Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

..., and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, especially in lymphoid tissues. Genotype VIId of NDV, which is currently endemic in many countries of Asian and Middle East, replicates at a significantly higher level, induces more potent innate antiviral and inflammatory response, and causes more severe damages in lymphoid tissues when compared with...

Leonard Izzard1, 2, John Stambas1, 2*

...s biomarkers for disease severity.

...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

.... It has been shown that severity of pain and overall function of knee joint were improved following the use of this implant. Although it has been mentioned that KineSpring knee implant is an effective method to relieve pain and improve function in Knee OA, there are incomplete evidences to support this claim. Therefore, it is recommended to perform high-resolution clinical trials to evaluate the efficiency of this method.

...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...s changes in the disease severity patterns and distribution might be due to the effectiveness of vaccine, timely vaccination, circulation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or other countries of similar socio-economic and small ruminant rearing pattern to va...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...pray reduced leaf blight severity by 84-86% and fruit rot by 91%. Severities of nematode and virus infection were also reduced significantly with allamanda spray. Active compounds in allamanda leaves have been separated and identified.Formulated trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vege...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...fficient between disease severity and meteorological parameters revealed that BLS disease severity showed significant positive correlation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum relative humidity and number of rainy days.

...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...ve correlation of canker severity with maximum relative humidity at 1% level whereas, anthracnose correlated well with minimum relative humidity, temperature and number of rainy days at 5% level. The negative correlation was obtained for stem canker and dry rot with all parameters at 1% significant level. In case of Phytophthora fruit rot, positive correlation was also recorded with all parameters, except maximum relative humidity. Keywords: Disease prediction...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...ccurrence, intensity and severity of these diseases. The diseases (referred as pathogens) that were the highest and fastest during warm and wet (rainy) months were: Alternaria alternata on Polyanthes tuberosa; Alternaria alternata and Septoria chrysanthemella on Chrysanthemum indicum; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria sp. on Dracaena deremensis; Alternaria sp. and Cercospora hibisci-manihotis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; Colletotrichum gloeosporioide...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
... of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro-level situation vascular bacterial wilt malady can be addressed by prophylactic application of lime at 500 kg/ha and bleaching powder 20 kg/ha in the soil four weeks before transplanting followed by seed dressing with 20g bioinocul...
Erol Akkuzu1,*, Hidayet Güzel2 and Özkan Evcin1
... population dynamics and severity of damage in a forest. This study investigated the effects of stand composition and site index of pine forests on Ips sexdentatus (Boerner) populations. Two main objectives of this study were a) to compare the effects of two different black pine stands of site index-I (high site productivity) and site index-III (low site productivity) and b) to compare the pure and mixed pine forests concerning the abundance and body le...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...count the prevalence and severity of footpad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. The study included 300 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers. One group of broilers was reared on chopped wheat straw (the particle length of straw ≥ 10 cm). The second group was kept on newly formulated pelleted wheat straw. The duration of the trial was 42 days. Moisture content in litter materials and FPD occurrence and severity were assessed we...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...Frequency of yellow rust severity of 5 (20-29% leaf area affected) to 9 (>75% of leaf area affected) was maximum in northeren zone (40%) which was followed by the central (10%) and southern zone (3.5%). A total of 35 known and unknown cultivars were deployed in the three wheat production zones and out of these, each of the 22 occupied less than 1% acreage. Remaining wheat cultivars including Atta Habib, Auqab-2002, Bhakkar-2002, Bathoor-2008, Fakhar-e-Sarha...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

...ease occurrence, disease severity, plant height (cm), bulb weight (g), bulb diameter (mm), clove weight (g), number of cloves bulb-1 and yield (t ha-1) was measured. The result of the study reveals that plant spacing had significant impact on the occurrence of rust disease and its severity, yield and yield components. Plants with 10 cm spacing had more disease incidence and severity (79 an...
Sana Imran1*, Sarwat Jahan2 and Mohammad Sair3
...arative study, psoriasis severity was checked by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). At day 90 Calcipotriol treated group B patients showed more improvement in mean PASI score as compared to Betamethasone valerate treated group A patients. In PASI score, Calcipotriol shows 71.61% betterment whereas Betamethasone vale rate shows 63.2% betterment in mild psoriatic patients. In PASI score, Calcipotriol shows 69.21% betterment...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
...l puncture headache pain severity after spinal anaesthesia for elective caesareansection when given along with conventional treatment as compared to conventional treatment alone.
...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...linical signs of varying severity. Co-infected groups showed the most obvious clinical signs, associated with significant higher mortality and respiratory organ abnormalities, in comparison with the mono-infected groups (P<0.05). There was a non-significant (P>0.05) effect of the inoculation time intervals between vNDV and E. coli inoculation (none or 3 days). Microscopic lesions staining supported clinical and macroscopic findings. Higher virus s...

 Maqsood Qamar*, S. Dilanawaz Ahmad Gardazi**, Riaz-ud-Din*, Muhammad Sohail* and Syed Haider Abbas*

PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST AND ITS EFFECT ON SUSTAINABILITY OF WHEAT YIELD
...s Curve (AUDPC), disease severity (DS) and epidemic growth rate in comparison with wheat cultivar, Inqalab 91. During 2007 cropping season, natural epidemic was developed and relative AUDPC was recorded from 0 to 100% whereas the 2008 cropping season was dry and no stripe rust appeared. Two advanced lines (NR 268 and NR 285) showed the infection type (IT) less than 7 (incompatible reaction) to the mixture of prevailing stripe rust inoculums. Very low level of ...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...of occurrence, types and severity of forest diseases caused by diverse pests, resultantly altering the forest ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disease effects with predic...

 Ahmed Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF POVERTY AND THE ROLE OF NON-FARM ACTIVITIES
...rty, poverty gap and the severity of poverty for the nine agro-climatic zones of the country (rice/wheat Punjab, mixed Punjab, cotton/wheat Punjab, low intensity Punjab, Barani Punjab, cotton/wheat Sindh, rice other Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan) were calculated for farming and non-farming households. The indices of poverty were also measured for households that only did farming, undertook farming and non-farm activities and those that did no farmi...
Komal Mushtaq1, Shoaib Waqas2*, Hafiz Muhammad Asim3
...plied to assess the pain severity levels before treatment and after treatment. Data were normally distributed and therefore, change in pain intensity was measured by “t” test using SPSS version 23.0. 
Results: The calculated mean pain score on NPRS before treatment was 3.90 (standard deviation, 0.3038) and after treatment it was 1.65 (standard deviation, 0.8638). The calculated t-value was 12.08 (p value=0.000). ...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...ease (YMD) using disease severity ratings by visual scoring of symptoms to calculate percent disease index (PDI). Tested recombinants responded differently to the disease. None of the tested genotypes was found to be disease free (field immune). However, combined data showed that 43 genotypes were highly resistant with 1.18 to 10 PDI while 29 were resistant with 10.24 to 24.85 PDI. Mung Kabuli (positive control) showed susceptible response with PDI value of 60...

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 

...ed through the extent of severity scale in terms of LD dimensions and indicators resulted from water, tillage, soil, salinization, and overgrazing. Moderate (0.49) index of water degradation and the changing climatological index were light but the reduction of drainage density of water runoff and slope gradient reduction of soil index was severe. The tillage degradation index value moderate (0.57), overgrazing index (0.32) fall in the ...
Saba Irshad*, Aruba Muhammad, Ammara Muazzam, Farah Sarfraz Anmol and Rehman Shahzad
...or in minimizing disease severity. PCR-RFLP was employed for securitizing Xmn1 polymorphism among thalassemia (Major) patients. Out of total 206 screened patients, sole Xmn1 homozygous (+/+) and heterozygous (-/+) case was reported with a band size of 418 bp, 230 bp and 641 bp, 418 bp, 230 bp respectively. Xmn1 restriction site was present at 158 bp upstream of the Gamma globin gene on chromosome 11 of positive patients (GenBank KY927385). Fetal hemoglobin lev...

 Sobia Faisal1*,Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad2, Maleeha Manzoor3, Madiha Manzoor4, Faisal Rifaq5

Socio-psychological factors related to tuberculosis diagnostic test seeking behavior in Pakistan
...eived susceptibility and severity and perceived benefits and barriers
explain the relation between the socio-psychological factors and low treatment
seeking behavior of TB patients. Inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about
susceptibility and severity of TB disease is contributing towards low health seeking
behavior. Further, false beliefs and distrust in treatment are the perceived barriers,<...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

... on peal and the disease severity was then identified. Both classical and molecular method was used for identification of pathogens. Under classical approach the infected sections from the skin of kinnow was utilized to grow fungal colonies on generalized media, i.e. potato dextrose agar, from which six fungal colonies were also isolated and studied further. Under molecular approach direct DNA was isolated from the infected skin of sampled fruits by using CTAB...

Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1*, Amjad Khan1, Mahmood Alam Khan1, Waqas Ahmad2, Shafiq ur Rehman3, Mohammad Sharif4 and Sajjad Ahmad1 

...re used to determine the severity of droughts for the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab and Kabul River at Tarbela, Mangla, Marala and Warsak hydrological stations for the period 1962-2011. A drought spell starting from 1999 and ending in 2002 was observed for all stations and is considered to be the worst drought in the history of Pakistan. Analysis of historical streamflow data indicated an increased occurrence of droughts in the last 12 years, which may be attributed t...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...ere infestation (>40% severity) was observed for wheat varieties Galaxy-2013, PS-2005, Faisalabad-2008, Shahkar and some local lines. Future wheat improvement programmes must be encouraged to consider resistance to powdery mildew, particularly for lines to be cultivated in the Himalayan region of Pakistan. 

...

Manzoor Hussain1, Muhammad Awais2, Farhatullah3, Saiqa Bibi1, Muhammad Rameez Khan3, Afifa Khalid1 and Sajid Ali3* 

...stan. Data on crown rust severity and host reaction was taken at three scoring dates to assess partial resistance using area under rust progress curve, infection rate, co-efficient of infection and final rust severity. A moderate crown rust pressure was observed during oat season 2015-16, with relatively late crown rust onset after mid of April. Based on the crown rust resistance response, the tested germplasm was clustered ...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

...cidence, prevalence, and severity of root-knot nematode species associated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, prevalence of 85% and severity of 4.1 in terms of the galling index was recorded throughout the province. Differences in the incidence of root-knot nematodes were recorded from all the districts ranging from 11% to 70%. The incidence wa...

Waqas Raza*, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Muhammad Imran Hamid 

...vey on the incidence and severity of late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) of potato was conducted in the major potato growing areas of Punjab viz., Khushab, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Okara, Jhang and Chiniot districts during the cropping seasons of 2016-2017. A total of six districts comprising of three locations in each district were surveyed for the collection of late blight infected samples. During 2016 and 2017, prevalence of disease in all the su...
Lin Sun1, Xiaofang Bu2, Jian Wang1*, Xiaorui Liu1 and Zhanyi Kong2
...nd it was related to the severity of the disease and the course of the disease. The correlation between CXCL8 and its mRNA was significantly decreased in the recovery phase. There was only a weak correlation between serum CXCL8 level and serum Anti-MP level in both acute and convalescent stages (r= -0.2917, P=0.0891; r=-0.2783, P=0.1055). The level of CXCL8 and its mRNA was increased in the peripheral blood of the sick children with...
Muhammad Siddique1, Muhammad Shafique2,*,Abdul Mateen3, Naveed Shahzad4, Bilal Aslam2, Nasir Ahmad1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar2
...ul for analyzing disease severity and start of therapy. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the genotyping of clinically isolated HCV from a Liver Center Faisalabad, Pakistan. A total of 3200 clinical samples were screened for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies by ICT method. Among positive samples, confirmation was carried out by RT-PCR and clustered into four groups (acute, chronic, cirrhotic and hepatocellular carcinoma) on the basis of clinica...
Azra1* and Shaukat Hussain2
...cations. Data on disease severity and grain yield were recorded. There were not significant differences in disease severity among maize genotypes for individual years. However, significant differences were recorded amongst the genotypes when the data were pooled over two years. Based on disease severity scale 14 genotypes were categorized as moderately resistant, 14 moderately susceptible ...
Tahsin Razzaq*, Muhammad Fareed Khan and Shahid Iqbal Awan
...ant differences for NCLB severity and reactions and were classified into resistant, susceptible and moderate categories on the basis of 0-5 disease severity scale. The percent disease incidence ranged from 20-60% and area under disease progressive curve (AUDPC) 22-362dsu (Development stage unit). On the basis of disease rating scale and pathological traits, it was reported that three parental genotypes Karamat-Bar-25, SZP-13...
Shou-Hong Zhang1*, Ying Zhang1, Kun-Ming Wen2, Wei Wu3 and Wen-Yan Li3
...thod for quantifying the severity of liver fibrosis.
...
Muhammad Furqan Shahid1*, Tahir Yaqub1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu2, Asim Aslam2, Saima Yaqub1, Aziz-ul-Rahman3, Muzaffar Ali1
...ection (DPI) followed by severity in redness and swelling of eyes, sneezing and lacrimation at 3rd DPI that lasts up to 5th DPI. Cross reactivity of antiserum response toH9N2 was compared among reference isolates when challenged in broilers, Partridge origin anti-H9N2 antibodies showed varied hemagglutination inhibition results (4log2 to 15log2) when cross reacted with different antigens, suggesting H9N2 viruses are ...

Humayun Saleem1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique

...rkets. The frequency and severity of shot hole disease was estimated from market random samples, and later the index was measured. The results showed that in all markets with varying degrees of disease incidence, frequency and disease index the prevalence of shot hole disease was 100 per cent. It was concluded that the markets near poor colonies are merely selling cheap fruits and they are not concerned with the diseased fruits. 

...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Muhammad Zubair Khan1, Ayesha Bibi2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad

... yield were observed and severity of disease was investigated for supplement efficacy. The biochemical results obtained were all positive, which confirmed stem rot pathogen as Erwinia carotovora sub spp. chrysanthemi (gram-negative bacteria). Highest plant height (75.3 cm) and maximum number of fruits plant-1 (14.3) were recorded with A. indica when applied at 15ml L-1 along with highest dose of boron at 3.95 g seedbed-1. The severity<...
Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Asim Aslam1*, Muhammad Yasin2, Tahir Yaqoob2 and Beenish Zahid3
... infection. Overall, the severity of infection was higher in the co-infected birds as compared to host challenged with either of the viruses alone. Notably, moderate clinical infections raised concerns vaccine efficacies. The current study concluded that the commercially available vaccines may not provide enough protection particularly in the case of co-infection with NDV and IBV. Therefore, here is need to conduct further studies on production of vaccines wit...
Muhammad Anwarullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Ghulam Mustafa3, Muhammad Husnain1 and Muhammad Usman1
... in terms of decrease in severity of lesions weather used alone or in combination with cinnamon in rabbits. It was observed that amikacin and cinnamon having synergistic effect in rabbits and are economically important drugs in treatment of Johne’s disease. 
...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 52, Iss. 4, Pages 1225-1630

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