Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...response of spring wheat seeded in three tillage systems viz., zero (ZT), reduced tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT) to split application of N fertilizer [50 kg N at sowing + 100 kg N ha-1 at first irrigation (T1); 50 kg N at first irrigation + 100 kg N ha-1 at second irrigation (T2); 50 kg N at sowing + 50 kg N at first irrigation + 50 kg N ha-1 at second irrigation (T3); and 50 kg N at first + 50 kg N at second + 50 kg N ha-1 at third irrigation (T4...

Zaheer Ahmed Deho1, Shamsuddin Tunio2, Qammaruddin Chachar2, Fateh Chand Oad2

... ing stages on yield and seed maturity of cotton varieties at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Sindh Pakistan. Three cotton varieties (Sadori, Chandi-95 and Malmal) were evaluated under four sowing dates (15th April, 1st May, 15th May and 1st June). Four pickings at various boll openingstage viz. 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of bollopening were carried out.The varieties responded differently for opening of bolls at different timings of picking. Some v...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

...gave 33% higher mungbean seed yield over control. Similarly, higher values for yield contributing factors were also recorded in PK+ inoculation with Rhizobium. Partial land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercropped maize was 0.96 than respective sole crop. Maximum partial LER of mungbean (0.70) was recorded in intercropping systems. Total LER in maize + mungbean intercropping systems was 1.66 which indicates that 66 % more area would be required to attain same yi...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...loan for the purchase of seed and fertilizers while 70% are utilizing loan for other purposes as for marriages & ceremonial and for purchase of agriculture land & tractor etc. Similarly, 80 percent of credit users are borrowing from Zarai Tarqiati Bank Limited (ZTBL). It is suggested that financial institution should expand the credit facilities to the farmers which shall be utilized exclusively for agricultural purposes. It is also suggested that cred...

Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Aysha Sameen1, Mahr un Nisa2

 

...dietary responses of flaxseed on the meat of rabbits. Rabbits were divided into three groups: T0 rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 7% flaxseed, and T2 were on 3.5% flaxseed in the feed of rabbits. Bearing in mind that this range of flaxseed will fulfil omega 3 Poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration that contr...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

...t also. The parameter of seed rate variable is also negative and statistically significant. A technical inefficiency of 22% is present in the production of wheat crop in the selected district. Majority of the farmers typically utilize the last year’s crop seeds to economize the cost but this comes at another cost of loss of potential yield, which could be obtained through the use of modern varieties of

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...mber of pods plant-1 and seed index. The growth and yield of chickpea significantly increased with the collective application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures. It is concluded that the application of half of recommended dose of NKP (18-36-10 kg ha-1) in combination with poultry manure or farmyard manure at the rate of 20 t ha-1 was found best combination for higher chickpea crop yields in compare to other levels of fertilizers.

...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...mplete block design. The seed of cotton variety “Sindh-1” was sown through drilling in the 1st week of May each year. The treatments consisted of: weedy check (no weeding), interculturing twice (30+60 DAS), Dual Gold 960-EC (S-metolachlor) @ 2.50 L ha-1, sorghum water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice) and sunflower water extracts @ 15 L ha-1 (twice) and 25 L ha-1 (once and twice), sorghum water extract @ 15 ...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

...eplacement of the cotton-seed cake (CSC) in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes. On the basis of nearly similar lactation stage and body weight, sixteen individually confined buffaloes were randomly blocked and allotted to four different dietary treatments. MOLM in proportion to CSC was supplemented along with maize silage as basal diet. Four dietary treatments having MOLM were 0.0, 0.71, 1.42 and 2.16 Kg DM/day used as replacement for CSC containing 2.16, 1.42, 0.7...

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

... the foundation of maize seed industry. Evaluation of per se performance of parental lines and estimation of heterosis and inbreeding depression are prerequisites to start hybrid development program. In this context, we explored heterosis and inbreeding depression in indigenous maize germplasm comprising inbred lines NCMLQ1, NCMLQ2, NCMLD1, NCMLD2, NCMLD3, and NCMLD4. ese genotypes were crossed...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

...ted to see the effect of seeding depth, nitrogen placement method and biochar on the growth, yield and its related parameters of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) at Sugar Crops Research Institute Mardan during 2011-12 and 2012-13. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement in four replications. Sugar beet was sown at the rate of 6 kg ha-1 at four seeding depths from 1 to 4 cm. ...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...ate (CGR) 5.7 g m-2 d-1, seed yield (2329 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.10%). Incorporation of whole plant had significantly increased LAI (4.1), seed yield (2226 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.1%) of canola crop over stubbles incorporation. Decrease in CGR and grain yield was observed with delaying green manuring (40 > 70 > 100 DAS). Increase in LAI, CGR, grain yield and harvest index was noticed with increasing N ra...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...e respondents. Similarly seed was the most provided input followed by fertilizers. Top most source of agriculture information was input dealers followed by Model Farm Services Center. The top learned skills by respondents in MFSC were the agronomic practices whereas there was big gap in horticultural practices. Major constraints identified were less machinery utilization duration, complication in machinery booking process, costly rental prices, out-dated machi...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

..., a non-conventional oil seed crop, can successfully be fit in the cropping system as spring or summer season crop. However, its planting in summer is at risk of the moon-soon outbreak duration in the season. Present study was aimed to quantify delay-sowing response with increasing N-rate on crop productivity at Agronomy Research Farm, University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. Sunflower (cv. Hysun-33) was planted on different dates i.e. Jul. 1, 11 and 21 tr...

Haq Aman Ullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Ijaz2 and Aqeel Javeed3

...f aflatoxin B1 in cotton seed cake, wanda, wheat bran and homemade concentrate mixture of dairy goats was investigated in district Lahore of Pakistan. A total of Twenty 20 goat farms were randomly selected and out of that 40 feed samples 2 from each farm were collected in the month of April. All the samples were analysed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 by using reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Out of total samples Aflatoxin B1 ...

Shahida Bibi* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...ts. Similarly, number of seeds pod-1, thousand grains weight, grain and biological yield of mungbean were also found significant. In main plots, weed density m-2 (16.47) and fresh weed biomass (529.8) were lower in herbicide treated plots in mungbean crop. Number of seeds pod-1 (10.85), thousand grains weight (30.15g), grain yield (366.56 kg ha-1) and biological yield of mungbean (...

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

...were significant in crop seeds of orchard field (THQ>1). The substantial load of heavy metals in studied fields showed the anthropogenic source of pollution. Therefore regular monitoring of heavy metals in soil and crops is necessary.  

...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

.../sup> Dec. 2014) using a seed rate of 130 kg ha-1. Nutrients were applied as one bag urea (N 46%) and di-ammonium phosphate (N 18% and P 46%), each at sowing time during seedbed preparation and an extra bag of urea in February at stem elongation stage of the crop (each bag 50 kg ha-1). Rests of the cultural practices were kept common to all plots. Both sowing dates and varieties have resulted difference...

Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

...;">Abstract | The seed of five parental cultivars alongwith their 10 F1 hybrids of wheat were sown in a randomized complete block design with four replications during 2010 at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. Genetic analysis of yield traits from half diallel crosses was carried-out. Mean squares due to GCA and SCA were significant for days to 75% maturity, tillers plant-1, spike length, spike density, grains spike<...

Murad Ali Khan and Mohammad Akmal 

...erences in its yield and seed oil content exists. So, it is possible to improve yield and yield components through proper planting geometry that may enhance crop canopy light interception and assimilates distribution within the plant parts to yield the best healthy grains.   

...

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
...ecific F1 crosses in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) during 2011-2013 to scrutinized potential lines, hybrids, and nature of gene action involved in the inheritance of maturity and plant architecture traits. Analyzed data revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for days to flowering, maturity, plant height, primary branches plant-1 and main raceme length. Analysis of combining ability revealed highly significant GCA (general combining ability)...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

..., pods per plant (32.3), seeds per pod (4.7), seed index (82.7 g) and seed yield (2589 kg ha-1) when compared with 0.0 and 10 kg K2O ha-1. Interestingly, Sel-449 was the most responsive genotype to K nutrition which resulted in higher branches per plant (5.3), pods per plant (29.7), seeds per pod (4.5), seed index (87....

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...rease in germination and seedling growth of C. arvensis and C. rotundus as compared to control. Integrated application of eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 30 ml kg-1 of soil and eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil showed highest inhibitory effect. In both aforesaid treatments, lowest and statistically similar values of germination, root/ shoot length and fresh/ dry weight

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...on of imported BT-cotton seed is taking into account without considering the local environmental conditions of Pakistan. Thus the main objective of the research was on the comparative efficiency and the productivity analysis of BT- Cotton varieties with those of the conventional non-BT-Cotton varieties. The population  of  this research covers the area of Rahim Yar Khan of Pakistan. Two hundred and fifteen farms were selected from each of the NonBT-c...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...of opened bolls plant-1, seed index, and seed cotton yield ha-1. Red leaves reduced when soil was fertilized with N, P and K @ 120-70-40 kg ha-1; and plots without application of K (120-70-0 kg ha-1) and PK (120-0-0 kg N ha-1) increased number of red leaves. In case of micronutrients, Zn @ 4 kg and B @ 1.5 kg ha-1 were highly effective to control reddening of leaves, respectively. Interactive effect of NP @ 120-70 kg ha-1 &t...

Muhammad Aslam

...ern technology, enhanced seed production, improved inputs availability and use, improved irrigation, improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality ...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...uous was observed during seeds development and its maximum population (126 individuals / head) was recorded during 4-week of April 2009. Spodoptera spp, Thysanoplusia orichalcea and Heliothus were also found but in small numbers. Among natural enemies, ladybeetles and spiders were found to be the putative predators with maximum population of 3.9 and 3.5 individuals/plant, respectively. Further, correlation study indicated that syrphids and chrysoperla had...

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

... (3.26% and 2.37%) favor seed germination, enhance root growth and soil fertility.

...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...sources was observed for seed quantity and use of tractor. There exist decreasing return to scale (87.7%) but its value will surely increase after efficient use of inputs. A little adjustment is required in the use of inputs for receiving more output. A comprehensive agricultural policy is required based on support price of vegetables; subsidize the input resources, improvement in vegetable markets and provision of extension services.

...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...nd under sugarcane crop, seed , urea, DAP, farmyard manure, tractor hours, irrigation, pesticides used and labour days would rise sugarcane yield by 0.053, 0.103, 0.068, 0.020, 0.024, 0.111, 0.118, 0.005 and 0.121% respectively. All inputs except DAP, farmyard manure and pesticides were found significant at 5% significance level. In inefficiency model grower age, experience and contact with extension workers has significant contribution in decreasing farm inef...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...per acre production, new seed and crop varieties etc. was collected with the help of a questionnaire survey. A total of 50 household were surveyed which make 45 percent of the total (114 households). The analysis of acquired data reveals that in 2008-09 tube well irrigated land account for 81.67 acre which decreased to 37.46 acre in 2013-14, after the dam construction. The number of parcels irrigated by tube well decreased from 158 to 75 in 2013-14. Today cana...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

... of inputs such as land, seeds, fertilizers and pesticides reflect the general performance of the inputs in terms of their degree of changes in cotton-melon output to change inputs reflected by the allocative efficiency analysis. It is indispensable that policies aimed at adapting innovative farming techniques must be implemented in an efficient manner. Effectively implementation of agricultural schemes, formal education and in-formal education should be reali...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

...bility was estimated for seed yield using biplot approach in fifteen parental genotypes following 11× 4: line × tester fashion. The resultant 44 F1 hybrids along with parental genotypes were evaluated under field condition in a replicated trial for seed yield plant-1 performance. Differences among the parental lines, testers, F1 hybrids and line × tester interaction for found significant (P<0.01) for the...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...ous and damage wheat, oilseeds, vegetables and fruit crops. This study was carried out to observe the effect of plant extracts and semiochemicals on physiology and performance of endoparasitoid of aphids, Diaeretiella rapae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and plant extract were applied on aphid pests, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi and parasitoid was released. The data regarding emergence, parasitism, sex ratio, tibia...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
....34 g, average number of seeds varied between 7.95 to 7.73 seeds per fruit and yield per tree was recorded between 28.92 to 31.65 kg per tree. Number of Apple fruits per tree ranged between 145.72 to 164.58 in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Average fruit weight varied between 103.66 to 112.13 g and average number of seeds varied between 7.73 to 7.95 seeds ...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
...il contents of sunflower seed. Frequent visitations of A. mellifera observed at 1200 noon, where 29 individuals of bee visitors were found on sunflower blossoms. The next high (25 honeybee/3 m2) visitation rate of bee was recorded at 1400 h. Individuals of A. florea showed two peaks of visitation between 1400 to 1600 h. First peak (15 honeybee/3 m2) was recorded at 1600 h, whereas second peak (12 bees) was recorded at 1400 h...

Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul M. Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa, Khurram Ziaf, Irfan Afzal and Muhammad Qasim

...vestigate the effects of seed priming (halopriming with 25 mM, 50 mM and 100 mM of calcium chloride (CaCl2), potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium chloride (KCl) and Hydropriming) on germination and seedling vigor of Gerbera jamesonii and Zinnia elegans. Seeds of Gerbera jamesonii and Zinnia elegans were primed in salt solutions and distilled water for 24 h and 12 h, respectively, and germin...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...determine the effects of seeds of different storage containers on growth, yield and quality of cotton genotypes. The experiment was conducted between July, 2010 to February, 2011 at Cotton Research, Training and Seed Multiplication Farm, Sreepur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Significant variations related to genotypes and seed sources were observed for stand establishment, branch development, phen...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...) is one of the major oilseed crops grown worldwide for the production of edible oils. In order to increase the oil production there is dire need to grow more sunflower by using the economical and environment friendly techniques. Present study was proposed to evaluate theresponse of spring and autumn sunflower to chemical and bio-fertilizers for yield and quality traits during 2014 at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The treatments comprised on...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
...l weight (BW), number of seeds per boll (NS), number of locules per boll (NLB), seed index (SI) and seed volume (SEV). Twenty cotton genotypes were grown using randomized complete block design with three replications. Significant variation among the genotypes was observed for studied traits by analysis of variance. Pearson correlation analysis depicted significant positive association betw...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...and reduced damping-off, seed rot, seedling blight and tip over of vegetables (egg-plant, tomato, chilli) in the nursery and leaf blight, anthracnose, fruit rot, root knot and leaf curl/mosaic of tomato and carrot in the field. Aqueous solution of garlic and allamanda tablet sprayed at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 conc. increased seed germination by 45-60%, completely eliminated damping-of...

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...eem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil, castor ( Ricinus communis) oil, a mixture of Neem seed oil and sesame oil, leaf extracts of custard apple (Annona squamosa ) and Bara Bishkatali ( Polygonum orienta) were tested against the pest infestation. The treatment of custard apple leaf extract produced the most favourable result in respect of pest control and crop yield. The other treatments also exhibited better results in comparis...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...ct of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, seed viability and their persistence in treated seeds of mungbean, mustard and rice was studied in vitro. The highest appearance of pathogens viz.,Alternaria alternata was recorded in seeds of mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.), A. brassicae in mustard (Brassica campestris L.) and Drechslera oryzae in ...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...ns can be applied to the seed either by dry seed treatment or by seed biopriming for control of several soil-borne diseases of some field crops. Similarly, seedlings of horticultural crops and rice are treated by dipping the roots in Trichoderma suspensions before planting. Granular or pellets preparations and Trichoderma enriched FYM have been used for ...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...ugh water-and soil-borne seeds. With the objective of developing location-specific integrated management schedule of the parasite, crops, other than sugarcane, grown in the target area were evaluated for their potential as trap and catch crops of the parasite. Twelve crops, selected on the basis of germination induction test of A. pedunculata seeds on root exudates as compared to that of three germination inducing chemicals ...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...enty one days old tomato seedlings were transplanted after dip treatment in antagonist fungal and bacterial CF in earthen pots filled with amended soil. Seven days after transplanting, the seedlings were inoculated with second stage juveniles of M. incognita @ 2J2/g soil. The exposure of M. incognita eggs and juveniles to the culture filtrates showed high inhibition in egg hatching and caused high mortality of juveniles than...

Bushra Afreen, Geetesh Baghel, Akil A. Khan and Q.A. Naqvi

Virus- vector relationship of yellow vein disease of calendula and the whitefly
.... officinalis to healthy seedlings of C. officinalis through whiteflies not through sap inoculation. A single whitefly could transmit the virus and showed 20.55% infection and fifteen whiteflies were required for 100 percent transmission. The minimum acquisition access feeding period and minimum inoculation access feeding period for the present virus were 10min and 30min, respectively. Acquisition access feeding period and inoculation access feeding period was...

Amitava Konar, Palash Mondal and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of potato pests in different dates of planting in Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India

D. Sharmah, K.C. Deka and A.K. Phukan

Field evaluation of efficacy of some botanical dust against rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabr.)
...e bug adults due to neem seed kernel powder, neem seed kernel powder + multani powder, multani powder, neem leaf powder, neem leaf powder + multani powder, neem leaf powder + ash, soap nut kernel powder, soap nut kernel powder + multani powder tested as dust were found to be 24.44, 14.78, 5.65, 17.06, 11.88, 6.54, 18.18 and 15.01 respectively for exposure period of ten days. The order of efficacy of the botanicals and their ...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Population proliferation and spread of Trichoderma spp. in soil under two different delivery systems
...ake (90% + 10% w/w)) and seed based (sterilized wheat seed) inocula. The population proliferation and spread of the antagonists were faster when they were applied through organic based inoculums over that of seed based inoculums from the point of application. Similarly population proliferation and spread of the antagonist was more rapid in sterilized soil followed by solarised soil and nat...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...extract (20 % ), mehgoni seed oil (5 % ), castor seed oil (5 % ) and neem seed oil (5 % ) were used to assess their effects on the mortality of P. marginatus . It is evident that tobacco medicine exerted the best result in terms of control followed by neem seed oil, mehgoni seed oil, castor see...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...ns. It was observed that seed priming with mycelia preparation of the antagonist Trichoderma harzianum at 4g/kg of seed and organic formulation of the antagonist in vermicompost along with 20% neem cake (w/w) gave best disease control along with yield of cowpeas over leaf mold +20% neem cake formulation of the antagonist, talc base formulation and seed treatment with carbendazim at 2g/kg o...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
...nting, respectively) and seedling treatment with imidacloprid before transplanting, succeeded by foliar spray with imidacloprid, novaluron, B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and novaluron at 30, 50, 70 and 90 days after transplanting were most effective in reducing the aphid and whitefly population over control during both the years of study. Consequently both the treatment schedules achieved maximum marketable fruits of brinjal as well as highest monetary return...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...poisoned food technique, seed germination and under green house experiments for control of Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique...

S.K. Sahoo

Incidence and management of mustard aphid (Lipaphis ery-simi Kaltenbach) in West Bengal
...rious insect-pest of rapeseed- mustard and responsible for causing the yield losses ranging from 35.4 to 96 per cent depending upon weather condition. The experiment was carried out to assess it’s incidence and their management during the winter seasons of 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 at the Pulses and Oilseeds Research Station, Berhampore, West Bengal (India). The natural appearances of the aphid on the yellow sarson ...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...e and negative effect on seed germination, plant growth and vigour. Maximum increase in germination by 13.64% (chilli), shoot length by 59.69% (tomato), root length by 84.51% (cauliflower) and biomass by 46.55% (cauliflower) were obtained by the isolate B16 followed by B14 and B13. However, the isolate, B18 showed negative result with maximum reduction in germination by 25.56% (cauliflower), shoot length by 67.06% (cauliflower), root length by 88.50% (cauliflo...

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik and M.L. Chatterjee

Evaluation of new and conventional insecticides for the management of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.)
...paphis erysimi K. on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.). Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with eight treatments. Insecticides used in the experiments were imidacloprid 17.8% SL at 27g a.i/ha, lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC at 25g a.i/ha, chlorpyriphos 20% EC at 375g a.i/ha, dichlorvos 75% EC at 375g a.i/ha, thiamethoxam 25% WG at 27g a.i/ha, dimethoate 30% EC at 375g a.i/ha and chlorpyriphos 50% + cypermethrin 5% EC (Canon) at 375g a.i/ha. Chlorpyriphos...

S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...s. Cabbage (cv Rareball) seedlings were transplanted in the plot of 9 m2 area with 45cm x 45cm spacing. Observation was recorded at weekly interval from randomly selected five plants /plot. Peak population of diamond back moth (DBM) was recorded on 1st March and 23rd February with13.60 and 14.33 larvae /plant during 2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively. Cabbage aphid reached its peak on 9th February (14.17 aphids/inch2 leaf) and 16th February (11.03 aphids/inch2 l...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...at 15 days interval from seedling to early fruiting stage. Among the ecofriendly options, alternate use of garlic with spirit performed better than their single repeated use starting from seedling to early fruiting stage at every 15 days interval. 

...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
...d against aphids. Potato seed tuber was planted by end of November following all standard agronomic practices except insecticide application. The aphid species viz. Myzus persicae (Sulzur) and Aphis gossypi Glover were recorded first during third week of December and crossed the threshold limit (20 aphids/100 compound leaves) during first to second week of January in Kufri Chandramukhi whereas in Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Joawhar, the pest was observed first by fo...

Someshwar Bhagat and Sitansu Pan

Comparative ecological behaviour of some pre- and post-tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from Andaman & Nicobar Islands
...rhizosphere of chick pea seedlings. All isolates of Trichoderma showed significantlty low competitive parasitic ability and rhizosphere colonization in Mohanpur (B.C.KV.) soil as compared to Port Blair (CARI) soil.
 

...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...-1 at land preparation + seed piece tuber treatment with carbendazim 2.5 gL-1 and Streptocycline @ 1 gL-1 + stable bleaching powder drenching with out removal of affected plant at 40 Days After Planting (DAP) @ 10 gL-1, along with protective banding with well decomposed cowdung + oilcake + Single Super Phosphate + Muriate of Potash mixture at 20:5:3:1 in each bacterial wilt affected plant + mancozeb spray @ 2.5 gL-1 at 50, 57 and 60 DAP) were the best treatmen...

Sujoy Mondal and S. S. Ghatak

Bioefficacy of some indigenous plant extracts against epilachna beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr.) infesting cucumber
...eum ether as solvent and seed extracts of Annona squamosa with methanol as solvent in controlling epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Fabr; Both Neem Azal and seed extracts of Annona squamosa were used at 4ml, 5ml and 6ml (per Lt. of water) while this was 1ml, 2ml and 3ml (per Lt. of water) in case of petroleum ether extract of rhizome of Acorus calamus. Endosulfan 35 EC was used at 1ml, 1.5ml and 2ml (per ...

S. Choudhury and S. Pal

Population dynamics of mustard aphid on different Brassica cultivars under terai agro-ecological conditions of West Bengal
...hid on seven popular rapeseed-mustard cultivars. The incidence of aphid commenced from 52nd to 2nd standard week with a very low population levels on all the cultivars. The aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) population attained peak level from 7th to 9th standard week. The correlation coefficients between aphid population and different abiotic factors revealed contradictory results. Except for a few instances the weather parameters showed low order of associations with ...

Shyam Singh and L.P. Awasthi

Plant products for the management of yellow mosaic disease of mungbean and urdbean
...25 and 22.85 per plant), seed yield (4.43 and 3.89 g per plant) were recorded in eight sprays with Clerodendrum aculeatum leaf extract followed by eight sprays with Boerhaavia diffusa root extract and Azadirachta indica leaf extract. On the other hand maximum disease incidence ( 80.85% and 73.56%) with minimum plant height, primary and secondary branches, nodules, pod and seed yield were recorded in untreated (control) plots...

S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...tis segetum) damaged the seedlings of Gladiolus. Among the Coleopteran pests, the Blister beetle (Mylabris p) was the most important feeding on the flowers of Gladiolus and China rose. The steel blue beetle, Altica p. and white spotted flea beetle (Monolepta signata) was found infesting Gladiolus and Chrysanthemum respectively. The serpentine leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii) was recorded on gerbera. Among non-insect pests the red spider mite, Tetranychus urtica...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...ransplanting followed by seed dressing with 20g bioinoculant formulation per kg seed, pre-transplanting seedling root treatment with 20g bioinoculant formulation per litre and spot soil application of 7 days old mixture of bioinoculant formulation and well rotten cow-dung manure (1:40 w/w) or need based curative application of bleaching powder at 20 kg per ha through every irrigation.
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
...sts. Control of pests in seedbed is relatively less expensive than transplanted main-field because of smaller area of nursery that can be managed better way as compared to transplanted field. In the present study, chlorantraniliprole granule was applied both in seedbed and transplanted field along with spraying of some new generation insecticides like indoxacarb, flubendiamide, spinosad and chlorantraniliprole to test their ...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...rpose of consumption and seed for the next year sowing. Callosobruchus sp.(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the major stored grain pest of blackgram under homestead condition resulting 15 – 30% grain damage during storage. An attempt was made to identify a practical and low cost solution of such damage with the active participation of village women responsible for the storage. Proven biological, chemical and botanical (vegetable oil) approaches of ma...

Khurram Shahzad and Mohammad Akmal*

...ting was made with basic seeds (cv. Pakhtunkhwa) using seed drill in rows spaced 0.25 m equal distances. Recommended rates of phosphorus and potassium were applied yielding 90 and 60 kg ha-1respectively while the N-application rates (i.e. NAR 0, 100, 120, 140 and 160 kg ha-1) were added with different N application timings (i.e. NAT1100% at seedbed, NAT2 50% at sowing and 50% 70 days after...

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...o increase the number of seedling for the purpose to increase the productivity. It is further recommended that government should provide training facilities to the farmers to improve their skills, as a results of which the productivity will be increased

...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...indicate that machinery, seed quantity, labor, number of irrigation, chemicals spray and fertilizers have positive significant effects on tomato yield. Allocative efficiency analysis reveals that machinery, seed quantity, number of irrigation, fertilizers and chemicals are underutilized, while labor and FYM are over utilized for tomato production in the study area. The study recommends training for growers and field labors, ...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
...C line Vigna cross, bold seeded, small stature and susceptible to Mungbean Yellow Mosac Virus (MYMV) and NM-92 (a promising variety of Pakistan, bold seeded, high yielding and MYMV resistant) at Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan. Inqalab Mung was tested in various experiments for production technology and yield trials for its performance. Result showed that 40 kg ha-1 ...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

...traits of cotton growth, seed cotton yield and yield attributes. Increasing N increments reveals a positive association with biomass accumulation (growth), yield and yield associated components. Among N increments, 200 kg ha-1 achieved more number of bolls per plant (31.00), average weight per boll (3.48 g) and ultimately lead to higher seed cotton yield (2.42 t ha-1) as compared to other N rates (50, 100, 150 kg ha-1). Sign...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

...ative growth rather than seed cotton yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield. The results further illustrated that, genotype DNH-105 ranked first for plant population, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, weight per boll and seed cotton yield when sown on April 01. CIM-616 was the 2nd suitable variety under April 01 sowing. Earlier and...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

...o;Effect of salinity and seed priming on growth characters of Wheat varieties” was carried out at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during winter 2013-2014. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The response of fourteen wheat varieties at two seed treatments (primed with 50 mM CaCl2 and un-primed) with...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...ional method) and Direct seeded method (Dry method) in rice growing areas of Punjab. In last some years, the direct seeded rice system is introduced in some of the rice cropping districts of Pakistan. The current research estimate the technical efficiency of conventional and dry rice farmers and also determine the factors which significantly contribute to increase the rice output. Moreover, this study estimated the sources o...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
...poor germination and low seed viability. The optimum yield and quality of this oil seed crop is noticeably affected by its lower germination rate. To address the problem of poor germination and low seed viability, a field study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, during spring 2011. The experiment was composed of two soybean varieties (Faisal Soy...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, machinery along with advisory services in order to increase per acre yield. This study was conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in the year 2016. The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Farm Services Centers (FSCs) in district Charsadda regarding provision of agricultural services to its member farmers. About 57% respondents were registered with FSC since last 4-6 years period. Also 57...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...d. For this purpose, dry seeds of four cotton genotypes (Gomal-93, Bt-131, Bt-121 and Bt-CIM-602) were exposed to gamma rays with 10, 15, 20 and 25 Kilo Radium (KR) doses sourced from 60Co. The irradiated seed samples were assumed treated seeds while non-irradiated seeds of each genotype were used as control. Field experiment was conducted in ...
Asad Abdullah1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Waqar Hassan2,    Samina Khalid3, Yasir Iftikhar4, Muhammad Arshad1 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6
...he effectiveness of neem seed extract (NSE) for the management of Bemesia tabaci Gennadius, (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Amrasca biguttula Ishida, (Homopter: Cicadellidae) infesting Bt and non-Bt cotton cultivars. Foliar application of neem seed, Azadirachta indica extract was applied upon reaching economic threshold levels of B. tabaci and A. biguttula. The insect pest popula...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...t-align: justify;">Basil seeds are used not only as pharmaceutical plant but also for culinary purpose. The current study has been undertaken to develop a nutritious, healthy and value added drink. Proximate, mineral analysis, total polyphenol content and mineral analysis of basil seeds was conducted. Result revealed that basil seeds are not only good source of fiber and protein but they p...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...ooded rice in pots. Rice seedlings were transplanted to each pot on July 18, 2016. The data were recorded on agronomic parameters of rice crop, plant tissue and post-harvest soil analysis. But in this paper, data on availability of major plant nutrients, soil organic matter and plant dry weight are presented. The data revealed that cyanobacteria strains had significantly (p < 0.05) increased the availability of major plant nutrients and SOM under the saline...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...zone. Development of new seed varieties with increased heat tolerance and provision of timely and sufficient water for irrigation would be helpful in reducing future potential losses to wheat growers.  

...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

... picloram produced maize seedlings with expanded coleoptilar nodes. Longitudinal cut sections of expanded coleoptilar nodes produced maximum primary calli on callus induction medium containing both 0.5mgL-1 2, 4-D and 1 mgL-1 picloram. Eighty percent of embryogenic calli were obtained on MS medium containing only single auxin while combination of auxin and cytokine in MS and Chu’s N6 media produced 53.33 and 35.56% embryogenic calli, respectively. Inclus...

Sikandar Hayat, Khalid Usman* and Muhammad Tahir Amin 

...logging problem to wheat seeder besides higher yield (5352 kg ha-1) and economic return as evident from the BCR data (3.80). 

...
Mubashir Hussain1,Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3 and Sohail Latif4
...bsp;
...
Tahira*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan and Mubashar Ahmad Khan
...e of variation among rapeseed hybrids and the best selection criteria for yield enhancement in rapeseed (Brassica napus).For this thirty-six rapeseed hybrids were sown in a RCBD with four repeats at NARC, Islamabad during the cropping season 2014 and 2015. Cluster analysis based on WARD’s method showed considerable genetic variation among the hybrids. In the first year, thirty...

Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar1*, Amir Shakeel1, Muhammad Amir Maqbool1, Muhammad Waheed Anwar1, Zoraiz Tanveer1 and Muhammad Fahad Irfan2 

... of monopodial branches, seed cotton yield (g), number of bolls, boll weight (g), lint percentage (%), fiber strength (g/tex), fiber length (mm) and fiber fineness (µg/inch). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences at 1% level of significance for all traits except fiber fineness. The mean performance of F1 populations were better than parents. Maximum GCV was recorded for number of monopodial branches followed by number of sympodial branche...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

...at (cv. Atta Habib-2010) seeds were first germinated in sand culture and then three weeks old seedlings (7.5 cm) were transferred to water tubs containing Hoagland solution without P. The treatments included 0, 18, 36, 72, 144 and 216 mM as KH2PO4 solution foliarly applied three times with one week intervals starting after two weeks of seedlings transplantation. Each treatment unit consist...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

..., NPK fertilizer, labor, seedling, farm yard manure and pesticides were recorded 6.00 hrs, 248 kgs, 143 man days, 24413 seedling, 1.48 trollies and 1.21 litres respectively. The results also showed that strawberry producers were having 81% of mean technical efficiency with minimum to maximum technical efficiency limits of 0.42% to 0.98% respectively. Moreover out of 382 the technical efficiency of 178 farmers was more than 9...

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

...d varieties (OPV) during seed bed preparation. Data analysis showed that emergence m-2 affected by varieties only. Both crop phenology (i.e. days to tasseling, silking & maturity) as well as morphology (i.e. plant height, ear height, including ear length) was affected (p<0.05)by sowing dates. Likewise, yield traits (i.e. rows per ear, grains per ear, thousand grain weight) were also adversely affected by sowing dates, which decreases both biomass and gr...

Syed Asif Imran Shah1*, Shah Jehan Khan2, Kalim Ullah1 and Obaid Ullah Sayal

...ield related attributes, seed cotton yield and fibre quality traits using principle component analysis. The experiment was carried out at Cotton Research Station, Deara Ismail Khan, Pakistan during 2014-15. The triplicated randomized complete block design was followed and attributes of interest were plant height, monopodia plant-1, sympodia plant-1, bolls plant-1, plant population, seed index, boll weight, lint index, staple...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...ess-mud (PrM) along with seed inoculants (I1) Azospirillum and (I2) Azotobacter separately for each plot. Data regarding yield, quality and nutrients use efficiency parameters were collected and analyzed. Results depicted that interactive effect of both the factors was non-significant for all the observed parameters. Considering the individual effect of fertilizer combinations, maximum number of productive tillers m

A. R. Rattu, M. Fayyaz, I. Ahmad, M. A. Akhtar* A. A. Hakro and K. A. Khanzada**

...5, 99B2278, 99B4012 from seeding date were found resistant to both leaf and yellow rusts and showed desirable Relative Resistance Index (RRI) during 2003-04 and 2004-05. In addition, two of these lines, 7-03 and RWM-9313 from seeding date were also found resistant to yellow and leaf rust, respectively. Out of remaining 20 candidate lines, 8 (4 from seeding date, 4 from rainfed) showed desi...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

...etables and 10% nuts and seeds. Different processing methods cleaning, washing, germination of pulses, peeling, cutting and blanching of vegetables, drying, roasting, grinding and mixing of ingredients were used. Recipe “A” containing rice, mung, potato and poppy seed was organoleptically preferred. No significant change in moisture content, peroxide value and free fatty acid were observed during three months sto...

Naheed Akhtar, Azra Nasim*, Ata ul Mohsin**, Muhammad Ashfaque, Shaheena Yasmin, Ghulam Jilani, Afzala Tashfeen, Waseem Ahmed Gilani, Irshad Begum* and Muhammad Munir***

...Rhopalosiphum padi L. In seedling bulk tests, the germplasm under study was grouped into three categories i.e., resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible. Data from seedling bulk tests showed that five wheat lines namely V- 01078, V-00055, KT-7, V-01180 and DN-47 were resistant with damage rating of 2- 3. Twelve wheat lines/varieties, 99B4012, 99B2278, V-9021, V-002493, Wafaq 2001, PR-84, TW0135, CT-00062, 7-03, PR-86,...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

... monopoly pricing of its seed in Pakistan. The area under illegal Bt cotton is 80 % with nearly 36 unapproved varieties. Most of these varieties are Cotton leaf curl virus susceptible, poor in fiber quality and high input demanding unapproved varieties. Almost all these varieties employed Monsanto Cry1Acgene (MON 531) as it was not patented in Pakistan. A positive development was approval of Monsanto plan to introduce advanced genetically modified (GM) crop te...

Golam Moula* and Sayedur Rahman**

...erve the potentiality of seed germination of wild vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) over a five-month period (from mid July to mid November 2003) along with other phenological features. The total length (mean ± SD) of vetiver culms was 206.32 ± 42.43 cm. The root and shoot lengths (mean ± SD) of 8 weeks old seedlings were 3.93 ± 0.25 cm and 4.79 ± 1.29 cm, respectively. The fitted reg...

Zaheer Ahmad, M. Yaqub Mujahid, M. Anwar Khan, Shaheena Yasmin, M. Asif and Maqsood Qamar*

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

...prices of inputs such as seed, fertilizer, diesel, electricity and less wheat prices during 2006-07 and late announcement of the minimum guaranteed wheat price for 2007-08 were the main reasons of lower wheat production in 2007-08. To enhance the wheat yield, farmers were of the view that the timely availability of quality inputs (seed, fertilizers) at reasonable prices, canal water supply at critical stages of plant growth,...

 Z. A. Soomro, M.B. Kumbhar, A.S. Larik*, M. Imran** and S.A. Brohi***

...olls/plant, boll weight, seed index and seed cotton yield/plant was determined. It was found that all the populations alongwith parents differed significantly (P < 0.01) and exhibited genetic variability among the genotypes for all the traits except sympodia/plant. Genetic parameters computed through variance components method show that all the traits were highly heritable in F2 and F3 generations except sympodia/plant, i...

 S.A. Khan*, M.M. Rahman Jamro** and M.Y Arain***

 Nasreen Sultana* and A.Ghaffar**

...heobromae , the cause of seed rot, seedling and root infection on bottle gourd was studied in vitro and in vivo. Carbendazim and Topsin-M completely inhibited the growth of L. theobromae in vitro at 50 ppm whereas Aliette, Benlate, Mancozeb, Ridomil and Vitavax showed complete inhibition of colony growth at 100 ppm. Invariably all fungicides at three different concentration viz., 1, 2, 3 g (a.i.) kg-1 <...

 Naheed Akhtar, Muhammad Ashfaque, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Ata-ul-Mohsin**, Afzala Tashfeen and Irshad Begum*

...lines were evaluated for seedling bulk test to know the resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible wheat varieties/ lines. These results revealed that varieties Diamond and Margalla-99 and lines V-99022, 99B2278 and 7-03 were partially resistant, two lines V-00125 and SD-66 were susceptible and three varieties and ten lines were moderately resistant in seedling bulk test. For antibiosis studies, 10 varieties/ lines out ...

 Aneela Afzal, Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Humera Amin and Samina Saki*

...d engaged in cleaning of seeds, sowing, harvesting, weeding, etc. for corn, rice, wheat, sugarcane, and vegetables’ production. It is concluded that women’s participation in crop production extracted more vital role than their counterparts in rural areas.

...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

...nventionally used cotton seed cakes. The intervention provided better competitiveness, sustainability, accessibility with inclusiveness of small holders along with scalability option for the entrepreneurs.

...

Liaqat Ali Shahid, M. Azhar Saeed and Nadeem Amjad*

...ase the production of oilseed crops are not fruitful. This crop sector remained neglected for the last two decades due to mainly unfavourable edible oil import policies. Three main institutions/organizations namely Oilseed Programme NARC, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), NARC and Pakistan Oilseed Development Board (PODB) Islamabad are jointly working at federal lev...

 Mazher Abbas*, Muhammad Waqas Akram**, Ikram Saeed*** and Arshed Bashir*

...s of non-conventional oilseed crops in the Punjab. Therefore 60 respondents were taken from Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh and Chiniot districts of Central Punjab. Percent area allocated to canola crop was comparatively higher at medium farms as compared to small and large farms. The results of the study showed higher yield of canola at large farms as compared to medium and small farms. Average gross revenue by small, medium and large farmers was Rs. 35913.10, Rs....

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...odder. Wheat grains, oil seed cakes, wheat bran (choker), grams and left over dry breads were the concentrates fed to goats. On the whole about 30% metabolizable energy requirements of non-milking goats and 34% of does were fulfilled by supplementation. Goats were supplemented maximum during January-March, June, November and December and grazed for greater periods in summer and autumn than in winter and spring seasons. It can therefore be concluded that in gen...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...ns e.g. production of oilseeds, which are also being imported in large quantities. Temporal analysis (1950-09) for edible oil consumption, production and imports is made. Projections for edible oil are worked out up to 2030. As there have been large variations in yield of Jatropha reported by various studies conducted in India and other countries, therefore most reliable data have been selected for analysis to assess the prospects in Pakistan. Comparative econ...

Tariq Mahmood, M. Sudheer Tariq, Khalid Mahmood Khokar, Hidayatullah and Syed Ijaz Hussain*

...ent plant extracts (neem seed, neem leaves and tobacco leaves) and insecticide permethrin dust alone or mixed with dung, were conducted against red pumpkin beetle in the field at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during kharif 2008. Permethrin (0.5%) alone or mixed (0.05%) with dung ash as dust controlled the attack of red pumpkin beetle on the crop with no mortality of plants. Highest mortality of plants due to foliage eating by red pumpkin bee...

 Ghulam Shabbir*, Muhammad Aftab, Abid Mahmood** Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah* and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

...reeding programme for oilseed research including Brassica crops. Long and consistent breeding efforts on Brassica improvement programme by the breeders has resulted in the development of a high yielding and drought tolerant elite line SPS-5, selected from the segregating progenies of a cross between Ganyou-4 x Westar. Breeding was carried out by the pedigree method and the elite line was evaluated for its yield potential in various yield trials conducted at BA...

 M. Yasin Mirza, Mubashir A. Khan, M. Akmal, Akbar S. Mohmand, Malik S. Nawaz, Nazakat Nawaz and Najeeb Ullah*

...mber bolls plant-1, 1000-seed weight and seed yield hectare-1. These studies were conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan during rabi 2002-03, 2003-04 and 2004-05. Pooled genotypic and phenotypic variances were maximum for seed yield and minimum for 1000-seed weight. Genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coeffi...

 Shazia Erum, Rashid Anwar and Shahid Masood*

...rative analysis of total seed proteins of Kasuri methi (GI of Kasur, Pakistan) was evaluated with other Trigonella genotypes by SDS-PAGE. Results showed that at protein level Kasuri methi acquired a unique status as a G.I of Kasur. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) of 28 genotypes including both methi and methray from various agro ecological zones of Pakistan were interlinked to some extent however Kasuri methi make their identity by standing alone among tested genotyp...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

...h variation was seen for seed germination, canopy and spikes/plant, florets/spike and leaf area. A UPGMA cluster, grouped the 9 Ocimum genotypes into two major clusters on the basis of total seed protein and phenotypic characters, except Siam Queen and Lime basil stand alone, respectively. Euclidian distance for morphological traits ranged from 3.60 to 7.26. Conversely on the basis of total seed

 Zaheeruddin Mirani*and Aslam Memon**

...sticide/fertilize and/or seeds and other related inputs/products available in the market. Farm visits and result and method demonstration methods of technology transfer were perceived as effective methods of technology transfer. Farmers were able to increase the yields of their farm produce. However, the picture says that there is yield gap between the potential yield obtained by research scientists and yield obtained by the farmers. Farmers were of the opinio...

 Naheed Akhtar, Waseem A. Gillani, Ehsan ul Haq, Javed Khan, Irshad Begum, Shaheena Yasmin* and Kamran Saeed**

.... Evaluation was done by seedling bulk test method for finding out resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible entries. The entry B-99036 was found to be resistant. Further studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of resistance like antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance. Results indicated that the entry B-00080 had antibiosis and B-99036 was the tolerant one. So, on the basis of present studies the entry having high level of resistance against R....
Promy Virk
...m-graecum (fenugreek)seed extract and to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the prepared nanopcomposite. Antidiabetic potential of orally administered bulk aqueous extract of Trigonella (TBE) and Au/Ag nanocomposite with Trigonella seed extract (TN) on streptozotocin (70 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats was assessed for a period of 7 weeks. Metformin was used as a standard drug. The results of Zetasizer and...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...Farm Machinary Institute seeder (planting with in the residue). 

...

 Nazakat Nawaz, Malik Shah Nawaz*, Nasir M. Cheema** and Mubashir A. Khan*

Corresponding author:nazakat_nawaz@yahoo.com

ZINC AND IRON APPLICATION TO OPTIMIZE SEED YIELD OF MUSTARD
...ion was recorded between seed yield -1 -1 and 1000-seed weight with the application of 5 kg Zn ha and 1.5 kg Fe ha in combination at the time of sowing. It can therefore be concluded that 100 % -1 seed yield of mustard variety BARD-1 increased at 5 Zn: 1.5 Fe kg ha as a -1 -1 result of increased pods plant , number of seeds pod and 1000-

 Muhammad Arifullah, Muhammad Munir*, Abid Mahmood**, Saifullah Khan Ajmal and Ghulam Shabbir*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS OF SOME YIELD ATTRIBUTES IN INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.)
...s. Data was recorded for seed yield and some important yield attributes. The results for combining ability analysis indicated significant general combining ability for most of the traits except plant height and siliqua length. UCD-8/4, KJ-119 and BRS-2 were good general combiners for yield related traits. A cross BRS-2 × UCD-8/4 showed best desired SCA for number of primary branches and siliquae per plant. S-9 × Canola Raya for siliqua length, Cano...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...;The use of poor quality seed results in poor crop stand and eventually in lesser vegetative growth leading to poor crop yield. Hence, it is the need of the time to enhance provision of certified seed of improved varieties to the farmers. An approved wheat variety 'Chakwal-50' of rainfed areas was selected for certified seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joi...

 Ashiq Saleem, Muhammad Ashraf Zahid, Habib Iqbal Javed*, M Ansar**, Asghar Ali, Rashid Saleem* and Noor Saleem***

EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE ON LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK) SEED YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
... various sowing rates on seed yield of lentil. Field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years (2001-02 to 2003-04) at the National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during the lentil growing season. An improved medium-grain size (1000-grain weight. around 25 g) variety Masoor 93 (18-12 x ILLP 4400) was used in these experiments. Eleven seeding rates i.e., 14.0, 21.25, 28.50, 35.75, 43.0, ...

 Naheed Akhtar, Yasmin Ahmad, Muhammad Shakeel, Waseem Ahmad Gillani, Javed Khan, Tahira Yasmin and Irshad Begum*

RESISTANCE IN PEARL MILLET GERMPLASM TO GREENBUG, SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (RONDANI)
...rmined by the ability of seedlings to resist for plant stunting caused by aphid's feeding at seedling stage. The results indicated that out of 135 pearl millet entries tested, 21 were resistant, 69 were moderately resistant and 45 were susceptible to greenbug feeding. The resistant entries were: C-591, Pak-75211, Pak- 75212, Pak-75219, Pak-75194, Pak-75227, Pak-75238 Pak-75272, Pak- 75276, WCA-78, C-47, Pak-75322, Pak-75323,...

 Arshad Ali, Imdad Ali Mahmood, Muhammad Salim, Muhammad Arshadullah* and Abdul Rasool Naseem**

GROWTH AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE SODIC CONDITIONS
...ssues and oil content in seeds were also determined. Comparatively more number of branches and pods per plant were produced by cultivar Dunkled closely followed by BARD-I while maximum seed yield (241.7 and -1 235.1 kg ha ) was obtained from Dunkled and Sultan Raya, respectively which was statistically at par. However, BRS-II and Rainbow showed significantly more percent oil contents in their seed

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
... nd rd using recommended seed rate, which were ranked 2 and 3 with mean value 3.08 and 3.05, respectively. While, skill improvement in plant protection especially in the area of insect pests identification was ranked st 1 with mean value 3.22 closely followed by insect pests control by local nd rd recipes and their mass killing which were ranked 2 and 3 with mean values 3.03 and 2.84, respectively. Likewise, chemical and manual weed st nd control measures were...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-din*, Syed Haider Abbas*, Maqsood Qamar* and Muhammad Noman*

EFFECT OF SPLIT N FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON PHYSIOAGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...lly apply full N dose at seeding. However, winter showers during vegetative growth period provide an opportunity to apply N in split doses. Study was conducted to find out appropriate N rate and application method to enhance wheat productivity. -1 Three N rates i.e., 60, 90, and 120 kg ha and three application methods i.e. full basal N dose at planting and N application in two and three equal split doses at tiller formation and stem elongation stages. Maximum ...

 Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Amjad* and Malik Shah Nawaz*

STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR ECONOMIC TRAITS IN SESAME ( L.)
...ith b-value and S d, for seed yield were highly significant and positive suggesting that average yield could be considered as a measure of response and stability.

...

 Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Muhammad Amjad*, Nazakat Nawaz*, Malik Shah Nawaz* and Doulat Baig*

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN GERMPLASM OF LINSEED ( L.)
...y;"> A set of 55 linseed accessions including a check variety (Chandni) were evaluated under rainfed conditions during three crop seasons i.e. 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11. Data were recorded for days to flower initiation, flower completion, maturity, reproductive period, plant height, branches per plant, bolls per plant, plot biomass, harvest index and seed yield. Wide ranges between the mean values with high CV values...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad**, Badar Naseem Siddiqui***, Muhammad Zakaria Yousuf Hassan****, Ijaz Ashraf**, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan***** and Aijaz Kuharoo******

COMMUNICATION OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION THROUGH GROUP CONTACT METHODS IN PAKISTAN
... farmer respondents were seed/ fertilizer dealers, workshops, panel discussions, role playing and brainstorming. However, seed/ fertilizer dealers proved to be the most effective source of agricultural information followed by workshops, panel discussions, role playing and brainstorming. However, 28.93 of the respondents never contacted seed/fertilizer dealers while 31.78% occasionally cont...

 Adnan Umair*, Safdar Ali**, Muhammad Sarwar***, Kashif Bashir**, Muhammad Javed Tareen**** and Muhammad Asghar Malik*****

ASSESSMENT OF SOME PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) : A GREEN HOUSE STUDY
...ter crop stand, in which seeds are partially hydrated to a point where germination process begin but radical emergence does not occur. A pot experiment was conducted in a green house. The seeds were invigorated by traditional soaking (hydropriming), osmo-conditioning using phosphorous (KH PO ; 2 4 -1 200 mM and 400 mM), mannitol (20 and 40 gl ), polyethylene glycol (50 and -1 -1 100 gl ), sodium molybdate dihydrate (0.2 and ...

 Shahida Khalid*and Shahida Nasreen Khokhar*

INTERACTION OF HERBICIDES AND BIO-INOCULANTS WITH AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND WEEDS
...nhibitory effect on weed seeds. The crops studied under laboratory conditions were Brassica spp. and Zea mays while Phalaris minor was the test weed. In first experiment, Brassica and maize, grown in soils having residues of either Triasulfuron+Terbutryn (Logran) or Sulfosulfuron (Leader), were found to significantly mitigate (% increase in root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) the inhibitory effect of residues , when inoculated with Azospiri...

 Naheed Akhtar*, Awais Iqbal**, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Javed Khan*, Muhammad Riaz*, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Tariq Mahmood*, Awais Rasool* and Tahira Yasmin*

EVALUATION OF RECOMMENDED WHEAT VARIETIES FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (RONDANI) (APHIDIDAE: HOMOPTERA) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
...eties were evaluated for seedling bulk test and three components of resistance i.e., antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance against greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). NARC-09, Momal-2002, TD-1 and Zarlasta-99 were found resistant in seedling bulk test. Momal-2002 was the least preferred in antixenosis mechanism of resistance NARC-2009, Momal-2002 and Sulaman-96 were the least fecund in antibiosis mechanism of resistance...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Mehwish Ishaque**, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Saleem-ud-din* and Syeda Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SEED PROTEINS, OIL CONTENT AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
...xhibited mean values for seed 1 1 total proteins, oil content and fatty acids composition. Among parental lines, CMS-64, CMS-53, CMS-H55-2-2-1 and CMS-53 were the best general combiners for seed total proteins, oil content, oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. Among males, C-206-R, SF-187R, RHA-295 and RHA-854 were the potential parents exhibiting desirable GCA for seed total proteins, o...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...ant lines with increased seed cotton and lint yields with desirable fiber quality.

...

 Muhammad Tahir*, Muhammad Irfan* and Aziz-Ur-Rehman*

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC ON YIELD AND OIL CONTENTS OF FLAX
...ule plant , -1 number of seed capsule , 1000-seed weight, straw yield, seed yield, and seed oil contents compared to control. Therefore, for producing a higher seed yield and oil contents of flax, it is suggested that 3.00% zinc at bud initiation and after capsule filling stage of flax should be used.

...

 Nusrat Habib*, Saima Rani*, Sabeen Siddiqui*, Shah Zaman** and Muhammad Zubair Anwar*

IMPACT OF MAJOR FARM INPUTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGARCANE: A CASE STUDY IN TEHSIL KOT ADDU, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
..., urea, irrigation, FYM, seed and labor for harvesting were the significant factors which affect on the proceeds of sugarcane growers. The results revealed that costs of land preparation, DAP and urea were highly significant at 1% level with positive coefficients 0.94, 0.23 and 0.76, respectively. The cost of FYM was significant at 1% level with negative impact on sugarcane productivity (-0.07). The coefficient 2 of multiple determinations R was 0.72, which de...

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL
...alysis. After this, rice seedling (Shaheen Basmati) was transplanted in all the pots i.e., 3 plants per pot. Necessary N, P and K fertilizers were applied at the recommended rate. After crop harvest, soil samples were taken for analysis of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of soil. All the amendments when used alone or in combination with each other improved the chemical parameters of soil....

 Muhammad Ayub*, Rizwan Maqbool*, Muhammad Tahir*, Zoaib Aslam*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem* and Muhammad Ibrahim**

IMPROVED GROWTH, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) THROUGH SOIL APPLIED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...90:90 kg ha ) on growth, seed yield and quality of fennel during 2011-2012. Fertilizer NP dose (90:45 kg -1 ha ) increased plant height by 44%, number of leaves per plant by 76%, 1000 seed weight by 44%, biological yield by 50%, seed yield by 296%, harvest index by 162% and protein content by 6%. However, fertilizer NP -1 (90:45 kg ha ) decreased oil content by 26%. Therefore, addition of ...

 Kalim Ullah*, Zahid Usman*,Niamatullah Khan*, Rehmat Ullah**, Fazal Yazdan Saleem***, Shahid Iqbal Khattak**** and Muhammad Ali*****

GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES
...t yielding genotype with seed yield of 2610.75 kg ha , 42.3 bolls plant , 3.57 g boll weight and 144.5 cm height in comparison to other eight genotypes. The cultivar Gomal-93 and SLH-373 also showed comparable yield and contributing parameters. The genetic variances of the studied parameters were higher in comparison to variances of environment and highly heritable in broad sense. These instant results suggest that these breeding materials have the room for fu...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

INOCULATION AND INTER-CROPPING OF LEGUMES IN ESTABLISHED GRASS FOR INCREASING BIOMASS OF FODDER

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

ECONOMICS OF PERI-URBAN RADISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN FAISALABAD
...ure department regarding seed rate, fertilizers, and irrigations. Majority of respondents (94.2%) reported the local Meno as the best yielding variety. Imported and 40 day varieties were not popular as only 5.8% farmers were cultivating these varieties in the study area. On the basis of survey data, benefit cost and total factor productivity analyses depict that radish cultivation is a profitable enterprise in the study area. Productivity gap between current a...

 Israr Ali*, Naushad Ali*, Riffat Tahira**, Sardar Ali*, Izhar Hussain* and Sher Aslam Khan*

GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN BRASSICA GERMPLASM BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES
...(PBPP), pod length (PL), seed pod (SP), -1 1000-seed weight (1000-SW), yield plant (YPP) and oil (%). Three checks (Pakola, CM and TA), were used to check the performance of collected materials with already available brassica varieties. Significant statistical differences were observed among the tested genotypes based on the studied morphological traits. Among the tested genotypes, genotype Kalabat proved to be superior as c...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...major inputs showed that seed, tractor hours, FYM and labor days have contributed significantly to increase the maize yield. However, the DAP and urea have shown no effect on maize yield. The mean technical efficiency was estimated at 83%, implying that the farmers can still enhance their technical efficiency by 11% within the given inputs and technology. The results have demonstrated that maize crop is lucrative crop in the study area as maize growers have re...

 Saima Kanwal*, Saeeda Raza*, Khalid Naseem*, Muhammad Amjad*, Naseem Bibi* and Musarrat Gillani*

DEVELOPMENT, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BISCUITS SUPPLEMENTED WITH PUMPKIN SEEDS TO COMBAT CHILDHOOD MALNUTRITION IN PAKISTAN
... 2014. Nutritive pumpkin seed flour fortified biscuits were prepared with four different substituted levels of pumpkin seed flour in wheat flour (T =5%, 2 T =10%, T =15% and T =20%), were compared with control (T ). Chemical 3 4 5 1 attributes of biscuits showed that T has maximum level of pumpkin flour (20%) 5 with maximum protein (12.30%), fat (28.29%), ash (4.13%), iron (2.28%) and zinc (3.11%). Sensory results also revea...

 Imran*, Shaheeda Naveed**, Asad Ali Khan* and Inayat Khattak* 

IMPACT OF PHOSPHORUS LEVELS AND SEED RATES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LATE SOWN MAIZE ON HIGH ELEVATION IN SWAT, PAKISTAN
...different P O levels and seed rates on growth and yield of late sown maize cv. 2 5 Baber on high elevation during kharif season, was conducted at Farmer Field School, Swat, Pakistan during summer 2012. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications. Sowing was done one month late (July 15) than the optimum time of sowing. Optimum time of sowing on high elevation in Swat, Pakistan starts from May 15 to June 15. Four -1...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Muhammad Arshad*, Maryam Kamal**, Doulat Baig *, M. Tariq*, Talat Gilani* and Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR SEED YIELD TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER
...nt GCA effects for 1000- seed weight whereas female, CMS-303 represented the highest and significant GCA estimates for head diameter, yield and harvest index. Among male parents, RHA-295 expressed the highest significant magnitude for head diameter while SF-187R possessed the highest significant GCA effects for 1000-seed weight, harvest index and moisture contents. Among male parents, the highest
significant valu...

 Doulat Baig*, Fida Mohammad Abbasi*, Habib Ahmed*, Maqsood Qamar** and Muhammad Ayub Khan**

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
... main position among oil seed crops in Pakistan. Mostly indigenous sunflower hybrids are cultivated which give low achene and fodder yields. The issue related with these hybrids ascribed to lack of information about use of inputs and cultural practices. Judicious nitrogen use and suitable high yielding hybrid play key role in increasing sunflower productivity. Protein is the basic requirement of the metabolic processes for the vegetative, reproductive growth a...

 Imdad Ali Mahmood*, Arshad Ali**, Armghan Shahzad**, Muhammad Asif Masud Ghumman***, Muhammad Arshad Ullah**, Tariq Sultan** and Badar-u-Zaman**

CROP RESIDUES AND PHOSPHORUS EFFECT ON YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF DIRECT SEEDED RICE AND WHEAT GROWN UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOIL
... c 3 conducted on direct seeded rice and wheat for two consecutive years at Soil Salinity Research Institute (SSRI) Farm, Pindi Bhattian, Pakistan to investigate the yield and economics of direct seeded rice and wheat under crop residue incorporation and phosphorus applications. Split plot design (crop residue in main plots and P application in sub plots) was followed with three replications. Biomass yields were collected at...

 Azhar Usman Ali*, Ghulam Sarwar*, Muhammad Aftab* and Sher Muhammad**

EFFECT OF SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLIED COPPER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
...done before sowing wheat seeds. Seeds of wheat (Lasani-2000) were sown and 3 plants were maintained in each pot after germination. Foliar application of copper was done at booting and tillering stage. At maturity, data regarding different yield components were noted and wheat plants were harvested. Grain yield and total biomass was also recorded. Soil samples were collected from all pots and analyzed for copper concentration...

 Muhammad Mudasar Aslam ⃰, Muhammad Jamil**, Ijaz Malook**, Amana Khatoon*, Ali Rehman*, Abdur Rahim***, Pirzada Khan*, Shakir Ullah Khan Shakir*, Shahid Irfan*, Faizan Ullah****, Khair Ul Bashar**, Mahideen Afridi** and Shafiq Ur Rehman*

PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA, TAMARIX APHYLLA AND PEGANUM HARMALA ON PLANT GROWTH OF WHEAT AND MUSTARD
...a and Peganum harmala on seed germination and seedling length of wheat and mustard. Results showed that seed germination of wheat was significantly decreased by 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% while mustard seeds were resistant and were affected by higher dilutions (15%, 20% and 25%) of all plant extracts. Roots of both wheat and mustard were highly affected b...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Khuda Bakhsh**, Sultan Ali Tariq*, Mahmood Nasir***, Rashed Saeed**** and Muhammad Ather Mahmood****

FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT YIELD IN POTHWAR REGION OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ut being an important oilseed crop in the Pothwar -1 region of Pakistan has the productivity level of 609 kg ha , much lower from the -1 potential yield of 3000 kg ha . Present study was designed to explore factors affecting productivity of groundnut along with its profitability analysis. The sample farms were classified into small, medium and large farms. Farm-level crop data were gathered during two cropping seasons i.e., rabi 2008-09 and kharif 2009. One hu...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON
...es on May 24, 2013 using seed rate of 20 kg ha . The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement having three replications. Treatments included four topping levels: control (no topping), topping at 90 cm, 120 cm and 150 cm height; three -1 nitrogen levels: 150, 200 and 250 kg ha . Net plot size was 6 m × 3 m. Maximum days to first floral bud initiation (44.68), appearance of first flower (65.64), first bo...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Nawal Zafar* 

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF RABI CEREALS SOWN ALONE AND IN BLENDED POPULATION AT VARIABLE SEED RATIOS
...rial was conducted using seeds of three cereal crops wheat, oat and barley sown alone and blended together at different seed proportions (100%: 0%, 75% + 25%, 50% + 50% and 25% + 75%) at the Agronomic Research Area, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 2013-14. The results showed that the crop mixtures and their variable seed ratios showed significant effec...

Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Tariq Sultan**, Arshad Ali**, Ghulam Qadir*** Imdad Ali Mahmood**, Tauseef Tabassam**, Muhammad Arshad Ullah** and Nasir Abbas* 

EFFECT OF PGPR STRAINS ON SUNFLOWER GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS UNDER SALINITY STRESS
...entre, Islamabad. Hybrid seeds (SMH 0917) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were used. After six weeks of sowing, plants were harvested and data regarding root length, plant height, root dry weight and shoot dry weight were recorded. The plant growth improved significantly with PGPR strain under salt stress. The root length, plant height, root and shoot weight increased up to 40%, 40%, 167% and 255%, -1 respectively over un-inoculated at 12 dS m salinity lev...

Abdul Hameed Solangi*, Fateh Khan Nizamani*, Aqeel Ahmed Siddiqui*, Muzaffar Ali Khan**, Parwaiz Ahmed Baloch*, Riazuddin* and Khalil Ahmed Solangi***

FIELD COMPARISON AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF GUAR (CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA L. TAUB.) GENOTYPES UNDER AGROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN
...cated that the number of seeds per pods was high in Acc. No. 1, 2 and 4 as compared to rest of the accessions/ genotypes.100-seed weight was high in Acc. No. 4 as compared to rest accessions/ genotypes. The significant differences were observed among all treatments at 5% probability level.

...

 Nisar Ahmed Soomro*, Abdul Fatah Soomro**, Hamz Ali Samo* and
Muhammad Siddique Depar***

GROWTH AND YIELD COMPARISONS OF FOUR COMMERCIAL WHEAT VARIETIES TO IRRIGATION FREQUENCIES
...ins spike , 60.50 g 1000-seed weight and 5862.25 kg grain yield ha . The crop irrigated four times, showed bit adverse effects on growth and yield traits over 5 irrigations with 84.77% germination, 79.16 cm plant height, 10.07 tillers plant , 254.91 tillers m , 51.91 grains spike , 57.60 g 1000-seed weight and 5230.75 kg grain yield ha ; while the plots given 3 irrigations showed lowest values for all the parameters. In vari...

 Inayat-Ur-Rahman*, Shamsher Ali**, Mukhtar Alam*, Mohammad Adnan*, Hidayat ullah*, Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik*, Abdul Sattar Shah* Mohammad Ibrahim*

EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GERMINATION PERFORMANCE AND YIELD OF OKRA ( L.)
...oratory experiment, okra seeds were primed in PEG-8000 (polyethylene glycol) and Mannitol solutions (0, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6, -2 and -2.4 Mpa osmotic potential) for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours while dry seeds were used as control. Same primed seeds were used in the field experiment. Priming proved effective in improving percent germination and reducing the mean germination time (MGT) as compa...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...ract was investigated on seed germination and seedling development of L. Extracts were applied at 25%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 5% as seed soaking for 8 hours prior to sowing. Phenolics compounds were found in aqueous extracts and were higher in 25% extract (52.72 mg gallic acid eq. / gm of extract). Higher concentration of the extract (25%) significantly decreased seed

 Ehsanullah*, Muhammad Amjad Shahzad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Ali Zohaib*, Muhammad Ishfaq* and Ejaz Ahmad Warraich*

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOWING METHODS AND PLANTING DENSITIES ON GROWTH, YIELD, FIBER QUALITY AND ECONOMIC EFFICACY OF COTTON
...cotton. However, highest seed cotton yield (2944.5 kg ha ) was obtained by flat sowing on 25 cm apart rows owing to highest planting density per unit area. Maximum ginning out turn (GOT) (41.6%) was noticed in pit planting of cotton, while, fiber quality was not affected significantly by sowing methods. Economic analysis showed that economic returns and benefit cost ratio (BCR) (1.52) was elevated by flat sowing on 25 cm apart rows. In conclusion, maximum

 Tassadduq Rasool*, Ali Zohaib*, Ehsanullah*, Riaz Ahmad*, Tasawer Abbas*, Tahira Tabassum*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem*, Mahmood-ul-Hassan*

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY IN PEARL MILLET-SESBANIA INTERCROPPING SYSTEM UNDER VARIOUS GEOMETRICAL PATTERNS
...et and sesbania, blended seed sowing of pearl millet and sesbania, sesbania intercropping in 30 cm apart rows of pearl millet, sesbania intercropping in 45 cm apart two-row strips of pearl millet, and sesbania intercropping in 75 cm apart four-row strips of pearl millet) at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Sesbania intercropping reduced pearl millet growth. Nonetheless, least decrease in height (23%), leaf area (42%) and number o...

 Syed Haider Abbas*, Ayesha Tahir**, Muhammad Asim***, Muhammad Sohail* and Riaz-ud-Din*

PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITABILITY OF WHEAT PAK-13 AT DIFFERENT SEEDING DENSITIES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...ated by an assortment of seeding densities planted at NARC, Islamabad during the rabi season of 2014-15. The experiment was done under Randomized Complete Block Design and was replicated four times having six different seeding densities (SD1: 50, SD2: 75, SD3: 100, SD4: 125, SD5: 150 and SD6: 175 kg/ha) The analysis revealed that the highest chlorophyll contents (49.5), number of tillers/m (240), biological yield (7125 kg/ha...
Muhammad Sharif1*, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2, Muhammad Ansar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Syed Abdul Sadiq5
....The results showed that seedling emergence, wheat biomass and grain yield were statistically same under CT (83 plants m-2, 6.02 Mg ha-1, 3.32 Mg ha-1, respectively), MT (83 plants m-2, 5.90Mg ha-1, 3.26 Mg ha-1, respectively) and RT(72 plants m-2, 5.92 Mg ha-1,3.20Mg ha-1, respectively)tillage systemswith retention of crop residues,whilesignificantly lower value...
Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Farkhanda Khan2, Muhammad Kashan3, Qadir Ullah4 and Abdur Rauf5
... DAP into soil at cotton seeding followed by three top-dressing of 42 kg N ha−1 each just prior to first, second and third irrigations significantly enhanced seed cotton yield, quality, N uptake and N efficiencies compared to conventional practices. In conclusion, drilling of 24 kg N ha−1 as DAP into the soil at cotton sowing followed by three top-dressing of 42 kg N ha−1 ea...
Xiaopeng Tang1,3, Rong Xiang1, Sijia Chen1,3, Shufen Yang1,3, Hu Liu1,3, Rejun Fang1,3,* and Aike Li2,
...lysis treatment of cottonseed meal on crude protein (CP), water-soluble protein (WSP), amino acid (AA) and peptide fractions, and the AA digestibility and metabolic energy of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) and enzymatic hydrolyzed cotton seed meal (EHCSM) in white leghorn roosters. Firstly, CSM were fermented with Aspergillus niger, or hydrolyzed with alcalase and flavourzyme. Sec...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...strate that labor days, seed quantity, tractor hours, urea and pesticides have positive significant effect on sugarcane yield. Resource use efficiency analysis shows that marginal value product (MVP) to marginal factor cost (MFC) ratios for labor days, irrigation, urea, FYM and pesticides are more than unity indicate underutilization of these resources which underlines scope of expansion in these resources. Study results illustrate that land,

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...strate that labor days, seed quantity, tractor hours, urea and pesticides have positive significant effect on sugarcane yield. Resource use efficiency analysis shows that marginal value product (MVP) to marginal factor cost (MFC) ratios for labor days, irrigation, urea, FYM and pesticides are more than unity indicate underutilization of these resources which underlines scope of expansion in these resources. Study results illustrate that land,
Tariq Mukhtar,1,* Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Humayun Javed2
...st distribution of wheat seed gall nematode Anguina tritici (Steinbuch) in Sargodha division of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of ear cockle of wheat in the division was found to be 1.2% while the overall prevalence was 27%. As regards districts, the maximum incidence was recorded in district Bhakkar followed by Khushab. Similarly, the maximum prevalence was observed in district Bhakkar followed by Sargodha while it was the minim...
Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar*1, Amir Shakeel1, Muhammad Amir Maqbool1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar2, Sumaira Zareen2, Syeda Sana Aamir4 and Muhammad Asadullah4
...t performing hybrids for seed cotton yield, yield contributing traits and fiber quality parameters. Six lines, viz., VH-259, IUB-222, CRS-456, AA-703, KZ-191, PB-39 and four testers PB-39, CIM-608, BH-163 and PB-900 were crossed in line × tester crossing fashion to develop 20 F1 hybrids. Analysis of variance displayed significant differences among parents and hybrids indicating the presence of genetic variability except fiber fineness. δ...

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

...as foliar spray on maize seedlings 20 days after emergence (DAE). Water was sprayed as untreated control on maize seedlings 20 DAE. After foliar application, the plants were regularly irrigated upto one week and water stress was imposed by withholding water from half of the pots for 20 days. Data were recorded on the relative water content (RWC), proline, sugar content and transcripts abundance of Lhcb2 gene in the selected ...

Hamza Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Ijaz Ahmad*2, Ihsanullah Khan3, Shujaat Hussain1, Bashir Ahmad Khan4 and Muhammad Suhaib5  

...ancing the indigenous oilseed production through different possible approaches. Development and promotion of local sunflower hybrids can be one of the options. Local sunflower hybrids with higher yield and wider adoptability can make Pakistan self sufficient in edible oil. Therefore a study was carried out at National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad, to evaluate the performance of 12 locally developed sunflower Hybrids. Twelve sunflower hybrids includin...

Najeeb Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Niamat Ullah Khan2*, Muhammad Safdar Baloch1 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan

... plant; weight per boll; seed cotton yield and ginning out-turn (GOT %). The results further showed that the genotype CIM-602 gave optimum yield owing bolls per plant, weight per boll, GOT % plus higher staple length compared to CIM-616 at 20 days irrigation interval. Thus it was concluded that the genotype-CIM-602 irrigated at 20 days interval suited well to the study area and had the potential to optimize cotton yield and quality in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakista...

Urooba Pervaiz1, Abdus Salam1, Dawood Jan2, Ayesha Khan1 and Mahmood Iqbal

...d, income, total cost of seed, weeding, and pesticides were increased, while seed rate gm per acre was decreased. It is concluded that all the respondents adopted HYVs. Major constrains in the adoption of extension recommendations were high price of agricultural inputs, non-availability of; cold storage, agricultural credit and certified vegetable seeds, lack of fertilizers and technical k...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

...d emergence of the young seedlings and then the growth and yield of various crops and ultimately disturbing the socioeconomics of the farming community. Among the microbes, cyanobacteria are known as photoautotrophic, blue green algae which is not a truly eukaryotic algae and grown in different and such complex habitats freely and symbiotic association with large numbers of plants and microbial mats. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out with the ai...

Mehran Ali, Inamullah*, Sajjad Ahmad and Arsalan Khan 

... cm), grains ear-1(351), seed index (228.8 g), grain yield (3522 kg ha-1), and biological yield (10799 kg ha-1) were observed with nitrogen sources incorporated with mould board plough. In case of nitrogen sources; poultry manure (3507 kg ha-1), sheep manure (3468 kg ha-1) and mushroom spent (3450 kg ha-1) gave at par grain yield with urea (3667 kg ha-1). However, soil organic matter was significantly higher in organic fertilizer applied plots compared to urea...

Qasim Iqbal1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Bashir Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Ihsanullah Khan4  

... L.) is an important oil seed crop in Pakistan having the potential of bridging gap between production and consumption of edible oil in the country. The experiment was conducted at National Agriculture Research Center (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan, during August to December, 2016, to evaluate different exotic sunflower hybrids for their performance and adaptability in the field area of NARC. Twelve sunflower hybrids including one check i.e. SF-16013, SF-16007, SF...
Pasqua Rotondi1, Maria Antonietta Colonna1, Giuseppe Marsico1, Francesco Giannico1, Marco Ragni1 and Anna Maria Facciolongo2,*
...ontaining oregano and linseed was analysed for physical and sensory properties, chemical and fatty acid composition of intramuscular lipids. Twenty-one three-week-old kids were divided into three homogeneous groups (n = 7), according to age and body weight, and assigned to one of the following feeding treatments: C) control: commercial pelleted feed; L) pelleted feed containing 3% extruded linseed; LO) pelleted feed containi...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...m of five whiteflies per seedling were required. The minimum requirement of AAP was 30 minutes, which was longer than inoculation access period (IAP) of 20 minutes. For 100 percent acquisition and transmission, a minimum of 10 hours was required. The latent period was five to seven hours. The virus persisted in its vector, Bemisia tabaci, upto 10 days after which the whiteflies were dead, indicating a persistent type of transmission. The viral incidence and wh...

Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Muhammad Rizwan2*, Muhammad Akram1, Jaffar Hussain1 and Fiaz Ahmad1 

...gbean germplasm for high seed yield requires information on genetic variability and correlation of traits. For this purpose, fifty eight exotic and indigenous diverse mungbean genotypes were evaluated for seed yield and other related traits. The genetic analysis of mungbean germplasm revealed high genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variability for biological yield (GCV% = 31.70, PCV% = 33.58), harvest index...

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeshan1,2, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1 and Kazim Ali

...les per plant, number of seeds per capsule and yield was taken into account at maturity and statistically analyzed. All yield contributing traits showed positive response with increase in fertilizer rate. Maximum yield was found at T6 (NPK @ 40:30:15) and T6 and T7 (NPK @ 40:30:30) showed parity for seed yield. Significant difference was not observed in increase in yield due to the addition of potassium but branches per plan...

Rizwana Qamar1, Maria Ghias1, Fida Hussain1, Sajida Habib1, Muhammad Khuram Razzaq2*, Muhammad Aslam1 and Imran Habib3 

...ment was conducted in Oilseeds Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Faisalabad for the screening of genotypes against drought. Ten hybrids along with their 13 parental inbred lines were grown in polythene bags following factorial structured completely randomized design by three replications against three levels of water stress. Data was recorded on root length (cm), shoot length (cm), plant fresh weight (g), plant dry weight (g), chlorophyll fluoresc...
Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,2, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2,*, Farhat Jabeen2, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain3, Arshad Javid4, Muhammad Asrar2 and Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan2
...>Moringa oleifera seed meal (MOSM) was used as test ingredient to formulate six test diets and were supplemented with graded levels (0, 300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 FTU kg-1) of phytase. The fingerlings were fed at the rate of 4% of live fish body weight twice a day and faeces were collected from each tank. Present research work was carried out to determine the effect of phytase supplementation on mineral digestibility and carcass composition...
Kamran Khan1, Sarzamin Khan2, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,* and Naseer Ahmad2
...chnological forms of flaxseed supplementation on growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality of rabbits. Sixty indigenous rabbits were divided randomly into five treatment groups. The control group was fed on standard concentrate basal diet, whereas in the treated groups, the basal diet was supplemented with low (3.5%; LCF) or high (7%; HCF) level of crushed flaxseed and low (1.5%; LFO) or high (3%; HFO) level of flax...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...measured before okra was seeded in the field. At harvest, the numbers of root galls, egg masses, and eggs per root system, the root weight, the final population of the second stage juveniles, and the reproduction rate were detected at the highest levels in untreated soil, whereas low numbers were encountered in soils initially treated with the fungus, L. muscarium. Meloidogyne incognita and other plant parasitic nematodes multiplied significantly more i...
Qudsia Yousafi1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Aslam3 and Allah Ditta Abid4
...1+T2 and T4=control. The seedlings were transplanted on April 21, 2013 keeping plant to plant distance of 30cm. Kerosene oil lantern, hung over metallic tray filled with water, was used as light trap. Data for fruit infestation was recorded fortnightly, starting from mid-May, from twenty randomly selected plants. The percent fruit infestation in all three treatments was lower than control except on June 15 when infestation in control and in plots having light ...

Sadiqa Begum1, Murad Khan2* and Noor Pao Khan

...all the inputs including seed, irrigation, labor, fertilizer, pesticides and tractor used in production of wheat were having positive relationship with the production. District Peshawar is more efficient in production of wheat which can be raised further by proper utilization of all the inputs. 

...

Muhammad Zahid1, Naeem Iqbal1, Sohaib Muhammad2*, Summiya Faisal3, Wajid Mahboob3, Makhdoom Hussain4 and Zaheer ud din Khan2 

... 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM) as seed priming and foliar spray treatments at vegetative and reproductive stages. Plant growth and grain yields were reduced under drought. Two glucose treatments (10 mM and 50 mM) improved tillering and dry biomass as compared to other treatments. Foliar sprayed-glucose treated plants showed increasing trends in grain yield under drought. Physio-chemical attributes were also modulated by exogenously applied carbohydrates. Nitrate reduct...
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
...f PPRV. N. sativa seed extracts should be explored in field conditions for the control of PPR.
...

Muhammad Ishfaq1*, Nadeem Akbar1, Imran Khan1, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Usman Zulfiqar1, Muhammad Ahmad1, Mumtaz Ahmad2 and Muhammad Umer Chattha1 

...g with quality of direct seeded rice. Farmer field-based experiment comprised two soil moisture regimes at the time of sowing: (M1 = Sowing in moist (field capacity) condition, M2= Sowing in dry condition) in main plots, while three different row spacings (S1: broadcasting, (no defined row spacing) S2: 11.25 cm row spacing, S3: 22.50 cm row spacing) were assigned to sub-plots. The experimental results revealed that treatment S3 (22.50 cm row spacing) took mini...

Nusrat Habib1*, Asim Zubair2 and Aisha Siddiqua3 

...posite relation with the seed cost, land rent, area under tobacco, area under sugarcane and price of sunflower seed, while positively related to the area under sunflower with the variables such as total operational holding, sunflower yield and sale price of sunflower. In case of determining yield of sunflower use of DAP and organic manure were significant and positively correlated. 

...

Saif Ullah and Mohammad Akmal*

...ext-align: justify;">Oil seed production is important for Pakistan, while Pakistan invests the 2nd highest foreign exchange on the import of edible oil. Sunflower is one of the best options to work due to its better oil quality and fit well in the cropping system of environment. Combined effect of N, P and S on sunflower is essential to review. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer 2016. ...

Qaisar Mehmood1*, Muhammad Riaz2, Maqbol Hussain Sail1 and Muhammad Moeen1 

...ction of wheat. Variety, seed type, date of sowing, sowing mode, Urea fertilizer, DAP fertilizer, irrigation mode, numbers of irrigations and number of weedisides sprays are chosen as input factors. Descriptive statistics, multiple linear regression model and analysis of variance techniques are used which show that variety, sowing mode, nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorous fertilizer have significant effect on the wheat yield. Irrigation mode and weedisides spr...
Yang Liu1,2,3, Baimei Liu1,2,3, Chenchen Li1,2,3 and Meiwen An1,2,3,*
...tes and fibroblasts were seeding on scaffolds to form systems as: keratinocytes monoculture (KM), fibroblasts monoculture (FM), co-culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts (KM&FM). Systems was treated with 3.4 kPa pressure for 1 day, systems without pressure was considered as control groups. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of supernatant were tested using Q-PCR and ELISA method, respectively. Co-culture KM&FM under 3.4 kPa pressure enhanced...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

... on its fiber but cotton seed oil is significantly used as a comestible vegetable oil and makes major contribute in the national oil industry. According to an estimate per capita usage of edible oil in the country is 15 kg, this is even higher than the consumption in countries with same economic status of economical evolution. Overall requirements for this purpose in 2028–30 is estimated at approximately 5.30 million/tons from which domestic share could ...

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

...ernal and Cuf 101) whose seed were treated with overnight in bio-extracts solution made of perennial tree leaves. The study compares early growth performance of alfalfa varieties for forage biomass production. The seed was soaked overnight (14 h) in extracts made from dry powdered leaves of Bakayn (Azadir achtaindica), Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) and water (H2O) and planted in pots on the next morning. The experiment was condu...

Inzimamul Haq1*, Shahid Sattar1, Bashir Ahmed1, Qamar Zeb2 and Amjad Usman

...0 EC + T. chilonis, Neem seed extract + T. chilonis and release of T. chilonis alone were applied to the Jalal variety. For C. partellus infestation, the data was recorded on the basis of leaf injury scale from 1 to 5 and percent dead hearts. Results showed that Imidacloprid + T. chilonis resulted in significantly lower leaf injury m-2 (1.32) and dead hearts (4.16 %) closely followed by the plots treated with emamectin benzoate + T. chilonis with leaf injury m...

Saeed Ahmad Shah Chishti1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Nusrat Parveen1, Kashif Nadeem1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Umbreen Shahzad2, Rana Husnain Shabbir1 and Muhammad Najeebullah1 

...g, well adapted and bold-seeded pea variety was evolved by hybridizing two varieties Meteor and Lampo at Vegetable Research Institute, Faisalabad Pakistan. The variety was tested in replicated varietal/ station yield trials and multi-locational trials from 2001 to 2014. Sarsabz gave higher green pod yield (8.52 t/ha) than existing pea varieties i.e. Pea-2009 (7.51 t/ha) and Meteor (6.86 t/ha) and Climax (6.94 t/ha) on average basis. It yielded 13 % more than b...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

...nputs cost (labor hired, seed, tractor hours, irrigation, Urea, DAP, FYM and pesticides) were considered determinants for cost function. Respondent age, farming experience, education, family size, off-farm income, farm to home distance, tenancy and extension contacts are determinants in allocative inefficiency model. Results of the study revealed that except farmyard manure and pesticides all other explanatory variables are significant influencing factors in t...

Ambrin Rajput* 

...m), pods plant-1 (43.8), seed index (455 g per 1000 grains), seed yield (1896.0 kg ha-1), total biomass (5205 kg ha-1), straw yield (31050 kg ha-1), protein (15.77%), shoot N, P and K (2.1, 0.3 and 1.3 %) concencentration and N, P and K uptake (95.3, 16.4 and 49.9 kg ha-1) were recorded by combined application of N, P and K fertilizer application. However, the minimum values were obtained from control treatment. The combined...

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

...encapsulation of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo). Pumpkin seeds contain many active ingredients including polysaccharides, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids, carotenoids, fatty acids like linoleic acid and linolenic acid, lignans, minerals and various phytochemicals. Due to the presence of two unsaturated fatty acids, these oils can reduce their biological activity on heating, volatilization, and other parameters l...

Muhammad Arshad*, Sabeeta Jan, Sundas Awan, Samra Azam, Shiguftah Khalid and Muahmmad Ayub Khan 

...eight characters towards seed yield under field condition. Experiment was conducted according to RCBD design at NARC (National Agricultural Research Centre), Islamabad during year 2015. Data were recorded on Days to flower initiation, Days to flower completion and Days to maturity, 100 seed weight, oil content percentage and Seed Yield. Results of ANOVA revealed that there is remarked vari...
Sajid Ali Khan1, Mazhar Hussain Ranjha1, Azhar Abbas Khan2,*, Muhammad Sagheer1, Amjad Abbas1 and Zeshan Hassan2
...ive pests of cereals, oilseed, malting, and other foodstuffs. Current studies were aimed to investigate the effect of essential oils of two different medicinal plants (Dhatura alba and Calotropis procera) against two different strains of T. granarium. Plant extracts were obtained by Rotary Shaker apparatus by using acetone as solvent. Four different concentrations 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared by diluting in acetone. The data regardin...

Nadia Khan1*, Abdul Waheed1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Naveed Ahmed1, Zafar Iqbal2, Seemab Ali1, Madiha Bashir1 and Hina Gul3  

...sh (Raphanus sativus L.) seed oil extract was analyzed for the presence of potential non-volatile phytochemicals and in vitro antibacterial activity against two phytopathogenic bacterial species (Clavibacter sp. and Xanthomonas sp.) and a human pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) in 2016. Experiment was carried out by using complete randomized design with three replications in vitro. Phytochemical analysis reveals that the methanolic fraction of oil posses...

Muhammad Kashif Asghar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Shahid Riaz Malik2, Waqas Ahmad3, Sumaira Zareen4, Safdar Ali5 and Abid Ali6 

...e the potential of boron seed priming on yield and quality of sunflower hybrids at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The achenes of two different sunflower hybrids i.e. Hysun-33 and FH-331 were subjected to different priming treatments including hydropriming, osmopriming (with 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mM B) using boric acid as a source of B. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement in tripl...

Zubina Hameed1, Muhammad Azim Malik1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Farina Shaheen1, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Khisrao Kalim3 

...k of October 2010 with a seeding rate of 125 kg ha-1. The most dominant weeds found in the wheat crop were Fumaria indica, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium album, and Asphodelus tenuifolius. The results of field experiment clearly showed that weed control efficiency was highest (98.18 %) in Buctril-super followed by Brominal-M (98.11%) and hand weeded weed-free plots (100%) as compared with other herbicides. Similarly Brominal-M and Buctril-super showed highe...

Ali Zohaib1*, Saima Yousaf1,2, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Tahira Tabassum1, Tasawer Abbas3, Wardah Muzaffar1 and Wasiq Ikram2 

...te and can be applied as seed inoculation to enhance nutrient use efficiency along with reduced nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed inoculation viz. control (no treatment), Rhizobium japonicum (nitrogen fixing bacteria) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (phosphorus solubilizing bacteria) on growth, allometric traits and dry matter yield of different soybean genotypes viz. EBR4V4, Freedo...

Fouzia Tabssum1, Qamar uz Zaman2*, Yinglong Chen3,4, Umair Riaz5*, Waqas Ashraf6, Ambreen Aslam2, Nusrat Ehsan2, Rab Nawaz2, Humera Aziz7 and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah8 

...50 mM proline applied at seedling stage (15 days after transplanting, DAT), vegetative state (50 DAT) or at both stages. Results from pot experiment revealed that foliar applied 50 mM proline significantly improved the seedling growth under saline stress by reducing electrolyte leakage and improving the water related (relative water contents and water potential), and biochemical attributes (SOD, CAT, MDA, EL and T CHL). Unde...

Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Nazakat Nawaz, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Tahira, Doulat Baig, Ihsan Ullah Khan and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah 

...he research fields of Oilseeds Research Program, Crop Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were recorded on days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, reproductive period, days to maturity, pod filling period, plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, seed yield (kg/ha). Seed yield ranged from 352 t...

Muhammad Tahir Amin, Khalid Usman*, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik and Nishter Ali

...ght, sympodial branches, seed cotton yield, and quality-related traits such as fiber length, fiber strength, micronaire, and fiber uniformity. Frequent irrigation interval (7th day) produced taller plants (139 cm) and more sympodial branches (18.3) compared to less frequent irrigations (10-19th day). However, 19th day irrigation interval significantly improved seed cotton yield and fiber quality traits (fiber length, fiber s...

Saima Yousaf1,2, Ali Zohaib2*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum2, Tahira Tabassum2, Tasawer Abbas3, Sohail Irshad4, Usman Javed5 and Naila Farooq6 

... determine the effect of seed inoculation with PGPRs on yield and quality of different genotypes of soybean. Seed inoculation treatments [control (no treatment), nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium japonicum) and phosphorus solubilizer (Pseudomonas fluorescens)] were applied to three different cultivars of soybean (EBR4V4, Freedom and Swat-84). The results showed that seed inoculation with...

Ali Bakhsh1*, Mashal Rehman1, Said Salman1 and Rehmat Ullah

...notypes was compared for seed cotton yield and fiber quality traits under water stress and non-stress conditions. All the genotypes depicted significant differences for days to first square formation, days to first flower formation, plant height, monopodial branches per plant, sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, fiber length, fiber strength, uniformity index, fiber fineness, ginning out turn and seed
Muhammad Huzaifa Mehmood1, Muhammad Ahmad Iqbal2, Muhammad Daood1, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq3*, Khubaib Ali3
.... In this study 2-4% oat seeds were used to investigate their dietary response. The range of oat that is used in this research will improved the blood lipid and fatty acid profiles and reduced the percentage of fat of rabbit meat. Rabbits were reared for the period of two month in three groups. Slaughtering of rabbits was done after 8 weeks. Followings the method illustrated in previous studies fatty acid and physico-chemical analysis were performed. The ...

Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik1, Khalid Usman1*, Tahir Amin1, Muhammad Riaz2, Zafar Iqbal3 and Fiaz Hussain

...t), boll weight (2.9 g), seed cotton (2424 kg ha-1), ginning out turn (GOT, 37%), fiber length (28.1mm), fiber strength (29.5 g per tex) and micronaire value (3.5 µg per inch) were achieved from irrigation interval of 25 days. Interaction effects (irrigation x varieties) revealed that variety CRIS-134 in combination with 25 days irrigation interval conserved 60 % more water, produced 60.5% more bolls per plant, 21.1% higher GOT, 48.7% higher

Najeeb Ullah1, Niamat Ullah Khan2*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Muhammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Farkhanda Khan3 and Zaki Ullah

...er plant, boll weight-g, seed cotton yield, staple length, strength and micronaire amongst the other sowing dates. Results further showed that CIM-602 ranked first in number of bolls/plant, weight per boll, seed cotton yield, staple length, strength and micrronaire in April 15 sowing. Former and later on cotton sowing than April 15 resulted in decreased cotton yield and fibre due to shorter growth phase and unsuitable enviro...

Sonia1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai1*, Noor Paio Khan2, Abbas Ullah Jan1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

...er wheat cultivation and seed are highly significant to the wheat yield at 1 percent level of significance. Whereas, contribution of fertilizer to wheat crop in KP province was observed insignificant. Furthermore, the computation of climatic variables depicts that temperature contributes significantly but has inverse association with wheat yield in KP province. This implies that surge in temperature by one Celsius degree centigrade (0C) can drop-down the wheat...

Ali Awais, Charassri Nualsri and Watcharin Soonsuwon* 

...variations in the roots, seeds, panicles and leaf morphology. Phenotypic observations determined that the Dawk Kha 50 has more potential of variability than Dawk Pa-yawm towards EMS. Later selection in the advance generations might be useful to isolate agronomically useful mutants for the future use in upland rice breeding programme. 

...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Sami Ullah1, 3*, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Ahmad Mujtaba1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Muhammad Jahangir Shah2, Bashir Ahmad2 and Ijaz Ahmad4 

...techniques used for good seed bed preparation. The objective of this study was to check the influence of various tillage practices on yield of the autumn planted maize crop. The experiment was conducted in summer, 2014 at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Net plot size was maintained 7.0 m × 3.6 m. Different tillage practices, i.e., deep tillage, co...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
... and C as control, basil seed at 5g/kg and ascorbic acid at 200 mg/kg supplementation, respectively. Improvement of intestinal villus seen in basil supplementary group (P>0.05), and significant increase in the absorption of crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), and metabolized energy (ME). However, the values of red blood cells and packed cell volume were non-significant whereas white blood cells, haemoglobin, and new castle disease antibody titer were sign...
Song Jiang, Fa-Lin Zhou, Jian-Hua Huang, Qi-Bin Yang* and Li-Shi Yang
...aquaculture water during seeding. Seven groups were established and the microecological preparations were added every 5 d. Bacillus concentrations in the Y1, Y2 and Y3 groups were 10 ppm, 15 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively, and the Lactobacillus concentrations in the R1, R2 and R3 groups were 20 ppm, 25 ppm and 30 ppm. The control (C) group had no microecological preparation added. Results showed that the Y2 larvae achieved the heaviest body weights...

Tanweer Ahmed*, Kashif Saeed Khan and Mohammad Naeem 

...culture sector, improved seed distribution has been estimated through various econometric approaches in the study. Pakistan’s agriculture growth has registered mixed trends from 1972 to 2014. Empirical evidence from developing countries suggests that public spending has a profoundly positive relationship with agricultural growth. Agriculture is the second largest sector of Pakistan’s economy, accounting for more than one-fifth of Gross Domestic Pro...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

...pecified a cropped area, seed, labor, fertilizer and irrigation were the significant variable of increasing cotton production of Bt farmers while pesticides, irrigation and extension services more significant in increasing the Non-Bt cotton farmers production. Age of farmers, educational status, credit access and agriculture extension services access have significantly and positively impacted while the shortage of irrigation negatively impacts in both district...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...o improve the quality of seed. Disease may be reduced by selecting the improved genetic material. Because it will have a good impact on product quality, economic output and its potential against insect pest or disease. 

...

 Syed Turab Raza1,*, Zhu Bo1,*, Zulfiqar Ali2 and Tang Jia Liang3

... crops (wheat straw, rapeseed) and animal manure (pig manure, cow dung) is becoming an important issue in rapidly growing population. Vermicomposting by earthworms (Eisenia fetida) is useful technique to recover nutrients of plants such as NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium). A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species (Eisenia fetida) and treating it with cattle dung, pig manure and biochar with crop (wheat straw and rape

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

... also over season in the seed. Therefore, population density and their aggressiveness to cause the disease is playing critical role for management of this pathogen. For such purpose colony forming units (cfu) per gram of soil and seed were determined and capability of previously characterized M. phaseolina isolates to cause the disease was tested on HO-1 variety. Additionally, most virulent isolate was characterized through ...

Salman Anwar1, 2*, Farhan Anwar Khan3 and Atta-ur-Rahman4 

...duction of high yielding seeds and farmer awareness. 

...
Guo-hai Wang1, Zai-xi Yang1, Pan Chen1, Wei-ning Tan2 and Chang-hu Lu1,*
...ecorded the bird’s seed foraging and dispersing behavior of local bird species to examine their role in dispersing seeds of Kmeria septentrionalis, an endangered tree species in a karst habitat in southwest China. Twenty-seven bird species were recorded feeding on its seeds, and fourteen bird species were confirmed as seeds dispersers. The c...

Ihsan Ullah Khan*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Muhammad Ashraf, Ashiq Saleem, Sundas Awan, Samra Azam and Shamim Ul Sibtain Shah 

...nt percentage (OC %) and seed yield (SY, kg ha-1) revealed statistically significant differences. All the crosses out-performed the standard check in terms of seed yield (kg ha-1) with significant differences in this regard. Positive and significantly high mid-parent heterosis was observed in all the hybrids for all the studied traits except DFI, DFC and DM which showed negligibly low impact of heterosis on their expression....

 Ping Zhang1,2, Yabin Pu1, Yu Zhang2, Jia Chen2, Kunfu Wang3, Qian Li3, Yujiao Sun3, Yuehui Ma1, Shuqing Jiao2,* and Weijun Guan1,*

...ssue repair, and provide seed cells for tissue engineering research and clinical applications.

...

Muhammad Adnan Islam1,2*, Muhammad Iqbal2, Zia-ul-Haq2,3, Muhammad Mohsin Ali1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1, Shabbir Ahmed Kalwar1, Liaqat Ali Shahid1, Badar Munir Khan Niazi1 and Muzammil Husain1 

Arshad Farooq* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

... 20%) in cane varieties, seed quantity, sowing practices, irrigation application, stoppage of irrigation before harvesting and cane cutting whereas farmers of district Mardan had low knowledge gap in length of cane setts, sowing practices, irrigation and cane cutting techniques. Medium knowledge gap (21 to 50%) was observed in length of cane setts, row to row spacing in farmers of D.I. Khan distr...

Muhammad Nasrullah1*, Liu Chang1, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai2, Asaad Osman Khalid1, Rachel Bayisenge1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

...ion. The coefficients of seed are the highest among all variables which can highly affect the productivity of the growers. 

...

Shahid Ali1*, Asim Khan1, Aftab Khan1 and Bakhtawar Riaz

...ed that a 1% increase in seed rate, labor, tractor hours, urea, DAP and irrigation increases output by 0.81, 0.02, 0.28, 0.14, 0.25 and 0.02 percent, respectively. Mean technical efficiency score was found 95% ranges from 86% to 99%. This means an average farmer can increase tomato output by 4% with available resources and technology. Results of inefficiency effect model indicated that farmers’ experience has negative and significant relationship with te...

Fraza Ijaz1*, Umair Riaz2, Shazia Iqbal3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Muhammad Furqan Ijaz5, Hina Javed1, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi1, Zuhra Mazhar3, Ahmad Hassan Khan6, Hassan Mehmood7 and Ijaz Ahmad8 

...t (103.45 cm), number of seeds per head, thousand seeds weight were recorded with Co-inoculation + Tryptamine @ 10-5 M (T8). Nutritious Parameters crude protein (30.23%), neutral detergent fiber (33.45%) and acid detergent fiber (26.56%) gave significant results as compared to control (T1). Results indicated that the combined application of Rhizobium species and Tryptamine performed better by improving growth and yield and q...

Aliya Ayaz, Gohar Ayub, Maqsood Khan* and Syed Aizaz Ali Shah 

...se of dipping durations, seeds dipped for 18 hours significantly reduced days to emergence and days to first flower, while increased germination percentage, number of fruits plant-1, fruit length, fruit weight, plant height, yield plot-1 and total yield. Interaction was found non-significant for all the studied parameters except days to emergence, germination percentage and survival percentage. Seeds dipped in gibberellic ac...
Lichao Feng1,2, Shaoqing Zhang4, Dianyuan Chen2, Sina Adl3 and Donghui Wu1,4*
...ses and germinated maize seedlings. Additionally, potato tuber the common food used to grew the beetles that was selected as a reference to demonstrate that blooming wildflowers through their pollen and nectar can control the A. fuscicollis population and distribution around the field. The greatest number of eggs were deposited by mated couples when the pollen, or nectar mixture was offered compared to the other foods. Each of the five food sources prov...

Essossinam Ali* 

...ilizer, drought tolerant seeds (DTS) and labor allocation. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 704 farm households in three regions (Central, Kara and Savannah) in subsistence agriculture in Northern Togo. Tobit and linear regression models were used to analyze the effect of farmers’ risk aversion on fertilizer and DTS uses, and labour allocation, respectively. The results indicate that on average 86.22% of farmers have risk aver...

Imdad Ali Mahmood1, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Sarwar1, Matiullah Khan1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2, Shoaib Ahmed1 and Shahid Riaz Malik

...ight, pods per peduncle, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, total biomass and grain yield were recorded. Plant samples were collected at maturity to determine Zn concentration in plant tissues and grains. A significant increase in pods per peduncle, seeds per pod, grain yield and total biomass of lentil was observed with Zn application even at lower rate (5 kg ha-1) under PGPR inoculation. Ma...

Muhammad Yasin1, Romana Shahzadi1, Muhammad Riaz2, Mahideen Afridi2, Wajya Ajmal3, Obaid Ur Rehman2, Nazia Rehman3, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1,3, Muhammad Ramzan Khan1,2,3* 

...en pod wall thicknesses, seeds per pod and pod length between the two cultivars. PCR amplification and sequencing revealed that two products namely BnSHP1-like and BnSHP2-like could be identified. The sequence analysis of BnSHP1-like and BnSHP2-like demonstrated that these genes are 747 bp and 735 bp in size, respectively. The nucleotide alignments revealed 98% identity of BnSHP1-like and BnSHP2-like with BnSHP1 and BnSHP2 sequences. The sequence homology was ...
Fazal Wahab1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Nazir Ahmad1, Urooba Parvez2, Zia ur Rehman3 and Shabana Naz4,*
...ious levels of fenugreek seeds supplementation on feed intake, egg production and egg quality of Rhode Island Red spent layers. A total of 60 spent Rhode Island Red layers were assigned to 4 treatments; FS-0, FS-0.5, FS-0.75, and FS-1 with 3 replicates, each with 5 birds. Birds were kept in cages for 28 days in open sided house. FS-0 was kept as control while treatments FS-0.5, FS-0.75 and FS-1 were provided with fenugreek seed<...

Muhammad Affan Khan* and Abdur Rab 

...pacing on the growth and seed production of okra varieties was studied at the Horticulture Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during spring seasons of the years 2012-13. The research experiment was conducted using RCB Design with 2 factors and 3 replications. Five okra varieties viz. Sabz Pari, Arka Anamika, Pusa Sawani, Punjab Selection and Green Star were grown at three plants spacing i.e. 20, 30 and 40 cm and were evaluated for growth and

Sanaullah and Urooba Pervaiz* 

..., income, plant spacing, seed rate, irrigation interval, and use of pesticide before and after training were computed with the help of paired sample t-test. Results revealed that in maize there is a significant decrease for seed rate (-11.6743 kg/acre) and irrigation interval (-16.03 days) after training, while significant increase in mean difference was recorded for row-to-row distance (38.7 cm), plant-to-plant distance (8....

Zara Ahmad1*, Fazli Rabbi2, Muhammad Zamin3, Bushra Kiran2, Tariq Shah2 and Shahzad Kouser4 

.... Similarly, the cost of seed for on-season bitter guard production is 10% higher than the cost of seed for the off-season. It is concluded that off-season vegetable production is more profitable than on-season vegetable production in Punjab, Pakistan. It is recommended that farmers may be facilitated by the relevant authorities for growing the off-season vegetable production. The farmers should be provided with the necessar...

Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Ejaz Ahraf3, Zahoor Hussain4, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1 and Maryam Riaz1 

...% on Fairchild, 36.5% on seedless Kinnow, 36.3% on Feutrell’s early and 35.8% on Kinnow that showed great susceptibility to CLM. Smallest mines generated by CLM larvae were found on China Lemon and Succari showing the lowest damage percentage compared to other cultivars. Conclusively, the C. tangerines and C. mandarins were the most preferred cultivars by CLM larvae for feeding on the leaf surface. The image analysis method was accurate, relatively simpl...

Wajid Khan* and Raziuddin 

... with better yields. Rapeseed is the second largest contributor in domestic edible oil industry. Keeping in view the lower yield of rapeseed in Pakistan especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa this study was conducted to investigate genetic variability and heterosis in eight rapeseed genotypes for maturity, morphological and yield traits. The eight parental genotypes i.e., AUP-01, AUP-05, AUP-07,...

Matiullah Khan*, Shameemul Sibtain Shah, Atiqullah Khan, Muhammad Sarwar and Shoaib Ahmed 

Rafiq-ur-Rehman1*, Zahoor Ahmad1, Wiqar Ahmad2, Muhammad Mansoor3 and Shah Masaud1
...,  pod length, 1000-seed weight, number of seed pod-1 (by 37, 18, 53, 31, 14, 7 and 5%, respectively). Rhizobium strains TAL-169 exceeded NARC-BK with 6% increase only in root length. Only NARC-BK could produce the 5.85 nodules after 15 days after sowing whilst strains in number of nodules were in the order; NARC-BK > TAL-634 > TAL-169 > NARC-M after 30 days (104, 40, 20 and 1% increase over the...

Wajid Shah Yousafzai1, Irfan Ullah1*, Amjad Ali1, Mahmood Iqbal2 and Salman Khan1 

...respectively. Similarly, seed rate and irrigation numbers are over utilized having values of 0.14 and 0.76 respectively. The allocative efficiency value for labor days was 1.07suggests almost near to allocative efficient level. The study recommends season long trainings for optimal resource allocation, availability of inputs at reasonable prices and facilitation of growers in marketing of output, in order to enhance allocative efficiency of onion growers in th...

Muhammad Saleem1*, Ehsan Elahi1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi1, Saleem Maseeh Bhatti1, Hajra Ibrahim2 and Muhammad Ali3 

...nflower is important oil seed crop for human being diet and sulphur plays major role in increasing the achen yield and oil content. A field study was conducted to observe the effects of sulphur on sunflower growth, oil content and yield. The sulphur rates were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 kg ha-1. The recomended rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potasium were given to all plots of different treatments. The economical important plant growth parameters ; height of plant...

Muhammad Abdul Qayyum1*, Farhat Bashir2, Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool3, Anser Ali3, Saqib Bashir1 and Qaiser Abbas4 

...severe threat for plants seed germination because it has highest concentration of soluble salts. This study aims to examine the effect of NaCl salt at 100 mM and 200 mM concentrations on linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) germination, plant growth, nutrients and soluble salts uptake. The results revealed that tested four linseed genotypes showed an overall germination rate of 86-94% at 100 m...

Shahid Ali1*, Farhan1, Murtaza1, Neelum Andaleeb2 and Amjad Ali1 

... the model-1 showed that seed quantity, urea, chemicals (Pesticides and weedicides), labor and tractor hours were statistically significant with the coefficients of -0.027, 0.090, 0.060, 0.223 and 0.056, respectively. The estimated results of SFP model-2 revealed that household’s education level was having negative and significant effect on technical inefficiency. Among the sampled respondents owners were technically more inefficient as compared to the t...

Muhammad Israr* and Noor Khan 

...option of improved wheat seed technology in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. A sample of 336 wheat growers, consisted of equal number of FSC registered and non-registered farmers, was selected from Northern, Central and Southern climatic zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The selected wheat growers were interviewed for data collection. Binary Logistic regression analysis was conducted over the collected data-set to estimate a grower’s probability of ad...
Sobia Nazir1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Muhammad Nadeem2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3*, Muhammad Khan3, Shaukat Ali4, Quratulain Syed2
...fermentation (SSF) using seed pods of Bombyx ceiba as substrate. Three parameters were used such as inoculum size (1, 5.5 and 10%), medium volume (1, 3 and 5ml) and incubation period (3, 4, 5 days) to observed the maximum activity of cellulase using Box-Bhenken design of response surface methodology. Maximum activity of CMCase (0.700 IU/gds/min) and FPase (0.260 IU/gds/min) was observed on 4th day with inoculum size of 1% and medium volume of...
Haq Aman Ullah1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Ijaz2, Aqeel Javeed3, Muqadder Shah1 and Ikramul Haq1
...ally contaminated cotton seed cake for a 10 days period. Milk samples were tested for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), somatic cell count (SCC) and total viable count (TVC). Blood samples were analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was detected in all milk samples of the Group B, C, and D in concentration higher than 0.05 ...

Imran1*, Amanullah1, Muhammad Arif1, Zahir Shah2 and Abdul Bari3 

...ps including cereal, oil seed, legumes and cash crops. Minimizing pest losses in addition to better crop management is a way toward narrowing the yield gap and ensuring food security. The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of peach (Prunus persica L.) residues and soil application of Trichoderma (soft-rot fungi) along with seed inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) (Pseudomonas) and phosph...

Sana Munir1, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi1*, Ahmad Naeem Shahzad2, Ismat Nawaz3, Muhammad Shahzad Anjam4, Sumaira Rasul4 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar5 

...towards PC1 was given by seed traits such as lint/seed, seed weight/seed, boll weight, seed index and seed cotton/seed. In biplot analysis, intraspecific hybrids and their parents were present very close to each other while interspecific hybrids, t...

Iffat Nawaz1*, Farhatullah1, Fida Muhammad1, Sajid Ali2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali

...n. Primary evaluation of seed characteristics was done according to International Board of Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) descriptors. Significant variation was observed for seed color, seed shape and seed coat pattern. Twenty-nine different colours of common beans were observed in these 96 accessions with pre-dominance of red colour. Four different

Noorullah Khan1*, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Fayaz Ahmad1, Sabaz Ali Khan2, Imtiaz Ahmed1, Muhammad Abbas Khan1, Shamsul Islam1, Abdul Waheed1, Basharat Hussain Shah1 and Hussain Shah

...ing and survival rate of seedlings from kiwi cuttings. The experiment was laid out according to randomized complete block design with three replications and 20 four budded branch cuttings of “Hayward” kiwifruit cultivar. The cuttings were treated with different concentration of IBA (0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm) for ten second and then planted in polythene bags under green net shade. Application of all concentrations of IBA (1000, 2000, ...

Jawad Ali*, Ibad Ullah Jan and Hidayat Ullah 

...fruit per plant and 1000 seed weight. Visually reduction in vegetative and yield parametric quality okra plant okra were significantly alleviated by the foliar application of Se under drought stress. Se application of 3 mg L−1 significantly increased the number of leaves, plant height, number of branches, stem dry weight, root dry weight, fruit diameter, number of fruit per plant and 1000 seed weight. Se regulated proc...
Umer Iqbal1,* and Tariq Mukhtar2
...l was observed where the seeds were treated with Benomyl followed by Carbendazim. However, Copper + Mancozeb and Copper oxychloride treated seeds gave the minimum germination and survival of plants. Doses also had a significant effect on the germination and plant survival. Maximum germination and survival were recorded where the seeds were treated with a concentration of 150 ppm and minimu...
Sameh S. Tawfik, Ahmed A. Elkady* and Ehab T. Mohamed
...Tamarindus indica L. seed extract (TSE) efficacy against γ-rays-induced nephrotoxicity in irradiated rats was investigated. Forty albino-rats were divided into four groups: Control, rats were orally administered the vehicle for 6weeks, TSE-treated (each rat received 230mg TSE; once daily, for 6weeks), irradiated (animals subjected to whole body γ-rays (8Gy), and TSE-treated and irradiated (each rat received 230mg TSE; once daily for 6week, then...

Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui1*, Muhammad Tahir Khan1, Ghulam Shah Nizamani1, Shafquat Yasmeen1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan1, Abdullah Khatri1 and Nighat Seema Soomro2 

...ber of branches plant-1, seeds pod-1 and 1000 seed weight were also seen to be highest in the mutant AEL-40/30 (3.95, 1.91 and 29.11 (g), respectively). Moreover, the same genotype showed an extraordinarily high yield of 1765.1 kg ha-1. The other two mutant lines viz. AEL-13/30 and AEL-12/30 produced seed yield of 1628.4 and 1561.9 kg ha-1, respectively. Yield of the check varieties as wel...

Sanaullah1*, Urooba Pervaiz1, Shahid Ali2, Mohammad Fayaz2 and Aftab Khan

...heir fields using hybrid seed, as well as with the help from extension specialists’ visits and with the adoption of recommended farming practices. It is established that improved farming practices have significant influence on yield. The study recommends transfer of technical and timely information to the farming community and organizing local trainings and learning workshops. It is recommended that farm inputs i.e. fertilizers, ...
Amna Shoaib*, Zoia Arshad Awan and Naureen Akhtar
...ed from soybean and okra seeds, respectively. The isolated species were first identified morphologically. ITS1–5.8S–ITS4 primers sequence and amplification of ISSR nucleotide sequences using three primers [P01 (AGAG)4 G, P02 (GTG)5, and P03 (GACA)4] confirmed that A. minisclerotigenes and A. flavus are two genetically distinct strains. Furthermore, both strains were qualitatively analyzed for aflatoxin...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir

...neurs, purchased quality seeds, fertilizers and small scale modern technology. These innovations brought substantial enhancement in their farm productivity and income that ultimately improved those farmers’ socioeconomic position. However, 16.7% of the respondents’ remains deprived of acquiring the micro-credit facilities of the project where no change in their livelihood conditions was observed. Overall, this study has significant association betw...
Aftab Shaukat1,*, Sana Hanif2, Irfan Shaukat3, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem4,5, Shadab Shaukat6, Rizwan Shukat8, Shahid Ali Rajput9, Imran Shaukat10, Mubashar Hassan4, Khalid Mehmood7, Saqib Umar11 and Muhammad Ali Jamil1
...heir sequences and their seed location in human using online server miRDB. We have identified 26 specific miRNAs (hsa-miR-939-3p, hsa-miR-661, hsa-miR-2861, hsa-miR-23b-5p, hsa-miR-23a-5p, hsa-miR-4764-5p, hsa-miR-6734-3p, hsa-miR-4441, hsa-miR-4267, hsa-miR-4456, hsa-miR-7847-3p, hsa-miR-6515-5p, hsa-miR-5692b, hsa-miR-4664-5p, hsa-miR-342-5p, hsa-miR-5692c, hsa-m...

Pushpa1, Nighat Seema Soomro1, Shahla Karim Baloch2, Mehmooda Buriro1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Muhammad Tahir Khan3, Qamar Uddin Jogi1*, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1 and Farheen Deeba Soomro1 

...ecies on germination and seedling traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat varieties Amber and TJ83 were subjected to powder of Chenopodium album, Convolvulus arvensis and Avena fatua under three different treatments i.e. 25, 50 and 75g. The effect of these weed powders on seed germination (%), shoot length (cm), root length (cm), shoot fresh weight (g), root fresh weight (g), shoot dry weight (g), root dry weight (g), ...

Attique Ahmed1, Tariq Sultan1, Ghulam Qadir2, Obaid Afzal2*, Mukhtar Ahmed5, Shamim-Ul-Sibtain Shah3, Muhammad Asif4, Safdar Ali2 and Muhammad Zeeshan Mehmood

... promote crop growth and seed yield. However, in farm management practices genotype and environmental conditions may also affect the growth and nutrient uptake. PGPR and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in combination with synthetic fertilizers can enhance crop productivity and soil fertility. Present experiment aimed to investigate the effect of PGPR and PSB inoculation with T1 Control (Recommended NP), T2 (PGPR-1 + PSB + ¾ N + ¾ P),T3 (PGP...

Fazli Ahad1, Raziuddin1, Nazir Ahmad1,2*, Muhammad Nauman1, Touheed Iqbal3, Nabeel Khan1, Fazli Hameed4 and Quaid Hussain2 

...cient in a set of 31 rapeseed genotypes, comprised of 10 parental lines and their 21 F3 populations. These genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design at The University of Agriculture-Peshawar-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan with three repeats. Significant differences were recorded for days to 50% flowering, plant height, primary branches plant-1, main raceme length, pods main raceme-1, pod length, seeds pod-1...

Rehman Ali Keerio1, Nighat Seema Soomro1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui2, Muhammad Tahir Khan2, Ghulam Shah Nizamani2*, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1, Maryum Siddiqui4, Hajra Khan3 and Farheen Deeba Soomro

... be augmented. Sunflower seed contains 40% of good quality oil. Hence, it can play a significant role for fulfilling the Pakistan’s oil needs. This study was conducted to identify the optimum foliar zinc (Zn) supplement for sunflower variety HO-1. The experiment was conducted at field of Oil Seeds Section, Agriculture Research Institute (ARI), Tandojam, Sindh using RCBD design with three replications. The maximum plant...

Zulfiqar Ali Abbasi1*, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Naimatullah Leghari2, Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio3, Ahmed Naqi Shah1 and Musrat Begum Abro1 

...ess the effect of primed seeds with different solutions and planting geometries on growth and yield of sunflower in agro-ecological conditions of Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiments were a randomized complete block design in factorial combination, replicated three times. An experimental unit was accommodated with three factors i.e. seed priming sources (No seed priming,

Tahira Moeen Khan*, Irum Riaz, Shahida Hameed and Bushra Khan 

...cost adsorbent (raw date seeds husk and lemon juice microwave activated date seeds husk) by taking 25ppm/50ml initial concentration of NaAsO2. Best removal (90%) was achieved for Lemon juice microwave activated date seed husk LMDS (time= 30mins, agitation speed= 150 rpm, pH= 5, adsorbent dose= 0.1 g). While 85% removal efficiency was observed for Raw date seed
Muhammad Sarmad, Syed Muhammad Zaka* and Syed Muhammad Tahir Abbas Shah
...bsp;on leaves, stems and seeds of host plants. Being a serious pest of many important crops, the present work will study on biology and bionomics of O. laetus on three different hosts Gossypium hirsutum, Abelmoschus esculentus and Helianthus annuus. Shorter nymphal duration was observed on Gossypium hirsutum 20.00±0.14 days as compared to Abelmoschus esculentus 21.00±0.26 days and Helian...
Renlong Lv1*, Ken-Ichi Horiguchi2, Shin-Ichi Tagawa3, Shoichi Ichihara4 and Norio Yoshida
...into two treatments (rapeseed diet and jatropha diet) randomly and were tested by using a cross over method. Rapeseed meal and jatropha meal were relaced to the feed as a concentrate with proportion of 5% in experiment I and 10% in experiment II. The ingestion rate of sheep fed the jatropha diet was lower than that of the rapeseed diet. The feed of jatropha diet and rape

Peer Sikandar Shah1, Ghulam Nabi1, Maqsood Khan*1,2, Saddam Hussain1 and Jawad Ali Jan1

...3.86 days) while maximum seed emergence (80.43 %), numbers of leaves plant-1 (45.87), leaf area (99.87 cm2), number of fruit plant-1 (7.94), fruit weight (289.20 g), fruit volume (193.84 cm3), yield plant-1 (2.42 kg) and total yield (12.09 t ha-1) were obtained by Jaipuri cultivar. While in case of manure regimes maximum vine length (465.50 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (49.13), leaf area (110.48 cm2), (14.09 cm), number of fruit plan-1 (9.25), yield plant-1 ...

Amjad Ali1*, Lal Almas2, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Hina Fatima3 and Asim Khan1  

...s side farm size, labor, seed rate, tractor hours, irrigation and urea were found statistically significant. Therefore, based on findings, it is recommended that in order to encourage growers to apply optimal amount of these inputs and avoid uncertainty in returns, an effective system need to be put in place where cost of production might be considered while fixing sugarcane price. Also, there is need to keep experienced farmers involved in sugarcane productio...
Quratulain1, Ata-ul-Mohsin1, Muhammad Naeem1, Ghulam Shabir1, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2 and Rashid Mahmood2*

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Muhammad Zubair Khan1, Ayesha Bibi2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad

...of 1.97, 2.96 and 3.95 g seedbed-1. Plant extracts were neem (Azadirachta indica) and ghwaraskay (Dodonaea viscosa). Morphological traits such as plant height, maximum number of fruits plant-1 and yield were observed and severity of disease was investigated for supplement efficacy. The biochemical results obtained were all positive, which confirmed stem rot pathogen as Erwinia carotovora sub spp. chrysanthemi (gram-negative bacteria). Highest plant height (75....

Aqsa Ahmad1, Iftikhar Ahmad1* and Malik Fiaz Hussain Ferdosi

...:1; v/v/v) substrate for seedling development and transplanted at the two to four leaf stage into lily crates with the treatment substrates. Plants grown in substrates containing SD + PH + PM (experiment I) indicated that plants grown in these soilless compositions died before flowering, while those grown in silt (control) performed best. While in experiment II, the highest quality plants were grown in 50% CC + 40% RH +10% PM. Quality was defined as plants wit...

Muhammad Usman Saleem, Nadeem Iqbal, Shawaiz Iqbal*, Usama Bin Khalid, Adila Iram, Muhammad Akhter, Tahir Latif and Tahir Hussain Awan 

... through raising nursery seedlings and transplanting them in puddled soils. Declining surface water, high cost of pumped groundwater, high labor costs, and drudgery in manually transplanted rice (TPR) have motivated researchers to develop alternated technology such as direct seeded rice (DSR). About 30% of total water used in rice cultivation is consumed for puddling of soil (land preparation) and transplanting operations. P...
Aamir Mushtaq1,2, Rukhsana Anwar1 and Mobasher Ahmad1,2,* 
...pinella anisum dried seeds to check the oxidative neuronal decay in brain parts. Methanolic extract of Pimpinella anisum (meP.a) dried seeds was explored qualitatively and quantitatively for analysis of phytoconstituents along with anti-oxidant activity. Anti-amnesic activity was found by behavioral and biochemical studies for which male albino mice were grouped into seven groups. Mice were subjected to elevated p...
Sohail Ahmed1,*, Muhammad Waseem Saleem1, Abid Ali1, Muhammad Shahid Nisar2, Rashad Rasool Khan1 and Abdul Rashid3
...976 kg plot-1 seed cotton and it did not differ significantly in treatments where spinosad was present. The lowest seed cotton yield was recorded to be 23.393, 23.984 and 24.104 kg plot-1 in those plots (T1, T2 and T5) where only bio-agents were released and these three treatments did not show significant difference among them. On the basis of these interventions, the ma...
Rabia Saeed1, Muhammad Naveed1, Muhammad Razaq2*, Muhammad Rafiq1, Muhammad Tahir Jan1, Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1, Shabana Wazir1 and Fahad Munir3
...severe lint staining and seed germination reduction problems. Antilochus coquebertii (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae) is significant predator of the genus Dysdercus and other members of the pyrrhocoridan family. In the present annotation, we record for the first time A. coquebertii in cotton growing areas of Dera Isamil Khan, Muzafar Garh and Multan districts, Pakistan.
...

Abid Khan*, Mukhtar Alam and Yousaf Jamal 

...of nitrogen. Bio-primed (seeds soaked in 10% BM aqueous solution for 30 minutes just before sowing) and unprimed wheat seeds were tested under various nitrogen sources (NS) with and without BM. Nitrogen sources were NS1 (control), NS2 (full dose from Urea), NS3 (full dose from FYM), NS4 (full dose from PM), NS5 (half dose from Urea + half dose from FYM), NS6 (half dose from urea + half dose from PM) and NS7 (half dose from F...

Muhammad Medrar Hussain*, Asad Jan* and Sayyar Khan Kazi 

...ance, two weeks old rice seedling were subjected to drought stress. OsTZF8-OX transgenic indica line A and B displayed 69% and 64% survival rates respectively compared to 33% of control. These results confirmed that due to overexpression of OsTZF8 gene, transgenic line A and B displayed considerable level of drought stress tolerance. Additionally, the chlorophyll content of top four leaves of OsTZF8-OX transgenic indica line A and B were observed to be high co...

Samman Gul Vaseer1, Muhammad Rasheed1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Yamin Bibi2, Saqlain Shah1, Asma Hassan1, Lubna Ayub Durani1, Muhmmad Asif3 and Zuhair Husnain

...oculation slurry treated seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) to observe the yield and development of the plant. A factorial completely randomized design (CRD) was adopted for this experiment, where Cobalt nitrate (Co (NO3)2) was applied at the rates of 10ppm, 20ppm, and 30ppm in combination of inoculation on mung bean three verities Chkwal-06, NM-16 and NM-11. Analyzed data was recorded related to mungbean growth and development parameters Mungbean have maxi...

Ahmad Khan1*, Raza Ullah Khan1, Sadia Khan2, Muhammad Zameer Khan1 and Fayyaz Hussain1 

...nhouse conditions. Three seeds of chickpea variety Dhasht was sown in each pot which was thinned to one plant. Results show that highest plant height of 45cm was obtained when HS applied at the rate of 30 mg l-1as followed by 44.67cm where HS was applied @ 45mg l-1. The highest number of pods/plant-1 (22) were obtained in HS applied at the rate of 30 mg l-1 followed by 22.00 at the rate of 45 mg l-1. The maximum biomass wt. 14.24 g was received in 15 mg l-1fol...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Sami Ul-Allah2*, Muhammad Naeem1, Muhammad Ijaz2 and Muhammad Qadir Ahmad3 

...">Physical attributes of seed play a prime role in seedling establishment. Present study was conducted to investigate genotypic variability and correlations among upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivars for some physical (seed weight, seed surface area and seed density) and biochemical (se...

Ayesha Zafar1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sarfraz2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Sher Muhammad3 and Ghulam Murtaza

... to the normal soils. Linseed is an important oil seed crop. Its 50 % yield reduction occurs at ECe 5.9 dSm-1 and ESP value of 25-30. A field experiment was conducted on saline sodic soils to determine fertilizer requirement of linseed. The selected field was saline sodic in nature with pH value 8.57, medium in extractable K and scarce in P and organic matter. The selected field was sandy ...

Muhammad Jan1*, Safdar Hussain2, Muhammad Anwar ul Haq3, Javed Iqbal4, Ilyas Ahmad4, Muhammad Aslam4 and Aiman Faiz3 

...ut the fiber quality and seed cotton yield up to now till is poor in quality as compared to other developed countries. A judicious combination of manures and fertilizers depending upon the availability, the type of the soil and crops to be grown would not only maximize the crop production and improve the quality of agricultural products but would also maintain the fertility, productivity and overall health of the soil for posterity. So, keeping in view the ben...
Muhammad Mohibullah1*, Mehran1, Sundas Batool1, Muhammad Amin1, Zakiullah1, Muhammad Ilyas2, Irfanullah1, Abdur Rehman1 and Sardar Ali3
..., days to 50% flowering, seeds per pod,1st branches plant-1, 2ndry branches plant-1, plant height, hundred grain weight and grain yield plant-1. Overall, chickpea accessions CH30/12, CH10/12, CH44/12, CH14/12, and CH11/12 performed well, and recorded with maximum values for grains pod-1, hundred seed weight along with other contributing parameters. Values for ...

Wajiha Anum1*, Liaquat Ali1, Umair Riaz2*, Abid Ali1, Nadia Manzoor3, Laal Hussain Akhter4, Asad Ur Rahman5, Naeem Maan6 and Ijaz Ahmad

...ion for providing aid in seed and fruit formation, energy provision, photosynthesis, and continuation of metabolic function in plants. However, it is not readily available to the crop because of its immobile nature. In order to ensure its efficient uptake by crop, an experiment was conducted to appraise the effect of various P placement methods and fertilizer rates on wheat. The fertilizer treatments were F1=150-00-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F2=150-30-60 NPK kil...

Muhammad Rafiq1, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood2*, Mushtaq Ahmad2, Imtiaz Ali3, Muhammad Saleem1, Irfan Rasool1 and Zeshan Ali

... grain yield followed by seed weight (SW) and pods plant-1(NPP), while significant negative correlation was expressed by drought susceptibility index (DSI) to grain yield. Study of drought indices revealed that the highest DTE was presented by Punjab-2008 (84.13) followed by CH12/12, D-16004, CH-09/12, TG-1218 and TG-1221 (83.84, 80.10, 72.27, 69.93 and 69.31 % respectively) coupled with least DSI (0.39, 0.40, 0.49, 0.69, 0.75 and 0.76 respectively). Results i...

 Salman Khan, Irfan Ullah*, Shahid Ali and Murtaza

...d in the study area were seed (Rs. 18720), followed by land rent (Rs.15890) and labors having an estimated cost of Rs. 14965 respectively. The analysis showed that on average per acre yield of potato was recorded as 4,953.35 kg with net revenue of Rs. 28,261.89. The results of the Cobb-Douglas type production function revealed that the coefficients of seed, labor, tractor, urea and chemicals were positive and statistically s...

Javed Iqbal1, Ali Zohaib1*, Muzzammil Hussain1, Adnan Bashir1, Muhammad Hamza2, Wardah Muzaffer3, Muhammad Tahir Latif1 and Naeem Faisal1 

...ge sowing with optimized seed rate for different varieties. This 3-years study was conducted to determine the optimum seed rate for different varieties of ridge sown wheat for better yield and related components. Wheat varieties (Faisalabad-08, Punjab-11 and Galaxy-13) were sown on ridges using two different seed rates (125 and 150 kg ha-1). Increase in seed...

U. A. Al-Karim, A. A. Alshimaysawe, A. E. Mohammed† , W. A. R. Aljaafri and F. A. Al-Fadhal

Evaluation of biological seed treatments for management of Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton
...n cotton. Tests included seeds treated with the Abamectin, ILeVo, and a non-treated control. Results showed that seed treatment with Abamectin and Burkholderia sp., suppressed the numbers of R. reniformis eggs significantly. Seeds treated with Abamectin and bacteria had fewer vermiform adults in the soil in comparison with the non-treated seeds. The bact...

Bibi Safia Haq1,2, Shahnaz Attaullah3, Abdul Shakoor4, Hidayat Ullah Khan5, Khan Alam5, Kausar Shaheen1 

CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFICACY OF ULTRAFAST LASER PULSES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
...r system consisting of a seed laser and a regenerative amplifier. It is
important to have knowledge of these characteristics to be able to predict the transport of the beam through various
optical elements and also to analyse the subsequent interaction with materials. The whole optical intensity profile in
two dimensional space of a laser beam i.e. across the beam radius and its detailed shape has been measured and it
has been demon...

Hina Fatima1*, Sania Shaheen2, Lal Khan Almas3 and Sehrish Haroon4

Profit Efficiency among Transplanting and Direct Seeded Rice Producers (Case Study of Certain Rice Growing Areas of Province Punjab, Pakistan)
...duction (TRP) and direct seeded rice system (DRS) is gaining greater attention in Pakistan. Profit efficiencies of TRP and DRS are estimated with data from farmers belonging to various districts of Punjab. Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Jhang and Sialkot are the major rice producing areas of Punjab. The primary data is collected from the above mentioned areas through random sampling. Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) serves as a tool of obtaining reliabl...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Shamsher Ali3*, Adnan Nasim1, Muhammad Ismail1, Nur Ul Haq1 and Muhammad Usman4

Effect of Planting Sources, Cane Portions and Setts Placement Methods on Sugarcane Yield Attributing Traits
...es (i.e. sugarcane fresh seed and the one obtained from stock buried underground), cane portions and setts placement methods on sugarcane yield attributing traits were examined at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI), Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in RCB Design with split plot arrangements, in 3 replications for two years (2012-14). Different planting material i.e., trenched (sugarcane buried in soil to avoid frost damage) ...

Saba Iqbal1*, Muhammad Luqman1, Hafiz Muhammad Nasrullah1, Asmat Ullah1 and Hafiz Muhammad Akram2

Response of Cotton to Application of Organic and Inorganic Source of Nutrients in Semi-Arid Climate
...l weight (3.6 g), higher seed cotton yield (1792 kg ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (BCR) (1.8:1) followed by the treatment where 30 kg urea ha-1 was applied in combination with 8 t ha-1 slurry. In conclusion, combined application of urea and FYM @ 30 kg ha-1 and 8 t ha-1, respectively could be the economical approach to attain the higher seed cotton yield.

...

Mehwish Liaquat1*, Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Muhammad Ishaq1, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim Ashraf2 and Ismara Naseem

...observed at 30 days aged seedlings in coco peat media. The experiment was executed according to completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the data. Significant changes were observed in growth parameters among different tomato varieties. Data were collected on germination percentage after two days interval. The results revealed that the germination percentage (100%) was higher in Cherry Tomato. The ...

Sikander Hiyat1, Nazim Hussain1, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani2*, Muhammad Nasir Abbas2, Smana Raza3, Javed Shabbir Dar4 and Tauqeer Ahmad Yasir5 

...d un-open bolls plant-1, seed cotton yield and cotton seed yield) parameters were recorded. The results revealed that exogenous application of mepiquat chloride @ 0.61 L ha-1, significantly reduced plant height as compared to control treatment. However, it did not reduce all other yield attributes of cotton. Among the row spacing treatments, widely spaced cotton plants (RS3, 75 cm) without application of mepiquat chloride pr...

Uzma Arif1, Sadar Uddin Siddiqui2, Muhammad Fareed Khan1, Muhammad Arshad3 and Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi

...during storage of carrot seeds was assessed by subjecting them to controlled-ageing for different temperatures and incubation time during 2016 at Seed Preservation Laboratory, Bio-resources Conservation Institute, NARC, Islamabad. Forced seed ageing was carried out at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C for Day-one (D1) through day-six (D6) of incubation period. Observations were recorded for percent ...

Murtaza1, Syed Attaullah Shah1*, Shahid Ali1, Amjad Ali1 and Asia Baig2

Economic Analysis of Maize Production in Central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...ively affected by hybrid seed cultivation, irrigation, organic and inorganic fertilizers application. The model predicted mean technical efficiency of 85% with a maximum possible of 97%. This indicates that 12% increase in yield is possible with the existing production technology. Results for the Stochastic Frontier Model-2 identified head’s formal education, farming experience and level of involvement in agriculture and combined family structure as impo...

Ali Hazrat1*, Mohammad Nisar1, Khan Sher2, Jehandar Shah2, Tour Jan1 and Abid Ullah1

Taxonomic and Medicinal Study of Papilionaceae of District Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...ids, particularly in the seeds and pods, Lathyrus cicera is used as a green manure, soil cover for preventing erosion and in breeding program for the plant species, Medicago minima is rich source of vitamins A, C, and E, green manure and fixes atmospheric nitrogen, Robinia pseudo-acacia is astringent, diuretic, emetic, emollient, laxative, poison, purgative, sedative, tonic, emetic and for toothache, Sophora mollis is seed d...
Zhi Yijin, Shao Mingqin* and Li Quanjiang
...te vegetation (roots) or seeds. Shorebirds have narrow habitat niches, and are limited largely to shallow water areas. Of species pairs, the pied avocet Recurvirostra avosetta and Eurasian spoonbill Platalea leucorodia have the highest habitat niche overlap, as their diet and foraging pattern are similar; these two species reduce competition by foraging in different areas. Three small-sized shorebirds are recorded in each water depth category. Bo...

Shahzad Malik* and Ayesha Khan

Gap Analysis of Farmers’ Capacity Building by Public and Private Agriculture Extension Sectors in Central Plain Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...egrated pest management, seed rate ratio and orchard layout. Overall, there was a big gap in the performance of the public sector extension and private sector extension in capacity building. It is therefore, recommended that both the Public and Private Agriculture Extension Sector should work on joint venture basis and hold joint extension activities for the betterment of farming community.

...

Adnan Arshad1*, Huma Qamar2, Ristina Siti-Sundari3, Zhang Yue1, Muhammad Zubair2, Muhammad Ali Raza4, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rehman5 and Lizhen Zhang1*

Phenotypic Plasticity of Spineless Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Cultivars in Response to Exogenous Application of Salicylic Acid under Rainfed Climate Conditions
...ined prominence as an oilseed industry due to its hardiness in nature. A two-factor factorial experiment using completely randomized block design (RCBD) followed by five spineless safflower cultivars and five concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) in three replications was conducted. The safflower promising genotypes viz; C1 (L16358), C2 (L16378), C3 (L26748), C4 (L26754), and C5 (L16385) were tested against SA1: 0 mM, SA2: 0.25 mM, SA3: 0.50 mM, SA4: 0.75 mM, ...

Kanwar Muhammad Raheel Mehboob1, Rashid Iqbal2*, Muhammad Israr3,4, Jaweria Shamshad5, Umair Riaz6, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman7,8, Fawad Ali9, Arif Nawaz10, Maliha Sarfraz11, Abdul Waheed12, Muhammad Tahir Khan13 and Muhammad Aslam2

 

Assessment of the Consequences of Heat Changes on Cotton Cultivars Growth, Phenology and Yield at Different Sowing Regimes
...rage boll weight and 100-seed weight altogether shifted and highest seed cotton yield 3847 kg ha-1 was acquired by cv. MNH-886 when it was planted on April 30.

...

Abid Khan*, Mukhtar Alam, Yousaf Jamal and Hidayat Ullah

Appraisal of Yield and Yield Components of Wheat with Integrated Management of Nitrogen Sources
...porated once after final seed bed preparation each year. Based on mean data over two consecutive years, N6 resulted significantly maximum spike length (9.8 cm), spikes m-2 (303), grains spike-1 (43.1), 1000 grain weight (34.71 g) and grain yield (3917 kg ha-1) showing an increase of 122.2% in grain yield over the control. Significant improvements in above-mentioned parameters were observed during 2016-17 as compared to 2015-16. It is concluded that integrated ...

Rana Shahzad Noor1,2, Fiaz Hussain2, Irfan Abbas3, Muhammad Umair2, Abu Saad2, Muhammad Umar Farooq4 and Yong Sun1*

Assessing Sustainability of Rainfed Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Production under Various Soil Tillage Systems: An Energy and Economic Analysis
...btained were fertilizer, seed and fuel + oil energies in all tillage systems for wheat sowing, respectively. Results interpretation indicated that the highest (2,300 kgha-1 and 40.56 lha-1) and lowest (1,930 kgha-1 and 8.97 lha-1) wheat yields were measured in CT and ZT farming treatments, respectively. The maximum and lowest energy values were calculated in PT (6.03) and CT (5.14), respectively. The maximum specific energy measured was (7.17 MJ kg-1) in ZT tr...

Inam Ullah1, Mahfooz Khan2*, Munir Khan2, Himayatullah Khan2 and Azra3

Factors Affecting Different Wheat Varieties Yield in District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A Comparative Analysis
...at variety the effect of seed was insignificant. It was observed that majority of the farmers were illiterate and do not apply the recommended amount of inputs due to its high prices/lack of availability of irrigation water. It is recommended that respondents should be encouraged to get training from the concerned Agricultural Research Centre in order to apply the recommended amount of inputs. The government should also provide inputs on subsidized rates and m...

Arshad Ali Essani1, Bhai Khan Solangi1, Muhammad Ilyas Abro2, Sultan Ahmed3, Karim Bakhsh Sial3, Muhammad Saleem4, Ali Asghar Gola5, Ghulam Ali6, Moula Dad6, Mujeeb ur Rehman6, Habibullah Kakar6 and Mitha Khan6*

Comparative Efficacy of Botanical Pesticides against Sucking Insect Pests of Mustard Crop
...n plot sprayed with neem seed extract followed by plot sprayed with neem oil (24.47%), tobacco extract (22.00%) and akk plant extract (19.83). Neem seed extract showed higher efficacy (81.01%) against thrips population on mustard crop followed by neem oil (66.13%), tobacco extract (58.20%) and akk plant extract (53.12%). Maximum reduction in whitefly population (13.00%) was observed in plot sprayed with neem

Malik Gul Hassan Awan, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz, Muhammad Ansar, Adeel Anwar, Umber Abbasi and Hashmat Mahmood

Influence of Foliar Application of Mineral Nutrients on Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Rainfed Soybean
...5% and 132%. The highest seed yield was produced by NARC-2 (2.19 t ha-1) with foliar application of nutrients. The study clearly concludes that foliar application of nutrients significantly increased biological nitrogen fixation, number of pods per plant and finally grain yield in soybean.

...

Rao Wali Muhammad1, Hafiz Muhammad Wasif Ali2*, Amir Hamza1, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad2, Abdul Qayyum2, Waqas Malik2 and Etrat Noor2

Estimation of Different Genetic Parameters in Various Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Genotypes under Field Condition
...nt, pods per plant, 1000-seed weight and yield per plant of 200 safflower accessions. Analysis of variance and principal component analysis were carried out to estimate the extent of variability for studied parameters and to partition the germplasm into various cluster groups on basis of their mean performance. A value of 74% was indicated by the first three PCs, which showed the highest variability between studied parameters. Eigen values >1 contributed va...

Iram Sharif1*, Amna Nazir1, Eram Shahzadi2, Shahid Munir Chohan3 and Ghulam Sarwar4

Influence of Sowing Dates on Cotton Growth (Gossypium hirsutum), Yield and Fiber Quality
...10th April produced more seed cotton yield (2881.1 kg ha-1) than sown on 10th May with (2212.9 kg ha-1). Comparing the average varietal performance in both sowing dates, FH-6071 produced maximum yield 2989.39 kg ha-1 while minimum yield 2103.5 kg ha-1 was exhibited by FH-152. Boll retention % was maximum in genotype FH-490. With respect to fiber quality fiber length and strength were not affected significantly due to sowing dates effects. In addition to yield,...

Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

September

Vol. 33, Iss. 3, Pages 422-691

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