which ...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
...ed in 0.25ml straws and stored into liquid nitrogen for 24 hours. Successively, thawing and evaluation was performed for sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, morphology, malondialdehyde (MDA), fatty acid composition and super oxide dismutase (SOD). Sperm characteristics such as sperm motility, viability, morphology, membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were decreased in treated groups. DHA concentration was increased in all supplemented groups....
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
...ete block design with factorial arrangement during autumn 2015. Treatments were replicated three times. The treatments were comprised of C = no Zn and B (Control); Zn (S) = soil application of Zn @ of 12 kg ha-1; B (S): soil application of B @ 3 kg ha-1; Zn (F) = foliar application of 1% Zn at 9th leaf stage; B (F) = foliar application of 0.5% B at 9th leaf stage; Zn (S) +B (S) = soil application of Zn @ 12 kg ha

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...t. The most important factor implicated in the angiogenic processes is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficie...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...l. In this 3× 3 factorial and completely randomized design study 324 fish were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) whereas the phytase levels were (0, 500 and 1000 FTU). The addition of 3 % citric acid and 1000FTU phytase produced significant interaction effect on calcium and phosphorus digestibility and different body contents of L. rohita. Phytase and citric acid increased the digestibility of calcium and phosphorus with improvem...

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

...erent agricultural subsectors in Nigeria. Data on the value of output of crop, livestock and fishery subsectors of agriculture,and the amounts of the fund allocated to each subsector from 1982 to 2013 were subjected to econometrics (time series) analysis. Results established positive and statistically significant influence of the amount of fund apportioned to crop (p<0.01) and livestock...
Mehmet Guvenc1,*, Ayşe Nilay Guvenc3, Ökkeş Yılmaz2 and Mehmet Tuzcu2
...ratrol act as a bioregulator for some biochemical parameters in fructose induced non-alcoholic fatty liver.
...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
... to host-related risk factors in Bos permiginu s cattlewas conducted in farm houses at three main regions (Western by-pass, Spiny village, and Sariab region) of District Quetta from March, 2013 to March, 2014.   Around 1649 ticks were captured from six main body parts of 404 cattle. Of these 346 (65.96%) were observed to be plagued by one or more tick infestation. Compositions of tick species captured from the host were Hyalomma anatolicu...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

... whereas; Eristalis arbustorum was found least in number during study period. The abundance of hoverflies fauna varied seasonally, the highest abundance was recorded in spring while lowest in autumn. Pearson’s correlation coefficient results revealed that there was a strong positive and significant correlation of number of host plant species with the profusion of hoverflies whereas; temperature had a strong negative and significant correlation with the a...
Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
...ross-breeding. A compensatory index matrix for 3×3 full diallel cross combinations used for selection was built to investigate compensatory like growth of each combination. Yes/No(Y/N) effect was determined for specific combination dyads, which there were significant differences in body weight at tagging, but no difference in body weight at harvesting. Among the 36 dyads, 7 had an YN response (19.4%). When the YN effec...

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...uggest that a strong monitoring of farmers is needed in the study area. In addition, farmers may be supplied in-kind agricultural credit to control credit fungibility. 

...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...nd indirectly it is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romania. At the Aphis nasturtii species the smallest length of the body found for aphids captured in Romania was 1.1...
Saba Manzoor1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Abdul Wajid1, Sehrish Firyal1, Muhammad Tayyab1, Muhammad Mansha2, Asim Khalid Mahmood3, Abu Saeed Hashmi1 and Muhammad Wasim1,*
...ow this transcription factor affects the downstream targets to achieve the goal remains unanswered. Therefore, further research is desperately needed to understand the mechanism of tumor pathogenesis in animals in order to identify the molecular targets for proper cure of this ailment.
...
Rehana Shahida1, Tasnim Farasat1, Shagufta Naz1,* and Shahjahan2
... relationship of inflammatory cytokines with insulin resistance and the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of atherosclerosis and hyperglycemia within the context of chosen pro atherogenic parameters including plasma glucose level, serum levels of insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α. Serum level of thrombomodulin was assessed as a measure of vascular damage. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, waist /hip ratio, B.P., personal his
Dr. Moazzam Baig Mirza
...n a public or private sector? It is a challenging and life saving facility. 
...
Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz
...tial of the livestock sector in Pakistan. In this perspective a field study was conducted for three consecutive years (2013 to 2015) at Soil Salinity Research Institute, PindiBhattian, Hafizabad, Pakistan to evaluate different nitrogen levels and the cost-effective sowing technique for oat forage production under salt affected conditions. Two sowing methods i.e. broad cast and drill sowing with 30 cm apart rows and four nitrogen levels (75,100,125 and 150 % of...

 Zeenat Bano1,*, Sajid Abdullah1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Anjum Zia3 and Wardah Hassan1

...ning tool in natural monitoring studies.
...
Zhenyu Chang1, Hui Zhang1, Khalid Mehmood1,2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman1, Xiaodan Yuan1, Zhaoyang Li1, Fazul Nabi1, Xiaoxing Wu1, Xinxin Tian1, Xueting Liu1, Jingen Xu3 and Donghai Zhou1,*
...of intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) in intestinal disease was explored. Porcine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant human (rh) TFF3. Cell proliferation and TFF3 mRNA expression were examined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. The results showed that rhTFF3 effectively prevented the cell injury induced by LPS (P<...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
...ts of fennel oil was monitored by comparing it with a synthetic antidepressant drug, fluoxetine. The rats were divided into three groups as control, drug and oil which were respectively treated with water, fluoxetine (0.3 mg/kg) and fennel oil (0.5 ml/day). The treatment was continued for three weeks. Struggling time in forced swim test (FST), number of square crossed in open field test (OFT) and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze (EPM) was moni
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
... encodes a growth factor receptor that is expressed in the precursor of the melanophore. It plays an important role in the multiplication, migration and survival of melanophores. As of yet, no studies have addressed the diverse expression of the KIT gene and its protein ingoats of different fur colors. The effect of KIT mutations on KIT protein expression was examined in white cashmere and black cash...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...SDS-PAGE was used to monitor the purification steps, and protein band was located by immunoblotting technique. Bubaline placental lactogen was purified to homogeneity and showed a molecular weight of about 30 kD. Purified placental lactogen was administered to male albino mice for up to eight weeks for growth promoting activity. Increased mammary growth was observed in test female non lactating mice, as compared to controls when placental lactogen was applied....
Mumtaz Akhtar1, Shabana Naz2,*, Muhamamad Iqbal3, Waqar Azeem4 and Mirza Azhar Beg5
...em to be an important factor in this respect. However, interaction of age and sex was statistically significant (F= 6.94; d.f.= 3, 112; P< 0.01).
...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
... tissues are the main factors that influence the gene expression significantly.
...
LX Ye1,2, JX Wang1,2,*, P Li1,2 and XT Zhang1,2 
...the GH-secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has been found in the testes of many vertebrates, and in the cerebellum and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich, but there is little known about its distribution in the testes of the African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the testes of African ostrich were investigated using immunohistochemistry. The testes of African o...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

...labad. There were two factors, green manuring (No green manuring, moringa green manuring and Jantar green manuring) and different levels of NPK fertilizers (no fertilizers, 50% of RDF, 100% of RDF). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with split plot arrangement in triplicate run. Results from the experiment revealed that both the factors significantly affected all the parameters under study while...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...tudy investigated the factors affecting off-farm employment of small farmers in Peshawar Valley. A sample of 201 small farmers were selected using random sampling technique and data were collected through a pre-tested interview schedule. This study focuses on two selected districts i.e. Peshawar, and Charsadda. Four villages were selected two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that the coefficients of household size, educational level of the samp...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...resentative virulence factors or genes, including E.coli adherence factor (K88, CS31A, afaE-8), toxins (estA, estB, Stxl, Stx2, EAST1), pathogenicity island (eaeA, irp2, ETT2) and outer membrane protein (ompA). Moreover O-antigen serotype was tested by slide agglutination test and a mouse model was built to assess the lethality of the E.coli isolates through subcutaneous-infec...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...rd. Aimed to save and restore the small population in Henan Province, China, a reintroduction program was conducted in the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve in 2007. Wild birds bred in semi-wilderness were reintroduced. Habitat selection and breeding ecology of crested ibis in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve has not been studied. To clarify the breeding status of the crested ibis and to provide more reference for the reintroduction of this species, the process...

Bibi Haleema1*, Abdur Rab1 and Syed Asghar Hussain2 

...k (RCB) Design with 3 factors, replicated 3 times. Calcium (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%), Boron (0, 0.25, 0.5%) and Zinc (0, 0.25, 0.5%) were applied as foliar spray three times. Calcium application at 0.6% increased plant height (88.04 cm), number of primary (2.63) and secondary (7.15) branches, leaves plant-1 (182), leaf area (65.52 cm2), and fruit per plant (66.15). In case of B levels, more plant height (88.14 cm), number of primary (2.61) and secondary (7.44) br...

Riaz Alam* and Muhammad Sajid 

...Block Design with two factors factorial arrangement. Air layerings were practiced on July 1, 16, 31; August 15, 30 and September 14 in plants of olive cultivars Frontoio, Manzanilla, Ottobratica, Pendolino and Picual. Significant variations were recorded among olive cultivars regarding asexual propagation through air-layerage. The daughter saplings of cultivar Manzanilla took less number of days (47.94) to root appearance, p...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
...PH depends on several factor and various methods have been used to reduce and treat the pain of PDPH. We evaluated effects of hydrocortisone on the treatment of PDPH in obstetrical patient.To compare mean decrease in Visual Analogue Scalepain score in patients who developed PDPH after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia who were given conventional treatment versus conventional treatment plus hydrocortisone.Double blind randomized control trial....
Qunhua Han1,2, Meiwen Zhang1,*, Cong Guo2, Xunjun Zhou1, Bo Li1 and Yong Wang1

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Munir3 and Muhammad Sohail Khan

...of the most important factors, which affect pollination efficiency and fruit set. Fruit set, yield and physico-chemical characteristics of date palm cv. Gulistan were assessed under agro climatic condition of D. I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2012 and 2013. Treatments consisted of five varied pollination timings i.e., at spathe opening day, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after spathe opening. Fresh male strand placement technique was used in this study. St...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...ologists as stress indicator in evaluation of palaeo-environments. The present study involves the analysis of enamel hypoplasia in seven extinct giraffid species to determine and compare stress periods during the early Miocene to Pleistocene ages of the Siwaliks of Pakistan. Enamel hypoplasia is a tooth malady which is caused by the deficiency of food/nutrients. The feeding deficiency is directly linked to the physiological or environmental stress. In this stu...
Saswati Roy1, Rakesh Pashi2, S. Dey3 and Shantanu Jha
...e recorded as local migratory, nine species (12.16%) were recorded to be winter migratory and rest of the 50 species (67.57%) were recorded as resident.
...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...d to calculate the indicators of reproduction were collected from cows inseminated by semen of Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian bulls and giving birth to single calf. The following information was taken from each animal: age at first insemination, age at first calving, number of semen portions attributable to successful insemination, length of pregnancy and periods of: insemination service, postpartum resting period, interpregnancy period and intercalving per...
İbrahim Aytekin1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Koksal Karadas3, Rifat Akşahan4 and İsmail Keskin1
...several continuous predictors evaluated in the current study were: withers height (WH), back height (BH), front rump height (FRH), back rump height (BRH), body length (BL), back rump width (BRW), chest depth (CD) and chest circumference (CC). Also, the breed factor was considered as a nominal predictor and fattening period (FP) was accepted as an ordinal predictor<...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...ed under field and laboratory conditions the influence of the host plant of P. solenopsis on the parasitism success and the female fitness of A. bambawalei, Five plant species, commonly found to be host of P. solenopsis, were tested: hibiscus, potato, okra, eggplant and tomato. Under no choice test conditions, the results showed that the % parasitism did not differ significantly between different host plants in labora...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...der greenhouse and laboratory conditions. A sharp reduction in the population of T. urticae was obtained after one week of applying Huwa-San TR50 at a rate of 4000 ppm. This resulted in mortalities of 82.10 and 78.60% under greenhouse and laboratory conditions, respectively. The side effects of Huwa-San TR50 on predatory mite, Neosiulus cucumeris, were also tested to gain suc...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...aluated under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, oxamyl had significant effects on the mortality of RPW. After exposure to direct spray of oxamyl, adult mortality was 62, 82 and 100% whereas larvae mortality was 72, 77 and 100% after 1, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Alive adult and larvae were completely paralyzed after 24 hours. There was significant difference between 2 treatments, 1 and 24 h, in both ad...
Rana Hanan1*, Muhammad Waqar Shafi1, Sumair Anwar2 and Numrah Nawaz1
...ypertension is a multifactorial chronic disease and a silent cause of high causalities around the globe. Both hyper and pre-hypertension affect all ages and professions, and are as common as flu infections by affecting 1 in every 5 persons. In order to determine frequency of hypertension and pre-hypertension among medical students and their association with various variable and fixed risk factors, this study was designed. Th...
Xiaoting Zhang1,2, Jiaxiang Wang1,2,*, Peng Li1,2,* and Lixun Ye1,2
...ormone secretagogue receptor, has been identified in the lung of many vertebrates. While ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells have been found in the cerebellum, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus), little is known about its distribution in the lung of the African ostrich. To provide the morphological basis of ghrelin function in the African ostrich lung, the distribution and morphological characteristics...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*
...mainly via androgen receptor (AR) to achieve. In this paper, the expression of AR mRNA in various parts of the oviduct was analyzed by qPCR. Oviductal structure was observed by H&E staining. The distribution of AR in the cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of AR mRNA was found in the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina of the oviduct. The expression of the AR mRNA in infundibulum was the strongest...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...b>) mixtures under laboratory and field conditions (71.5 ± 7.4). The results showed a significant effect of binary treatments of fungi and chemical insecticides on biological parameters of C. pipiens and its progeny (P<0.05). The insect pathogenic fungi showed compatibility with insecticides and the combined application can improve the management program of C. pipiens.
...
Wanrong Wei and Weiguo Zhang* 
...ping, hibernation, food storage, protection from predators and extreme environment, and the function of burrows varies with the degree of burrow complexity. We studied the burrow architecture (length, internal dimensions, fractal dimension of tunnel systems, number of nesting chambers and surface holes) by excavating the tunnels of 24 burrow systems of the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae). Pikas have two types of bur...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...of the major limiting factors to maize production throughout the world. As the information regarding its distribution is lacking therefore, its incidence and prevalence was determined in seven major maize growing districts of Punjab during 2016. The maximum overall incidence of maize borer (12%) was recorded in Khanewal district followed by Multan (6%) while it was the minimum (1%) in district Okara. On the other hand, maximum prevalence of maize borer was obs...

SHARIF UDDIN, MD. HASIBUL HASAN, MOHAMMED MAHBUB IQBAL, MOHAMMAD AMZAD HOSSAIN

...faces of male’s pectoral were little rough during the breeding season. The Gonado-somatic index (GSI) value of female Anabus testudineus was ranged from 12.71±0.73 (July) to 1.13±0.10 (October) while hepato-somatic index (HSI) value of female was ranged from 4.37±0.64 (January) to 1.58±0.19 (July). The GSI and HSI were inversely related with each other. The fecundity was counted from the month of April to July by using gravime...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...ocation are important factors in studying utility of plant material by avifauna. The current study investigated nesting use of tree species by avifauna at Pabbi Range Forest Kharian (32.811°N and 73.865°E), District Gujrat, from September 2013 to June 2015. Data were collected from five selected sampling sites by searching and identifying nests of different bird species in various vegetation types and observing birds on the nest. The nests were moni
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...0 days at constant laboratory conditions. Peripheral blood erythrocytes were taken on 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 day of exposure for the DNA damage assessment in-terms of percentage of damaged cells. In general, a dose dependent response was observed in fish erythrocytes with induction of maximum DNA damage at highest concentration (1/3rd of LC50) of pesticide mixture. Statistically significant effects for both concentrations and time of expos...

Naila Riaz1 , Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2* , Khizar Samiullah3

... Aphididae) in the laboratory. R. erysimi were treated orally as well as topically with different concentrations of the crude venom. All aphids died within 6 hr with oral treatment at 1.5µl of the venom dose. However, at the same venom dose, 100% mortality was achieved at 8 hr posttreatment when applied topically. Similarly, oral administration of 1µl and 0.5µl venom caused 100% mortality at 8 hr post-treatment compared to 10 hr and 12 hr pos...

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...ered a polygenic multifactorial condition where both genes and environment have roles in disease development. In the present study we selected a family withmultiple schizophrenic patients and have identified some reasons for disease development. It is estimated from study that in Pakistan there is gender bias in schizophrenia unlike the worldwide data because more of males are affected in the selected family. For the males the age at onset was higher compared ...

Haji Muhammad1, 2, Zafar Iqbal1, Qamar Bashir2, Muhammad Amir Hanif3

...ionship and condition factor of 18 cat fish species belonging to five families of Indus River in Taunsa barrage from Punjab, Pakistan. The value of length weight relationship (LWR) equation and condition factor (K) ranged W= -0.249 TL0.79 – W= -2.803 TL3.55 and 0.07 – 1.69 respectively. The objective of this study was to determine LWR and condition factor of cat fish species of...

Gamalat Osman1, Mansour Galal1, Abbas Abul-Ezz2, Ahmad Mohammed1, Mohammed Abul-Ela3 and Asmaa Mostafa Hegazy2

...s was tested as bioindicator to assess water quality and identify exposure to oil contaminants. L. carinatus was chronically exposed to crude oil at intervals of 24 hours, 15 days and 30 days. The LC50 of crude oil for L. carinatus was 700 ppm. HPLC analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the flesh demonstrated that PAHs accumulation in the treated snails was fluctuated with time. The accumulation is due to their biotransformation process dur...

Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Naeem*

...sal fin length (DFL), pectoral fin length (PtFL), pelvic fin length (PvFL), anal fin length (AFL), eye diameter (ED), caudal fin length (CFL), caudal fin width (CFW) of farmed collected Ctenopharyngodonidella were studied to know their correlation with reference to size (TL and W), and types of growth pattern. Correlation coefficient (r) value (0.984) shows high significant relationship between total length and wet body weight, while growth pattern was isometr...

Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain1, Farhat Jabeen1, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain 2,Sajjad Ahmad3, Abida Ashraf4,Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1

...iets. Anti-utritional factors (phytate) are present in plant by-products reduces the bioavailability of minerals to fish, resulting in poor fish erformance. Test ingredient was used as M.oleiferaleaf meal (MOLM) to prepare six experimental diets that were supplemented with graded levels of phytase (0, 300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 FTU kg-1). The fingerlings were fed at the rate of 4% of live wet weight twice a day and feces were collected from each tank. On the...

Manzoor Hussaina,b

...A profile of the perpetrator. With the increase in post-coital interval, the possibility to get the autosomal DNA STR profile of the perpetrator diminishes rapidly from an alive victim. This becomes more serious problem especially when victims of rape cases provide vaginal swabs after several days of the incidence. The study was designed to find the time interval at which autosomal STR system fails to generate the DNA profil...

Fatima Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3, Fouzia Tabbsum3, Javed Iqbal Qazi3
 

...ce Methodology. Three factors with three levels such as H2SO4 conc. (0.6, 0.8, 1%), substrate conc. (5, 10, 15%) and residence time (4, 6, 8h) were employed for pretreatment with and without autoclaving at 121oC for 15 min. The enzyme production was carried out in an Erlenmeyer flask of 250mL capacity using pretreated peanut shells as substrate by Bacillus subtilis K-18 in submerged fermentation at 50 °C for 24 h. Results revealed that acid pretreatment wa...

 Maleeha Manzoor1*, Madiha Manzoor2, Qurat-ul-ain Ahmed3, Sobia Ahmed4, Shazia Manzoor5

...nts and their dietary history. Prevalence rate of anemia in the present study was found to be 78% (9.57±1.07), between age 19-40 years and it’s higher in 3rd trimester of their pregnancies. Additionally low educational status and poor dietary habits showed high risks of anemia among the pregnant women.

...

 Maryum Fakhar, Iqra Jabbar, Anjum Nasim Sabri*

...d that at low/ sub-inhibitory concentration of nickel (500 μg/ml), motility is inhibited; adhesion, hydrophobicity, aggregation, EPS production and biofilm formation of two strains are increased. This biofilm forming ability can be employed in
urification of waste waters and treating contaminated soils.

...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...uence. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both isolates showed fair growth up to 1 mM of K2Te2O3. Both strains showed maximum growth at 37ºC and pH of 7. The bacterial growth in the presence of metal ions was delayed as compared to the control. High ellurite reduction potential was shown 98% (1f) and 97% (2b) after 24 h of incubation. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was increased to 279% (1f) and 150% (2b) when ompared to the respe...
Telat Yanik1,* and Irfan Aslan2
...mperative, additional factors such as predation, food shortage or heavy fishing may exacerbate the climatic impacts on the aquaculture biodiversity. Based upon current general consensus among researchers, a global legislation and action-plan is required. Additionally, regulatory authorities from both developed and underdeveloped countries should enforce the implementation of these legislations. Such initiatives are fundament...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
...ht GABAB receptor antagonist (CGP55845; 3-N [1-(S)-(3,4- dichlorophenyl) ethyl] amino-2-(S)- hydroxypropyl-P-benzyl-phosphinic acid), intraperitoneally injected for 12 days, on hematological and serum biochemical profile of 6 week old male albino mice. Blood samples from male albino mice (CGP55845 treated N = 14 and saline treated N = 16) were collected directly by cardiac puncture and used for estimation of hematological and some serum biochemical ...

Sajid Muhammad* and Fida Mohammad 

...itioning on vertex in sectorE-3, E-4 and E-5, while G30 in sector E-1 and E-2 revealed their specific suitability to these environments. GGE biplotrecognizedE-4 as ideal environment, whereas G49 as ideal genotype.Thus, GGEbiplotanalysis identified G49 (Wafaq×Ghaznavi-98-3) as high yielding stable genotype among breeding lines which can be commercialized after fulfilling procedural requirements. 

...
Zahid Farooq1, Sufi Muhammad Akram2, Muhammad Saleem Khan3,* and Muhammad Wajid4
...ng-nose sand snake (Lytorhynchus paradoxus)and Afghan awl-head snake(L. ridgewayi)(0.38%; N = 2) were the least abundant. Snakes were more frequent in croplands and least frequent in barren areas.
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...; salinity. Condition factor was found to be significantly higher on 40‰ salinity than 15‰ to 35‰ salinity. Feed conversion ratio remained non-significant in all salinity levels. Present study proves that red tilapia can be reared up to 30‰ salinity to get optimum growth and maximum survival rate. Biochemical analysis of fish meat showed that moisture, protein, lipid, ash and crude fiber were not significantly (P>0.05) aff...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
...the Sox transcription factor family, have been implicated in the developing nervous system. Their expression has been seen in neural stem cells as well as differentiating neurons. However, despite their importance in development, a relatively low number have been characterized for freshwater fish. In this study, we were able to gain three full-length SoxD sequences from transcriptome sequencing data of carp: CcSox5, CcSox6 and CcSox13 (...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...iable based on the predictor variables. The present study deals with evaluating relationship between egg production (EP) and some related traits by decision tree analysis with Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithms. A total of 1912 EP records of layers which hatched at four different periods were collected from a commercial flock in west of Turkey. The analysis performed with cathegorical (c...
Ozgur Altan*
... extent possible and to store them separately. At the end of the study, the fatty acids content in the liquid part, the nutrient content, amino acid and fatty acid profile in the solid part have been analyzed. According to the results obtained, it was observed that the solid part could not be used commercially by substituting the fish meal in a rate of one-to-one, and that it could be included in the formulation as a second class raw material although it is no...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...contagious equine respiratory diseases. Due to lack of awareness and interest of all the equine industry stakeholders no vaccination against EI is performed, also the information regarding the epidemiology and occurrence of EI is lacking in Pakistan. We hereby attempted to determine the seroprevalence, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seropreval...
Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed*
...ovaries age effect on restoration function upon transplantation in mice and rats. Eighteen adult female rats were classified to three equal groups in addition to sex young females as donor of young ovaries. Similar classification was done using eighteen female mice and sex young females. The females of mice or rats were anesthetized for ovarian transplantation using (6.2 and 13.2 mg/kg BW) and (13.3 and 26.6 mg/kg BW) diazepam and xylazine, respectively. The f...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

... apart.
...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...events in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Their frequency is directly related to the prognosis of the disease. The objective of this study was to identify the ‘frequent exacerbator’ phenotype and determine the risk factors for increased frequency of acute exacerbations in local chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in a cross...
Tania A. Shakoori1,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Khadija Irfan Khawaja3 and Faisal Masud4
...istone deacetylase inhibitor. Recent studies have shown that NaB activates the intracellular pathways involving key metabolic regulator molecules. However, the effect of NaB on Sirt1/AMPK and Akt/mTOR axes is not reported. We compared genetic expression of Sirt1, AMPK, Akt, and mTOR in adipose tissue from mice treated with NaB versus placebo. Four groups...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...0 ul elution buffer and stored at -70C. Each strain of FMD virus was serially diluted to -5dilution in order to check the efficacy of test. Reaction was completed in 1 hr and 10 min at temperatures 600C. It was also tested in hot water bath on same temperature. Results were same in both techniques. Results showed that LAMP was more sensitive for FMD strain O (positive reaction upto -4 dilution) than others strains A and Asia -1 (positive reaction up...
Lowell Gustafson
...v>In God in Cosmic History: Where Science & History Meet Religion, Ted Peters makes an important contribution to our thinking about a crucial set of dialogues among science, history, and religion. His goal is to expand a secular view of Big History to one of Cosmic History that includes a view of God as its ...

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

...n three replications. Factor one was sowing dates (June 18, 30, July 15, 29 and August 5) as main plot treatment. The second factor was maize selected varieties (i.e. Azam, Jalal, Babar, CS-200, CS-220, SB-92K97, SB-909, SB-989, and SB-292) as subplot treatment. Experimental unit was 3.5 m x 3.6 m accommodating 5 rows at 0.7 m distance. Fertilizer was applied 200, 120, 80 kg ha-1 (N, P and K) to Hybrids and 120, 90, 60 kg ha...
Ann Milliken Pederson
...ding God in Cosmic History was like quenching a dry, parched throat with a long cool drink of water. Indeed, Peters claims that humans have an “ontological thirst” for the ultimate and this book attempts to satisfy the thirst or at least provide the water to drink. In a world where fragmentation, brutality, and chaos mark the lives of so many, it is no wonder that people long for wholeness, healing, transformation, and an encounter with the ...
Nancy R. Howell
...ook, God in Cosmic History, Ted Peters carries Big History beyond the scientific horizon to reflect on the God of creation and redemption. In critique, I ask two questions: (1) What does Peters’ Cosmic History contribute to addressing the issue of particularity? (2) In what ways does Peters lead us to deeper thinking about the nature of God? Surely, reflection on these two que...
George L. Murphy
...uo; idea of Cosmic History includes the scientific account of Natural History right along with the story of humanity according to World History. Cosmic History adds meaning to the scientific account of natural history. But, in my critique, I contend that it is Go...
Francisco J. Ayala
...ook, God in Cosmic History, he addresses the knotty question of teleology in evolutionary biology. This requires further discussion. Scientifically speaking, we can perceive design in nature without a designer. On the one hand, there is purpose in nature. Human eyes have a purpose, namely, to see. Teleological explanations are required in biology for (1) goal oriented behavior; (2) self-regulating systems; and (3) the function of organs and limbs. On th...
Ted Peters
...ombination of natural history and human history? No, say big historians; we cannot ask the God question. Religion maybe, but certainly not God. It follows that we need more than just Big History which looks at nature through scientific lenses. We need Cosmic History to pose the God question, and even to discern human m...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...s were analyzed in laboratory for the presence of bacteria. The samples were crushed homogenized in 0.85% TBE buffer and platted on YDC (Yeast extract-Dextrose-CaCO3) for bacterial growth. For identification of the characteristic bacterial colonies Cmm-specific primers CMM-5 and CMM-6 were used for amplification of 614bp product from pat-1 gene of bacterial plasmid. The whole bacterial DNA was used as template, extracted with standard procedures using commerci...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
...smn;0.001 mg/L) were monitored throughout the study period. Water quality parameters remained within the recommended range. Our results suggest that Nile tilapia, O. niloticus may give maximum eggs up to 15‰ salinity with 92% survival of fry.
...

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

...llow tillage (ST, cultivator 0-20cm) and deep tillage (DT, moldboard plough 0-40cm) and different organic and inorganic fertilizers application to wheat crop on organic matter, micro-nutrient status and physical properties of soil at the NDF Farm, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2015-16. The study was planned in RCB split plot design with fertilizers; control (Farmer’s practices, FP, 60-45 N-P2O5 kg ha-1), NPK recommended dose (RD, 120:90:...
Senol Celik1,* and Orhan Yilmaz2
...owever, variables and factors that correctly estimate this trait are lacking. Here, we applied classification and regression tree (CART) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) approaches to estimate the most important variables in predicting the body weight of Turkish Tazi dogs. Using various body measurements, the CART algorithm proposed that withers height (WH), abdominal width (AW), rump height (RH) and chest depth (CD) can significant effect t...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
...rowth rate, condition factor and survival rate than those reared on 25‰ and 30‰. Feed conversion ratio was found similar in all levels which is not significantly different (P> 0.05). Whole body composition i.e. protein (53.16% – 53.26%), moisture (71.16% – 71.26%), lipids (2.49% – 2.52%), ash (4.16% – 4.18%) contents of fish whole body were not significantly (P>0.05) different at varying salinity...
Meghan Griffith
...iscussion in the introductory chapter, Fischer draws a comparison between determinism and foreknowledge with respect to moral responsibility, arguing that, like determinism, foreknowledge is compatible with our having it. Thus, he offers a parallel to one of his landmark views, namely his semicompatibilism about determinism. Fischer defines semicompatibilism about determinism as “the doctrine that moral responsibility is compatible with causal det...

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

...tural parasites and predators are used to check pest growth instead of pesticides which reduces ecological and health damage. Pesticides are used at the last resort in IMP method so it reduces the cost of production and increases the farmers’ profit. However, concerns about production may hinder widespread adoption of this technology by farmers. The aim of the study is to evaluate economic feasibility of IPM method in Punjab. The study consisted of 326 f...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...ntries closer to the equator. Crop damages can reach 50 - 100%, due to infected plants and shriveled grain. These problems can be overcome by knowledge about the disease, identifying resistance lines and subsequently develop resistant varieties with an aim to shorten the disease cycle. One of the quickest ways in this direction is the designing molecular markers for non-race-specific resistance genes. Use of molecular markers is efficient tool for screening di...

Aneeza Jamshed1* and Syed Amir Gillani2 

...ng 300, of Government sector Middle School Lahore were selected through multistage cluster sampling. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in the time period of 6 months from April 2014 to Sep 2014. Data analysis was done with SPSS 20. After describing the important variables, average percentages were used to find out the difference between pre and post awareness performances and t score and p value was calculated. All the students (150) were boys, 98% belo...

Arooj Fatima1* and Ashfaq Ahmed

...ing in patients with rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy. This single blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted at University Physical therapy and Rehabilitation clinic, Raiwind road, Lahore. The study included sample size of 50 subjects diagnosed with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Patients included in study were allocated randomly into; Group-A: This group was treated with routine physiotherapy treatment. Group-B: In this gro...

Muhammad Yahya Noori1*, Saharish Rizwan2, Zaheer Ali3 and Shaheen Sharafat4 

...se contact with known history of Tuberculosis. Tabulations and analysis were performed in Microsoft Excel® and online calculators. Analysis of contact data showed that only 36% of the patients had a close contact with a known Tuberculosis patient. Chi-square test did not show any association between history of presence of a contact and the patients’ gender (p>0.5). Among the c...

Uzma Zahid 

...ignifying the need of mentoring amongst medical students. Practical steps should be taken to develop achievement and leadership aspects of medical students, which can ultimately enhance their career aspirations. 

...
Alan R. Rhoda
...e volume’s introductory essay. The view is a novel proposal for how God might be able to have infallible foreknowledge of the occurrences of causally indeterministic events.
...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...s-2010 on agriculture sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data for the study were collected through a pretested interview schedule from 364 respondents belonging to 5 randomly selected villages of District Charsadda. The study findings reveal a significant difference in the area under wheat, maize and vegetables after the flood. At the same time, the area under sugarcane and fodder had also decreased to some extent. Similarly, the use of chemical fertilizers and far...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

...water treatments on the storage life of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Sherkhana-I” was carried out at Post harvest Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. The research was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors i.e. hot water dipping times (0, 5, 10, and 15 Minutes) and stor
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...ation of assumed risk factors with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied to check significance of results. The study noted overall 33.98% (123/362) of MDR S. aureus from subclinical mastitis milk samples while 123 of 192 S. aureus isolates (64.06%) were confirmed MDR. Non-significantly higher prevalence of MDR was noted in Cholistan area (38.38%) than to that of Sulaiman Range (29.98%) on subclinical mastitis samples basi...
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
...sociation of its risk factors in cattle and buffaloes of district Kasur, Punjab. Selenium status was evaluated by Atomic Absorptions Spectrophotometery (AAS) with respect to sex of animals, geographical area, age of animals, herd size, stage of animals, production level and concentrate feeding. Selenium deficiency was also evaluated as a risk factor of mastitis and repeat breeding. About 48.43% cattle and 72.39% buffaloes we...
Samra Imran1,* and Afifa Tanweer2
...mographic and dietary factors with the nutritional status of Pakistani celiac patients. For this purpose 50 diagnosed celiac patients were selected from Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex and Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Nutritional assessment was carried out through anthropometric, biochemical and dietary evaluation of the participants. Results indicated that participants aged less than 18 years and those diagnosed within first year of life, had significantly healthier b...
Alptug Sari*, Ahmet Arpacik and Sagdan Baskaya
...be the most important factor. Even though the importance of wetland ecosystems is well known, no remarkable effort for saving the Erzurum Marshes, was observed.
...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...ck design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement by using three replications. Treatments included different fertilizers combinations i.e (F1) control, (F2)100% recommended dose of NPK, (F3) 75% recommended dose of NPK + 1.5 t ha-1 poultry manure(PM), (F4) 75% of recommended dose of NPK +3 t ha-1 farmyard manure (FYM) and(F5) 75% of recommended dose of NPK + 4.5 t ha-1 press-mud ...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
...andies prepared in laboratory and dyed with T. erecta extract color showed that the color extracted from T.erecta itself do not promote microbial growth rather it has antibacterial activity. The lethal dose and toxicity determination of the color extracted from marigold showed that it is safe for consumption as no clinical symptoms were observed in rabbits after giving the maximum dose of 1000ml of color.
...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

...re discharged in satisfactory condition and called for follow up investigations. All Kangaroo Mother Care babies had exclusive breast-feeding. Taken together, the results indicate that prolonged skin-to-skin contact and exclusive breast feeding reduces neonatal mortality and morbidity in birth weight 1.5 to 2.5 kg in stable neonates in hospital. However KMC is limited to SHL at present. Workshops are being conducted to teach other doct...
Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Idrees1,*, Kafeel Ahmad1, Dawood Ahmad2, Sajid Ali3 and Shumaila Bashir4
...ncial TB Reference Laboratory, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Among the 794 patients studied, 170 samples gave positive results. Fifty-two Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates were randomly selected for RAPD-PCR and PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were used as reference strains. RAPD-PCR differentiated the strains and authenticated the high molecular diver...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

...">Leadership is an obligatory inter-personal skill for executive positions and medical professionals are no exception. They play crucial roles in variety of scenarios including leading wards, camps, campaigns, open houses, seminars and symposiums as well as day-to-day bases dealing with clinical directors and managers. This research was conducted to study the leadership styles among the medical professionals. For this purpos...

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...ozole is aromatase inhibitor. This study was conducted to compare the mean decrease in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score with Danazol versus Letrozole for the pain management of endometriosis in females. A total of 140 females fulfilling inclusion criteria were registered and an non-probability purposive technique of sampling was used. Diagnostic laparoscopy was conducted to make a diagnosis of endometriosis. Females were divided into two groups. Females ...

S. M. I. Hossain*, S. U. K. Eusufzai and M. A. Rahman**

...nt was laid up in two factors split-plot design with five irrigation levels in main plots and six varieties in subplots. Irrigations at 21, 28, 35 or 42 days interval in addition to two live irrigations increased sugarcane yield from 15% to 46%. Irrigation at 21 days interval showed higher establishment, tiller, millable cane and yield of cane over irrigation at 28, 35 or 42 days interval. Varieties Isd 34, Isd 31, Isd 32 and Isd 33 showed better performance a...

A. R. Rattu, M. Fayyaz, I. Ahmad, M. A. Akhtar* A. A. Hakro and K. A. Khanzada**

...nes were undergoing mandatory testing to develop varieties for irrigated and rainfed areas of Pakistan. Out of these 29 candidate lines, 9 were common to NUWYT 2003-04 and 2004-05. Three candidate lines namely, V-00125, 99B2278, 99B4012 from seeding date were found resistant to both leaf and yellow rusts and showed desirable Relative Resistance Index (RRI) during 2003-04 and 2004-05. In addition, two of these lines, 7-03 and RWM-9313 from seeding date were als...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...ved during three months storage in double polyethylene bags at ambient temperature (20-25 ºC).

...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

... of Pakistan, R&D sector should be encouraged to transfer BtCry genes into such genetic backgrounds which: (i) must have resistance against CLCuV, (ii) are suitable for a given ecology, (iii) meet the set fiber quality parameters (fiber length and strength, GOT% etc.) and (iv) other desirable features required for the release of a normal commercial variety

...

Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai and Samina Khalil*

...mly collected from 12 sectors (main markets and sub-sector markets). These samples were analyzed for total plate count (TPC), total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, yeasts and moulds. None of the sample was found contaminated with E. coli, contamination of moulds was also negligible. TPC ranged from 1.0x102 to 1.0x104 cfu g-1 except in three cases, whereas total coliform ranged from 0 to 93 except in two cases, where yea...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

...to identify the major factors of yield decline, a national level field survey was conducted during June 2008 by Social Sciences Division, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council through its satellite institutes in the provinces. Total 238 wheat growers were purposively selected from different cropping zones of the Punjab province as sample of the national survey. The survey results reveal that decline in wheat area, the incidence of frost/cold spells, shortage ...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

...ify;"> Livestock sector plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan with a share in national and agricultural GDP estimated to be 11.3% and 51.8% respectively. Pakistan accounts for 143 million animal heads in 2006. However, livestock population and fodder production are inversely related. The fodder area per adult animal unit has significantly declined from 0.067 ha to 0.035 ha and production declined from 1.31t to 0.80t from 1986 to 2006. Inadequ...

Liaqat Ali Shahid, M. Azhar Saeed and Nadeem Amjad*

...t fruitful. This crop sector remained neglected for the last two decades due to mainly unfavourable edible oil import policies. Three main institutions/organizations namely Oilseed Programme NARC, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), NARC and Pakistan Oilseed Development Board (PODB) Islamabad are jointly working at federal level on the development and promotion of oilseed crops. More precisely, Oilseeds Programme is working on the develop...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

... varietal adoption indicators, although improvements were registered for most of the indicators, however, their magnitude was quite small indicating slowness of varietal diffusion. Very high variations in varietal diffusion indicators were also observed across provinces, farm size and tenancy status categories.In conclusion, despite that major proportion of total sugarcane area was planted...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...The soil quality was monitored during the experiment along with plant growth parameters of Okra. The study revealed that combination organic fertilizers vermicompost and vermiwash combination [VW+VC] compared with control [CON] and chemical fertilizers [CHM], had great influence on plant growth parameters. The average yield of Okra during trial showed a significantly greater response in VW+VC compared with the control by 64.27 %. The fruits have a greater perc...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

... The main influencing factor in keeping bucks was goat breed improvement. All the sample respondents were convinced of the benefits of crosses with Beetal buck and reported that the offsprings Beetal were of higher body weight (40% higher), good looking and well built. Regarding the suitability of Beetal with fodder and forage in the area, majority of the farmers (73%) considered it more suitable. There was a price difference of Rs. 1277 for male kids and Rs. ...

 Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Hassnain Shah, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal**

...Pakistan’s crop sector have been worked out to reveal how the sector has performed over time in terms of profitability. Various indices were worked out to view the profitability from different angles using weights, giving due importance to all the contributing factors. The results revealed that Pakistani farmers’ profitability improved slightly during the study period but at th...

 Shazia Erum, Rashid Anwar and Shahid Masood*

... Geographical indicator (GI) of crops create a positive impression of the product quality, the environmental virtue and human skill of the area. In the present study, comparative analysis of total seed proteins of Kasuri methi (GI of Kasur, Pakistan) was evaluated with other Trigonella genotypes by SDS-PAGE. Results showed that at protein level Kasuri methi acquired a unique status as a G.I of Kasur. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) of 28 genotypes including both...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

... flower picking, drying/storage techniques and cultivation practices in the existing cropping patterns.

...

 Farhan Ahmed, Hassnain Shah, Irum Raza* and Abdul Saboor**

...o; is the order of the autoregressive process; ‘d’ is the order of the homegeneity and ‘q’ the order of the moving average process. Presence of trend in data was checked through time series plots and stationarity through auto correlation and partial auto correlation functions. Using the ARIMA (p, d, q) forecasts from 2010 up to 2015 were made and production of milk in 2015 was estimated at 47492 t.

...

 Muhammad Afzal, Sarfraz Ahmad , Abdul Salam Baloch* and Qazi Bashir Ahmad**

...l was used to examine factors affecting livestock price formation while price variations due to time were examined using means and coefficients of variation. A sample of price observations of 725 animals (389 sheep and 336 goats) from Quetta livestock market was collected for one year on quarterly basis with a minimum sample of 150 animals. The objective was to determine seasonal price variation considering the effects of different attributes of the animals na...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...s, renal failure, respiratory distress and hypotension. This disease is an emerging infectious problem in many developing countries like Pakistan. A total of 250 subjects were selected from five different rice growing districts of Punjab, Pakistan after the approval of institutional ethical review board (IERB), 250 subjects were selected for this comparative cross sectional study. Multiple stage probability technique was used for sampling. In the first stage o...

Mian Sajjad Ahmad1, Somia Iqtadar1, Sami Ullah Mumtaz1*, Zafar Niaz1, Iqra Waheed2 and Sajid Abaidullah

...e tolerance is a risk factor for developing diabetes Mellitus & is associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. To determine the frequency of impaired glucose tolerance in obese patients. This Cross Sectional study was carried out in North Medical Ward, King Edward Medical University/ Mayo Hospital Lahore for 6 months i.e. January to June 2014. Total 160 obese patients visiting outpatient department of North Medical Ward, Mayo Hospital Lahore for ...

Sana Qanber Abbasi1*, Ejaz Ahmed2 and Rabia Sattar1 

...e headache complaint visitors in the emergency department, the most common are those suffering from migraine. (1) Alinear correlation has been found between rising serum pro BNP levels and Cardiovascular pathologies especially those involving left ventricular dysfunction which may depict a probable association between migraine and CVD. To compare the levels of serum pro Brain natriuretic peptide (pro BNP) between migraineurs and hypertensive migraineurs. It wa...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
...o (FCR) and condition factor (CF) were higher in all enzyme supplemented groups as compared to control group (p<0.05). Hematological parameters were recorded among all groups and concentration of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hematocrit (HCT) and numbers of lymphocytes were highest in treatment # 1 with the mean values of 1.29×10ˆ12 L-1, 54.9×10ˆ9 L-1, 18% and 48.7×10ˆ9 L-1
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

...on the CNS enzymes of a stored grain pest, Tribolium castaneum and a socioeconomic insect, Apis mellifera. A comparative study was designed to identify the role of saponins on insect acetylcholinesterase (AChEs). The enzyme activities were tested for the effect of saponins. The AChE activity of T. castaneum was inhibited by the saponins and follows competitive inhibition kinetics. In case of A. mellifera enzyme activity was not inhi...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
...s conducted in the laboratory by exposing four groups of Labeo rohita to different doses of PbCl2 viz. 96-h, 2/3rd, 1/4th and 1/5th of LC50, separately, for 30 days and compared with control group. After 30 days, fish was sacrificed and their gills and liver isolated to determine the effect of PbCl2 on peroxidase activity. Activity of peroxidase enzyme in metal stressed fish was co...
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...or the protection and restoration of this endangered species.
...
Irfan1,*, Arshad Javid7, Muhammad Ashraf2, Athar Mahmud3, Muhammad Altaf4, Syed Makhdoom Hussain5, Muhammad Shahbaz4 and Khalid Javed Iqbal6
...id eggs were collected, stored and were incubated for hatching. Hatchability percentage in artificially inseminated hens was greater 88.30% than natural mating 80.51%.
...
Naveed Akhtar,1,* Riaz Muhammad2, Kausar Saeed2, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Muzaffar Shah3, Jehan Zeb2, Shahid Ahmad2, Azam Jan Afridi4 and  Aftab Hussain5
...estation are possible factors of extinction formammalian fauna in district Buner. The responsible authorities are requested to take action against such problems to ensure the safety of mammalian fauna of Malka and Mahaban valley district Buner.
...
Xia-Lin Zheng1, Pan Wang2, Jun-Yan Liu1, Yu-Jing Zhang1, Jun Li1 and Wen Lu1,*
...ng point is a good predictor of cold hardiness. In this study, supercooling capacity of Brachmia macroscopa was determined. The 4th instar larvae, pupae and adults survived in January, in which their supercooling points were -12.79 ± 0.67 °C, -19.92 ± 0.66 °C and -21.23 ± 0.99 °C, respectively. Body water contents of these stages in B. macroscopa have no negative or positive correlation with the superco...

Akhlaq Ahmad, M. Anwar Arain*, Rahila Nazli**, Syed Anser Rizvi***,
Mubarik Ahmed* and Farzana Ibrahim****

Corresponding author: dr.akhlaqahmad@yahoo.com

COST EFFECTIVENESS OF UNDER-SHEET AND WHOLE GODOWN FUMIGATION OF BAGGED WHEAT
...ce against phosphine in stored grain insect pests in Pakistan is the result of whole godown improper fumigation of bagged wheat over the past several years. Trials were conducted in 338 godowns in 8 districts of upper Sindh. Out of these, 169 godowns were selected for fumigation with phosphine inside and under polyethylene sheets, while the others for indoor space fumigation in godowns without covering wheat stack with a sheet. Samples of wheat at the baseline...

 A. N. Naqvi and K. Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF LIVESTOCK DISEASES IN NOMAL AND NALTAR VALLEYS GILGIT, PAKISTAN
...ounds, hematuria, respiratory diseases, emaciation, hemorrhagic septic-emia, tumour, blue tongue, cow pox, enterotoxaemia, tetanus, paralysis and arthritis. In precise, endoparasites were found in 25.3% animals followed by respiratory diseases (24.74%). Most of the cattle (2053) and sheep (926) were found affected with endoparasites, whereas most of the goats (3960) were suffering from respirator

 Faisal Khalil, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Ammaz Khan, Fakhar-ul-Hassan and Nabila Bibi*

EFFECT OF GIRDLING AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA)
...ttributed to numerous factors. Some of them are probably related to the internal imbalance of growth regulators and other physiological factors. Plant growth regulating hormones like gibberellic acid (GA ), salicylic acid (SA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) alone and/ 3 or coupled with girdling operations may improve cropping potential of existing olive varieties in Pakistan. Therefore,...

 Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Mike Copland**

INFLUENCE OF THREE CONSTANT AND TWO RHYTHMICALLY FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON THE LIFE-TABLE PARAMETERS OF BROWN LACEWING SYMPHEROBIUS FALLAX
...rates are important predators in many agricultural systems. Life tables of S. fallax were constructed at 20°C, 24°C, 28°C and rhythmically fluctuating temperature regimes from 16°C to 24°C and 24°C to 32°C. Studies were carried out describing survival, reproduction and development of S fallax. Survival was positively temperature dependent. Sex ratio was not affected by constant temperatures from 20 to 28°C; however this ratio wa...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...llow tillage with cultivator and deep tillage with moldboard; and four fertilizer treatments viz., control (C), recommended dose of fertilizer for each crop (F), farmyard manure (FYM) @ -1 5 tha . The recommended doses of fertilizer for individual crop with FYM (F+FYM) were also included in the study to know their impact on the crops yield in the cropping systems. Economic analysis of the data revealed that the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat cropping system co...

 Gulzar S. Sanghera and Wassem Hussain*

HETEROSIS IN RELATION TO COMBINING ABILITY PER SE PERFORMANCE IN TEMPERATE RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
...terosis for effective restored cross combinations showed a significant heterosis for all the traits except number of filled grains per panicle. The results revealed that the degree of heterosis varied from trait to trait. All combinations that showed superiority over standard checks for grain yield per plant also showed significant heterosis for majority of other traits. The average proportion of restorers, partial res

 Safdar Ali, Sahiba, M. Azim Malik, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan and M. Ansar*

GROWTH OF RAINFED FODDER MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...omplete block design (factorial) and was fertilized with four -1 each nitrogen @ 0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha and phosphorus 0, 30, 60 and 90 -1 kg ha doses. Significant increase in green fodder and dry matter yield was observed with the increased doses of nitrogen and phosphorus. Overall, the -1 nitrogen application @ 180 kg ha increased the green fodder and dry matter yield by 12.33% and 51.50%, respectively. Similarly, with -1 phosphorus application @ 90 kg ha ...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzad Arshad Saleem**

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF STRAWBERRY JUICE
... on different quality factors of strawberry juice during storage. Strawberry was purchased from local market and its juice was kept for two weeks at room temperature to check its shelf life. Total plate count (TPC), pH, flavor, color, yeast and moulds were checked weekly. Quality changes of strawberry juice during storage can be caused both by microbiological and physiological processes. A...

 Akhtar A. Siddiqui and Allah W. Rind*

EXTENSION FIELD WORKERS’ PERCEPTION OF COTTON INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME IN SINDH PROVINCE
...d in Training of Facilitators (ToF) and erecuted FFSs during 2001 and 2004. The results revealed that the EFWs performed effectively to attain the objectives of IPM programme. It appears that EFWs improved farmers' knowledge, skills and behavioral change in attitude towards agro-ecological sound IPM practices through FFS training. 

...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...me a significant contributor to edible oil production in Pakistan. It is harvested in October-November in Pakistan, when the weather is cold, and it is not possible to dry it down to a safe moisture level by sun drying. Therefore, the chance for developing aflatoxins in it is high. To solve this problem of the groundnut growers, a low cost mobile flat-bed dryer designed and developed at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), National Agricul...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...ze public and private sector extension in Balochistan province of Pakistan. Five districts, one from each ecological zone, were selected which are Turbat (Kech), Lasbela, Mastung, Sibi, and Loralai. A sample of 375 farmer respondents were taken with a systematic sampling procedure. The response rate was 82.67%. A detailed and comprehensive questionnaire was used for measuring the effectiveness of extension activities performed by public and private sec

 Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf*

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATUS FAB. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) AT VARYING TEMPERATURE ON RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI L.
...Biological Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of different temperature regimes on the development and predatory potential of M. sexmaculatus reared on Rhopalosiphum padi. The egg incubation period of predator beetle was 4.16, 3.66 and 2.24 days at 22±1°C, 28 1°C and 34 1°...
EVALUATION OF LEGUME HERBS NUTRITIVE VALUE AS A RUMINANT FEED AND NITROGEN SUPPLY ON SOIL IN WEST TIMOR, INDONESIA
...as ruminant feed were Clitoria ternatea (CT), Centrosema pascuorum (CP), Dolichos lablab (DL), and Macroptilium bracteatum (MB). The study was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design. The research showed that the highest -l NO concentration after planting was in CP (5.72 mg ), followed by CT 3 -l -l -l (4.21mg ), MB (3.44 mg ), and DL (2.83 mg ). The species of legume was obviously highly significant (P<0.01) to biomass production 90 days after planti...

 Tahir Abbas, Bushra Nawab, Rahila Nazli, Rubina Saleem, Amrat Lal and Khalid Jamil*

EFFICACY OF COTTON WASTE COMPOST AND FERTINEMAKIL FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH PARAMETER OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS
...the field of PCSIR Laboratories Complex Karachi, Pakistan. Individually all the treatment showed maximum plant growth character in terms of plant height, number of flowers, diameter of flowers, 1000 grains weight and oil contents. The highest significant improvement in plant growth characters were recorded in plots treated with cotton waste compost and cotton waste compost+ Fertinemakil fertilizer. The Fertinemakil alone showed less significant effect but it i...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
...sitized eggs under laboratory condition of 28 ±1 °C.


...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-din*, Syed Haider Abbas*, Maqsood Qamar* and Muhammad Noman*

EFFECT OF SPLIT N FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON PHYSIOAGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
... wheat yield limiting factors under rainfed conditions. Farmers usually apply full N dose at seeding. However, winter showers during vegetative growth period provide an opportunity to apply N in split doses. Study was conducted to find out appropriate N rate and application method to enhance wheat productivity. -1 Three N rates i.e., 60, 90, and 120 kg ha and three application methods i.e. full basal N dose at planting and N application in two and three equal ...

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

RAISED BED TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT CROP IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regard...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Nadeem Akmal*, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Ayesha Tahir*

EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS OF PAKISTANI HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS
...ntage in horticulture sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders.

...

 Maria Rauf*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Javed Khan**, Abdul Rehman***, Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Asrar Ali**

BIOLOGY AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINN. ON SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM APHID UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
...bsp;The biology and predatory potential of Coccinella septempunctata (Linn.) were studied on aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) at three constant temperatures 20±1 °C, 25±1 °C and 30±1 °C in Insectary-Bio Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that incubation period of C. septempunctata was 5.12, 3.62 and 3.20 days with 75.6%, 82....

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Akhter Ali**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi**, Naveed Jehan*, Imran Ullah* and Majid Khan*

ASSESSMENT OF POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF PLUM IN SWAT, PAKISTAN
...rity, insufficient cold storage facility, poor grading, low-quality packaging materials and poor infrastructure. Total post harvest losses in the marketing channel of the plum were 21.51% of which 5.12% occurred at farm level, 1.44% at wholesale level, 6.31% at retail level, and 8.64% at the consumer level. Harvesting at proper maturity, using experienced labor and storage facility can reduce extent of post harvest losses of...

 Shahid Ali*, Anjum Shehzad*, Muhammad Ather Rafi* and Ahmed Zia*

INSECT POLLINATORS OF LITCHI ( ) FROM DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
... justify;">Insect pollinator fauna in litchi orchards from three localities of district Haripur was studied. Insect collections were made from mid March to mid May, 2012. During collection, 494 insects were collected which yielded 20 species under 16 genera of eight families belonging to orders Diptera and Hymenoptera. Family Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Syrphidae, represented the order Diptera, while families, Andrenidae, Apidae, Halictidae and ...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad**, Badar Naseem Siddiqui***, Muhammad Zakaria Yousuf Hassan****, Ijaz Ashraf**, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan***** and Aijaz Kuharoo******

COMMUNICATION OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION THROUGH GROUP CONTACT METHODS IN PAKISTAN
..., role playing and brainstorming. However, seed/ fertilizer dealers proved to be the most effective source of agricultural information followed by workshops, panel discussions, role playing and brainstorming. However, 28.93 of the respondents never contacted seed/fertilizer dealers while 31.78% occasionally contacted, 26.43% rarely contacted and 12.86% regularly contacted them for obtaining latest agricultural information in...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, A. K. Azad**, Leon O. Namuco***, Teresita H. Borromeo***, Maria Lourdes O. Cedo*** and Edna A. Aguilar***

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF A MAKAPUNO COCONUT POPULATION IN U.P. LOS BANOS
...k with shorter fruit equatorial diameter and shorter internodes. Palms belonging to cluster II have higher weight of nut and longer equatorial diameter. Palms of cluster III are characterized by cylindrical stem and lower number of green leaves. Cluster IV is characterized by heavy fruit and nut weight with elongated shape of nut. Higher number of green leaves presence is the common character of palms of cluster V. Girth at ...

 Shahida Khalid*and Shahida Nasreen Khokhar*

INTERACTION OF HERBICIDES AND BIO-INOCULANTS WITH AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND WEEDS
...m) to mitigate the inhibitory effect of herbicide residue in soil, and their inhibitory effect on weed seeds. The crops studied under laboratory conditions were Brassica spp. and Zea mays while Phalaris minor was the test weed. In first experiment, Brassica and maize, grown in soils having residues of either Triasulfuron+Terbutryn (Logran) or Sulfosulfuron (Leader), were found to significa...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...s a valuable tool in monitoring the past decisions and demonstrating the worth of the system. The goal of a mass production programme is to produce the maximum number of quality insects with minimum labour and cost. The maintenance cost of 100 Chrysoperla carnea adults was Rs. 192.38 per month, which included the labour cost of Rs. 152.38 and diet cost of Rs. 40. Approximately 4000 eggs per month were obtained from the C. carnea adult culture and the cost per ...

 Javed Khan*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Tariq Mahmood*,
Awais Rasool*, Naheed Akhtar and Saleem Abid**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
...catry- Bio control Laboratories, Insect Pest Management Programme, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results indicate that incubation period was 3.8±0.08 days with 87.0% hatchability. The developmental duration of first, second and third instar larvae were 3.2 ± 0.13, 4.0±0.21 and 4.8±0.25 days, respectively. The total larval developmental duration was 1...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
...s, chemical growth regulators, machinery and poor management practices are accelerating environmental pollution, soil degradation, global warming, climatic change and food deterioration. Conservation agriculture offers a sustainable solution for all these problems most often. This review focuses the use of fertilizers in conservation agriculture and their impact on weed management. Weeds are major constraint in the productivity of agro-ecosystems. Fertilizer u...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
... legume herbs such as Clitoria ternatea, Dolichos lablab, Macroptilium bracteatum, Centrosema pascuorum and Centrosema pascuorum in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia using completely randomised block design. Each species was planted on 2.5m x 3m plot, and repeated 6 and 4 times in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Parameters measured include plant height, tillage number, dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro digestibility and nutrient contents. Plant height and tillage nu...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...to verify the various factors influencing the supply of pulses and to develop suitable demand relations. Therefore the paper fills an information gap regarding factors affecting the supply and demand of pulses in Pakistan. The present study focuses on two important pulses grown in the country namely gram (chickpea) and mung (mungbean). Using Nerlove's adjustment lag model as the basic framework supply and demand aspect has b...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Abdul Jabbar** and Sajida Taj*** 

FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY OF WHITE SUGAR PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...The calculation of ex-factory production cost of sugar supports the sugarcane support price programme in the country. The present paper aimed at up-dating the financial profitability of white sugar on the basis of recent data in the country. The total cost of white sugar production was Rs. -1 50.11kg in Pakistan. The estimated financial profit of white sugar production -1 was Rs. 2.47 kg in the country in 2012-13. The estimated supply and demand of white sugar...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Mehwish Ishaque**, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Saleem-ud-din* and Syeda Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SEED PROTEINS, OIL CONTENT AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
...MS) and six fertility restorer (R ) lines were crossed in a line x tester mating design to obtain 36 f F hybrids. Parental lines and F hybrids exhibited mean values for seed 1 1 total proteins, oil content and fatty acids composition. Among parental lines, CMS-64, CMS-53, CMS-H55-2-2-1 and CMS-53 were the best general combiners for seed total proteins, oil content, oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. Among males, C-206-R, SF-187R, RHA-295 and RHA-854 were t...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Nouman Badar*

YIELD GAP DETERMINANTS FOR WHEAT PRODUCTION IN MAJOR IRRIGATED CROPPING ZONES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...increasing the use of factor inputs; however, poverty may be a constraint on realizing these gains. Thus, wheat production can be increased in the country by helping resource poor farmers through suitable support mechanisms.

...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...two decades the major factor limiting cotton production is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programm...

 Naheed Zahra*, Hassnain Shah*, M. Azeem Khan* and M. Zubair Anwar* 

LIVELIHOOD ASSETS AND POVERTY NEXUS: A CASE STUDY FROM RAINFED POTHWAR AREA OF PAKISTAN
...nically poor, 5.0% transitory poor, 37.5% transitory vulnerable, 32.5% transitory non- poor and 22.5% was non-poor. Most of the sampled households fall along the transition line which implies their vulnerability to be trapped in poverty due to any shock. Beside other assets, even small scale irrigation was significant and an effective tool to improve income. Therefore along with improvemen...

 Munir Ahmad*, Asif Ali Mirani**, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood**, Tanveer Ahmad** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed**

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CROSS-FLOW RICE DRYERS
...-fired dryer was satisfactory, while that of the rice husk-fired dryer can be improved by incorporating an appropriate heat exchanger.

...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...vitraps were used as monitoring tools in urban areas of the selected sites. Results showed that mosquitoes are active throughout the year with their most active season during May, September and October. The mean relative abundance of Culex species in different districts were: Peshawar (32.3), Nowshera (18.8), Mardan (20.3) and Charsadda (21.0). Higher numbers of Aedes mosquitoes were observed in Nowshera (19.3), Peshawar (16.4), Charsadda (13.1), and Mardan (9...

 Nusrat Habib*, Saima Rani*, Sabeen Siddiqui*, Shah Zaman** and Muhammad Zubair Anwar*

IMPACT OF MAJOR FARM INPUTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGARCANE: A CASE STUDY IN TEHSIL KOT ADDU, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... were the significant factors which affect on the proceeds of sugarcane growers. The results revealed that costs of land preparation, DAP and urea were highly significant at 1% level with positive coefficients 0.94, 0.23 and 0.76, respectively. The cost of FYM was significant at 1% level with negative impact on sugarcane productivity (-0.07). The coefficient 2 of multiple determinations R was 0.72, which designated that 72% deviation in the productivity of sug...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi* and Abdul Jabbar**

SEAFOOD EXPORTS: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
...sp;Fisheries as a sub-sector of agriculture, is considered as one of the most important economic activity along the coastline of provinces of Sindh and Balochistan. This paper assesses current stock of seafood production, seafood exports, direction and future prospects of seafood exports from Pakistan. The production of inland and marine fish was 729,000 t in 2012-13. Not only seafood output in the country is low but dwindling to the disastrous level. Export o...

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL
...s assessed through laboratory analysis. After this, rice seedling (Shaheen Basmati) was transplanted in all the pots i.e., 3 plants per pot. Necessary N, P and K fertilizers were applied at the recommended rate. After crop harvest, soil samples were taken for analysis of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of soil. All the amendments when used alone or in combination with each other improved ...

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

CLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON RICE CROP PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...Pakistan by employing Vector Auto Regression (VAR) model. Annual seasonal data of the climatic variables from 1980 to 2013 has been used. Results confirmed that rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production. Variation in mean minimum temperature brought about seven percent increase in rice productivity as shown by Variance Decomposition. Mean p...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...es namely Heteropogon contortus, Desmostachya bipinnata, Sorghum halepense and Chrysopogon aucheri with tree leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil) in the ratio of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, along with sole species on their chemical composition. Samples were analyzed for proximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different gr...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...rasses of Heteropogon contortus (HC), with tree leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil, II) in the ratio of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, along with sole species on their digestibility in small ruminants. Goats fed II , HC II , HC II , HC II and HC had similar 100% 25% 75% 50% 50% 75% 25% 100% dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) consumption among all the treatments. The digestibility percentage of dry matter intake (DMI) varied among the treatm...

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Ayesha Tahir**, Naveed Jehan*** and Muhammad Luqman*

IMPACT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES ON POSTHARVEST LOSSES OF STONE FRUITS IN SWAT PAKISTAN
... losses and different factors at three different stages. Findings of the study revealed the channel of cardboard box technology accounted for post-harvest losses of 10.49% while at farm level, losses were 2.90%, at wholesale level 1.45% and retail level the losses were 6.14%. On the other hand post-harvest losses were 14.24% in wooden box channel; in which 6.10% occurred at farm level, 1.43% at the wholesale level and 6.71% at the retail level. Cardboard box t...

 Sajid Ali* and Abdul Jabbar**

GROWTH AND VARIABILITY IN AREA PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF SELECTED FRUIT CROPS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...fruit as a major contributor during period-I. Period-II witnessed either low or negative growth in fruit production except peach. Variability in fruit production was higher in period-II as compared to period-I. Main contributor to fluctuations in fruit production during period-I was variability in area under fruit, whereas, both area and yield variability were mainly responsible for variability in fruit production during per...

 Muhammad Akhter*, Muhammad Azhar Ali**, Zulqarnain Haider* and Shahzad Muzammil***

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHANGES IN GRAINS OF SOME ADVANCE LINES/ VARIETIES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AFTER PARBOILING
...ore, quality reducing factors such as number of broken grains, bursting and curling percentage of cooked rice were also reduced significantly in parboiled samples. It may, therefore, be suggested that parboiling offers a better alternative to conserve and increase nutritional, milling and cooking quality values of rice varieties/lines. Less percentage of broken, burst and curled grains may result in augmented net income.

...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

INOCULATION AND INTER-CROPPING OF LEGUMES IN ESTABLISHED GRASS FOR INCREASING BIOMASS OF FODDER
.../p>...

 Tosif Tabassam*, Tariq Sultan**, M.Ehsan Akhtar**, M.Mahmood-ulHassan** and Arshad Ali**

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT FORMULATED CARRIERS FOR SUSTAINING MICROBIAL SHELF LIFE
...ted up to six months of storage period.

...

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

ECONOMICS OF PERI-URBAN RADISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN FAISALABAD
...enefit cost and total factor productivity analyses depict that radish cultivation is a profitable enterprise in the study area. Productivity gap between current and potential yield of radish can be minimized by the adoption of recommended production and marketing practices.

...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
...dae) larvae in the laboratory. The objective was to examine changes in production or activities of carboxylesterase (CE), total esterases (TE), alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, alkaline phosphatase (AkP), acidic phosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri dishes. The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline...

 Sameera Arshad*, Iftikhar Hussain*, Maqsood Anwar* and Sarwat Naz Mirza*

HABITAT SURVEY FOR RECOGNIZING BIRD ATTRACTANTS AROUND BENAZIR BHUTTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...gement programme for monitoring bird activity and land use practices around the airfield.

...

 Amjad Pervez*, Syed Muzaffar Ahmed*, Akhlaq Ahmad** and Qazi Mehmood Ali**

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FOOD GRAINS AS BAITS FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYSTRIX INDICA
...ables in Pakistan. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine highly effective cereal used as bait base for its management. Six locally available food grains viz., wheat, rice, maize, black gram, sorghum and millet were offered in whole/crack form. Under no choice and choice tests, rice was the most preferred food, followed by wheat, maize and others. The present study suggested that rice in whole or cracked form alone or in combination with wheat can be a...

 Junaid Alvi*, Ijaz Ashraf*, Khalid Mehmood Ch*, Muhammad Iftikhar* and Saleem Ashraf**

IMPACT OF LIVESTOCK IN UPLIFTING RURAL LIVELIHOOD
...atives. The livestock sector plays a key role in boosting the national economy and improving the citizens' livelihoods. The study focused on the potential contribution of the livestock sector in uplifting livelihoods. Data were collected through face to face interview using interview schedule from 120 randomly selected livestock producers in SubDistrict Jaranwala of District Faisalabad. Data showed that, livestock farming on...

 Nouman Badar*, Hina Fatima**, Abdul Jabbar*** and Muhammad Asif*

MAJOR FOOD CROPS PRODUCTION AND YIELD FORECAST IN PAKISTAN
.... Utilizing the “Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average” (ARIMA) model and data from 1948 to 2011. The data was obtained from Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Islamabad and various Economic Surveys of Pakistan. The result predicts that wheat (production and yield) forecast for 2029-30 to be -1 about 37188 thousand tons and 3454 kg ha , respectively. The rice (production -1 and yield) forecast for 2029-30 will be about 7176 thousand tons and 2630...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...ment strategies like monitoring, modeling prediction, risk rating, planning, genetic diversity and facilitated migration, genetic protection and breeding for disease resistance and relating results to forest policy, planning as well as decision making, the suspicions innate to climate change effects can be minimized.

...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...ts showed that seed, tractor hours, FYM and labor days have contributed significantly to increase the maize yield. However, the DAP and urea have shown no effect on maize yield. The mean technical efficiency was estimated at 83%, implying that the farmers can still enhance their technical efficiency by 11% within the given inputs and technology. The results have demonstrated that maize crop is lucrative crop in the study area as maize growers have received inc...

 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

SPATIAL PRICE TRANSMISSION IN PAKISTAN: THE CASE OF WHEAT AND RICE MARKETS
... prices. For analysis Vector Error Correction Model and Co-integration approach were employed. Results showed that wheat and rice market prices are integrated. Some markets have positive or negative transmission shocks on each other due to the different geographical locations and transport infrastructure. All the wheat markets are adjusted to price changes in the long run equilibrium except few markets. Unidirectional and bidirectional causality exists between...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzada Arshad Saleem** 

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF PHALSA (GREWIA ASIATICA) JUICE
... the shelf life of laboratory developed phalsa juice at room temperature. Phalsa was purchased from local market, juice was prepared and kept in sterilized bottles at room temperature. Physicochemical and microbial and oragnoleptic quality of the juice was examined till two weeks. Microbial activity in phalsa juice increased while organoleptic attributes such as texture (mouth feel), flavour, taste, colour and overall acceptability of phalsa juice were decreas...

 Ahmed Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF POVERTY AND THE ROLE OF NON-FARM ACTIVITIES
...oyed and the crop cultivators in the nine agro-climatic zones of rural Pakistan was also carried out. The relationship between incidence of poverty and non-farm activities is ambivalent with non-farm households being better off in regions that are less fertile. The incidence of poverty was highest amongst farm wage workers, followed by non-farm wage workers, non-farm self-employed and lastly crop cultivators. 

...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Muhammad Arshad*, Maryam Kamal**, Doulat Baig *, M. Tariq*, Talat Gilani* and Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR SEED YIELD TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER
... inbred lines and six restorers/testers were selected on the basis of variability for yield related characters. The lines and tester restorers were crossed in a line x tester mating design resulting in 36 F hybrids. The potential parents with high general 1 combining ability (GCA) effects were identified for yield related traits. Among

females, CMS-H55-2-2-1 expressed the highest significant GCA effects for ...

 Muhammad Mudasar Aslam ⃰, Muhammad Jamil**, Ijaz Malook**, Amana Khatoon*, Ali Rehman*, Abdur Rahim***, Pirzada Khan*, Shakir Ullah Khan Shakir*, Shahid Irfan*, Faizan Ullah****, Khair Ul Bashar**, Mahideen Afridi** and Shafiq Ur Rehman*

PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA, TAMARIX APHYLLA AND PEGANUM HARMALA ON PLANT GROWTH OF WHEAT AND MUSTARD
...hus concluded that inhibitory effect increases with the increase of extracts concentration.

...

 Hafiz Saqib Habib*, Arshad Mahmood Malik*, Abid Ali** and Muhammad Aamir Khan***

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURES IN RAWALPINDI
...yze the socioeconomic factors effecting total food expenditures of households in rural area of Rawalpindi tehsil. Respondents were selected randomly and data were collected through questionnaire. A multiple double log regression model was used because it has an advantage that estimated parameter can easily be explained as expendi-tures elasticity. This model is used to give details of responses in socioeconomic factors to mo...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Khuda Bakhsh**, Sultan Ali Tariq*, Mahmood Nasir***, Rashed Saeed**** and Muhammad Ather Mahmood****

FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT YIELD IN POTHWAR REGION OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...s designed to explore factors affecting productivity of groundnut along with its profitability analysis. The sample farms were classified into small, medium and large farms. Farm-level crop data were gathered during two cropping seasons i.e., rabi 2008-09 and kharif 2009. One hundred and forty groundnut producers were selected for collecting data using the well-structured questionnaire from two important districts recognised for area and production of groundnu...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

MARKETING SYSTEM OF LIVE CAMELS IN THE DESERT ECOLOGIES OF PAKISTAN
...ntermediaries. The regulatory laws of livestock markets applied in Pakistan are not comprehensive and do not cover all the aspects necessary for the markets to function efficiently. It is, therefore, recommended that the proper marketing system and physical infrastructure for live camels should be developed to benefit the poor camel farmers.

...

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION
...to absence of service sector for these technologies despite of the efforts being carried out since long. Therefore, a training component to prepare a cadre was included in the USDA funded 'Watershed Rehabilitation' project being implemented in collaboration with ICARDA and other NARS partners. The prime objective of these training programmes was to impart training based skills on water conservation technologies. To help in improving the effectiveness, the soci...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON
...ck Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement having three replications. Treatments included four topping levels: control (no topping), topping at 90 cm, 120 cm and 150 cm height; three -1 nitrogen levels: 150, 200 and 250 kg ha . Net plot size was 6 m × 3 m. Maximum days to first floral bud initiation (44.68), appearance of first flower (65.64), first boll splition (105.47) and monopodial branches per plant (0.81) were recorded at 250 kg -1 N ha . Minimum...

 Tasawar Sultana*, Farah Deeba* and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi*

HIGH-THROUGHPUT AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA IN COMPARISON TO TWO EXPRESSION VECTORS
...on efficiency of this vector was compared with expression vector from pCAMBIA series over-expressing same gene (pCOsRGLP1). A lower number of explants generated hygromycin resistant plantlet for instance, 18.3 with pGOsRGLP1 vector as compared to 35.5% with pCOsRGLP1 vector. Transformation efficiency of PCR positive plants generated was 9.4% for pGOsRGLP...

 Farid Asif Shaheen*, Sadia Parveen*, Ahmed Zia**, Ghulam Qadir*,
Mureed Husain*** and Rifat Ullah Khan****

PREDATORY APTNESS OF ANTS AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM HERBST (TENEBRIONIDAE: COLEOPTERA) IN WHEAT FLOUR
...st destructive pests of stored grains and other food products including wheat flour. Due to its severe infestation, the flour gets mouldy, turns yellowish, gets pungent odour and becomes unhealthy for human consumption. The infested samples of wheat flour by T. castaneum were collected from different localities and its culture was maintained in laboratory. Three ant species namely, Dorylus labiatus, Camponotus rufipes and Mo...

 Ghulam Sadiq Afridi*, Abdul Saboor**, Zahoor-ul-Haq***, Sultan Ali
Tariq**** and Muhammad Ishaq*****

EXPLORING POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PAKISTAN'S COTTON EXPORT
...xport, and to explore sector's export potential and opportunities. This new research endeavor with well-tested analytical tools enabled the trade experts and policy makers to explore the answer of lackness for diversification in export, HS-2- digits aggregated data for cotton sub-sectors have been used with latest data from 2004 to 2013 for the panel of 39 countries. Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) index and gravity mod...

 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION, SOWING METHODS AND MULCHING ON WHEAT YIELD AND NITROGEN UPTAKE
...2. In the study three factors were studied i.e., sowing methods, mulching and deficit irrigation with four levels viz: full irrigation (DI ), 20% deficit irrigation (DI ), 40% deficit irrigation (DI ) and 60% deficit irrigation (DI ). Soil moisture was continuously monitored and full irrigation was determined on the basis of 50% Management Allowed Deficit (MAD). Results indicated that sowing methods, mulching and various lev...

 Shahid Iqbal Khattak*, Muhammad Amjad Nadim**, Mohammad Safdar Baloch**, Kashif Waseem** and Muhammad Sohail***

IMPACT OF VARIABLE SEEDING DATES ON CEREALS' PERFORMANCE UNDER AGRO-ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...studied through a two factors field experiment under split-plot arrangements at Agricultural Research Institute, D.I.Khan during 2012-13. Four cereals (wheat, triticale, barley, oat) were assigned to main plots while six different sowing dates (October 15, November 1 & 15, December 1 & 15 and January 1) were kept in subplot. The experiment was replicated four times with a sub-plot size of 5 m × 1.8 m (9 m ). Sowing of barley took minimum time to ...

 Abdul Haq*, Anjum Shehzad**, Muhammad Ilyas**, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**, Abdul Rauf Bhatti** and Mian Inayatullah*

DIVERSITY AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF CITRUS POLLINATORS IN DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
...s of adult citrus pollinators collected from district Haripur represented four orders of insects i.e., Diptera with 16 species, Hymenoptera with 14 species, Lepidoptera with 3 species and Coleoptera with 2 species. The calculated values of relative abundance showed that is most abundant species in ecosystem followed by sp. and . All calculated values of diversity indices except Shannon-H does not show significant difference. Shannon's diversity shows that Nase...

 Inayat-Ur-Rahman*, Shamsher Ali**, Mukhtar Alam*, Mohammad Adnan*, Hidayat ullah*, Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik*, Abdul Sattar Shah* Mohammad Ibrahim*

EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GERMINATION PERFORMANCE AND YIELD OF OKRA ( L.)
...experiments, i.e., laboratory and field were carried out during 2013. In the laboratory experiment, okra seeds were primed in PEG-8000 (polyethylene glycol) and Mannitol solutions (0, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6, -2 and -2.4 Mpa osmotic potential) for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours while dry seeds were used as control. Same primed seeds were used in the field experiment. Priming proved effective in improving percent germination and reduc...

 Hafiz Sultan Mahmood*, Tanveer Ahmad*, Zulfiqar Ali*, Munir Ahmad** and Nadeem Amjad***

FIELD EVALUATION OF A WHEAT STRAW CHOPPER
...evealed that a 75 hp tractor was suitable for operating this machine. Average operating speed of chopper was 2.7 km h . Average effective field capacity of chopper was 0.40 ha h and field efficiency was 67.9%. Amount of chaff recovered was 2404 kg ha and chaff recovery from straw was 61.1%. The operating cost of chopper setup was Rs. 5,262 ha . Total worth of recovered chaff was Rs. 24042 ha (@ Rs. 10 kg ). Net gain in terms of recovered wheat straw was Rs. 18...

 Hina Fatima** and Bushra Yasmin**

EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN'S FARM SECTOR: A META-ANALYSIS*
...ic influences on farm sector of Pakistan. The data rely on the published research papers on efficiency analysis of Pakistan's farm sector from 1971 to 2014. Three models separately estimated included methodological model, crop specific model and provincial model. These models incorporated the impact of methodological variables, crop specific variables and regional variables impact on Mean Technical Efficiency Scores (MTES), ...

 Ummad-ud-Din Umar*, Muhammad Aslam Khan**, *Ateeq-urRehman*, Abdul Hannan***, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi*, Azhar Ali Khan****, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar****

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS DISEASE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
...potentially useful predictor variables for model development. In stepwise regression analysis minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall emerged as the main contributing environmental variables for disease development. The model performance was evaluated based on coefficient of determination (R ) and the comparison of observed and predicted disease incidence. Model so developed explained 70% of the variability in disease development and when validated...

 Muhammad Bilal*, Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Muhammad Aslam*, Muhammad Ijaz****, Adnan Shakeel***, Mushtaq Ahmad*** and Kashif Bashir*****

RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT COTTON ( L.) GENOTYPES AT VARIOUS SALINITY LEVELS
...l at water testing laboratory, D.G. Khan during 2012-13. Six cotton genotypes (FH – 945, FH – 901, NIAB – 111, NIAB – 999, B – 630 and B – 622) were collected from Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) and Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad. The plant height of NIAB-111 was more affected by soil salinity than that of other varieties. The number of bolls per plant also showed the similar fa...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...icultural extension educators can also improve their programs to guide the farmers in a better way and target farmers who need risk management information the most. At policy level, emphasis may be given to formal training and awareness of the farmers for diversification to compensate production risks. The existing extension network can be strengthened through its institutional linkage with metrology department and information communication technologies to fur...

 Nusrat Habib*

RELATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUNFLOWER IN DISTRICT SWABI AND MARDAN
...to find out the major factors which caused the decreasing trend of sunflower in the area. Primary data of 100 respondents was collected and analyzed in SPSS (Special Package for Social Scientists) software. Estimated results revealed that there was a key difference among target three crops profitability such as revenue per crop day of tobacco, sugarcane and sunflower were rupees 285.61, rupees 158 .93 and rupees 82.64 respectively. On the whole tobacco and sug...

 

Shakir Ullah*, Aish Muhammad*, Iqbal Hussian*, Hafeez-Ur-Rahman**, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder***, Muhammad Din**** and Nizamud Din

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN APRICOT CULTIVARS GROWN IN GILGIT BALTISTAN PAKISTAN
... Habi, Ali Shah Kakas, Astore 1, Narie and
Skardu Local) were evaluated for morphological UPOV (International Union
for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants) and the International Board for
Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) characteristics. Three cultivars
(Charmagzi, Shai Pawand and Narie) had fruit weight from 39-41 g. Most of
the cultivars had small fruit with sweet and large size kernel. Habi a...

 Abdul Rehman Khan*, Muhammad Mahmood–Ul-Hassan**, Rizwan Ahmad** and Anjum Munir ***

ARSENIC III TOLERANCE POTENTIAL OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AND NON-POLLUTED SOILS OF PAKISTAN
...ndex (TI), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and growth rate. Out of 18 isolates, 12 belonged to genus , 3 to , 2 to and one to . The isolates and appeared to be most tolerant to arsenic. Fungal strains isolated from Gujranwala soil exhibited more As(III) tolerance than those from Multan and Islamabad. Maximum fungal growth was observed at temperature of 30 to 35 C and pH 6 to 7 under incubation period of 96-120 hrs. The isolated strains were capable of ...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...xtract of exhibits inhibitory effects on growth and development of and therefore could be a potential source of botanical herbicide in the control of this noxious weed species.

...

Muhammad Nawaz*, Anwar Javaid Wahla*, Muhammad Saleem Kashif*, Masood Qadir Waqar**, Muhammad Anjum Ali*** and Asim Raza Chadhar****

EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS NITROGEN LEVELS ON THE YIELD OF RICE GRAIN IN SHEIKHUPURA, PAKISTAN
...plete block design in factorial arrangement. The experiment consisted of three nitrogen rates viz. 85, 170 and 255 kg ha , and two rice cultivars viz. KSK- 133 and KS-282. Both these rice cultivars are widely grown by the farmers in rice-wheat around the experimental site. Every year, the nursery of both the rice cultivars was transplanted during the second week of July. The results indicated that different nitrogen levels had a significant effect on all studi...

 Nasarullah*, Raiz uddin*, Fakhar Uddin* and Muhammad Jamal*

INTERPRETING WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR GRAIN YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT REGIMES OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...ent was conducted to monitor stability of yield potential of 15 diverse wheat genotypes at Skardu-Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern and mountainous region of Pakistan) and Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, during wheat crop season 2011-2012 using RCB design with three replications. The genetic material was comprised of 9 nationally released cultivars, three advance line from Tajikistan, one from China and two locally grown cultivars. The analysis of variance revealed sig...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
...otswana’s dairy sectors with a low annual production of 4 tonnes per year. The objectives of the study were to evaluate goat milk production practices and attributes of goat farmers in the Oodi agricultural region, Botswana. Ninety-one farmers were purposively selected based on milk production potential from a list of 170 farmers officially registered with the Oodi agriculture station. Farmers were visited to conduct face to face interviews and admi...
Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1,2,, Shan Liang1, Muhammad Saleem Kalhoro2, Shoaib Ahmed Pirzado2, Nasir Rajput2, Muhammad Naeem2, Fahmida Parveen2 andYongjie Liu1*
... dogs with severe respiratory syndrome at the Animal Clinics of Nanjing Agricultural University in 2014. One viral strain was isolated from SPF embryonated chicken eggs. Sequencing analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes showed 93 to 99% similarity between each other. The CIV isolates shared high similarity (above 98%) to the H3N2 viruses from dogs in China. On the comparison of gene sequence four unique mutations were found in the amino ac...

Hina Zubair1, Saima Perveen2, Saeed Alam3, Akkad Rafiq4* and Sara Ejaz 

...ith socio-demographic factors at divisional headquarter hospital in a year time. A retrospective study was performed by analyzing one year records from family planning clinic at divisional headquarter hospital. At family planning centers, a total of 920 individuals attended the Reproductive Health Services from April 2015 to March 2016. Among them, 92% individual utilized temporary methods and only 8% utilized permanent methods. Regarding temporary solutions, ...

Anza Zahid*, Muhammad Ali Ayub, Mujtaba Saeed, Nasir Pasha, Abdul Jabbar Dar, Huzaifa Javed, Aimen Shakeel, Amna Nasir, Ana Akbar, Zainab Tarrar and Ayesha Humayun 

... of therapy. Multiple factors influence compliance among diabetics and other chronic diseases and non-compliance results in avoidable consequences and complications. In order to determine the magnitude and factors of non-compliance to physicians’ advice in diabetics attending outpatients, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in outpatient diabetic clinics of Shaikh Zayed and Services Hospitals in Lahore. Re...
Selçuk Kaplan1,* and Sertaç Atalay2
...f insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and leptin (LEP) genes in Kivircik crossbred ewes. Therefore, IGF1/BfoI and Lep/BcnI polymorphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the regulatory region of the IGF1 gene was detected by amplification of the 294 bp region using specific primers and cl...

Khalid Khan*1, Muhammad Abdul Kamal2, Saubia Ramazan3, Gulawar Khan4, Gulzar Ali5 and Sheharyar Ahmed

... to develop livestock sector and enhance livestock income of the farmers by 65%. Furthermore, the elasticity of agricultural credit is higher than the elasticity of family size and education level. The elasticity of the credit, family size and education level are 11%, 0.09 % and 0.05% respectively. Thus, this paper argue that if the policy makers give priority to livestock in agricultural credit and devise easy credit procedures for the small farmers, will ul...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Zafarullah Baloch3 

...erience are strong predictors in the model to increase the knowledge level of the respondents for production, processing and marketing of the dates in district Panjgur.
 

...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Arshad1, Rashid Mahmood2,* and Ziyad Abdul Qadir2
...ed with Varroa destructor. Ectoparasitic mite, V. destructor is considered the most important parasite of A. mellifera L. that badly affects the development and performance of bees. Main objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of five synthetic acaricides (Bayvarol®, Apivar®, Apistan® Apitol® and Perizin®
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...e prevalence and risk factors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampling from apparently healthy lambs and were examined using the modified Ziehl Neelsen acid fast staining. Prevalence was calculated along with different risk factors associated with the disease (month, a...
David Beckwith Greene
...er moments of natural history and a new kind of continuity.
...

Jesse M. Smith

...is study examines the rhetorical practices of conservative Christian leadership in the United States over time through a case study of Mormonism. Using data drawn from their semi-annual General Conference and other church-produced documents from 1903 to the present, I examine how Mormon leaders have responded, through discourse, to secular forces over the course of more than a century. I accomplish this by employing the techniques of ethnographic content analy...
Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2 and Saleh S. Alhewairini1,*
...s on the associated predatory mite, Neosiulus cucumeris. Huwa-San TR50 is a formulation of hydrogen peroxide, stabilized by the addition of a small quantity of silver and is extensively used as a disinfectant. It was found to be very effective in killing A. lycopersici with no significant effect on N. cucumeris. Under greenhouse conditions, the mortality percentages were 81.17, 84.11, 92.74 and 95.10% for A. lycopersici and 15.86, 2...
Zheng Quan Jiang1,2, Feng Shan Li3, Jiang Hong Ran1,*, Chen Hao Zhao1, Man Zhang1 and Hua Li4
...nderstanding the life history, evolution and adaptation of birds. A survey was conducted on nest size and the underlying regulatory factors of Black-necked Cranes from 25 March to 31 July in 2013 and 2014 at Ruoergai Internationally Important Wetland and its surrounding area, covering 83 nests. Four types of nests were found in the area, i.e., natural island nest, grass mound nest, ...
Fatmagün Aydin1,* and Fatma Burcu Harmantepe2
...x (VSI) and condition factor (CF). The data of this study show that sage oil can be used to diets of tilapia up to 0.25% without any adverse effect on growth, feed utilization and haematological parameters.
...
Asmatullah1, Chaman Ara1,*, Shagufta Andleeb2, Maha Tahir1, Beenish Zahid1 and Madeeha Arshad1
...mbs, open eyelids and distorted axis. Histological defects included dilation and absence of ventricles, underdeveloped cerebellum, microcardia, necrosis in atrium, underdeveloped ventricles, hydropericardium and necrosis of the liver. Skeleton analysis of cadmium treated groups showed mostly un-ossified skeletons. The control mice showed normal ossification as compared to experimental groups. Morphological, histological and skeletal studies of fetuses treated ...
 Nazia Qamar1, Sher Khan Panhwar1,* and Ralf Riedel2,*
...ny and dry season) as factors. Patterns of empty stomachs were investigated to estimate feeding intensity. Feeding intensity was estimated with logistic regression, using the same independent variables as above. Prey importance was also investigated. Prey importance was assessed using a Wilcox Rank Correlation analysis on the Index of Relative Importance (IRI) by species and life-stage. Permanova analysis showed that fish was the most important dietary item fo...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos*, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Elsayed O.S. Hussein and Mutahar H. Ali
...t) were arranged in a factorial arrangement resulted in four dietary treatments for the period from 15 to 30 days of age. Results revealed a significant two way interaction for body weight gain (BW) and feed intake (FI) (P<0.01) for the first week of the trial (15-22 day). The effect of treatment in the second week (23-30 day) was less pronounced and treatment had no effect on performance. Cumulative performance results for the period (15-30 day) showed tha...
Burcu Onuk1,*, Murat Kabak1, Bünyamin Sahin2 and Nazan Gezer İnce3

 

...tudy, 14 seagulls and 7 storks were examined and volume fractions of the nasal cavity and nasal structures were estimated. Heads of animals were scanned in computed tomography. The images were sampled randomly at a 1/5 sampling fraction. 11-16 sections for the stork and 16-20 sections for the seagull were examined. The sectional surface areas of the total nasal cavity, nasal septum, nasal space and conchae were estimated usi...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
... enzymes as virulence factors to cause diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate enzymatic activities of the bacterial strain Shigella dysenteriae IM using API-ZYM test system. Out of nineteen different enzymes, S. dysenteriae IM strain was capable to poroduce nine enzymes, i.e., alkaline-phosphatase, acidic-phosphatase, lipase, valine arylamidase, cystine arylamidase, napthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β-galactosidase, leuc...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Ali Murad Jakhar3, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo3
...ealworm (Tenebrio molitor) could be an alternative host. Therefore, in the present studies recovery of two EPN (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) from T. molitor cadavers was compared in relation to the dosage of infective juveniles (IJ) applied and exposure periods. Significantly (P< 0.001) greater numbers of nematodes (predominantly IJ) were recovered from the cadavers of...
Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Mushtaq A. Saleem2,Javed Iqbal Wattoo2, Mohd Mokhtar Arshad1 and Maizan Mohamed1
... cloned into transfer vector. Truncated S1 gene designated as Sf200 (containing five antigenic sites located at 24–61, 291–398 and 497–543 amino acid residues of S1 glycoprotein) were amplified by overlap PCR, cloned into prokaryotic expression vector resulting pET-Sf200 and confirmed the construct by sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was identified by restriction enzyme and sequenci...
Aqsa Gulzar1, Tariq Mahmud1,*, Rubina Munir2 and Asma Anjum3
...ncerous and anti-inflammatory potential of two novel Schiff bases was carried out by MTT - colorimetric protocol on HeLa cells (cervical disease) and Luminol-improved chemiluminescence assay, respectively. The novel Schiff bases 4a and 4b have been synthesized by the reaction of 2-[(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]-N-[4-(hydrazinecarbonyl)phenyl]acetamide with 3-nitro and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Characterization of the synthesized compounds was done by usin...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
Wei Dang1, Ning Xu1, Wen Zhang1, Jing Gao2, Handong Fan1 and Hongliang Lu 1,*
... especially important factor associated with the development and survival of ectotherms. To minimize the effect of temperature variation, ectotherms have developed specific physiological and biochemical adaptations. Heat shock proteins and other molecular chaperones play specific physiological roles in such thermal adaptation. Here, we analyzed heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in six lizard species to investigate the variation in Hsp70 response contrib...
Nasir Abbas1, Muhammad Suleman1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,*, Ijaz Ali3, Mubashir Rauf1,5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman4,*
... cases of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in poultry and pheasantry birds of Northern Pakistan is underreported. In this study we report on the seroprevalence and isolation of MG from a total of 2341 poultry and 24 pheasantry birds. Overall, seropositivity of 46.56% (1090/2341) and 27.2% (6/24) against MG was observed among poultry- and pheasantry- birds, respectively. Broiler breeder and broiler showed 58.93% (264/448) and 37.23% (542/1456) seropositivity, ...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...days, seed quantity, tractor hours, urea and pesticides have positive significant effect on sugarcane yield. Resource use efficiency analysis shows that marginal value product (MVP) to marginal factor cost (MFC) ratios for labor days, irrigation, urea, FYM and pesticides are more than unity indicate underutilization of these resources which underlines scope of expansion in these resources. Study results illustrate that land,...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...days, seed quantity, tractor hours, urea and pesticides have positive significant effect on sugarcane yield. Resource use efficiency analysis shows that marginal value product (MVP) to marginal factor cost (MFC) ratios for labor days, irrigation, urea, FYM and pesticides are more than unity indicate underutilization of these resources