Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...ted the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homology with previously characterized strains from Pakist...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...ted the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homology with previously characterized strains from Pakist...

Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...VAs. 

...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...ted the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homology with previously characterized strains from Pakist...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
... the hemagglutinin (HA) protein which improved the binding affinity to human receptors but simultaneously retained its specificity for avian-receptors. Vaccines were applied nationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic drift and the establishment of infections in vaccinated poultry. The Egyptian H5N1 viruses remain susceptible to oseltamivir, but g...

David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 265 pp., ISBN 13: 978-1-4214-1326-6

Reviewed by Francisco J. Ayala, University Professor & Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, email: fjayala@uci.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
..., Theodosius Dobzhansky wrote in 1973 that “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.” But it was only in the middle decades of the twentieth century that Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection became generally accepted by biologists and other scientists. How was Darwin’s On the Origin of Species received by his contemporary scholars, particularly by theologians and religious authors? That is the subjec...

Kathryne E. Taylor1 and Karen L. Mossman1,2*

...ture regarding the ICP0 protein from herpes simplex virus is complex and frequently contradictory, meaning that although this protein has been implicated in a wide variety of diverse functions, the mechanisms through which it produces these effects continue to be elusive. Recent investigations into the ability of ICP0 to block the activation of antiviral signaling have revealed a potential explanation for some of this confus...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...disease models for human rotavirus, human norovirus and human enterovirus 71 using neonatal gnotobiotic pigs. The differences between germ-free and normal animals in the maturation status of immune systems caused by the lack of gut microbiota can be minimized by establishing human-gut-microbiota transplanted gnotobiotic pig models. Given the advantages of gnotobiotic pig models, it is expected that they will be used more widely in biomedical research for studi...

Qin Zhao1,2, Yani Sun1,2, Gaiping Zhang1,3, Frederik Widen4, En-Min Zhou1,2,*

zhouem@nwsuaf.edu.cn

...

...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

... non-structural 1 (NS1) protein plays a crucial role in moderating the virulence of influenza virus by multiple mechanisms. Due to C-terminal ‘tail’ (CTT) truncation of NS1, there are length variation types of NS1 in different subtype influenza viruses. CTT functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune responses. Here, we discuss those different effects of CTT truncation or elongation of NS1 prot...

Lawrence Krauss

...illings and by the mass protests throughout the Islamic world to the bittersweet cover published the week following that tragedy.

...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...e analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, the PPRV has been classified into four lineages. Serological investigations in Tanzania indicate that peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was introduced in 2004 in Ngorongoro district bordering Ken- ya before official confirmation of the disease in most districts of Northern Tanzania in 2008. In 2011, the presence of PPRV in goats of southern Tanzania district of Tandahimba bordering Mozambique was reported. The aim of th...

Masood ur Rahman1*, Zahid Mahmood2, Taj Ali2, Muhammad Aziz Irfan Mufti3, Jehangir Khan Seyal4, Munir Ahmad5

E-mail | masoodra@hotmail.com

 

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 31, Iss. 1
...f-propelled locally made rotary hoe to overcome a problem of frequent transmission failure. The machine is used for mechanical weed control and hoeing. It was observed that the worm gear used in its transmission often failed due to surface wear of gear teeth. Worm gears made from three different copper alloys were tested against soil resistance in sandy loam soil bin. The gears were formed of commercial gun metal (Cu 87.76%, Sn 7.74, Zn 1.52%), gun metal (Cu 8...

Qingzhong Yu

 

...ing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene upstream from the GE sequences of the viral genes and subsequent quantitative measurements of the GFP fluorescence intensity, we have concluded that the P and M junction region is the optimal insertion site for a high level of foreign gene expression by a NDV vector.

...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...dry matter yield, crude protein, crude fiber and ash percentage were significantly increased with increase nitrogen levels (200, 240, and 280 kg N ha-1). However, highest benefit-cost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was found best compromise between forage yield and quality for maize cultivar Kissan under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The study also indicates that crude prot...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...he development of novel protective vaccines. In this review, we discuss the innate immune responses against HP-PRRSV infection and suggest new areas of investigation into this important interface between pathogen and host.

...

Huaichang Sun

... compromises the immune protection of conventional vaccines. RNA interference (RNAi) has becoming a feasible strategy against various virus infections. Recently, a significant advance in RNAi technology is the use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to fight virus infections. However, different strategies are needed to prevent virus variation or mutation escape. This review is intended to present the current situation of antiviral roles of amiRNAs, against varia...

Asma Noshad1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Hamida Bibi2, Saifullah3, Salma Bibi4, Hamid Ullah Shah1

...ltrate obtained from Pleurotus ostreatus also known as the oyster mushroom. The percent mortality of Macrosiphum rosae (rose aphids) and the LC50 values were calculated and used as an indicative of insecticidal potential. The maximum mortality of aphids was achieved at 80 µg mL-1 and the LC50 for the fruit body extract after 24 HRS was calculated as 12.83μg mL-1, followed by the extract from the fermentation...

Marcus Mann

... the new atheists claim protects it. Following Harris’s example, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins published his book, The God Delusion, cognitive philosopher Daniel Dennett came out with Breaking the Spell and journalist and literary critic Christopher Hitchens concluded the movement’s must-read canon with God is Not Great. While these four polemics are indicative of each author’s expertise, they are united in their claim that organized...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...zed regions (Central, Chorotega, Atlantic Huetar, North Huetar, and Central Pacific) determining regional seropositivity between 63.5% and 100.0%, as well as an overall prevalence of 80.8 %. The within flock seropositivity percentages ranged between 0% and 100.0%. Flocks with the highest seropositivity were found in low altitude regions close to the coast. Risk and protective factors determined in the present study were not ...

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

... log10 (for serotype Asia 1), 1.99 log10 (for serotype A) and 1.53 log10 (for serotype O) in ELISA while in SNT, antibody titers were found to be 1.86 log10 (for serotype Asia 1), 2.26 log10 (for serotype A), 2.11 log10 (for se

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

... our developed TUViD-VM protocol and selected other approaches regarding their suitability in metagenomics. We provide an overview on the difficulties, challenges and opportunities that developed alongside metagenomic virus discovery. The field of metagenomics from clinical specimens promises the identification of novel, yet unknown, infectious diseases and etiologies.

...

 Shubhada K Chothe, Bhushan M Jayarao and Suresh V Kuchipudi

...ich can escape the anti-protein environment in the virus infected cells and are likely to be conserved across the species. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about the role of lncRNAs in influenza virus infection and the exciting prospect of exploiting lncRNAs as targets to develop novel anti-viral therapies.

...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

...nts, the value of crude protein (CP) digestibility coefficient was high (P<0.05) in treatment MLM4 as compared to MLM1. Similar trend was also observed in case NDF among treatments. Daily milk yield and 4 % FCM has increased (P<0.05) in buffaloes fed treatment MLM3 and MLM4 as compared to other treatments. While there was no significant (P>0.05) difference of percentage of fat, protein, lactose, ash, total solids an...

Corey McCal

...elf, beginning with the Protestant Reformation and extending through the first half of the nineteenth century. The book begins with Martin Luther and his critics, proceeds through discussions of Spinoza and the English Dissenters, Voltaire and the French Enlightenment, and, finally, to Darwin’s Victorian religiosity and the German Left Hegelians (Feuerbach and Marx in particular).

...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Mohammad Tariq Jan2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3 and Abdul Bari4

...hed (stored canes-frost protected), cane portions and setts placement methods on the attributes of sugarcane were assessed at Sugar Crops Research Institute, Mardan-Pakistan. The experiment was conducted in RCB Design with split plot arrangement, over years (2012-13 and 2013-14). Planting sources i.e. standing (fresh canes frost exposed) trenched (stored canes frost protected) and canes portions top, middle, bottom and mixed...

Kang-Seuk Choi

...ising only viral capsid proteins mimic the naive configuration of authentic IBD virus particles. The VLPs show intrinsic immunogenicity and a high safety profile.  Thus, VLPs are considered one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specific appl...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

...ises highly conserved neurotropic non-segmented negative strand RNA-virus variants causing neurological and behavioral disorders in a wide range of mammalian animals, possibly including humans. Viral persistence in the brain has been frequently observed, however, the exact mechanisms behind BDV’s ability to establish persistence despite a prominent immune response are not known. Here we have used in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), a selectiv...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...ntly tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.

...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

... site of the fusion (F) protein indicated the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of the F and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes indicated that the isolate clustered with the PPMV-1 strains recently reported from Israel within subgenotype VIb. Our findings report the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egyptian pigeons and the potential role these wild birds can play in the transmission and evolution dynamics of PPMV-1.

...

Moustafa Kardjadj

... disease. Currently, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, the rapid spread of SAT2 and other exotic FMDV lineages in Libya and Egypt demonstrated the need for a robust surveillance system to detect and respond effectively to exotic infections. Emergenc...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Hidayat-ur-Rahman2, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Fakharuddin2

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous systems across the globe for development of vaccines and/or diagnostic antigens. The recombinant viral proteins, virus like particle based vaccines, bivalent/multivalent vaccines, recombinant viral vectored vaccines, RNA interference as a therapy, suicidal DNAs, synthetic epitopes and peptides, reverse genetics, anti id...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...e partial sequence of N protein.The recent Bangladeshi isolates are somewhat divergent from the earlier Bangladeshi isolate, indicating that the PPRV strains in Bangladesh are continuously changing their genetic character.

...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...stitutions in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. Genetic variations within NP gene, and possibly in other proteins which are essentially mediating protective immunity, may explain the extreme infectious nature of the virus and its host-specific pathogenesis. Moreover, understanding the nature of such circulating field viruses is essential to underpin the endemic potential of PPRV and its possibl...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...or index (CI) and beta carotene (BC) value of the oils. The results showed considerable variations in all the studied parameters tested in different blends under various stress conditions. Maximum PV (10.76%), FFA (2.44%), AV (2.29), IV (77.09) and CI (0.609) were recorded in sole olive oil, while minimum PV (9.69%), FFA (0.65%), AV (0.88), IV (53.40) and CI (0.146) were noted in sole palm oil. The samples kept in sunlight showed maximum PV (12.82%), FFA (1.32...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

... was found that percent protein (8.93–12.25%), ash (0.52–1.01%) and moisture contents (4.47–7.09%) showed significant (P < 0.05) increase, while fat content (1.41-1.17%) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease by blending WF with BRF. Similarly, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI) and swelling power (SP) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease as the concentration of wheat flour in the blends increases. The value...

 Zahir Shah, Shakoor Ahamd, Mian Saeed Sarwar, Murad Ali Khan and Javid Ali

...ify;"> Hernia is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through an opening. The present study describes a typical case of hernia in four weeks old cross Holstein Friesian dairy breed calf with hanging mass in the umbilical region. Tentative diagnosis was made through clinical sign and physical examination; the area was incised under local anesthesia. After surgical procedure site was closed by applying mattress sutures. Adjunct therapy of broad-spectrum antib...

 Zafar Khan, Asad Sultan, Rajwali Khan, Sarzamin Khan, Imranullah and Kamran Farid

 
... of the main sources of protein but if contaminated by toxic heavy metals will cause a harmful effect on human health. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn) present in poultry egg and meat were determined in the following three districts; Peshawar, Dir Lower and Malakand of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In all the three districts the egg albumen was found to contain significantly higher levels of Pb, C...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

...that the aptamers bound proteins of the correct molecular weights for intact outer membrane proteins (OMPs), intimins and SLT-2. Some bands on the aptamer Western blots were shared between the “Big 6” non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), E. coli O157 and related Gram negative bacteria. However, unrelated Gram positive bacteria exhibited very few, if any, bands in common with those identified on the E. c...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...rvensis (L.) and Cyperus rotundus (L.) was undertaken during summer 2011. The study was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in three replicated completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of control (untreated), eucalyptus water extract at 10, 20 and 30 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 10 ml...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...reased the moisture and protein content. The addition of gums further augmented the moisture level owing to owing to their water retention properties. The melt-ability, flow-ability and yield of cheese decreased significantly (p < 0.05) on reducing the fat level, as anticipated. However, the addition of gums gradually improved these aspects with higher values for cheese containing guar gum as compared to xanthan gum. The full fat cheese showed the minimum (...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...azing pattern in term of rotational grazing and open mobility within the pastures. This led to decrease herding venues 43.7% mobility routs 37.5% and herd size by 60.4% for both groups respectively. Analysis of gender-based family labor distribution during past 30 years shows that herding labor (male and female) of age 14 to 60 significantly (P<0.01) reduced during past 30 years and partly shifted to cropping. The male herding labour reduced 40.2% in semi-n...

 Shaoling Lin and Jiamiao Hu

...fy;"> The tegument protein pUL23 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays an important in the virus pathobiology, however, its role in viral assembly and replication is poorly defined. In this study we demonstrated that HCMV pUL23 interacts with an essential component of capsid, the minor capsid protein (mCP, pUL85). Interaction was determined and confirmed with yeast two-hybrid, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation an...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

...crease in mitochondrial protein contents and COX activity both in liver and brown adipose tissue, suggesting that A. chevrieri was more sensitive to cold than that of photoperiod. Together, these data suggested that A. chevrieri mainly depend on increasing thermogenic capacity to cope with cold or winter condition.

...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

... bp and comprises of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and two control regions CR and CCR, which was first reported in the order Coraciiformes. The overall A+T content for the mitogenome is 52%, and the GC and AT skews are -0.400 and 0.108. Unlike to many other birds, no extra base is inserted at certain position relative to ND3. Interestingly, a 484bp repeated sequence appears in both CR and CCR. Genetic distance shows that the difference...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...ydrogenase (LDH), total protein, total bilirubin, hepatic glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LP) levels were estimated. Moreover these biochemical parameters were confirmed by histopathological examination using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Mason trichrome stains (MTC). Immunohistochemical investigations for the expression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax) and the exp...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

... concatenated set of 12 protein-coding genes, and adding 16 other species of gobies (Gobiidae). The mitogenome sequences of O. lacepedii, O. rebecca

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

...e the effect of dried carrot (Daucus carota) leaf powder at different amounts on some external and internal egg characteristics of Hy-line white laying hens as a commercial type through two-way ANOVA, to estimate the Pearson correlation between pairs of egg external and internal characteristics and to predict each of egg internal characteristics from egg external characteristics, treatment and week through CHAID analysis. A ...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...in extender for its cryoprotective effect on post-thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls using artificial vagina at weekly intervals for a period of three weeks (three replicates). Qualifying semen ejaculates were diluted (50×106 motile spermatozoa ml-1) in tris citric acid extender with melatonin at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM. Diluted semen was cooled t...

Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

... was found that soluble proteins, glucose contents and free amino acids increased, whereas glycogen and lipid contents were reduced in all deltamethrin-resistant populations as compared to deltamethrin-susceptible population. Soluble Proteins were significantly elevated (79, 100 and 37%) in 4th and 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of Gujranwala, (14, 24 and 14%) in Okara and (14, 13 and 2%) in D.G Khan populations, respec...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...fy;">The signaling of G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) is a key regulator of secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), whereas GnRH is a crucial neurohormone regulating the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) at puberty. The deficiency in release or action of GnRH leads to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) characterized by low FSH, LH and testosterone (T) and absent or impaired sexual development at pube...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

... This SS cDNA encodes a protein with 114 amino acids that contains the SS14 sequence at its C-terminus. This putative peptide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus SS1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which demonstrated high expression level in the brain. During embryogenesis, SS1 mRNA was detected during early-stage embryonic development, decreased during subsequent ...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

...m) is the most abundant protein in the nucleus of oocytes which can promote in vitro nucleosome formation. In this study, to improve the efficiency of SCNT in Banna Mini-pig Inbred Line (BMI), we obtained the recombinant nucleoplasmin (Npm) by using a prokaryotic expression system and compared the difference on the developmental effects between exogenous Npm and its structural analog, polyglutamic acid (PGA). We chose the pMD18-T vector for Npm expression and ...

Giselle R.R. Ayres* and Brandão P.E

...code for non-structural proteins (nsps) that are enrolled in viral transcription, replication and pathogenesis. The last 3’ one-third of the genome codes the four structural and accessory proteins. Nsps act in a complex replication process, made possible by the special characteristics of AvCoV genome. This manuscript aims to present an overview of the main aspects of the current knowledge on the main AvCoV replicase ge...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...erent units showed that protein contents were 50.51% – 61.26% and energy was determined as 4042.0 cal/g – 4558.0 cal/g. Dry mater was calculated as 87.43% – 93.13% and fat was noted as 15.29% – 26.23%. Ash was found to be 12.32%–18.32% and fiber remained as 7.52% – 13.12%. Phosphorus was found as 0.21%–1.8%. In fish meal preparation, 24 species belonging to different families were noted in which the most abundantly use...

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...fed on 40%, 35% and 30% protein diet @5% of their live body weight. In 40% protein diet treatment, male fish was injected 1st dose with ovaprim + HCG (0.3+0.3ml) and female fish was given 2nd dose after 24 hrs of intervals with ovaprim (0.2ml), while 1st dose ovaprim (0.7ml)+HCG (1.0ml) and 2nd dose ovaprim (0.7ml) was given to the females. The treatment which was given 35% protein diet re...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...emale. High density lipoprotein (HDL), both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol level and serum insulin were significantly higher (p< 0.05) in proliferative group of diabetic retinopathy, while triglyceride level, HbA1c (%), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were non-significantly higher (p> 0.05) in diabetic retinopathy groups. To conclude high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was observed among newly...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

...s been made. Recently a prototype rabbit ear keloid model has been produced by the authors by giving Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 injection, and then skin punch excision on rabbit ear. In the present follow-up study consisting of eight refind techniques, best Keloid was produced by the technique where Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 injection was followed by ventral skin, ventral perichondrium, cartilage, and dorsal perichondrium punch excision, leavin...

John G. Bruno

...n the various captured serotypes, each of the anti-LPS aptamer candidates showed a preference for its cognate E. coli serotype. Results suggest that these aptamers may be useful for enriching specific E. coli pathogens during aptamer-magnetic separation in food samples, leading to a greater ability to detect these serotypes if coupled with genetic identification techniques such as PCR or g...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...iciency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the addition of the 4TX in the diets. Among different dietary groups of the fish, % survival was not affected significantly (p<0.05). T1 showed maximum NWG (45.49±3.85), FER (0.739±0.02) and PER (36.36±1.83) when compared to other dietary treatment groups. The addition of 4TX clay in the diets at both 2 and 4 ppm AFB1 concentrations have almost the same effect on the g...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

... the lake, including 17 protozoa, 36 rotifera, 12 cladocera and 11 copepods species, respectively. Zooplankton species richness changed slightly in the four seasons but varied a lot in different positions. Protozoa was absolutely dominated in zooplankton abundance and its mean value ranged from 2710.2 ind./L in winter to 4259.5 ind./L in spring. Annual average biomasses of p

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

... carrying a fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter gene regulated by the 2.2-kb human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (hGFAP-DsRed). This study characterized transgene expression in such transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs and their offspring. Our findings indicate that the hGFAP promoter contains matching regulatory elements for directing specific expression in porcine astrocytes. However, the practical application of ...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...ith diet comprising 40% protein and 20% lipid for 75 days. Higher percent weight gain (% WG), best feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were recorded at ration level from 2.5 to 4.5% BW d−1 and feeding frequency of three to four times daily. The moisture, protein and ash contents of whole body of the fish were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by feeding frequency. The highest lipid contents ...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...er, vitamin C and crude proteins were also increased in spinach with pressmud + EM application. It was concluded that EM-inoculated pressmud has higher potential to increases soil fertility as well as stimulate spinach growth and quality. Therefore, warrants further testing under field conditions.

...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...ter wheat-maize cropping rotations significantly responded to tillage, residues and organic and inorganic fertilizers. These results suggest that deep tillage has the potential to increase crop yield and WUE of wheat-maize cropping system in mountainous and sub-humid conditions.

...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...a, i.e. Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and Glucose Nutrient Broth (GNB) media for active secondary metabolites. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of PDB medium gave significant results against selected phytopathogens compared to GNB medium and selected for further study. Crude (1 µg.mL-1 ) obtained from PDB medium showed 2.50 ± 0.64 mm and 1.97 ± 0.21 mm inhibition zone against X. campestris and C. michiganensis...
Muge Aliye Hekimoglu*, Kgrşat Fırat, Şahin Saka, Cüney Suzer, Aysun Kop and Yaşar Durmaz
...g-1). Total carotenoid content of fish skin was determined at30-day intervals. At the end of the experiment the highest weight gain was found to be 1.73±0.37g in Group B, whereas the lowest performance (1.29±0.38 g) was received in Group C. The best feed conversion ratio was found in at Group B. The total carotenoid content of skin of fish were found to be 0.77±0.61 µg.g-1 on ...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3
...was the most prevalent serotype. DENV-1 was not found in any pool. While all pools of Aedes albopictus were negative for dengue virus. Our study showed that the main cause of spreading of dengue virus was Aedes aegypti. Serotype DENV-2 was dominant in the field collected larvae of Aedes aegypti in Lahore and Sheikhupura, Pakistan. 
...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...DV strains. The NDVs, a prototype of Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1), have been reported previously both in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HN) genes of NDV strain isolated from an outbreak in a peacock flock was undertaken. Prot

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

... susceptible cells. The protection ability of ISGs to safeguard chicken cells against the virus could be potentially applied for vaccine production, better vaccination protocols and infection control in the future.

...
Sidra Ilyas1, Abdul Rehman1* and Qasim Ilyas2
... treatment, whereas non-protein thiol levels were higher after Cd and As treatment followed by those of Pb, Cr and Cu treatment. Candida sp. PS33 was able to remove 78% (Cd), 70% (As), 82% (Cu), 65% (Cr) and 87% (Pb) from the medium after 8 days of incubation. This multi-resistant yeast can be used efficiently for the removal of toxic metals from the wastewater.
...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...DNA of the four dengue serotypes. Six out of 35 (17.14%) adult mosquito pools were found positive for dengue virus with type-2 (77.77 %) and type-3 (11.11 %) while a single (11.11%) pool of concurrent infection with type 2 & 3 was also detected. The adult Ae. aegypti belonging to Shuba Bazaar showed 33% positivity for DENV with minimum infection rate (MIR) 11.1 while that of Wazir Bagh showed 16.67% positivity with MIR 5.5. Similarly, the Ae. alb...
Muhammad Afzal1,Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi1,*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Irfan Hussain1
...erranean termite, Heterotermes indicola Wasmann is among the most devastating species causing significant loss annually in South Asia. Feeding deterrence of H. indicola among 10 different woods species were evaluated in choice and no-choice assays conducted under laboratory and field conditions. Visual rating according to (AWPA, 1997) scale, mass loss, wood consumption per termite and mortality rate were determined to evaluate resistance of wood ...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...erground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mosseae (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) were applied as protective treatment. The roots of eggplant were inoculated with 1000 second stage juveniles of...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...d with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in three equal meals. On the other hand, control ponds remained without additives. During the whole study period, water quality parameters of the experimental ponds remained as salinity (15‰ -20‰), dissolved oxygen (5.6 to 7.5ml/l), temperature (25°C to 28°C). pH (7.6-7.8), ammonia (NH4-N) and `nitrites (NO2-N) l...
Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
...al saline. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Ldh-c in plateau pika skeletal muscles were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. The LDH activities, lactate contents and ATP levels in skeletal muscle were compared between the experimental group and the control group. The results showed that 1) the expression levels of Ldh-c mRNA and protein were 0.804±0.059 and 0.979±0.176, respectiv...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...ure acclimation-related protein, and it plays an important role in adapting temperature shock. But the research about Wap65 in crucian carp is very limited. In this study, the CDS of Wap65 was firstly cloned and characterized from crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This sequence is 1338bp that encodes a polypeptide of 445 amino acids. The calculated molecular weight of crucian carp Wap65 protein (CcWap65) is 5...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...receptor class B type I protein (SCARB1) plays an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis. The effect of the polymorphisms in the gene have varying influences on lipid levels and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in different populations. In this study, we investigated the association of rs5888 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and CVD risk in an Indian population. A total of 412 samples which included 148 myocardial infarction survivors,...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...ow leaf curl virus-coat protein (TYLCV-CP) and African cassava mosaic virus-coat protein (ACMV-CP) were used. However, immunocapture of ToLCNDV could only be achieved by using the TYLCV-CP antisera followed by PCR detection by using specific and degenerate primers. ToLCNDV is geographically wide spread Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae), considered as a close relative of TYLCV, and cause severe losses for many economical imp...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...r the deficit in animal protein in developing countries including Egypt. However little is known about the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of major bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health. ...

 Abdul Wajid Khalil and Zafar Iqbal

....22±0.05%) while protein (37.46±0.02%) and organic matter (21.25±0.03%) was recorded higher in roots than the aerial parts of B. procumbens. Calcium (309.73±0.06mg/100g), potassium (274.59±0.08mg/100g) and iron (32.58±0.05mg/100g) were found in highest amounts in aerial parts as compared to the roots. The Cadmium metal was not detected while lead was found in permissible limits in both the aerial parts and roots of B. ...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...idered. Four different serotypes were identified with Salmonella Llandoff having the highest isolation rate in all the matrices sampled (58.8%), followed by, S. Kentucky (17.7%), S. Schwarzengrund and S. Havana had the lowest isolation rate (11.8%). S. Llandoff was isolated in all the matrices and was distributed across the three LBM whereas the other less frequent serovars had a more circumscribed distribution. Resistance to Methicillin, Penicillin, Erythromy...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...ellets having 35% crude protein at 2% body weight twice a day for 60 days and eggs were collected weekly. Results showed that fertilized eggs were found to be greater in number at low salinity level as compared to higher salinity level. Survival of fry ranged from 1058 to 1100 at salinity level of 0‰ – 20‰ with 5% increment, after which fry number decreased significantly (P<0.05). The fertilized eggs did not differ for the fish at salini...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...s of nutrient elements, proteins and factors such as ADF, Ash, CF, NDF.

...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...hes of trees as a result rotten woody plants. The larval beetles characteristically feed in the phloem as well as later in the xylem. The females select living hosts for oviposition and thus destroy the vigour of the trees. However, at the early stage of intestation, detection of Anoplophora glabripennis and exposure will help to eliminate the pest in addition to prevent its establishment. Plantation with different tree species, the cultivation of fast-...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...pictus having five serotypes 1-5 and infecting about 100 million people each year. To address dengue outbreak 2013 in Pakistan we aimed to conduct a comprehensive study at molecular level to determine the main causative serotype of 2013 DENV outbreak in Pakistan. Overall 703 serologically positive suspected patients from different major health centers of Pakistan were registered in present study of which 214 were females...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...with live vaccines were protective against the IBDV. Based on the findings of present study, it can be concluded that all vaccinated group displayed similar antibody response irrespective of the types of vaccines administration to the chicks.

...
Uzma Farid Durrani1,*,Sagar Mal Goyal2, Asim Khalid Mahmood1,Cathleen Hanlon3, Susan Moore3, Muhammad Waqas1 and Raheela Akhtar4
...titer less than minimum protective level (0.2-0.4 IU/mL). RFFIT did not reveal mRVNA in 23 puppies that were declared lacking maternal rabies immunity. One basis of findings of this study it was concluded that puppies population lacking maternal rabies immunity is one of the responsible factors for increasing incidence of rabies in humans and dogs living in Lahore, Pakistan.
...

Muhammad Waqas1*, Anwar Ali Shad1, Omaira Bashir2 and Mohsin Iqbal3

...">In the present study carotenoids from tomato peel was elucidated by HPLC to utilize it as natural colorants in sunflower oil and spaghetti. Tomato peel contained 720 mg/100g of carotenoids consisting phytoene (3.15%) followed by phytofluene (2.31%), β-carotene (2.11%), cis-lycopene (1.71%), lutein (1.51%), cis-ζ-carotene (0.61%), ζ-ca

John G. Bruno

...tails on the surface of Protein A-conjugated magnetic beads. While no clear similarities in the partial or complete primary DNA sequences or secondary stem-loop structures of these aptamers were observed, 3-dimensional computer models of these top ten anti-idiotypic aptamer candidates showed some topological similarities which suggest common binding motifs. Unfortunately, without knowledge of the hypervariable region amino acid sequences of the target antibodi...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...(HEK) cell line. The HA protein was analyzed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The pCAGG-optiH9 vaccine efficacy was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of SPF chickens with different concentrations of plasmid DNA and the sera were collected weekly post vaccination for antibody detection by HI test. All immunized chickens shown high HI antibody titers (9Log2) two weeks post-booster dose. The chickens were then challenge...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...ng brain heart infusion broth supplemented with horse serum. The blood was used for serum plate agglutination assay. Thereafter, the samples were subjected to genomic DNA extraction to detect Mycoplasma spp. using multiplex-PCR. Isolation and identification data showed that a total of 58/96 samples (60.41%) were positive for Mycoplasma infections whereas a total of 61/96 blood samples were also found positive using serum plate agglutination. However, the multi...
Jun Gao1,2, Liang-Liang Yue3, Xianhuan Jiang1, Liju Ni4, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Yuxun Zhou,1 Kai Li1,* and Junhua Xiao1,*
...c relationships of Microtus fortis in China, we investigated 84 individuals collected from five populations. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) and control region (CR) were sequenced and 49 haplotypes were observed. No shared haplotype was found among different geographic populations. High Fst values among the populations suggested that fragmentation of habitat has resulted in genetically distinct populations. The trees...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...ent combinations of cryoprotectants with and without hydrogen gas (H) (purified H2 was dissolved into normal cryopreservation solution for 2 hrs under 0.6 MPa were tested including the following groups: control (CK), 100µm GSH, 10µm fasudil hydrochloride (FH) and a combination of the two (GSH + FH). A solution of 10% (v/v) Me2SO + 20% FBS was used as the standard cryopreservation solution. After 2 months, MTT assay showed sign...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
...n coefficients of crude protein and digestible crude protein. Ruminal pH values and ammonia nitrogen concentrations did not show any significant differences among groups.No significant differences were observed in meat chemical analysis of slaughtered animals among different groups. Animals fed BBP recorded insignificant increase in growth rate by 9 g daily with improvement in feeding cost by 10%.Bakery waste can replace cor...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...ield, harvest index and protein content were recorded where seed inoculation with PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and full dose of recommended chemical was applied during both the growing seasons. Overall the performance of sunflower was better in spring as compared to autumn season. However, it was also noted that the combination of PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and half recommended doses of chemical fertilizer gave results as full recommended dose of chemical fertilizer alone. Therefore,...
Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3
.../sub> followed by single rotavator in main plots while sowing methods i.e. Raised Bed Sowing S1and Flat Bed Sowing S2 in the subplots. The results showed higher WUE in the plots receivingP2and S1 in both years of experiments. Statistics revealed that P had significant effect on tillers plant-1, weight of grain spike-1, grain yield and harvest index % (H.I. %). While (S) had significant effect on...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...ate the therapeutic and protective effects of ellagic acid (EA) on the toxicity of the liver induced by D-Galactosamine (D-GaIN) in rats. With this in mind, the rats were categorized into five groups. The study groups were given saline, 0.2 % dimethyl sulfoxide, D-GaIN, EA plus D-GaIN and D-GaIN plus EA, respectively. In the group given D-GaIN, the following transmission electron microscopic and light microscopic results were found: degenerative changes in the...
Neenish Rana, Nosheen Ehsan, Awais Ihsan and Farrukh Jamil*
...ved that their putative protein products will be thermodynamically stable. The sequence-based predictions suggested that the pseudogenes-derived proteins may involve in different biological functions like translation, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and transport and binding.
...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...educed damping-off, seed rot, seedling blight and tip over of vegetables (egg-plant, tomato, chilli) in the nursery and leaf blight, anthracnose, fruit rot, root knot and leaf curl/mosaic of tomato and carrot in the field. Aqueous solution of garlic and allamanda tablet sprayed at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 conc. increased seed germination by 45-60%, completely eliminated damping-off, se...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...um, Monodictys, Mucor, Myrothecium, Penicillium, Periconia and Pithomyces. One-hundred and thirteen isolates of chilli microflora and 49 isolates of Trichoderma, 19 isolates of Bacillus sp., 34 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and 29 isolates of yeasts from NBAII germplasm collection of biocontrol agents were tested for their antagonistic effect on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici by dual culture test. Among the isolates of chilli microflora te...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...rmes spp, and cut worm Agrotis ipsilon in chickpea whereas Campoletis chlorlidae was recorded as natural enemy feeding on H. armigera larvae. In pigeonpea crop, mainly H. armigera, leaf webber Grapholita (Cydia) critica, Myllocerus spp, spotted pod borer Maruca testulalis, plume moth Exelastis atomosa, tur pod bug Clavigralla gibbosa, jassid Amrsca bigutulta, termite Odontotermes spp, green bug Nezara viridula, tur podfly Melanogromyza obtusa, blue butterfly L...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
...sporioides) and stem end rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae). Carbendazim dissipated to 1.01 and 2.14 mg kg in mature whole fruit after harvest (12 days after second spray) at 0.05 and 0.1 per cent concentrations, respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after 12 days were 0.57 and 1.26 mg kg . In another experiment, cold water dip treatment in carbendazim solution @0.05 and 0.1 percent was given for 10 min to a sepa...

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...kers of the subfamily Macrotermitinae have the extra-ordinary phenomena of making fungus combs inside the termitophiles. Considering the consistency of fungus-bed in the termitophiles, an attempt has been made to observe the morphological changes of nymphs while they stayed within the fungus comb. Biological attributes indicated that Odontotermes proformosanus are polymorphic in nature and have exopterygote post-metamorphic development. During the period of st...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
... and cultured in liquid protein supplemented broth medium and culture filtrates (CF) were prepared. In in-vitro test single eggmasses of uniform size were kept in 5ml CF in 5cm diameter Petri plates. Antifungal activity was tested by dual culture of wilt fungus with antagonist fungus and bacteria isolates in PDA media plates. In in-vivo test soil was amended with antagonist and wilt fungal and bacterial isolates 2 x 106 CFU/...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...tem canker and dry fruit rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Phytophtora fruit rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix showed significantly positive correlation of canker severity with maximum relative humidity at 1% level whereas, anthracnose correlated well with minimum relative humidity, temperature and ...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
... generally infected with rot disease when it grows older. Phellinus contigus (under Polyporaceae), a white rot fungus, causes heart rot disease and Biscogniauxia mediterranea (= Hypoxylon mediterranea) (under Xylariaceae) causes canker rot disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of rotting p...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...act of incidence of foot rot of betelvine caused by Phytophthora parasitica and growth, yield, and keeping quality by applying two bioagents, viz., P. fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. P. fluorescens inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1 was applied once at pre-monsoon, twice during pre- and post- monsoon and four times at quarterly intervals. T. harzianum inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1was applied at quarterly intervals. Bordeaux mixture (BM) was used to...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...seases. Among those root rot and collar rot are important and R. solani has been an important factor behind these two main diseases. A field trial was conducted during pre-kharif season of 2011 to control root and collar rot of cowpea caused by Rhizoctonia solani with two organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum along with other treatment combinations. It was observed that seed primin...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...il pests i.e. cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufner; Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) and molecricket (Gryllotalpa africana P. de Beau; Gryllotalpidae: Orthoptera) infesting potato at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Mogra, Hooghly, West Bengal (India) during 2007-08 and 2008-09. The field trial was conducted in Randomized Block Design with six treatments and five replications. Among the various treatments for managing soil pests of potato (cv. Kufri Bahar) i.e. cutworm and mol...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
...loprid @ 0.006% and monocrotophos @ 0.005% gave effective control of the pest.


...

Biswajit Pramanick, Sruti Karmakar, Koushik Brahmachari, Rupayan Deb 

An integration of weed management practices in potato un-der New Alluvial soil
...ld of potato was Cyperus rotundas, Chenopodium album, Anagallis arvensis and Fumaria purviflora. The results revealed that the maximum tuber yield and return per rupee invested vis-à-vis the maximum N, P, K uptake by potato and the minimum uptake of N, P and K by weeds emerged in the potato field were recorded under the treatment T3 (hand weeding at 20 DAP along with mulching) which was closely followed by the treatment T9 (Pendimethalin @1kg a.i. ha-1 ...

D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal and G. Saha

Bioassay of some agricultural chemicals, human drugs and disinfectants on Phytophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd
..., disinfectants and antiprotozoal drugs were tested on Phtophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd in aqueous environment. Antifungal antibiotics viz. validamycin, kasugamycin, griseofulvin, fluconazole and ketoconazole did not have any pronounced effect on mycelial growth, sporangia formation and its germination. None of the eight antibiotics used in this study prevented mycelial growth. No spora...

Abhijit Ghosal and M. L. Chatterjee

Bioefficacy of imidacloprid 17.8 SL against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) in brinjal
...vided similar levels of protection as that of imidacloprid. The conventional insecticide, methyl demeton (125 g a.i./ha) was less effective.

...

Anjan Bhattacharyya, Suhrid Ranjan Barik & Pritam Ganguly

New pesticide molecules, formulation technology and uses: Present status and future challenges
...a history of using crop protection products from non-selective, naturally occurring compounds to highly specific synthetic and biological materials for assured food production and protection of environment since long time. There is a sequential rise in the production and consumption of pesticides in India during the last three decades. Researches are going on to develop safer molecules which could undergo photo-degradation, ...

Goutam Samui and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal incidence and management of Apsylla cistellata Bucton. on mango in West Bengal
...anches treated with monocrotophos (0.35 galls/shoot) followed by quinalphos (0.73 galls/shoot) and imidacloprid (1.03 galls/shoot). However, the performance of all the three insecticides were statistically at par.
 

 

...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
... during late January to protect the crop against the aphids while other varieties will require insecticide spraying during early January onwards to manage the crop from the infestation of aphids..
 

 

...

Someshwar Bhagat and Sitansu Pan

Comparative ecological behaviour of some pre- and post-tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from Andaman & Nicobar Islands
...tage colonization of sclerotia of boh R. solani and S. rolfsii, followed by mycelial and conidial inoculum. The isolate ThrAN-5 (T. harzianum) was most efficient in parasitizing the sclerotia of S. rolfsii and R. solani, followed by TvAN-3, TvAN-5 and ThrAN-7 (Pre-Tsunami isolates), whereas there was significant reduction in their parasitizing ability of post-Tsunami isolates. Similar results were also noted in their rhizosp...

Dhananjoy Mandal

Eco-friendly management of mealybug and wilt in pineapple
...1 during planting + monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.03% at 100 DAP + endosulfan 35% EC @ 0.02% during 150-180 DAP]; T2 [Treating planting materials (basal portion) with monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.02% + phorate 10 G @ 15 kg ha-1at 100 DAP + Neem oil 1500 ppm spray @ 2.5 m/L-1 at 150 DAP]; T3 [Treating planting materials (basal portion) with monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.02% + phorate 10 G @ 15 kgha-1 at ...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
... marketing, production, protection and processing, and other essential information provided through a decision support system (DSS), in an agriinformatics networking such that is not ordinarily available to Indian farmers in general. Due to Precision Farming (PF), production increased by 40 to 60 percent farmers’ margins of the produce and reduction of the commission charged by the middlemen to 7-10 percent. Further, bargaining power, capacity building, ...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...) @ 10 gL-1, along with protective banding with well decomposed cowdung + oilcake + Single Super Phosphate + Muriate of Potash mixture at 20:5:3:1 in each bacterial wilt affected plant + mancozeb spray @ 2.5 gL-1 at 50, 57 and 60 DAP) were the best treatment in terms of their responses to yield, disease management and higher return per rupee investment. The highest tuber yield and low disease intensity was obtained from T1 (TPS whole tuber planting) followed b...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
... a useful tool in plant protection, especially supervisory management and appropriate IPM.
 

 

...

S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...nd Anthurium. Cutworm (Agrotis segetum) damaged the seedlings of Gladiolus. Among the Coleopteran pests, the Blister beetle (Mylabris p) was the most important feeding on the flowers of Gladiolus and China rose. The steel blue beetle, Altica p. and white spotted flea beetle (Monolepta signata) was found infesting Gladiolus and Chrysanthemum respectively. The serpentine leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii) was recorded on gerbera. Among non-insect pests the red spid...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
.... The Albumin and total protein values were significantly low (P<0.05) in infected groups A and B as compared to control groups C and D on 5th and 7th day. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly (P<0.05) high in infected groups A and B. On 3rd, 5th and 9th day five birds from each group were slaughtered and histopathological lesions observed in burs...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
... individuals. Gluten, a protein fraction commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a number of autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that gluten containing diet would further exacerbate an already undergoing arbitrary immune reaction in SLE patients. Pristane was injected in female BALB/c mice to induce the disease. After five months, mice in various groups were treated with prednisone and fed with gluten containing and standard...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
... a multifunctional glycoprotein, occurring as awhey constitute in milk secretions of animals and humandisplays a variety of antimicrobial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory as well as a number of other biological functions. Its potential can be exploited in several food applications. Keeping in view the increased demand of natural antimicrobial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...cost benefit ratio when protected against aphids.
...
Yasemin Bircan Yildirim* and Hediye Tugce Vurmay
... aerogenes, E. cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluorescens were isolated from the fish intestine samples. E. aerogenes (68.4%), Serratia spp. (53.3%), E. cloacae (50%) and K. pneumoniae (44.4%) showed high level of resistance against ampicillin. K. pneumoniae also showed high resistance against Cefepime (52.9%) and Ciprofloxacin (47.1%). Pseudomonas species exhibited high leve...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...pped. The yield of milk protein, fat, solids not fat and lactose were not affected (P>0.05). Milk fat, solids not fat and lactose concentrations differed (P<0.001) among the treatments but did not show (P>0.05) any linear or quadratic trends with increasing level of enzyme in the diet. Milk protein concentration linearly (P<0.001) increased with increasing level of enzyme in the diets. It is concluded that fibrol...
Ayesha Zahid,Ammara Muazzam, Sidra Mustafa, Saba Irshad*,Malik Siddique Mahmood and Rehman Shahzad

 

...nal analysis of mutated protein was anticipated by bioinformatics tools, which manifest mild changes in overall charge but altered post translational modifications in a way which might have a deleterious effect on ion channels anatomy and on the whole, pave ways to the genesis of cataract.
...
Rauf Ahmad1, Karam Ahad2 and Aziz Ullah Shah3
...tes obtained for onward protocol was 43%, 24% and 0% respectively. The overwhelming of hybrid candidates with good quality indicates that they have common source, origin and or different brands of the same company.
...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...ant formulation and well rotten cow-dung manure (1:40 w/w) or need based curative application of bleaching powder at 20 kg per ha through every irrigation.
...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...na benghalensis, Cyperus rotundus, Crotalaria verrucosa, Digera muricata, Sida cordifolia, Ipomoea pestigridis and Trianthema portulacastrum were selected for in vitro studies. Fungal isolates namely Ascochyta cypericola, Bipolaris sp., Chaetomium globosum, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata, Curvularia tuberculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium sp. and...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...ities of carbohydrates, proteins and secondary metabolites in methanol compared to other extracting solvents. Moreover, only ethanol (5 and 10%) and petroleum ether (5%) demonstrated significant hair growth promoting effects (p < 0.05) compared to standard, i.e., 5% minoxidil and extracts in other solvents. Likewise, ethanol (5% and 10 %) and petroleum ether (5%) extract had significant impact (p < 0.05) on hair length in comparison to minoxidil, ...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...timized vaccine-induced protections.

...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...tudy, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of two LSDV isolates from Ixodid (hard) ticks (Amblyomma hebraeum) in Egypt. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that both isolates had nine nucleotide mutations in comparison with the local reference strain, LSDV-Egypt/89 Ismalia. Compared with the GPCR sequences of SPV and GPV strains, 21 nucleotide insertion and 12 nucleotides deletions were identified in the GPCR g...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
...y be used as a low-cost protein constituent in the broiler finisher ration.
...
Viram Kumar1,*, Moolchand Malhi1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi2, Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani3 and Khushal Das Malhi1
...05) and the serum total protein and Mg concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in male compared to female peafowl. In conclusion, the present study provides base-line values for hematology and serum biochemistry of apparently healthy Indian adult blue peafowl of Thar and can be used as reference values to evaluate the health or diseased conditions in the same species.
...
Muzammil Sattar
...ng amounts of different proteins in the diet of adult Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). Results show that proteins play a vital role in the fecundity, fertility and all the biological parameters of F1 for mass rearing. The tested proteins were: Casein, Protein hydrolysate, Torula yeast and Nu lure. Al these prot
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...gs. Identification of H protein was undertaken through hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test while N typing was done using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure. Out of 600 examined locations twenty two (22) H9N2 subtypes isolates were recorded. The total prevalence recorded was 3.66%and out of 498 broiler operations yielded 17 (3.4%) positive isolates and 44 golden type native chicken farms yielded 05 (11.36...
Yun Wang1,*, Lei Guan1, Jiding Chen1, Yaping Kong1, Lang Si2 and Asif Shah3
...and QTR. To improve the protection mechanism for the four large ungulates viz., Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii, Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata, Kiang Equus kiang) and Wild Yak Bos grunniens; we suggest that the distance between the proposed route for the expressway and the present highway and railway should at least be 1500m, and ideally, it should be 2500m.
...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...xt-align: justify;">PCR protocol was developed to detect hyperparasitism in cotton mealybug. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive and major pest on cotton. Aenasius bambawalei (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an effective parasitoid of mealybug and has been the backbone of the biological control program of cotton mealybug in Pakistan, but its multiplication for inundative releases has been impacted by a h...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1*,Ibrahim Alhidary1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Rifat U. Khan3, Abdel Raouf S. Bello4, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2 and Ramzi A. Amran1
...the effect of different protocols of alfalfa hay supplementary on ruminal characteristics and performance of growing Naemi lambs fed TMR. Four groups, each of 3 months old growing Naemi male lambs (28.85±1.09 kg), were fed on TMR (NDF=41. 95%) (T1). TMR plus 100 g alfalfa hay (NDF= 43.3%) daily (T2), TMR plus 200 g alfalfa hay (NDF= 43.3%) every two days (T3) and TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay (NDF= 43.3%) every three days (T4). Rumen fluid samples were ana...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

... However, maximum grain protein content was recorded in soil applied method in comparison to foliar N application. In conclusion, higher results for all the quantitative parameters were observed at 120 kg N ha-1.

...

Khurram Shahzad and Mohammad Akmal*

...stem i.e. maize-wheat in rotation. The results concluded that wheat crop fertilized with 140 kg ha-1 preferably in three splits for sustainable farming system for Peshawar climate and surroundings.

...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
...h resistance to charcoal rot, cercospora leaf spot and Yellow mosaic virus.
...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...ergens and could have a protective role for allergy while HLA-DRB1*12 did not show any association with aeroallergen sensitization.
...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
..., color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, NFE and fiber content changed significantly (p<0.05). Gross energy level in cake which is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was dark colored, low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatment (T3) containing 5.6g grapefruit albedo powder shows significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory scores in term of color (8.02±0.50), flavor (8.04±0.29), taste (8.18±0.37), mouth ...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride level. Group I comprised control group of induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on purified diet AIN-93 G. Group II comprised induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on WBF. Group III comprised induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on MBF, Group IV comprised hypercholesterol...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...incognita and Sclerotium rolfsii and their integrated management by using derosol, cadusafos and Trichoderma harzianum in the green house at 25 ± 4ºC. Primarily, 15 chilies cultivars viz., 28-2010, C-72, Sanam, C-73, Gola Peshawari, 27-2010, Tata Puri, C-302, C-33, C-19, 5-2010, C-68, 11-2010, 18-2010 and 15-2010 were evaluated against M. incognita and S. rolfsii. Two week old chilies plants were inocul...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

... The confirmation of H5 protein expression was performed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. The humoral immune response was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens with two different concentrations of Egy-H5 plasmid DNA 15µg and 60 µg. Results demonstrate that chickens developed detectable HI antibody titers up to 6log2 within two weeks post-booster vaccination. The ch...
Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...tween speculated fusion proteins. Under bioinformatics analysis, the T2R1 gene without introns was consistent with the structural domains characteristics of this family genes. The translation protein of T2R1 gene displayed with corresponding signal loci and functional domains of this gene family, and the result showed that the taste receptor translated by T2R1 gene belongs to G p...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...0% and 12.70% for crude protein, crude fat and apparent gross energy as compared to the reference diet, respectively at 1000 FTU kg-1 level. It was concluded that the phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet at 1000 FTU kg-1 level is optimum to release adequate chelated nutrients for maximum growth performance of C. mrigala fingerlings. Our results also suggested that phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...n was recorded in HT (hydrothermal treatment) 1096.69±26.8 (mean± SE) while lowest in NC (untreated husk) 974.91±18.8 followed by 1069±28 in FT (Fermented), 1045.81±27.7 in BT 1042.47±33 in AT and 1032.17±32 in PC group. A significant difference (p=0.039) in the weekly body weight gain (BWG) was recorded among the experimental groups. The highest weight gain was found in PC (0.977±0.75) followed by FT (0....

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...rious regions of the NA protein were determined with unknown functions and consequences. These findings warrant future studies for analysis of whole genome sequencing of prevailing H9N2 viruses in Pakistan which may further contribute towards the better understanding of the genetic nature and evolutionary behavior of these viruses in the country.

...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
...g, made up of 30% crude protein, 7% crude lipid, 6% crude fiber, 12% ash, and 12% moisture as a percentage of fish body weight, with three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed three times per day at 09:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The experiment was carried out for 120 days. Each month, 30 fish were removed from each of the floating net cages to be measured and weighed. The biomass of fish was calculated, and the amount of feed was adjusted. The feeding rate signi...
Mehran Kausar1,2, Naveed Ashraf3, Farzana Hayat4, Asraf Hussain Hashmi1, Saima Siddiqi1,* and Mariam Anees2
...members, three affected brothers, one unaffected sister and the unaffected mother. We identified a known missense mutation c.136 C>T in the third exon of CTSK changing arginine to tryptophan (p.Arg46Trp) which segregated with the disorder. The clinical findingsimplicated CTSK and the use of direct sequencing provided a precise molecular diagnosis. Theidentification of the same variant in CTSK as identified in other families from Pakista...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...s of the outer membrane protein 10 (Omp10) on bacterial survival, virulence, phagosome-lysosome fusion, and apoptosis induction, as assessed in appropriate in vitro (cell culture) and animal models. Results showed the omp10 mutant was dramatically attenuated for survival in macrophages and mice than the parent strain 2308. With decrease in the spleen/body weight ratios of mice infected with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosome...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...xt-align: justify;">Root rot is very drastic disease prevalent in major cotton producing areas of Pakistan. Complex nature of disease due to root rot fungi and root-knot nematode cause huge losses to cotton. Experiments were conducted to assess the role of fungi and root knot nematodes in root rot disease complex of cotton and to optimize their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton grow...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

... in the season. Grains protein was observed high for sowing made on November 15-25 for wheat varieties Dharabi, Shahkar-2013, Pakhtunkhuwa-2015 and Ghanemat-2015 as un-irrigated crop for the area. The study suggests that none of the existing wheat variety has potential to sustain grain yield of wheat if planted on December 5 or thereafter. However, Ghanemat-2015 is relatively better option over the other varieties for Peshawar.

...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...ystem is recommended to protect and promote their habitats from anthropogenic activities.
...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...re from sisal leaves. A prototype of sisal decorticator was designed and fabricated at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The prototype machine was tested for fibre extraction. Results indicated that sisal fibre production capacity of this machine was 15.94 kg h-1 (dry fibre). Average yield of dry sisal fibre was 3.2% of green leaf weight and averag...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
...es rich in high quality protein and oil. Its cultivation in Pakistan is restricted to few areas due to poor germination and low seed viability. The optimum yield and quality of this oil seed crop is noticeably affected by its lower germination rate. To address the problem of poor germination and low seed viability, a field study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, during spring 2011. The experiment was composed of tw...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

...aureus) using 96 well microtitre plate method. The Ethyl acetate fraction showed maximum zone of inhibition (24.25±1.06 mm) against X. campestris and (23.15±2.12 mm) against C. michiganensis on growth nutrient broth (GNB) medium as compared to other culture media (Potato dextrose broth and yeast extract broth). Similarly maximum zone of inh...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...C i.e. cultivator (51%), rotavator (56%), mold bold plough (56%), disk plough (48%), single furrow (47%), drill (61%) and ridge maker (53%). Market was the source of seed for majority of the respondents regarding cauliflower (43%), bitter gourd (32%), bottle gourd (13%), potato (34%) and squash (29%). Similarly, majority of the respondents obtained urea (73%), SSP (54%), DAP (60%) and Nitro-Phos (55%) from the FSC whereas 91%, 99% and 96% respondents obtained ...
Shantanu Jha1, A. Rama Devi1, Ngalaton Kasar1 and Abhishek Mukherjee2
...or Advancement in Plant Protection (AAPP). Oher dignitaries attended the meeting were Prof. T. K. Maity, Dean, Faculty of Horticulture, BCKV and Prof. M. R. Ghosh, Taxonomist and Retired Professor of Agriculture Entomology, BCKV.
...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...he steps of AO staining protocol for buffalo sperm which has not been explored yet. Semen was collected from two mature buffalo bulls, diluted in tris citrate egg yolk based extender and cryopreserved using standard protocol. The semen straws were thawed at 37oC and stained using different protocols as followed: Protocol 1 (washing effect); wa...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

...firmness and blossom end rot (BER) incidence but significantly decreased the leaf K+ and Ca content of the fruit and yield. The foliar calcium application decreased the Na+ accumulation, Na+/ K+ ratio and BER incidence as well as increased the leaf K+ and Ca content of tomato fruit, yield and fruit firmness. The interaction of salinity and calcium significantly affected the yield and BER incidence of tomato fruit. Whereas, the yield of tomato decreased with in...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...the size of recombinant protein as 70 kDa. The optimization studies demonstrated the maximal production of recombinant phytase, when the recombinant cells were induced with 1.4 mM IPTG with the post induction time of 6 hours. PHYTN showed maximal activity at 80°C in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 6. Presence of Fe3+ or Cu2+ showed an enhancing effect on the PHYTN activity. Thermostability studies demonstrated tha...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...iffusion assay and microbroth dilution assay respectively. All isolates (n=5) were carbapenamase and MBL producers andNDM-1 gene carrier. These isolates displayed significant resistance against commonly used antibiotics including carbapenem and colistin proved to be most effective drug. Manuka honey manifested significant antibacterial activity against all test isolates with almost similar zone of inhibition (7.4mm) except E. cloacae. Highest MIC and MB...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...ions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Twenty-nine pools (29/59; 49%) appeared positive for AAstV, 6 pools (6/59; 10%) were positive for RVD, forty-three pools (43/59; 72.8%) were positive for ACoV, and twenty-four pools (24/59; 40.67%) presented concomitant viral infections of two or three investigated agents. The relati...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...t (p>0.05) effect on protein, SNF and Lactose contents of the milk. These results concluded that milk yield and milk fat were increased by supplementation of MSC in the dairy cattle ration. The proportion of MSC up to 12% in the ration has shown the best efficiency of production as compare to other rations. 

...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
... in cloud value, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TF) and total flavonols as equated to thermal and control, while ºBrix, pH and acidity remain unchanged in all HPP treatments with control and thermal. After this, we suggested that HPP treatment (250 MPa/60 °C/3 min) has a potential against thermal to progress the value of grapefruit juice and could be applicable at industrial sc...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
... while ash, fat, fiber, protein, iron, zinc, magnesium and manganese contents increased significantly (p < 0.01). There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect on the color, flavor, taste and texture of biscuits. So, it is concluded that replacement of wheat flour with pea flour up to a level of 20% improved the nutritional potential of biscuits without affecting the consumer acceptability score.
...
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...ood source of fiber and protein but they provide appreciable amount of minerals and phenolic compounds. Swollen basil seeds were used to prepare beverage at three supplementation levels i.e. 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%. Sensory evaluation of basil seed drink revealed that 0.3% basil seeds supplemented drink was liked most in term of taste, texture and over all acceptability whereas 0.4% basil seeds supplemented drink were least liked as compared to other treatments. It ...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
... SA levels are found to protect several species of plants against environmental stresses by initiating different processes that are involved in the mechanism of stress tolerance. SA is part of an extremely complex signal transduction network’s part and it works differently in different systems. Drought stress is a major restraint for crop production in arid and semi arid states such as Pakistan. In this study experiments were conducted against the respon...

Rabia Tahir1*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muti-u-Rehman Khan2, Farah Khan1, Hassan Bin Aslam1 and Arslan Mehboob

...rn of avian adenovirus serotype 4 (AAV-4) causing hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) by transovarian route. For this purpose, liver and spleen samples (n=90) were collected from day-old-chicks derived from breeders at 14, 21 and 30 days of post-infection with AAV-4. The presence of AAV-4 DNA was detected through PCR. Chicks from virus-challenged breeders failed to show a clear and expected PCR positivity. The connotations derived from these findings are that vert...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...s and control for crude protein while rest of the parameters remained same. Apparent digestibility of crude protein and fat was found non-significantly different among treatments. It is concluded that addition of fenugreek in fish feed can improve growth performance and also protein content of the fish meat as well.
...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

... genetic transformation protocol developed in this study will possibly improve the efficiency to produce new transgenic maize lines expressing desirable agronomic characteristics. 

...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...al growth factor (VEGF) protein and its family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficient strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis. Several anti-VEGF drugs have been developed over the last two decades and some are still at different development st...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...ent in body dry matter, protein, fat, energy and ash contents of L. rohita. Acidification and phytase supplementation showed significant (P < 0.05) interaction on body composition and mineral utilization in rohu. Citric acid and phytase supplementation improves the diet by increasing the availability of minerals and quality of fish by positively affecting the body composition of fish. 3% citric acid and 1000FTU phytase proves to be interacted positiv...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...n methods were used and broth dilution method found simpler and most efficient for positive PCR. Primers were selected for 16s rRNA and it could detect up to 100 cfu and 250 cfu from MS and MG respectively in a samples. We have tested pure DNA of other mycoplasmas (5 species from avian origin and 3 other mycoplasmas species) but it produced only the genus specific band. The optimized ratio of tPCR primers were 1: 1: 10: 1. For Outer F, Inner R, and Inner F and...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...i>Aphis nasturtii a protocol for the prevention and control can be established.
...
Talat Bilal Yasoob and Nasir Ali Tauqir* 
..., 0.336%, respectively. Protein and energy values in all broiler starter rations were kept at 20% and 2800 kcal/kg, respectively. In second phase, six finisher rations (5-6 weeks) were formulated viz., control ration and five other rations having 0.10-0.74% levels of NaHCO3. The resulting dietary treatments were having DEB and sodium levels of 222, 240, 256, 273, 290, and 307 meq/kg and sodium levels of 0.203, 0.243, 0.283, 0.323 and 0.363%, respect...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
...G), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and increasing the concentration of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C).
...
Xue-yang Wang1, Shang-zhi Zhang1, Ming-hui Liu2, Dong Yu1, Yan Ma1, Dong-qiong Fei1, Hai-zhong Yu1 and Jia-ping Xu1,*
...>Armadillo (ARM)-repeat protein is involved in many biological processes, including cell–cell adhesion and the Wnt signaling pathway. However, the function of ARM-repeat protein in Bombyx mori has not been completely clarified. In this study, a gene encoding ARM-repeat protein was identified, which has an open reading fragment of 1923 bp, encoding a predicted 641 amino ...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Muhammad Saeed Akhtar1, Maryam Umer1, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Muhammad Imran Din3
...ely.
...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...he grain yield when not protected by insecticide. Insecticide protected crops give maximum net returns. Integration of varietal resistance and insecticides showed an effective reduction of aphids and gave a significant increase in grain yield.
...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
...ployed the group follow protocol, which resulted in 260 h of direct observation. Our results revealed feeding as the most frequent activity in the estuary, totaling nearly two thirds of all records. We also identified two sites of Guiana dolphin habitat preference in our study area, where sightings remarkably totalled > 62% of observation records. These sites (especially Guaraqueçaba Bay) were not only important for feeding, but also for S. guiane...
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
...reeding is an effective protection against extinction, but safe overwintering is still technically difficult to captive big-headed turtles. Determining optimal hibernation conditions is important in resolving this problem. In this study, the effects of two important environmental conditions (water depth and availability of sand beds) on changes in body weight and health status in captive big-headed turtles before and after hibernation were evaluated. Results s...
Zhenyu Chang1, Hui Zhang1, Khalid Mehmood1,2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman1, Xiaodan Yuan1, Zhaoyang Li1, Fazul Nabi1, Xiaoxing Wu1, Xinxin Tian1, Xueting Liu1, Jingen Xu3 and Donghai Zhou1,*
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...3) as a ~24 kDa soluble protein and showed to be catalyticly active towards the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The results of the present study provide new information into camelid evolution and give further insights into the diversity and complex enzymatic functions of GST superfamily.
...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
...KIT gene and its protein ingoats of different fur colors. The effect of KIT mutations on KIT protein expression was examined in white cashmere and black cashmere goats. A single A→G missense mutation in exon 13 differentiated cashmere goats with different colors. Only a histidine (H)→arginine (R) amino acid (AA) change was detected at KIT exon 13 in both the white cashmere goat and the b...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...action of extracellular proteins at pH 9.5 using Tris-Glycine buffer. Placental lactogen was purified by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex-G100 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE- Sepharose, employing a linear salt gradient. SDS-PAGE was used to monitor the purification steps, and protein band was located by immunoblotting technique. Bubaline placental lactogen was purified to homogeneity and showed a molecul...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...iv>BPI is a pluripotent protein located in neutrophils and tissue that likely plays a vital role in host defense against GNB (gram-negative bacteria) and their endotoxin by means of its antibiotic and endotoxin neutralizing and disposing functions. BPI has several biological functions in mammals such as human, bovine, pig and rabbit, it also has major influence in the natural defense of the animal body. In this paper, by comparative study on BPI gene expressio...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
... differential expressed proteins. Almost 78 patho-stress responsive proteins which expression level more than 1.5-fold were identified, where 50 proteins were up-regulated and 28 proteins were down-regulated; The identified proteins were categorized into 16 classes, which are mainly including energy metabolism, gene ex...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

...dex (34.22 %) and grain protein content (8.56%) was obtained with (moringa green manuring).While Among fertilizer levels (100% of RDF) produced maximum plant height (189.02 cm) cob length (18.21 cm), number of grains per cob (438.7), 1000-grain weight (216.57 g), biological yield (17.79 t ha-1) grain yield (6.99 t ha-1) harvest index (39.37%) and grain protein content (8.78%). It can be concluded from above results that alon...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

.../i>) and outer membrane protein (ompA). Moreover O-antigen serotype was tested by slide agglutination test and a mouse model was built to assess the lethality of the E.coli isolates through subcutaneous-infection. Out of 81 E.coli isolates, the most prevalent gene detected was ompA (90.12%), followed by ETT2 (69.14%), irp2 (54.32%), EAST1 (46.91%), CS31A (41.98%), es...
Falah Baiee1,3, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff1, Ariff Omar,2 Nurhusien Yimer1, Salman Hammadi1, Tarig Ahmedeltayeb1, Asmatullah Kaka4
...l as the time of penile protrusion (p = 0.003) and semen emission (p = 0.084) were improved using Method II than Method I. However, the total time taken for semen collection was the same in both methods. Also, there were no significant differences in semen parameters such as sperm volume, motility, morphology, viability, and concentration. In conclusion, gradation of electrical stimulation into three stages (our modified Method II) could help to ease the colle...
Qunhua Han1,2, Meiwen Zhang1,*, Cong Guo2, Xunjun Zhou1, Bo Li1 and Yong Wang1
...ent of Yangtze voleMicrotus fortis calamorum from birth through approximately 3 months of age with respect to growth. Vole pups were randomized into litters of 1-2 (LD, low density), 3-5 (MD, medium density), and 6-9 (HD, high density) individuals, and the body weight, body length, tail length, and hind foot length were measured and curve-fitted by using Von Bertalanffy and Logistic equations. Instantaneous growth rates and growth acceleration of...
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
...e as source of low-cost protein in Lower Mekong Region. The present study applied multivariate morphometric technique to identify fishery management units of C. apogon from six populations of three different river drainages: Pong, Chi, and Mun Rivers. Thirty-two truss measures and standard length were obtained using digital calliper from 291 fish individuals, and raw measured data were then subjected to allometric equation to remove size-dependent varia...
Aqsa Imtiaz and Abdul Rehman*
... copper ions. A 130-kDa protein was detected from feather-treated bacterial cells, suggesting its role in degrading feather. B. subtilis BML5 can be used to overcome the poultry wastes based environmental pollution and keratinase could be used to improve feather meal digestibility in animal feed as an additive.
...
Muhammad Saqlain1, Humaira Kalsoom1, Muhammad Fiaz1,2, Abid Mahmood1, Rizwan Aziz Qazi4 ,Waseem Safdar5, Pakeeza Arzoo Shaiq1,Bernard M.Y. Cheung3 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1,*
...inal fatty acid binding protein in the pathogenesis of MetS.
...
Muhammad Siraj-ud-Din1,2, Riaz Aziz Minhas1, Usman Ali3,*, Mayoor Khan2, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Nuzhat Shafi1 and Basharat Ahmad1
...al could be achieved by protecting its potential habitat and preferred food plant species.
...
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...ease in live weight and protein efficiency rates when were directly compared with mock-treated fish control. However, there was no statistically supported level of significance was observed for growth rates and feed conversion rates among groups. Improved live weight and protein efficiency rates reflected positively on the survival rate in MOS-fed fish. Interestingly, the whole body and fillet fatty acid composition shown no...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...ddition, genes mRNA and protein levels were detected after bull testicular Sertoli cells were transfected with miR-122 and miR-449a. Meanwhile, DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B overexpression experiments were conducted. Eventually, MTT assay was performed to observe the cells proliferation. The results showed that miR-122 and miR-449a were highly-expressed in testis tissues (p<0.01). The expression levels of miR-122 and miR-449a in the 24-month-o...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*
...bution of intracellular proteins in the oviduct of the hen, which provides an important basis for the regulation of the physiological activities of poultry oviduct and the molecular mechanism of sperm storage.
...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...ydroxylase) and soluble protein contents of a wheat grain pest, Trogoderma granarium collected from godowns of Punjab, Pakistan. Six populations of khpara beetle with different levels of susceptibility to phosphine were used in this study. Based on LC50, five populations (previously exposed to phosphine for 15 years)viz., Mandi Bahauddin-I (MBDIN-I), Mandi Bahauddin-II (MBDIN-II), Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sargodha were labeled as phosphi...
Wanrong Wei and Weiguo Zhang* 
...ernation, food storage, protection from predators and extreme environment, and the function of burrows varies with the degree of burrow complexity. We studied the burrow architecture (length, internal dimensions, fractal dimension of tunnel systems, number of nesting chambers and surface holes) by excavating the tunnels of 24 burrow systems of the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae). Pikas have two types of burrow systems, namely temporary and permanent b...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...Columba livia, parrot Psittacula sp.and kingfisher Halcyon sp.did not show any evidence of nesting or breeding. 
...

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...plusmn;0.58 g/dL, total protein 5.35±0.55 g/L, urea 26.95±0.65 mg/dL, creatinine 0.83±0.01 µmol/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 35.56±1.16iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 44.16±1.83 iu/L were recorded for adult birds while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were significantly (P<0.05) higher 104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical parameters of M....

Ayesha Aihetasham1*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2, Syeda Rida Hasan1, Imran Bodlah3

...aper flower) against Heterotermes indicola. The leaf extract of C. papaya caused highest mortality i.e. 100% of 10%, 5% and 3% concentration. Bougainvillea glabra and H. annus caused 100% mortality at 10% and 5% concentration while 96.4% mortality on 3% concentration after exposure period of 10 hours. B. glabra extracts also caused 100% mortality on 10% and 5% concentration while 96.4% mortality on 3% concentration. C. papaya showed the minimum LT50 of 3.03, 3...

Naeem Iftikhar1, Qamar Zaman Qamar2, Usman Ali3, Muhammad Siddique Awan4, Syeda Shaista Bibi4, Riaz Aziz Minhas4*

...s potential habitats as protected area to ensure the further survival of this important species.

...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...al pattern of bacterial proteins in tellurite stress was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Both bacterial strains can be utilized to convert toxic tellurite into its elemental form from the contaminated sites.

...

Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Khanum Zahra2, Arooj Zaheer2, Khizar Samiullah3

... categorized as fibrous protein. Spiders produce several types of silk. Spider silk is important because of its maximum mechanical strength, biocompatibility and biodegradability, pore filling ability and very low immunogenicity. In this review structure and types of silk producing gland, spinning process, chemistry of spider silk fiber, mechanical properties and applications of silk in health, military industry and many other fields is discussed. Its antifung...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Humaira Aziz1 and Khalid Zamir Rasib2
...d in soil against Heterotermes indicola. Treatment with Pronil and Mirage during 8 h caused less than 97% mortality in 8 h. LC50 values for Pronil and Mirage were 39.81 ppm and 177.32 ppm, respectively. Pronil was found more toxic than Mirage with low LC50 value however both insecticides revealed to be non-repellent against H. indicola.
...

Soraya Khosravian Dehordi*, Abdolnaser Mohebbi and Kahin Shahanipour

...(gavage) given to rates.Protein carbonyls (PC) andthiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS),superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) values in spleen were measured. An increase in TBARS and PC levels was obtained in rats' spleen of the Cd-group than controls and nano-Se decreased this effect close to the control. The CAT values of all groups did not differ significantly. The values of SOD and GPx were reduced in splenic ...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...al floating pellet (35% protein) at 3% body weight per day for 40 days. Results showed that fish growth was significantly (P<0.05) higher in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, mean daily WG, SGR, feed conversion and survival rate from 15‰ to 30‰ salinity than those reared in 35‰ and 40‰ salinity. Condition factor was found to be significantly higher on 40‰ salinity than 15‰ to 35‰ salinity. Feed con...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
... 784 and 602 amino acid protein, respectively. Chromosome synteny analyses revealed that CcSox5 and CcSox13 weretightly linked with the etnk gene, which was conserved in all species; however, there were no conserved regions flanking CcSox6. Numerous essential transcription factor binding sites (TFs) were predicted within the 2000 bp upstream of the 5’ end of these genes. These TFs include BSX, BRN4 and NGN–NEUROD, which have be...
Yunjun Yan, Zhenming Lü, Tianming Wang, Yongjiu Chen, Jingwen Yang, Baoying Guo, Lihua Jiang, Changwen Wu and Liqin Liu*
...de pairs and encodes 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a major long noncoding region (LNCR) of the mitochondrion’s own protein synthesizing system. Seven of thirteen proteins, eight tRNAs are encoded by the plus strand, while the other proteins and tRNAs, as well as two rRNAs are encoded by the minus strand. Two (N...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...r vNDV, E. coli serotype O78 or both agents simultaneously or 3 days apart. The birds were clinically observed and swabbed daily. They were killed at 4 and 14 days after single or dual inoculations and were inspected for gross lesions. Samples of the respiratory organs (trachea, lungs, and air sacs) were taken for histological analyses. All the infected subjects showed clinical signs of varying severity. Co-infected groups showed the most obvious clinic...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...aviridae. It has seven serotypes with no cross protection among these. FMD is responsible for heavy economic losses in cattle and buffalo. So rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMD is uttermost need of this time. Several lab.techniques are developed for rapid detection of FMD but these are expensive and time consuming. Elisa, cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase (RT-PCR) and real time PCR need specific high quality equipments in...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...ally available kit i.e. protinase-K (sigma). 27 out of 34 isolates were confirmed as Cmm having 614bp band. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L) was the only weed from which pathogen was consistently isolated. From Northern KP, a total of nine weeds including; Solanum nigrum L., Solanum americanum Mill., Solanum Sarrachoides Sedntner, Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats, Amaranthus albus L., Lactuca serriola L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Malva parviflora L. and Sisym...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
...urgent need to save and protect bird diversity by maintaining the suitable habitat of the area.
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
... constituting 35% crude protein with 2% body weight twice a day. Eggs were collected on weekly basis by cultch removal method. Results showed that the highest fecundity, fertility, hatchability and survival of fry were obtained on salinity of 0%-15% and significantly decreased on 20‰ and 25‰. The eggs per gram body weight were also recorded in all treatments and highest eggs were obtained i.e. 4.0-4.3 per female on 0‰-15‰. Wa...
Jo Ik-Hwan1, Choi Kwang-Won1 and Muhammad Fiaz2,*
...eased (P<0.05) crude protein (CP) yield and carrying capacity for Hanwoo heifers than that of rye monoculture. DM and TDN yield under 100 kg manure was higher (P<0.05) than control and 50 kg N/ha levels but not different (P>0.05) with that of 150 kg N/ha. Manure levels did not affect (P>0.05) protein yield. The carrying capacity for Hanwoo heifers was not different among zero, 50 and 100 kg manure levels, whereas...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
...al floating pellet (35% protein) with 3% of total biomass day-1 for 50 days. Results showed that the growth increment reared on 10‰ - 20‰ salinity were significantly highest in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, daily weight gain, specific growth rate, condition factor and survival rate than those reared on 25‰ and 30‰. Feed conversion ratio was found similar in all levels which is not significantly different (<...

Arooj Fatima1* and Ashfaq Ahmed

...raining in patients with rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy. This single blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted at University Physical therapy and Rehabilitation clinic, Raiwind road, Lahore. The study included sample size of 50 subjects diagnosed with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Patients included in study were allocated randomly into; Group-A: This group was treated with routine physiotherapy treatment. Group-B: In this...

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

...lign: justify;">Under unprotected condition study was carried out during the months from July to November in the year 2012 and 2013 to investigate population dynamics and observe the impact of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on population of Plutella xylostella (L.) in Cauliflower, Brassica oleracea crop at District Haripur of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Field studies results showed that the population of P. xylostella gradually increased from mid of July ...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

...ct of different dietary protein levels on the growth and chemical conformation of broodfish and its eggs. There were three treatments (T1, T2 and T3) and a control with three replicates in each group. Control group was exclusively fed on natural food composed of tilapia fry while fish in T1 was fed on 30%, T2 on 35% and T3 on 40% protein diet, respectively. A ...
Sumaira Zareen1, Syeda Sadaf Zahra2, Ayeza Mehmood3, Muhammad Asadullah4* and Aish Muhammad5

 

...ize an in-vitro culture protocol for propagation of an endangered medicinal plant Neurada procumbens L. from Cholistan desert in Pakistan. Nodal segments from healthy grown plants were used as explants and cultured on standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of benzyl amino purine (BAP) or kinetin for shoot induction and Indole acetic acid (IAA) for primary shoot and Indole Butyric acid (IBA) f...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...5.40 t ha-1) protein contents (12.52%), nitrogen (28.22kg kg-1), phosphorus (34.85 kg kg-1) and potassium (47.40 kg kg-1) use efficiency were obtained with the treatment F2 (100% recommended dose of NPK).While in seed inoculants, maximum values of yield and yield contributing parameters were obtained in I1 (Inoculation with Azospirillum). However despite the better performance of F2<...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
... IL-18Rα mRNA and proteins are expressed in the IMG, which provides molecular evidence for the study of immune and neuro-modulation in the female reproductive system.
...

Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Khalid Naseem, Muhammad Amjad, Amer Mumtaz and Saeeda Raza*

... grains, moisture, ash, protein (N x 5.7), wet and dry gluten, falling number, and minerals (copper, manganese, iron, zinc). It was observed that wheat samples varied considerably within each region and also between regions. Attock region samples had highest test weight (80.50 kg hl -1), protein (11.80 %) and lowest nonedible foreign matter (0.45%) and broken/shrunken grains (0.88 %). Highest wet and dry gluten (27.44 % and ...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...t cotton production and protection in the country. Bt cotton can play a significant role to enhance agricultural productivity as the productivity of cotton in Pakistan 0.5 t ha-1, as compared productivity of Bt cotton in China 9 t ha_1, which implies a huge cotton productivity gap. This gap can be narrowed down by the adoption of Bt cotton in Pakistan which will have major impact on food security efforts in the country. The findings of literature review reveal...

 Nasreen Sultana* and A.Ghaffar**

...omae , the cause of seed rot, seedling and root infection on bottle gourd was studied in vitro and in vivo. Carbendazim and Topsin-M completely inhibited the growth of L. theobromae in vitro at 50 ppm whereas Aliette, Benlate, Mancozeb, Ridomil and Vitavax showed complete inhibition of colony growth at 100 ppm. Invariably all fungicides at three different concentration viz., 1, 2, 3 g (a.i.) kg-1 seeds reduced the recovery of the seed borne fungi. The most eff...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

... percentage of fats and protein content in VW+VC when compared with those grown with chemical fertilizers by 23.86% and 19.86%, respectively. The combination treatment [VW+VC] also have a significant influence on the biochemical characteristics of the soil with marked improvement in soil micronutrients. The combination treatment [VW+VC] was found better suggesting qualitative improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil, which is substantiat...

 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

 Oguz Bilgin, Kayihan Z. Korkut, Alpay Balkan, and Ismet Baser*

...valuate magnitude of heterotic effects in F1 hybrids of seven durum wheat cultivars, and to investigate the performance and relationship of F1 hybrids and parents for the spike characters and to select suitable parents and population for designing an effective wheat breeding programme. Highly significant genetic variability was present in parents and their genetic combinations for the characters. The degree and direction of heterosis varied for different chara...

 Shazia Erum, Rashid Anwar and Shahid Masood*

... analysis of total seed proteins of Kasuri methi (GI of Kasur, Pakistan) was evaluated with other Trigonella genotypes by SDS-PAGE. Results showed that at protein level Kasuri methi acquired a unique status as a G.I of Kasur. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) of 28 genotypes including both methi and methray from various agro ecological zones of Pakistan were interlinked to some extent however Kasuri methi make their identity by stand...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...found naturally in many protected rangelands areas. However, its population is declining due to over-exploitation and un-controlled grazing. Traditionally these species are used for the treatment of fever and pain. Annual or German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), and perennial chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) are the most important species all over the world due to multipurpose uses. Field experiments were conducted at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta to ev...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

...the basis of total seed protein and phenotypic characters, except Siam Queen and Lime basil stand alone, respectively. Euclidian distance for morphological traits ranged from 3.60 to 7.26. Conversely on the basis of total seed proteins genetic distances ranged from 0.11 to 1.00. Due to greater genetic diversity in Ocimum germplasm and its suitability for commercial cultivation even in the area under small holdings, the inves...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...rice cultivators should protect their body parts with gloves or boots as prevention is the most appropriate way to control any disease. 

...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

... (N) and non-structural protein 3b genes. Out of the samples collected, 40.17% were positive for CCoV; 57.45% of CCoV-infected animals showed enteritis and most of these (76%) were younger than 3 months and unvaccinated. Distance genealogy using CCoV sequences from GenBank for M gene showed that eight strains were CCoV-II twenty-six were CCoV-I. These findings show some genetic features of CCoV in Brazil and may require future studies to elucidate full genome ...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
...;0.36 g). The 40% crude protein diet was prepared by adding feed ingredients along with 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, 0.00 g kg-1 of α-amylase as T1, T2, T3 and T4 (control). At the end of feeding trial, 100% survival rate was recorded. Growth rate was significantly increased in fish fed with enzyme supplemented diets in comparison with control group. The maximum increase in growth rate was recorded in treatment # 2. Highest prot<...
Saba Rafique1,2,*, Khalid Naeem1, Naila Siddique1, Muhammad Athar Abbas1, Aamer Ali Shah2, Akbar Ali1, Abdul Rahim1 and Farooq Rashid1
...o 974 base pairs. The S protein sequence was submitted to the GenBank with accession number KU145467. Phylogenetic grouping and maximum nucleotide sequence identity values were used to identify the isolate that looked to be derived from recombination. It showed maximum nucleotide homology 99.5% with ck/CH/LHB/121010 (KP036503), India/IBV572 (KF809797) and Japan/JP/Wakayama-2/2004 (AB363951.2) and 99.3% with 4/91 vaccine (KF377577), Iran/491/08 (HQ842715) and 9...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

...T. castaneum enzyme protein. Computational studies inidicate that A. mellifera enzyme had a little binding affinity for saponin as compared to T. castaneum AChE. The amino acid residues of T. castaneum AChE identified at positions 259(SER), 176(SER), 173(GLY), and 502 (HIS) are involved in binding with saponin molecule to form four hydrogen bonds. Whereas in A. mellifera hydrogen bonds are formed at two positions by SER 171 and ...
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...y will be vital for the protection and restoration of this endangered species.
...
Qin Liu1,2, Feiwei Liu1, Xiuyue Zhang1, Nan Yang1 and Jianghong Ran1,*
...ndemic species which is protected in first-grade state in China. Here, 22 polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers were isolated from T. szechenyii using a next-generation sequencing technology. The allele number of these loci ranged from two to six in genotyped 35 individuals. Polymorphism information content ranged from 0.2735 to 0.7717 with an average of 0.5149. Observed and expected heterozygosities at each locus ranged from 0 to 0.879 and...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...ly crop that breaks this rotation. Farmers are aware of the beneficial effects of this crop rotation and believed that this riceberseem rotation control weeds in the next wheat crop along with yield -1 -1 improvement of both rice (upto 5.4 md acre ) and wheat (4.4 md acre ). However there is need to assess the economic impact and evaluation of berseem in rice-wheat cropping system and eval...

Akhlaq Ahmad, M. Anwar Arain*, Rahila Nazli**, Syed Anser Rizvi***,
Mubarik Ahmed* and Farzana Ibrahim****

Corresponding author: dr.akhlaqahmad@yahoo.com

COST EFFECTIVENESS OF UNDER-SHEET AND WHOLE GODOWN FUMIGATION OF BAGGED WHEAT
...and feasible method for protection of stored cereals, and need to be implemented at the provincial and national levels.

 

...

 A. N. Naqvi and K. Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF LIVESTOCK DISEASES IN NOMAL AND NALTAR VALLEYS GILGIT, PAKISTAN
...lue tongue, cow pox, enterotoxaemia, tetanus, paralysis and arthritis. In precise, endoparasites were found in 25.3% animals followed by respiratory diseases (24.74%). Most of the cattle (2053) and sheep (926) were found affected with endoparasites, whereas most of the goats (3960) were suffering from respiratory disorders. The seasonal data indicated that the incidence of diseases prevailed was high (33.94%) in winter while it was as low as 14.18% in summer.&...

 Gulzar S. Sanghera and Wassem Hussain*

HETEROSIS IN RELATION TO COMBINING ABILITY PER SE PERFORMANCE IN TEMPERATE RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
...ted to find out best heterotic combinations in terms of yield and yield components of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes, crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interactions for all the traits studied. The specific combining ability (SCA) effects along with per se performance revealed that some of the crosses have shown desirable SCA effects, having superior per se performance for most of the traits...

 Saima Rani and Irum Raza*

COMPARISON OF TREND ANALYSIS AND DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING METHODS FOR PRICE ESTIMATION OF MAJOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...pensive livestock-based protein-rich food will be badly affected.

...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...oundnut contains 25-32% protein and 42-52% oil, therefore, it has the potential to become a significant contributor to edible oil production in Pakistan. It is harvested in October-November in Pakistan, when the weather is cold, and it is not possible to dry it down to a safe moisture level by sun drying. Therefore, the chance for developing aflatoxins in it is high. To solve this problem of the groundnut growers, a low cost mobile flat-bed dryer designed and ...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...ce for the use of plant protection measures. Significant differences were observed between public and private extension field staff on various statements regarding competency level and agronomic practices.

...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...ll improvement in plant protection especially in the area of insect pests identification was ranked st 1 with mean value 3.22 closely followed by insect pests control by local nd rd recipes and their mass killing which were ranked 2 and 3 with mean values 3.03 and 2.84, respectively. Likewise, chemical and manual weed st nd control measures were ranked 1 and 2 with mean values 2.99 and 2.97, respectively. Correspondingly, farmers' skills in furrow irrigation w...

 Sara Khalid*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz*, Khalid Saifullah Khan* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH, FRUIT AND YIELD QUALITY OF STRAWBERRY
...re utilized globally to protect our environment and prevent health issues resulting from pesticides and hazardous chemicals. In this regard, studies were conducted using six different organic amendments on strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler which included T = planting 1 media -1 (soil + silt + farm yard manure); T = planting media + 400 mgl humic 2 -1 acid; T = planting media + 200 g kg leaf manure; T = planting media + 200 3 4 -1 -1 g kg vermic...

 Naheed Zahra*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar*, Sonila Hassan** and Irfan Mehmood**

INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT ARRANGEMENT AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON AGRICULTURAL INCOME IN THE SELECTED VILLAGES OF RAWALPINDI DISTRICT
...ce the credit policy to protect the interest of small and medium farmers by providing them loans on easy terms and to facilitate them against any natural hazards and disaster.

...

 Nasia Batool*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar**, Imdad Hussain Mirza** and Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan**

MIXING LESS PALATABLE GRASSES WITH UREA, MOLASSES AND EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS AND ITS EFFECT ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
... was carried out. Crude protein content of mixtures improved as compared with sole grasses. Digestibility of HC supplemented with urea, molasses and EM in various combinations was also studied in growing goats. The highest digestibility of DM in goats was recorded in HC + 4% urea + 4% molasses treatment (85.51%) followed by HC + 4% urea (78.57%) and HC + 4% urea + 4% molasses + 1:100 EM (78.00%).

...

 Khalid Naseem*, Naseem Bibi**, Saeeda Raza*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui*, Amina Bibi*** and Muhammad Ahsan Khan****

DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF HIGH ENERGY BISCUITS FOR COMBATING MALNOURISHMENT AMONG CHILDREN IN PAKISTAN
... the highest values for protein, zinc and iron. Results of all treatments were in acceptable range regarding sensory evaluation. These results indicate that biscuits can be successfully supplemented with chickpea and oat. According to sensory evaluation, biscuits containing 20% chickpea and 15% oat were found to be the best among all treatments and could be a potential composition for preparing high energy biscuits for malnourished areas of Pakistan.

...

Ayesha Tahir* and Sonila Hassan**

ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF SMALL SCALE BUTTON MUSHROOM PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
... widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross ...

 Adnan Umair*, Safdar Ali**, Muhammad Sarwar***, Kashif Bashir**, Muhammad Javed Tareen**** and Muhammad Asghar Malik*****

ASSESSMENT OF SOME PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) : A GREEN HOUSE STUDY
...iming also improved the protein concentration at the early stage of seedlings. Phosphorous application through priming significantly improved germination up to 95%, seedling -1 vigour index up to 23.05 and protein content up to 2.17 (g FW).

...

 Javed Khan*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Tariq Mahmood*,
Awais Rasool*, Naheed Akhtar and Saleem Abid**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
...Plant and Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results indicate that incubation period was 3.8±0.08 days with 87.0% hatchability. The developmental duration of first, second and third instar larvae were 3.2 ± 0.13, 4.0±0.21 and 4.8±0.25 days, respectively. The total larval developmental duration was 12.0 ±0.67 days with 85.05% survival rate of larvae. The larval predatory p...

 Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Maqsood Ahmad*, Gulshan Riaz* and Sartaj Khan*

PERFORMANCE OF SUMMER FORAGE LEGUMES AND THEIR RESIDUAL EFFECT ON SUBSEQUENT OAT CROP IN SUBTROPICAL SUBHUMID POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...n had the highest crude protein content (23.2 %) followed by cowpea (22.6 %), lablab bean (21.6 %), rice bean (20.1 %) and sesbania (19.1 %). Millet had the lowest crude protein content of 6.2%. Dry matter yield of oats owing to the previous crops was least after millet (7.5 -1 -1 tha ) and ranged from 8.5 to 8.9 tha after sesbania, cluster bean and cowpeas. Differences in crude protein co...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
...lage number (64), crude protein (CP) content (8.64%), in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility (47.36%) On the other hand, B. mulato had highest tillage number (117) and DM yield (0.79 kg -2 DMm ). Legume herb species affected significantly (P<0.05) plant height, yield, in vitro digestibility. At 8 weeks of age Dolichos lablab showed the -2 highest plant height (189 cm), DM yield (0.45 kg DM m ) and in vitro OM digestibility (71.12%). The nutrient content...

 Asghar Ali*, Muhammad Tahir**, Shahid Riaz Malik* and Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*

EVALUATION OF PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
...herbicide treatments Isoproturon as pre-emergence @ 2 kg -1 ha produced statistically at par grain yield to that of manual weeding -1 followed by Isoproturon after one month of planting @ 2 kg ha . Both the treatments showed 193.9% and 109.2% yield increase, respectively, over -1 the check. It indicates that Isoproturon @ 2 kg ha can be used pre or postemergence in lentil fields to control...

 Nazir Ahmad*, Sultan Ayaz*, Sumaira Shams**, Karimullah*** and Riaz Ahmad****

PREVALENCE AND MORPHOLOGY OF HELMINTH PARASITES OF FISH FROM RIVER SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...potaenia, Cucullanidae, Proteocephalus, Rhabdochona charsaddiensis, Rhabdochona schizothoracis and Neoechynorhynchus devdevi. They were identified by morphological characteristics through microscopic techniques. Overall prevalence of the fish parasites was 58% (145/250). Among these Schizothorax plageostomus fish 93.04% (107/115), Schizothorax labiatus 61.11% (33/54), Salmo trutta fario 17.85% (05/28), Gara gotyla 0% (0/09), Rita rita 0% (0/25) and Oncorhynchu...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...ation in fulfilling the protein demand. Hence there is need to increase production through improving management practices and dissemination of improved technologies.

...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Mehwish Ishaque**, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Saleem-ud-din* and Syeda Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SEED PROTEINS, OIL CONTENT AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
...lues for seed 1 1 total proteins, oil content and fatty acids composition. Among parental lines, CMS-64, CMS-53, CMS-H55-2-2-1 and CMS-53 were the best general combiners for seed total proteins, oil content, oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. Among males, C-206-R, SF-187R, RHA-295 and RHA-854 were the potential parents exhibiting desirable GCA for seed total proteins, oil content, olei...

 Muhammad Ali*, Ghulam Mustafa Sajid**, M. Faisal Anwar Malik*** and Kalimullah****

ESTABLISHMENT OF IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPES
...on. In conclusion, this protocol proved to be useful in optimizing the dose and duration of the treatment of grape explants with the surface disinfectant.

...

 Aniqa Iram*, Javed Khan**, Nadeem Aslam**, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Habib Iqbal Javed**, Muhammad Irfan*, Awais Rasool*, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi** and Sumera Aslam* 

EFFICACY OF PLANT DERIVED OILS AND EXTRACTS AGAINST WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI (GENNADIUS) ON SESAME CROP
...ial to be used in plant protection strategies but still more research has to be incorporated in the pest management programmes.

...

 ZafarUllah*, Muhammad Azim Malik*, Muhammad Ansar*, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz* and Muhammad Rasheed*

WINTER FORAGE QUALITY OF OATS (AVENA SATIVA), BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE) AND VETCH (VICIA SATIVA) IN PURE STAND AND CEREAL LEGUME MIXTURE
... higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg , -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg -1 and 341 g kg , respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg , respectively.

...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...imate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil 25%, DM range was 65-70%, for grass 50% + Ipil ipil 50%, it was 60-65% and fo...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
... dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) consumption among all the treatments. The digestibility percentage of dry matter intake (DMI) varied among the treatments ranging from 68.25% to 41.66%. Mixtures of low palatable grass and Ipil ipil were in general more digestible with more than 65% dry matter digestibility. The lowest digestibility of dry matter (41.66%) was observed in HC 100%. A similar trend was noted for CP digestibility. However, ...

 Muhammad Ayub*, Rizwan Maqbool*, Muhammad Tahir*, Zoaib Aslam*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem* and Muhammad Ibrahim**

IMPROVED GROWTH, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) THROUGH SOIL APPLIED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...rvest index by 162% and protein content by 6%. However, fertilizer NP -1 (90:45 kg ha ) decreased oil content by 26%. Therefore, addition of NP fertilizer had the potential to increase fennel seed yield, but reduce oil content, under Faisalabad conditions.

...

 Mazher Abbas*, Irfan Mehmood*, Arshed Bashir*, Muhammad Ather Mehmood* and Sonila Hassan* 

WOMEN COTTON PICKERS PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HEALTH HAZARDS DUE TO PESTICIDE USE IN IRRIGATED PUNJAB
...and only 10% women wear protective clothes during cotton picking. Majority of the respondents (76%) wash their clothes after cotton picking whereas almost all the respondents wash their hand after cotton picking. The women cotton pickers faced health problem, tiredness (54.5%), mental disturbance (9.90%) and fatigue (8.00%). More than 58% women reported their involvement in household decision making regarding food and groceries while 30.6% women involved in de...

 Muhammad Akhter*, Muhammad Azhar Ali**, Zulqarnain Haider* and Shahzad Muzammil***

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHANGES IN GRAINS OF SOME ADVANCE LINES/ VARIETIES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AFTER PARBOILING
...atter, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, vitamin B6; milling quality parameters such as total milling recovery, head rice recovery, ratio of broken grains and cooking quality parameters such as curling, bursting and cooked grain length. The study showed significant variation in efficacy of parboiling to different varieties/lines. The results clearly showed average increase in mineral contents in terms of ash% increase, dry matter, longer cooked grain leng...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
...hosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri dishes. The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline and centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses. Results showed differences in the activities of enzymes and quantities of total protein, ...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

IMPROVING FODDER QUALITY OF PANICUM GRASS THROUGH INTERCROPPING OF LEGUMES AND THEIR INOCULATION
...eatments.

...

 Said Salman*, Shah Jehan Khan* and Javed Khan**

HETEROSIS AND HETROBELTIOSIS PERFORMANCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN BREAD WHEAT CROSSES UNDER DROUGHT STRESS CONDITIONS
...igned to observe the heterotic and heterobeltiotic effects in F s of four different crosses having four drought 1 tolerant cultivars and four susceptible lines as parents. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during 2012-13. The performance of crosses and their parents were evaluated with three replications. These crosses were -1 evaluated for plant height, number of tillers plant , days to 50...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...ated migration, genetic protection and breeding for disease resistance and relating results to forest policy, planning as well as decision making, the suspicions innate to climate change effects can be minimized.

...

 Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Adnan Shakeel**, Muhammad Abdullah***, Muhammad Islam**, Sadiq Muhammad*, Ghulam Murtaza* and Mushtaq Ahmad**

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND WATER STRESS ON PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
...ative analysis of total protein and phenolic compounds, respectively. Proteins were greatly affected by fertilizer treatment and water stress, but phenolic compounds remained unchanged upon fertilizer treatment. However, they were greatly affected by irrigation and water -1 stress. Crop treated with 100 kg ha P O under water stress maintained high 2 5 protein content as compared to unferti...

 Saima Kanwal*, Saeeda Raza*, Khalid Naseem*, Muhammad Amjad*, Naseem Bibi* and Musarrat Gillani*

DEVELOPMENT, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BISCUITS SUPPLEMENTED WITH PUMPKIN SEEDS TO COMBAT CHILDHOOD MALNUTRITION IN PAKISTAN
...ur (20%) 5 with maximum protein (12.30%), fat (28.29%), ash (4.13%), iron (2.28%) and zinc (3.11%). Sensory results also revealed increasing trend in all sensory parameters. Results showed acceptability at all levels but treatment T with 15 % pumpkin 4 seed flour scored highest (8.0) for maximum overall acceptability. It was concluded that pumpkin seed flour can be supplemented successfully to partially replace wheat flour to prepare highly nutritious biscuits...

 Doulat Baig*, Fida Mohammad Abbasi*, Habib Ahmed*, Maqsood Qamar** and Muhammad Ayub Khan**

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
...sunflower productivity. Protein is the basic requirement of the metabolic processes for the vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available in soil for the plant use. A two year study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. The experiment was aimed to –1 –1 evalua...

  Sohaib Arshad*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar** and Maqbool Shahbaz**

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC RHODES GRASS ACCESSIONS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
... energy, carbohydrates, proteins and other important minerals. As global warming is increasing, overall water scarcity is resulting in deterioration of natural resources, and it is need of the hour to find fodder crop resources which are more accustomed to change climatic conditions. Hence, different exotic and indigenous varieties of Rhodes grass were tested for quality and yield parameters. Three varieties were imported from Australia and Zimbabwe namely Sab...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
... stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Yellow Stripe Virus (LYSV). Serological testing DAS-ELISA technique was used to test the samples collected from the farmer fields. Based on the DAS-ELISA poty ...

 Tasawar Sultana*, Farah Deeba* and S.M. Saqlan Naqvi*

HIGH-THROUGHPUT AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA IN COMPARISON TO TWO EXPRESSION VECTORS
...mediated transformation protocols. In current study, M. truncatula transformed plants expressing OsRGLP1 were obtained through GATEWAY technology using pGOsRGLP1 (pH7WG2.0::OsRGLP1). The transformation efficiency of this vector was compared with expression vector from pCAMBIA series over-expressing same gene (pCOsRGLP1). A lower number of explants generated hygromycin resistant plantlet for instance, 18.3 with pGOsRGLP1 vector as compared to 35.5% with pCOsRGL...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Nawal Zafar* 

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF RABI CEREALS SOWN ALONE AND IN BLENDED POPULATION AT VARIABLE SEED RATIOS
...0% seed ratio and crude protein percentage was highest when oat was blended together with barley at 75% + 25% seed ratios.

...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Muhammad Sharif**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla*** and Muhammad Azeem Khan*

COMPETITIVENESS OF TOMATO PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ity. Results of Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC) indicated that combine effects of policies on output and tradable input market did not pass any protection to tomato farmers in the study area. Net effect of policy or market failure is reducing the profitability of tomato producers at farm level which indicates lack of motivation from policies ...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA
...mic traits studied. Root rot attack was observed during the growth period. Pea variety 'Meteor' was found susceptible against this disease followed by 'Sarsabz 9800-1' as moderately susceptible and 9375 as resistant. The other varieties/lines Pea-09, Climax, Local and PF-400 were found tolerant against this disease. Green pod yield per hectare data revealed that pea variety 'Climax' produced the highest yield (11.6 t ha-1) followed by advance lines PF-400 (11....

 Muhammad Tahir* and Neelam Yasin*

EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF MAIZE
...d, harvest index, grain protein and grain oil contents. However, micronutrients application at stem elongation stage showed non-significant effect on plant papulation and number of cobs plant . Therefore, for attaining maximum yield of maize, it is suggested that 250 ml ha at stem elongation stage of maize should be used.

...

 

Shakir Ullah*, Aish Muhammad*, Iqbal Hussian*, Hafeez-Ur-Rahman**, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder***, Muhammad Din**** and Nizamud Din

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN APRICOT CULTIVARS GROWN IN GILGIT BALTISTAN PAKISTAN
...ion
for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants) and the International Board for
Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) characteristics. Three cultivars
(Charmagzi, Shai Pawand and Narie) had fruit weight from 39-41 g. Most of
the cultivars had small fruit with sweet and large size kernel. Habi and
Astore 1 had latest harvest in late June. Nili Pawand, Shai Pawand and
Skardu Local were determin...

 Tassadduq Rasool*, Ali Zohaib*, Ehsanullah*, Riaz Ahmad*, Tasawer Abbas*, Tahira Tabassum*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem*, Mahmood-ul-Hassan*

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY IN PEARL MILLET-SESBANIA INTERCROPPING SYSTEM UNDER VARIOUS GEOMETRICAL PATTERNS
...to sole-cropping. Crude protein (84%) was improved most by cross planting over sole pearl millet, while, crude fiber (36%) and ash contents (20%) were improved by blended seed sowing, as compared to sole cropping of sesbania. Potential benefits of forage pearl millet can be acquired by intercropping with sesbania and following the planting geometry of sesbania intercropped in 45 cm apart two-row strips of pearl millet.

...
Yanling Xia1,2, Heping Li2, Yuntao Liang2, Jichen Zhao2, Binshan Lu2 and Di Liu1,*
...ransport of the recycle proteins from the endosome to Golgi, and Vps26A protein is an important component of the retromer complex. In the present study cDNA sequence of the full coding region of the Vps26A gene was successfully cloned from antler tip of the Sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum). The Vps26A cDNA contains an open reading frame of 984bp encoding a polypeptide with 327 amino acids. The deduced molec...
Rabia Faiz and Dilara A. Bukhari*
...sion bodies Cry and Cyt proteins. The present study focuses on determining the insecticidal activity of cyt positive B.t. strains against 3rd instar larvae of mosquito. Larval mortality was noted after 24 h and GCU B.t. 4 (400± 1.15) was found to be the most toxic against 3rd instar larvae of mosquitoes. Spores LC50 values of other isolates were 451± 0.90 (GCU B.t. 1), 511± 0.85 ...

Samina Ashraf1*, Ghulam Haider2 and Maimoona Ashraf

...iption, the researchers wrote a composite description that to present the essence of the phenomena. 

...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Arshad1, Rashid Mahmood2,* and Ziyad Abdul Qadir2
... The apiary had 24 Langstroth standard colonies of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor. Ectoparasitic mite, V. destructor is considered the most important parasite of A. mellifera L. that badly affects the development and performance of bees. Main objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of five synthetic acaricides (Bayvarol®, Apivar®, Apistan®<...
Xiaopeng Tang1,3, Rong Xiang1, Sijia Chen1,3, Shufen Yang1,3, Hu Liu1,3, Rejun Fang1,3,* and Aike Li2,
...ottonseed meal on crude protein (CP), water-soluble protein (WSP), amino acid (AA) and peptide fractions, and the AA digestibility and metabolic energy of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) and enzymatic hydrolyzed cotton seed meal (EHCSM) in white leghorn roosters. Firstly, CSM were fermented with Aspergillus niger, or hydrolyzed with alcalase and flavourzyme. Secondly, a total of 32 white leghorn roosters with similar...
Zhiping Hu, Hussain Ahmad, Jingfei Zhang, Lili Zhang and Tian Wang*
...content (21d) and total protein content (42d) were lower in T2 group than that of CON group. Serum total antioxidant capacity was higher and malondialdehyde content was lower in T1 group than that of CON group at 21d. Serum glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity was significantly increased in T1 group compared to CON group at 42d. Malondialdehyde content of liver in T1 group was lower than that of CON group. These results suggested that dietary supplementation...
Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Mushtaq A. Saleem2,Javed Iqbal Wattoo2, Mohd Mokhtar Arshad1 and Maizan Mohamed1
...cid residues of S1 glycoprotein) were amplified by overlap PCR, cloned into prokaryotic expression vector resulting pET-Sf200 and confirmed the construct by sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was identified by restriction enzyme and sequencing analysis. The in vitro expression of the truncated protein was analyzed in E. coli with a molecular weight of 38kDa determined through SDS-PAGE and confirmed ...
Saba Parveen Samo1, Moolchand Malhi1,*, Javed Gadahi2, Yan Lei3, Allah Bux Kaciwal1 and Saeed Ahmed Soomro1
... dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) increased (P < 0.05) by 13.71, 12.02 and 4.78% at week 3 and by 11.11, 11.8 and 3.46 % at week 6 in B compared to A. Among carcass characteristics the carcass dressing % (52.99 ± 0.77 vs 49.41 ± 0.6 ) and leg weight (kg) (1.28 ± 0.06 vs 1.05 ± 0.04) increased (P < 0.05) in B compared to A. The physico-chemical properties of meat were not significantly different between ...
Aqsa Gulzar1, Tariq Mahmud1,*, Rubina Munir2 and Asma Anjum3
...t by MTT - colorimetric protocol on HeLa cells (cervical disease) and Luminol-improved chemiluminescence assay, respectively. The novel Schiff bases 4a and 4b have been synthesized by the reaction of 2-[(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]-N-[4-(hydrazinecarbonyl)phenyl]acetamide with 3-nitro and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Characterization of the synthesized compounds was done by using various spectroscopic techniques namely FTIR, prot
Wei Dang1, Ning Xu1, Wen Zhang1, Jing Gao2, Handong Fan1 and Hongliang Lu 1,*
...adaptations. Heat shock proteins and other molecular chaperones play specific physiological roles in such thermal adaptation. Here, we analyzed heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in six lizard species to investigate the variation in Hsp70 response contributing to thermal adaptation. At first, we collected three lizard species of the genus Takydromus from different geographical locations. We found that either the...
Muhammad Umair Sattar1, Aysha Sameen1,*, Nuzhat Huma1 and Muhammad Shahid2
...pearance (L* value) and proteolysis by RP-HPLC. Use of guar gum as fat mimetic and cheese milk homogenization significantly (p<0.01) affected the composition, functionality, texture and appearance of LFMCs. LFMCs functionality and texture also improved during ripening but appearance was negatively affected. Reverse phase HPLC results indicated that level of intact casein in LFMCs decreased with increase in ripening period. Use of guar gum at 0.15% le...
Sabah Mansoor1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Amna Jawad1, Bushra Munir2, Sehrish Firyal1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Wasim1
...enaturing the insoluble protein using 8M urea followed by refolding through gradual dialysis. The refolded enzyme exhibited optimum activity at 55 °C between pH 8-9. The effect of metal ions on the activity of AMYSBS showed that Co2+ remarkably enhanced the enzyme activity and 500µM was recorded as optimal Co2+ concentration for the maximal activity of AMYSBS. Presence of ionic (SDS) and nonionic (Tween-20,...
Kaori Sasaoka1, Takahiro Kataoka1, Norie Kanzaki1, Yusuke Kobashi1, Akihiro Sakoda2, Yuu Ishimori2 and Kiyonori Yamaoka1,*
... however, it induces nephrotoxicity caused by oxidative stress. Here, we investigated whether radon inhalation has different effects against CDDP-induced renal injury in two mouse strains differing in radiosensitivity, and determined the appropriate dose of CDDP combined with radon inhalation for highly radiosensitive mice. CDDP was administered at 20 mg/kg weight to C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice after radon inhalation at 1000 Bq/m3 and 2000 Bq/m3
Humaira Jabeen and Nazia Jamil*
... when grown in nutrient broth was very low. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the extracted bio-plastic indicated the presence of the C=O functional group specific for the presence of polyhydroxyalkanoates, the absorbance peaks were specifically at 1600 cm-1. Ribo-typing of all the six strains were carried out, strains identified as Exiguobacterium indicum, Bacillus acidiceler, Acinetobacter seohaensis, Serratia p

Ikramullah Khan1,2*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Sohail Akhtar2, Ijaz Ali3 and Ghufran Ullah4 

...cortisol and Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70). Thermal stress increased all physiological parameterssignificantly (P < 0.001). Holstein Frisian manifested maximumincrease in RT, RR and PR (3.33, 209.50 and 59.41%) than crossbred (0.59, 40.22 and 22.0%), Sahiwal (0.78, 42.54 and 34.31%) and Achai (0.78, 39.22 and 33.85%) respectively (P < 0.001).Thermal stress increased biochemical changes significantly (P < 0.001). The increase in serum glucose, cortiso...
Ambreen Asghar, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*
...the variations in serum protein level induced by fat rich diet. For this purpose, two groups of Wister rats were fed with diets carrying difference in percentage of fats. Protein profiling of treated groups indicated a marked increase in serum protein (related to iron metabolism and immune response) level compared to low fat-fed rats. Additionally, a decreased level of serum p
Shagufta Andleeb*1, Shabana Shaukat1, Chaman Ara2
...of cadmium chloride and protective role of garlic (Allium sativum), to minimize the intensity of these toxicities. For this purpose, fertilized eggs of Gallus domesticus were randomly divided into four groups of forty eggs each. Control group was intact and untreated. Eggs of one group were injected with a sub-lethal dose of cadmium chloride (1.5 µg/egg) in albumin on 7th day of incubation. In another group, eggs were treated wit...
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
...iosis is a common blood protozoan disease of sheep in tropical and subtropical areas. The current study was designed to inspect the prevalence and its correlation with various risk factors and host biomarkers concerned with the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep. Total 600 blood samples were taken each 200 from districts Bannu, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and screened through blood microscopy. The current study revealed a...
Syeda Madiha, Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Tahira Perveen and Saida Haider*

 

...ent study evaluated the protective role of curcumin against rotenone-induced motor deficits, biochemical and neurochemical alterations. Rotenone was injected subcutaneously at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg for 8 days. Supplementation of curcumin (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was started before 15 days of rotenone injection. The effects of curcumin pre-treatment were eva...

Hamza Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Ijaz Ahmad*2, Ihsanullah Khan3, Shujaat Hussain1, Bashir Ahmad Khan4 and Muhammad Suhaib5  

...d upon oil content (%), protein content (%) and Fatty acid profile. Results showed that SMH-1001 and SMH-1215 hybrids performed best for yield and quality parameters, whereas, SMH-1006 and SMH-0909 were considered best for early maturing traits.  

...
Ligia Neves Scuarcialupi, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra, Julia Rosas Hochheim, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Fabio Gregori*
... better understanding of rotavirus distribution in Brazil.
...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
...en suggested to provide protective immunity in the African wild dog; however, their use has been hampered by the fear of vaccine-induced disease. Kolmården Wildlife Park in Sweden has used a live attenuated vaccine without any apparent cases of vaccine-induced disease, but no studies to evaluate immune response after vaccination have been performed. The objective of this study was to gain more knowledge about immune response following vaccination of...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
...rent approaches for the protection of their habitats, and to prevent the illegal hunting and poaching, mitigating agricultural and industrial pollution, preventing water reservoirs from heavy metal poisoning are important considerations. Ceasing anthropogenic activities along with the mass awareness programs on electronic and print media could be effective conservation strategies during the period of their stay in Pakistan.
...

Azhar Mehmood1,2,*, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem2, Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3, Tasawer Abbas4, Ali Zohaib2, Hafiz Tassawar Abbas

...ower plant. The oil and protein contents of sunflower were significantly affected by varying levels of both nitrogen and boron and maximum oil contents were observed when boron was applied @ 2 kg ha-1 with 0 kg ha-1 of nitrogen whereas maximum protein contents were recorded when 2 kg ha-1 boron was applied in combination with 150 kg ha-1 of nitrogen of both hybrids (H1=Hysun-33 and H2=DK-4040). The combined application of ni...
Nanjing Zeng1, Guanhua Liu1, Sibiao Wen1 and Feiyun Tu2,*
...in grade I national key protected animals, and 56 species are designated in grade II national key protected animals. Four species (Bambusicola thoracicus, Turdus mupinensis, Garrulax poecilorhynchus and Parus venustulus) are endemic to China. Breeding birds account for 201 species (52.8%) of the nature reserve bird species; 53 belong to Palearctic, 78 to Oriental Realms and the rest 70 cosmopolita...
Huma Ayub1,Iftikhar Ahmad2, Syed Lal Shah3,*, Muhammad Zafarullah Bhatti4, Nuzhat Shafi5 and Mazhar Qayyum1
...a viz.; copepoda, rotifera and cladocera. The diversity of the zooplankton species in the lake was determined by richness and evenness indices, which were found as follows; Margalef Index 1.30 to 3.87, Shannon’s Index 2.54 to 3.68, Simpson Index 0.92 to 0.97, Simpson’s Reciprocal Index 12.25 to 37.69 and Pielou’s Evenness Index 0.94 to 1.0. The zooplankton community was found abundant in summer as compared to winter. The copepods were ...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Abdul Wahab1, Navaid Kazi2, Younas Muhammad1,Summaya Kazi3, Salman Kazi4, Azmatullah Khan1, Ikramullah Khan5 and Shakoor Ahmad1
...includes glucose, total protein, albumin, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The current study demonstrated the ascertained value in amniotic fluid for glucose, total protein and albumin at day 18, 25 and 28 was 42.9±0.80, 37.4±0.90, 36.5±0.88mg/dl; 17.9±0.30, 16.1±0.22, 13.9±0.34g/l; 13.9±1.6,11.5...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
...moderately effective in protection of dried catfish, C. gariepinus against D. maculatus infestation.
...
Kashifa Naghma Waheed1,2,*, Zaid Mehmood2 and Sikender Hayat1
...ud by ICP-OES following protocols of AOAC from five randomly selected sugar mills situated in South Punjab, Pakistan. It was observed that the samples contained potential amounts of essential elements, while the toxic elements were present in low quantities. The results were statistically analyzed and compared for their significance and showed significantly higher quantities of Ca, Na, K, Fe, Mg followed by relatively lower quantities of Al, Mn and low quantit...
Leila A. Kaimbayeva1,*, Elena S. Malysheva2, Rashit Kazikhanov3 and Saule R. Kazikhanova4
... revealed the nature of protein substances, altered рН value of the meat and the intensity of glycolysis. All these parameters were indicative of autolysis process in the meat. The levels of water-binding capacity and structural-mechanical properties of red deer meat that occurred during the course of autolysis were further confirmed by the histological changes in the meat. Specifically, it was observed that post-mortem changes were characterized b...
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1,*, Waseem Akram2, Sumi Lee3, Shakir Manzoor1, Syed Rajab Ayub1, Khalil Ur Rehman1, Shinawar Waseem Ali1, Muhammad Bilal Chattha1 and Sumaira Maqsood1
...y being used as a grain protectant in different countries. Geographical variation in susceptibility to spinosad in stored grain insect pests has been reported worldwide; however, there is a lack of information in Pakistan. In the present study, one laboratory reference strain and five field strains each of, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum, were collected from Punjab, and assessed for their susceptibility to ...
Muhammad Akbar Khan
...red to the genus Hexaprotodon and the species Hex. sivalensis. Due to rarity of this taxon, its morphological characters are incompletely known. Hippopotamid material recently excavated in the middle Pleistocene locality of Bhimber (Azad Kashmir, Pakistan) includes an almost complete mandible that provides a better knowledge of the taxon morphology. Hexaprotodon sivalensis is reported for the first time ...
Habib-ur-Rehman1, Masood Ahmed Siddiqui1,*, Abdul Qayyum1, Arifa Bano1 and Naeem Rashid2
...el of expression or the proteolytic machinery of the host. Herein we report expression in Escherichia coli and purification of metal ion independent type II pullulanase from Pyrobaculum calidifontis. Thermophilic origin and metal ion independency of the enzyme reported in this study make it a potential candidate for starch hydrolyzing industry.
...

Mehran Ali, Inamullah*, Sajjad Ahmad and Arsalan Khan 

...nts (mould board plough, rotavator, disk harrow and cultivator) were applied in main plots while nitrogen sources (control, cattle manure, poultry manure, sheep manure, mushroom spent, mungbean residue and urea) in subplots. The results exhibited that, higher plant height (200.4 cm), grains ear-1(351), seed index (228.8 g), grain yield (3522 kg ha-1), and biological yield (10799 kg ha-1) were observed with nitrogen sources incorporated with mould board plough....

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

... sustainability and the protection of agricultural products, including crops for human and livestock. Nanotechnology helps in the manufacturing of innovative agrochemicals and novel delivery mechanisms to enhance crop production and decrease in pesticide use. Nanotechnology also contributes in increasing the crop yield in agriculture. One of the major contribution of nanotechnology in the field of agriculture is the formulation of nano based pesticides and fer...

Qasim Iqbal1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Bashir Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Ihsanullah Khan4  

...d upon oil content (%), protein content (%), and fatty acid profile. The results showed that significantly highest seed yield (2187.3) kg ha-1 was produced by SF 16003 followed by SF16010 and SF 16002 having (2016.2) kg ha-1 and (1888.2) kg ha-1 seed yield respectively. The Cluster analysis also determined SF 16003 as best hybrid which was at a very close distance from the group of SF16010 and SF 16002. 

...
Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam1, Iram Gull1, Zaigham Abbas2,* and Muhammad Amin Athar1
...nant expression of some proteins in E. coli produces inclusion bodies which are misfolded proteins. The objective of this study was soluble expression of IFNα2-Tα1fusion protein in E. coli using pET-SUMO vector and determination of its biological activity. SUMO-IFNα2-Tα1 was successfully expressed in soluble form with IPTG induction to final concentrat...
Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*, Anum Feroz1, Ayesha Gondal1,Sahar Akram2 and Tanzeela Riaz3
...amino acids and soluble proteins while contents of total proteins, lipids, glycogen and trehalose were significantly reduced with reference to their control (untreated group). Among carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, the activities of amylase and invertase were significantly reduced while activity of trehalase were significantly increased after treatment with sub lethal dose of λ-cyhalothrin as compared to control. Th...
Asad Sultan1,*, Shahroom Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Shuaib Khan2 and Hamza Maris3
...5) in OA-2, while crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and metabolizable energy increased significantly (P<0.05) in OA-1.5 and OA-2. In conclusion, addition of OA in drinking water at the rate of 2 ml/L improved weight gain, feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and tibial mineralization of Ca and P in broiler.
...
Baoying Guo*1, Yu Chen1, Chuan Zhang2, Zhenming Lv1, Kaida Xu3, Hongling Ping4 and Huilai Shi4
...228 bp and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 2 long-noncoding regions [both in the control regions (CR)]. The composition and order of genes in S. lycidas were similar to those of most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. lycidas is 35.8% T, 14.8% C, 41.3% A, and 8.1% G, with extremely high A+T content (77.1%). Both control regions contain termination-associated sequences and c...

Nashwa Mohamed Eid1, Al-Hussien Mohamed Dahshan1, El-Shayma El-Nahass2, Basma Shalaby3 and Ahmed Ali1* 

...s (CP) type A induced necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens. The influence of varying concentrations of both EOs was determined in vitro using the agar dilution test. Concentration as low as 0.25% and 0.125% of thyme and clove oils, respectively, were able to completely inhibit the growth of CP. An in vivo study was conducted in commercial broiler chickens, where, 2 groups of 10 day-old broilers were fed a balanced ration with addition of thyme (0.25%) o...
Ye Gong, Nehafta Bibi and Haitao Wang*
...rtificial nest boxes to protect Mandarin duck Aix galericulata in a secondary forest in Northeast China, we found mixed clutches that contained eggs of Mandarin duck and other species over 11 breeding seasons (2004 - 2014). We monitored the frequency of occurrence and the fate of eggs in those nests and recorded fourteen cases of mixed clutches that contained Mandarin duck eggs. Nine cases were classified as successful nest usurpation: in six cases nest...
Yijiang Liu1, Kun Li2, Hui Zhang2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Muhammad Shahzad3, Houqiang Luo1,*, Muhammad Asif Yaseen4 and Xiong Jiang2,5,*
...9 bp) is composed of 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes. The ratio of the bases of the mt genome of R. pruinosus from Wenzhou are A (32.31%), T (31.04%), C (24.77%), G (11.88%), A+T (63.35%), respectively. The multivariable sites in rRNA were 1.98% and 5.53% in 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA, respectively. The multivariable sites in protein coding gene were ranged from 0 to 4.83%, while the multivar...
Muhammad Nazar Aftab1, Ahmed Ali1, Muhammad Asad1, Sadia Fatima2 and Furhan Iqbal2,*
...es (P = 0.0075 ), total proteins (P = 0.042) and creatinine (P = 0.0038)were significantly higher in treated male mice when compared with their untreated control group indicating the hazardous effects of AlCl3 on blood chemistry of adult male albino mice.
...

Wiqar Ahmad1* and Farmanullah Khan

...s (CP); i. cereal-cereal rotation ii. cereal-legume rotation and iii. cereal-cereal+legume intercrop rotation in main plots and b) soil amendments (SA); i. The control (C), ii. Farmers practice (FP; 60:45:0 N: P2O5: K2O), iii. Recommended NPK dose (RD; 120:90:60 N: P2O5: K2O ) and iv. 60:90:60 N: P2O5: K2O integrated with FYM 20 t ha-1 (N1/2PKF) in sub plots. Maize (Zea mays L.) CV Azam (y...
Farrukh Jamil*, Samra Raheel and Haroon Rasheed
...e other heme containing proteins and it may be a phosphate sensor.
...
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
... measures are needed to protect the species. The other aspects of leopard ecology like habitat requirement, food and major threats are yet to be identified and addressed.
...
Jun Chen1, Shuai Shang2, Xiaoyang Wu1, Jiakuo Yan1, Huaming Zhong1, Huanxin Zhang2, Weilai Sha1, Wanchao Zhu1 and Honghai Zhang1,*
...oidetes (21.26-27.82%), Proteobacteria (3.05%-7.14%), represented by Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Succinivibrionacea and Rikenellaceae families. The present work offers an initial phylogenetic baseline for further research on the intestinal ecosystem of these African animals. This work is of great significance for disease monitoring and protection of these animals.
...

Fatma Abdallah1*, Ola Hassnain2, Elsayed Attar3, Haytham Ali3,5, Mohamed Megahed1 and Venugopal Nair

...o acid sequences of Meq proteins possess several amino acid mutations associated with the MDV virulence and a unique distortion in the Proline repeats (Proline-to-Alanine) at position 176 in the Egyptian MDV strains. The Phylogenetic analysis grouped the eight analysed sequences with the previously investigated Meq from Egypt (2011-2013) together with the very virulent European and Chinese MDV isolates. The latter confirmed the geographical structuring of the ...
Danyu Zhang1, Ying Liu1, Qinxin Shi1, Zhiwei Peng1, Yan Hua1 and Zhijun Hou1,2,*
...e popular bacteria were Proteobacteria (33.54%), following by Firmicutes (18.58), Acidobacteria (12.82%), Actinobacteria (9.27%), Bacteridetes (5.44%), Crenarchaeota (4.58%), Fusobacteria (2.66%), Verrucomicrobia (2.29%), Gemmatimonadetes (2.18%) and Planctomycetes (1.39%), and they were more than 92.75%. The gut bacteria of the sable have more diversity than Siberian tiger, panda, horse, and human, and it may originate from the more divertible diet of the sab...
Souheila Slimani1,*, Sonia Hamouda1, Chahrazed Souadi1, Sara Silini2, Cherif Abdennour2 and Leila Delimi3
...abolic, carcinogenic, neurotoxic and fertility disorders. The objective of this work is to study the toxic effect of the dithiocarbamate “thiram 80% purity” on seasonal reproduction of male domestic pigeons Columba livia domestica, subjected to a long photoperiod (19L: 05D). The fungicide was orally administered at 5 and 10 mg/Kg body weight/day for 10 consecutive weeks.Testicular volume and weights were measured weekly, whereas semen qualit...
Musrrat Fatima, Muhammad Saad Khan, Hamid Rashid, Asim Mehmood, Sumaira Kanwal, Muhammad Asif Rasheed and Farrukh Jamil*
...inhibitors against ZIKV protease NS2B-NS3, which has a well-known role in the viral replication. By using three dimensional structure of the NS2B-NS3, an allosteric site has been identified in the protein. Moreover, the identified site is used for structure-based virtual screening. After screening 100,000 compounds, 14 compounds are selected, which fulfilled different already established drug likeliness parameters such as ru...
Tayfun Karataş
...rease in glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein levels as well as protein and lipid reserves in liver and muscle tissue of fish (p<0.05). The fasting period had no significant effect on the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), but, it caused a significant decrease in ...
Zihong Chen1, Ling Xu2, Xiaona Yang2, Yaguan Zhang3* and Yuming Yang4
... relevant in biological protection. A new species of the genus, collected from Taibao mountain, Baoshan City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, was described here as Metarhizium baoshanense. It was proposed and determined based on morphological characters combined with a multigene phylogenetics analysis involving 5.8S–ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, EF–1α, RPB1 and RPB2. In multilocus phylogeny, M. baoshanense was grouped as a sister clad...
Changqing Zhao*, Zhuochi Chen and Yubin Li
...rmented jerky; the true protein content of the fermented jerky was lower than that of the non-fermented jerky; the free amino acids content of the fermented jerky was higher than the non-fermented jerky; the acid protease activity was slightly higher than the neutral protease activity in the fermented jerky; four and fifteen volatile compounds were detected for the non-fermented and fermen...
Jia Chen*, Yuanxi Deng and Hui Xu
...rgen in mutton, soluble protein from mutton was extracted, and separated by SDS-PAGE. With the positive and negative sera of rats, the special allergen was identified with the Western Blot, showing that the 12kDa was the specific allergen. The protein of 12kDa was then analyzed by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS search on the Internet. The results indicate that the p
Bin Wang1, 2, Qianji Ning1,*, Qian Wang2, Wei Peng2, Tong Hao2,*and Jinsheng Sun2,*
...dent analysis of single protein, rather than a protein-protein interaction. In this work, with the systematic point of view, the subcellular location of 830 unidentified proteins were annotated based on the previously reconstructed protein-protein interaction network (PIN) of E. s...
Wael S. El-Tohamy1,*, Russell R. Hopcroft2 and Nagwa E.M. Abdel Aziz3
...mportant group (12.6%). Protozoa contributed 10.6% of the total community. According to the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), the variations in the species data were significantly (P< 0.05) related to salinity, temperature, phosphate concentration and phytoplankton biomass. The main spatial gradients along the estuary were associated with salinity. The high salinity zone in the estuary downstream was dominated by the calanoid paracalanidae and the ha...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1Arshad Javid2, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain3, Nosheen Aslam4, Qasim Ali5, Majid Hussain6Muhammad Masoom ul Hassan Rehan7, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,8Anam Khalid1 and Danish Riaz1
...2% for crude fat, crude protein and supposed gross energy when compared to control diet, respectively. The next higher growth performance and nutrient digestibility values were observed at 20% replacement level based diet. It was concluded that the 10% replacement level of fish meal with MOLM is optimum which release adequate amount of chelated nutrients for maximum growth performance of L. rohita fingerlings.
...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Nosheen Aslam2, Arshad Javid3, Shehzadi Liaquat1,Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1, 4, Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Adnan Khalid1
...d levels of probiotics (Protexin) such as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 gKg-1 level in the canola meal based diet. Triplicate tanks were used for each treatment and 15 fingerlings were stocked in each replicate. Fingerlings were fed at the rate of 5 % of live wet weight. Plant meal based diets in the absence of probiotics played negative effect on fish growth performance. Chromic oxide (1%) was added in the diets as inert marker. It was noted that probiotics ...
Selçuk Kaplan
...ing. Leptin is a 16 kDa protein which is highly expressed in adipose tissue. Leptin is one of the most significant candidate gene marker for MAS studies. Therefore, bubaline leptin gene exon 2, part of the intron 1 and intron 2 region were amplified and sequenced to identify nucleotide variations in Anatolian water buffaloes. Sequence analysis were revealed seven polymorphic site (G1072A, T1081C, T1131G, T1143C, T1145G, T1151G and C1221T) and one monomorphic s...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...> were isolated from enterotoxaemia suspected sheep and goats from the endemic areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan during 2016. The isolates were initially identified through colony characters, Gram staining and biochemical tests. The identified isolates were quantified on blood agar and confirmed through PCR. Toxins were extracted, quantified, formalized and adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide gel. Safety, sterility and stability of the toxoid were...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...fowl adenovirus (FAdV) serotype is of most importance in epidemiological studies of disease outbreak and the adaptation of vaccine strategies. In spite of appropriate administration of vaccination, FAdV outbreaks have been reported and caused significant losses in poultry flocks throughout Pakistan in recent years. To identify the serotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsi...

Muhammad Rehan Aslam1, Muhammad Maqsood1, Zahoor Ahmad2*, Sajjad Akhtar3, Muhammad Rizwan4 and Muhammad Usama Hameed

...t index (38.43%), grain protein contents (8.09%) and grain oil contents (4.76%) were obtained when two foliar sprays of 0.5% MgSO4 (T2) were applied. Similarly, highest cob weight without sheath (258 g), number of grains per cob (475.1), 1000-grains weight (272.5 g), biological yield (13.4 t ha-1), grain yield (5.15 t ha-1), harvest index (38.20%), grain protein contents (9.01%) and grain oil contents (4.76%) were recorded w...

Muhammad Fiaz1*, Muhammad Afzal1 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2 

...dy, field efficacy of spirotetramat and Isaria fumosorosea formulations was assessed in spring 2016 and 2017 against Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, one of the economic insect pests of citrus plants and a putative vector of Huanglongbing worldwide. Treatments were comprised of label-recommended (FD) and its half (HD) dose rates of spirotetramat and I. fumosorosea formulations. Both treatments were applied either alone...
Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1
...o the sunlight. Many UV protectants were used to improve the efficacy of these viruses under field conditions. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plant extracts to improve the persistence of Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) against beet army worm, Spodoptera exigua(Hübner) under harsh sunny field conditions in Saudi Arabia. A preliminary test of SpliMNPV was per...
Doğan Türkyılmaz1,*, Selçuk Özyürek2,Nurinisa Esenbuğa1 and Mustafa Yaprak1
...solid non-fat, density, protein, lactose and ash. Density of the milk is expressed in kg/m3 and the other components are in percent. Fat, solid non-fat, density, protein, lactose and ash percentages of the milk in this study were respectively 7.19%, 9.67%, 1030.78 kg/m3, 3.18%, 5.55%, 0.93% in Morkaraman; 7.20%, 9.95%, 1031.78 kg/m3, 3.29%, 5.70%, 0.96% in Tuj; 6.79%, 9.60%, 1030.77 kg/m...
Amna Waseem, Sikander Ali* and Syeda Wajiha Khalid
...ls of L-cysteine HCl to protect it from instability. It was observed that under optimum conditions at 30°C temperature, pH 7, and incubation period 64 h, the lipase activity was increased up to 124±2.48 U/g. The crude enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation method at 40 %. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 33 kDa. The results showed that the enzyme produced from mutant strain gave significantly higher (p≤0.05) lipas...
Maaz Ahmad1*, Mussab Ahmad2 and Tehreem Munir3
...cantly effective gastro-protective as compared with placebo.
...
Farhat Ijaz1, Rana Khurram Aftab2*, Samia Jawed3
...kers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukins 6 (1L-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Relation of TNF-α with obesity induced IR and T2DM is unclear as results obtained from different studies are very controversial.
Objective: This study was designed to compare TNF-α levels and insulin resistance in obese and non-obese type 2 diabetics.
Methodology: A cross sectional comparative study was c...
Sahar Naz1, Farhan Rasheed2, Muhammad Saeed3*, Shagufta Iram4 and Ambereen Anwar Imran5
...pecies 37.0% (n=10), Proteus 66.6% (n=2) and 0% Citrobacter sppwere MβL positive. 32.5% MβL positive isolates were from ICU, 21.2% were from OPD, 12.5%were from Surgical Units, 12.5% were from Medical Unit, 17.5% were from Orthopedic Unit, and 3.7% were from Pulmonology ward. Almost 100% resistant was observed in MβL positive isolates for Imipenem,Piperacillin+Tazobactum, Ceftriaxone, Co-amoxyclav, Cefoperazone+Sulbactam, Ciproflox...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
...rogram optimization of serotype O of FMD through ELISA and IHA in pigs in Zhejiang. A total of 368 serum samples were collected from June to July in 2016. Out of these samples, 23 (6.79%, 95% CI 4.4-9.9) pigs were found positive for FMD antibodies with the further distribution of 9.09% (95% CI 4.6–15.7), 6.90% (95% CI 2.6–14.4), 5.49%, (95% CI 1.8-12.4) and 4.35% (95% CI 0.9-12.2) from Wenzhou, Lishui, Jinhua and Ningbo counties, respectively. For ...
Maryam Javed*, Farwa Saghir, Naveera Aziz, Maham Saeed, Asif Nadeem and Wasim Shehzad
...elated to the territory protection, competition for resources like water, food, offspring and mating probabilities. It is an antisocial behavior having strong genetic relation. Current study focused mainly on the screening of genetic marker V158M located in COMT gene for its relation to physical aggression in the four domestic bovine species of Pakistan, which are normally less aggressive. Selected animal species were cattle (Bos indicus), buffalo (B...
Irshad Ali1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Abdul Waheed2, Ferhet Abbas Yousafzai1, Farhat Abbas Bokhari1, Majed Rafeeq1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Adnan Attique1, Shahid Amin3 and Tahir Hameed1
...dinary long limbs which protect them from very heated ground. The odor of BN animal sweat is so pungent that helps it in tick resistance. The white color of the skin is natural reflector in an extreme weather, whereas, the inner coat of this animal has black lining (the natural insulator), provides an excellent insulation capability against heat. Furthermore, very large pendulous dewlap and naval flap provides larger skin surface area to the animal to p
Nuzhat Huma1, Fozia Ghaffar1, Saima Rafiq2,*, Imran Pasha1, Aysha Sameen1, Imran Hayat2 and Imtiaz Hussain2
...trogenous compounds and protein fractionations of casein and whey proteins of milk from different dairy animals like buffalo, cow, sheep, goat and camel. The buffalo and sheep milks have comparatively higher fat, solid-not-fat and total solid contents than other milks. Maximum whey proteins were found in the sheep milk (0.78%) whereas cow milk had lowest contents (0.54%). Non-casein-nitrog...
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*
...ue virus non-structural protein using Rapid Diagnostic kit for Dengue virus (DENV) i.e. SD BIOLINE Dengue IgG/IgM. Data was obtained from patient’s record, filled forms and through questionnaire. Total 1332 blood samples were collected from 3 tehsils of District Mansehra. Out of which, 725 were found positive for dengue fever infection. Out of 725 positive cases, 410 (56.5%) were males and 315 (43%) were female’s patients. The high rate of D...
Rafa Almeer1,*, A. Alqarni1,2, S. Alqattan3, S. Abdi4,*, S. Alarifi1, Z.Hassan5 and A. Semlali6
...ue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) and two matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) were measured by real-time PCR. All subgroups exhibited altered morphology with accelerated detachment compared to untreated cells. The MTT assay after 48 h revealed that treatment with H1 and H2, reduced cell viability by 48% and 91% respectively, compared to that of untreated cells. These results suggest that anticancer effect of Sidr and Wi...

Kashif Akbar* and Muhammad Ayub 

...3%), fat 24.23-23.94%), protein (8.20-7.68%), fiber (6.47-6.38%) while NFE increased slowly (57.86-58.60%). The color of the cookies ranged from F0-F6 (6.88-6.93), taste ranged F0-F6 (6.82-6.04) and texture ranged F0-F6 (6.91-6.15). Maximum overall acceptability was recorded in F2 (7.32) proceeded by F0 (6.99) whereas minimum mean score was recorded in F6 (6.37) proceeded by F5 (6.47). 

...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

...ed out to analyze nucleoprotein (N) gene of PPRV from fatal infections in small ruminants. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from suspected animal samples (n=18) and were screened by real time-PCR. Additionally, to assess the phylogenomics, the N gene was amplified and sequenced from sheep and goats (n=12). Nucleotide identity among Hail strains was identified to be 96.2-100%, while identity with previously sequenced Saudi Arabian strains and with reference ...
Tanveer Hussain1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar1, Marcos De Donato2, Abdul Wajid1, Asif Nadeem3, Zahoor Ahmad3, Waqas Ahmad Khan4, Sunday O. Peters5 and Ikhide G. Imumorin6
...ino acid changes in the protein sequence. The UPGMA tree showed a clear differentiation between taurine and indicine cattle, except mitochondrial taurine sequences in Lohani and Nari Master breeds. The within-breed estimates of divergence were very low in all breeds except for Nari Master (mixed-bred). The estimates of divergence among breeds were also low for most breed pairs, except for Nari Master and Dhanni. While the overall genetic divergence within the ...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

 

...arzianum, T. viride, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Monacrosporium ellipsosporum demonstrated a prominent attraction intensity. The attraction intensity of all these fungi increased with time, while that of two fungi, Dactylaria gracilis and A. dactyloides, remained neutral throughout the experiment. Only the fungus species A. arthrobotryoides repelled the nematodes.
...
Jingen Xu1, Yang Liu2, Erhui Jin1, Youfang Gu1, Qin Zhang3 and Shenghe Li1,*
...cesses, including the G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway, intrinsic to membrane, cell junction and ion transport. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction was significantly enriched. The results offer a foundation for exploration of immune functions and genetic control of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets. Also, several differentially expressed immune-related genes m...
Ayesha Aihetasham, Saira Shariq and Javed Iqbal Qazi*
...erranean termite, Heterotermes indicola. Virulence of Rhizopus stolonifer isolate and resultant variations in food consumption of H. indicola workers were evaluated over a period of one month by employing surface culture method. Following different time exposures, R. stolonifer significantly produced epozootics on the tested insects, with resultant decrease in food consumption. Behavioral changes included lethargic workers which wer...

Muhammad Khalid1,2 and Muhammad Naeem2* 

...omposition of moisture, protein, lipids and carbohydrates. The purpose of this study was to affirm the proximate composition and nutritious status of Ctenopharyngodon idella. Standardized methods were used to determine the proximate composition of 72 samples. On wet weight basis, mean percentage for water was 80.76 %, ash 3.40 %, 4.31 % for fat and 11.53 % for protein in C. idella. Percent water contents showed inverse relat...
Wei Meng1,3, Tianyan Yang2,*, Yunguo Liu1, Mahmut Halik1 and Tianxiang Gao2
...nated H-strand-encoding protein genes were conducted by Neighbor-Joining method to reveal the evolutionary relationships within subfamily Schizothoracinae. Three different grades of schizothoracine fishes were well recognized from each other in branching diagram. The primitive group and the specialized group + the highly specialized group constituted a sister relationship with strong supports.
...
Ai Guo1,2,3, Jiaguang Xiao4, Binbin Shan4, Tianxiang Gao5 and Yongdong Zhou3,*
...ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and non-coding regions. The mitogenomes of C. mystus N and C. mystus S shared the identical structural organization and gene arrangement with those of other Coilia fishes. Both lineages of C. mystus showeda similar features in not only the strand-specific asymmetry of nucleotide composition, but also the codon usage of genes. Whereas a significant variation among Coilia species was...

Irfan Ali Sabir1, Saeed Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees2, Ahmad Sattar Khan1, Maryam3 and Ishtiaq Ahmad

... mM Trolox g-1), total carotenoids (TC) (52.0 µg 100-1) and flavonoids (1.79 µg 100-1) were significantly high in ‘Faisalabad Selection’. Faisalabad Selection and ‘Surkha Burma’ exhibited high score for taste, flavor, texture, aroma and pulp color compared to other indigenous and exotic varieties. It is concluded that ‘Faisalabad Selection’, ‘Surkha Burma’ and ‘Kensington Pride’ among indi...

Muhammad Amir Maqbool1*, Muhammad Aslam1, Waseem Akbar2, Muhammad Waheed Anwar3 and Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar

...stify;">Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) were targeted in current studies. Amino acid sequences of major intrinsic proteins of chickpea, barrel medic and maize were retrieved from NCBI database followed by BLASTP. Pairwise and multiple alignment of sequences was done by using ClustalX software, and phylogenetic trees were construct...
Hülya Şereflişan and Beyza Ersoy Altun*
...e Gölbaşı. Crude protein and lipid contents were higher in U. tigridis (10.75%, 0.96%) than in A. pseudodopsis (8.63%, 0.77%, respectively), whereas the situation was vise versa for fatty acid compositions. The proportions of Omega-3 (n3) were higher than those of Omega-6 (n6) in both of the mussels. n6/n3 ratio, which was 0.90 for A. pseudodopsis and 0.99 for U. tigridis, is an index for comparing...
Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3,*
... concatenated set of 12 protein-coding genes, and adding 16 other species of gobies (Gobiidae). The mitogenome sequences of O. lacepedii, O. rebecca and Odontamblyopus sp. were all circular double-strand molecules, 17245 bp, 17009 bp and 17004 bp long, respectively. Compared with other bony fishes, the three species shared the similar features in gene arrangements, base composition and tRNA structure. The control region spanned 1571 bp, 13...
Habib-ur-Rehman1*, Saima Mirza1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Qurban Ali3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir4, Muhammad Yasir5
...e plant was extracted on rotary shaker using four solvents viz.; methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and n-hexane separately. Periodic analysis for the repellent effects was carried by impregnating each filter paper (half-disc of filter papers) with micropipette at three concentrations (5, 10 and15%) of each of the plant extract. The repellence was recorded after 24, 48 and 72 h of the treatments application. The findings of experimental trials presen...
Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*, Tanzeela Riaz2, Uzma Ramzan1, Anum Feroz1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,3,*
... amino acid while total protein and total lipid contents, were significantly increased with reference to their control (untreated group). Among carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, the activities of trehalase, amylase and invertase were significantly reduced after treatment with sub lethal dose of esfenvalerate as compared to control. The metabolic derangements induced by sub-lethal dose of esfenvalerate suggest that infestation caused by T. granarium in ...
Muhammad Mobashar1, Muhammad Tahir1, Shahbaz Javaid2,*, Muhammad I. Anjum2, Insha Gul3, Nazir Ahmad1 andAbdul Sami1
...larly, intakes of crude protein (CP) and crude fat (CF) were significantly higher (P<0.05) on ration II compared to rations I and III. Neutral Detergent Fibre intake (Kg/day) in rations I, II and III was 5.4, 6.8 and 6.19, respectively. Intake of Acid Detergent Fibre (Kg/day) was higher in ration II while lower in ration I. Acid Detergent Lignin intake (Kg/day) in three rations ranged from 2.26 to 2.61. In vitro DM digestibility (%) signif...

Muhammad Zahid1, Naeem Iqbal1, Sohaib Muhammad2*, Summiya Faisal3, Wajid Mahboob3, Makhdoom Hussain4 and Zaheer ud din Khan2 

...ivity and total soluble proteins were increased with increase in sugar treatments under drought. Osmotic and water potentials were reduced under drought but foliar glucose sprays of 10 mM and 50 mM applied at reproductive phase significantly reversed the adverse effects of drought. Gas exchange characteristics including CO2 concentration, transpiration and photosynthesis rates were raised by glucose treatments under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Henc...
Nevran Eylem Akman Gündüz1,* and Özgür Özcan2
... the synthetic diet and protein, lipid, carbohydrate and glycogen levels in the hemolymph were evaluated for the GA3 concentrations. The hemolymph protein level of the larvae increased significantly at 5, 10, 50 and 200 mg/L with respect to the control group. The lipid level of hemolymph fluctuated among the tested GA3 concentrations. It was significantly reduced at 5 and 10 mg/L, but increased at 50 an...
Xiaqing Chen, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...amatum fermentation broth and its ethyl acetate extracts caused high mycelial growth inhibition and germination inhibition of S. shiraiana, with the inhibition value up to 80% and 90%, respectively. An apparent increase in mycelial growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner was observed when ethyl acetate extract and carbendazim were applied individually. The EC50 of T. hamatum ethylacetate extract or carbendazim in mycelial grow...
Arifa Mehreen1, Iram Liaqat2,Muhammad Arshad3, Muzzamil Waheed4 and Najma Arshad1,*
..., Staphylococcus protein A (spa) was identified most frequently (81%) and proportions of capsular polysaccharides (CPs8), clumping factor A (clf A) andintracellular adhesion A (ica A) were 78%, 68.5% and 40%, respectively. ica D and CPs5 could not be amplified from any isolate. Toxin genes were present in 43.5% isolates. Among toxin genes, enterotoxins (SEs) were...
Binbin Shan, Yan Liu, Changping Yang, Shengnan Liu and Dianrong Sun*
... clusters of eukaryotic proteins. In addition, a total of 17,671 unigenes were classified into 311 KEGG pathways. Finally, we predicted the coding sequences of 13,072 unigenes and obtained 9,222 SSRs in the present study. The whole transcriptome is an important foundation for future genomic research on the P. penicillatus and can provide comprehensively understanding and further characterizations of transcriptomes of non-model organisms.
...
Majid Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Razia Iqbal2, Arshad Javid3, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,4 and Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1
... digestibility of crude protein (68.57%) was observed at 4% CA level, whereas highest digestibility of crude fat (72.23%) and gross energy (66.63%) was observed at 3% CA level. Fingerlings also showed maximum weight gain (WG), weight gain% (WG%), specific growth rate (SGR) and lower FCR value at 3% CA level. Hematological indices of fingerlings fed CA supplemented MOLM based diets were significantly (p< 0.05) improved as compared to control diet. Maximum nu...

Iqbal Javed1*, Amar Razzaq2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Ali Imran4, Haroon Javaid5, Iftikhar Nabi6, Anum Sardar1 and Shahbaz Ahmad

...abad, Pakistan. Nominal protection coefficient (NPC), revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) were estimated for the export of mutton to all existing international markets. According to the finding of the current study under hand internal markets are categorized into three categories of with high potential markets, low potential markets and markets with no potential. First Category of markets with no potential i...

Saif Ullah and Mohammad Akmal*

...ower for better oil and protein. The study suggests that N, P and S at the rate of 80, 90 and 30 kg ha-1 is the best combination for soils remained with cereal crops in cultivation to plant with sunflower good quality of oil and protein.  

...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Saeed Akhtar2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3* and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...kra, tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower, grown with canal, tubewell and sewage irrigation water, were assessed for their proximate (moisture, ash, protein and fiber) and heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe and Cr) contents. Significant differences were found for proximate composition of canal, tubewell and sewage water irrigated vegetables. The vegetables grown with tubewell water had higher moisture, ash and fiber contents...

Muhammad Javed Iqbal and Muhammad Naeem* 

...rohita fed with various protein: Energy ratios; fish meal (T0), 25%CP (Crude proteins) (T1), 30%CP (T2), 35%CP (T3) and 40%CP (T4). Experiment was designed to replace enriched fish meal diets with cheaper plant origin crude protein diets in fish culture. A total of 15 aquaria having 20 samples each were arranged in triplicate for 90 days to study the effect of five feeding groups on Length...

Safina Naz1, Khushbo Hussain1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2* and Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3
 

...3 (mg g-1), while total protein content were 25.33(mg g-1), SOD 214.30 (IU min-1 mg protein-1), 895.52 POD (mmol min-1 mg protein-1) and catalase value was 2159.90. Similarly, SA application promoted total phenolic content up to 157.84 (mg g-1), while total protein content were 26.66(mg g-1), SOD 199.33(IU min-1 mg prot
Zain ul Abidin1, Aisha Khatoon2, Abdul Whab Manzoor1,*, Nida Arooj1, Sajjad Ali1 and Muhammad Numan1
...amily, is a potential neurotropic disorder affecting all mammals and humans. This infection spreads through biting of infected and/or carrier animals to healthy ones including humans. Incubation period of this infection is quite variable ranging from a few days which can last up to one year in few cases. This case report presents the diagnosis and screening of suspected rabies samples of cow and mule. Clear behavioral changes along with paralysis of tail and h...
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
Wajid Ali1,*, Asma Karim1, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3*, Ghulam Mustafa4, Zeeshan Shafique1, Ijaz Anwar1
..., cholesterol and total protein) and gills for histology were taken after 96 hrs. After acute exposure to pesticide, significant changes were observed in serum biochemistry and histology. Serum glucose and cholesterol were increased while total protein was decreased. Histopathological result reveled that gills of experimental fish was damage severely resulting Necrosis, Damaged nuclei , rupturing of epithelial cells, Mucous ...
Faxiang Wang, Yan Chen, Sai Chen, Xianghong Li, Jian Yu, Jianhui Wang and Yongle Liu*
...roperties of grass carp protein. The results show that muscle proteins of grass carp were degraded and underwent conformational changes when stored at 4 °C, and significant changes of the proteins content, as shown by the SDS-PAGE fingerprint, was observed after 6 days of storage. Protein’s surface hydrophobicity and total SH content increased ...

Sana Rana1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2* and Khalid Abbas1 

...tial purification total protein contents and percentage recovery decreased from crude extract to desalted sample while fold purification was increased. The maximum activity of purified CAT was recorded at 6.0 pH and 30°C temperature for gills of C. striata. As the temperature was raised further the catalase activity decreased. 

...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi2*, Bushra Siddique3 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4

...con esculentum (93.7%), protein in Spinacia oleracea (2.23g/100g), fats and fiber in Abelmoschus esculentus (0.44g/100g and 3.27g/100g, respectively), ascorbic acid in Spinacia oleracea (84.5mg/100g) and carbohydrate and energy values in Daucus carota (11.25g/100g and 55.80 cal, respectively). While, higher mineral contents were recorded for phosphorous (P) in Spinacia oleracea (85.5mg/100g), sodium (Na) and iron (Fe) in Lyc...
Yang Liu1,2,3, Baimei Liu1,2,3, Chenchen Li1,2,3 and Meiwen An1,2,3,*
...The mRNA expression and protein secretion of supernatant were tested using Q-PCR and ELISA method, respectively. Co-culture KM&FM under 3.4 kPa pressure enhanced typeIcollagen and type III collagen mRNA expression and protein secretion from KM. It however reduced typeIcollagen and type III collagen mRNA expression and protein secretion from FM; it promoted mRNA expression and p
Xiaojie Ding, Xiling Sun, Zuien Wang, Qiusheng Zheng, Xiaofei Yu, Wenjin Hao, Kejun Wang, Wenjuan Xu and Zhengping Dong*
...RNA, to decrease TLR4/9 protein synthesis and expression. So we concluded that Wumei Pill probably reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the bacterial endotoxins by blocking the transmission of TLR4/9-NF-kB signaling pathway so that Wumei Pill has a significant therapeutic effect on IBS-D.
...
Peng Xu1, Bin Liu1,2, Yongqiang Zhao3, Shicheng Lv3 and Changhu Lu1,*
...ficance for the species protection and management. Here, based on the annual maximum population size of red-crowned crane wintering in Yancheng Nature Reserve (YNR) from 1981 to 2016, we tested the correlation between population size and the climate variables. The results showed that mean air temperature in wintering period showed a linear upward trend. Annual maximum wintering crane population was 623±33. Fitting the population size and the climate var...
Soumble Zulfiqar1, Khuram Shehzad1, Sana Tahir1, Khalid A. Al-Ghanim2 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori1,2,3,*
...KW strain. The CueO protein was purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity chromatography. Enzyme assays of CueO protein with phenolic substrates revealed its laccase activity. The kinetic studies showed Km value of 0.2µM, kKcat 0.68 S-1 and Kcat/km 1.2S-1 µM-1 for 2,6-Dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and Km value of 0.25mM, Kcat 300 S-1 and Kcat/Km=1200S-1mM-1...
Nimra Naseer, Adeela Fatima and Imran Sajid*
...domonas spp. and Proteus spp. In this study, a collection of nineteen actinomycetes strains isolated from Cholistan Desert, Pakistan, were screened biologically and biochemically for their potential bioactive secondary metabolites against MDR bacterial pathogens. The identification of strains was done by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization and by 16SrRNA gene sequencing. For biological screening different methods inc...
Merica Slišković1, Meta Povž2, Marina Piria3,*, Goran Jakšić4, Ana Gracanin5 andGorana Jelić Mrčelić1
...r research and targeted protection of the sichel in the middle Danube River tributaries are urgently required.
...

Saeed Ahmad Shah Chishti1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Nusrat Parveen1, Kashif Nadeem1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Umbreen Shahzad2, Rana Husnain Shabbir1 and Muhammad Najeebullah1 

...to tolerate against root rot and powdery mildew diseases of pea crop. The newly approved variety has potential to moderately resist to collar rot disease as compared with all other existing varieties. Studies on organoleptic characteristics showed that Sarsabz is less sweet in taste than Pea-2009, suitable for all types of dishes. This variety was approved by Punjab Seed Council and its seed is available for dissemination.&n...

Ali Muhammad*, Yasser Durrani, Majid Suhail Hashmi, Ihsan Mabood Qazi, Muhammad Ayub and Saifullah 

...t-align: justify;">Whey proteins have many nutritional and beneficial therapeutic properties, which are indispensable for the functional and nutritional properties of foods. The aim of the study was to neutralize whey by addition of NaOH (0.1 and 0.01N) and NaHCO3 (0.1 and 0.01N) for fortification and enrichment of foods. However, addition of these solutions results in an increase in total solids and ash content of the whey sample The samples were normal whey ...

Ambrin Rajput* 

... yield (31050 kg ha-1), protein (15.77%), shoot N, P and K (2.1, 0.3 and 1.3 %) concencentration and N, P and K uptake (95.3, 16.4 and 49.9 kg ha-1) were recorded by combined application of N, P and K fertilizer application. However, the minimum values were obtained from control treatment. The combined application significantly increased chickpea yield compared the one without K application. There was positive significant relationship between all yield paramet...

Waqas Ali* and Mudasser Habib 

... study, 336 strains of serotype O (n = 178), A (n = 82) and Asia 1 (n = 76) were downloaded from NCBI database that mainly belonging to Pakistan, along with three vaccinal strains. Phylogenetic analysis (maximum likelihood) showed that lineages Pan Asia II, An Iran-05, and Group VII within serotype O, A and Asia 1 are causing majority of the outbreaks in the Pakistan during recent years. Moreover, only one residue of VP1 reg...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
... blood cholesterol, lipoproteins like low density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoprotein and decreased high density lipoprotein levels are the major risk factors involved in the development of cardio vascular diseases. Lovastatin is formed as secondary metabolic intermediate initiated by anion moiety (acetate) through polyketide chain reactions. The ...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*
.../sup> (P=0.0001), total proteins (P<0.0001) and albumin (P<0.0001) when compared against control. Similarly, hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in WBCs (P<0.0001), RBCs (P=0.0001), Hemoglobin (P<0.0001), Platelets (P<0.0001) and MCHC (P<0.0001) while MCV (P<0.0001) showed a remarkable positive change when compared with control. Hematocrit (P<0.0001) was found to be enhanced significantly in Group 1 but decreased in G...
Ashraf M. Mounir, A.N. El shahat* and A.M. Abdul Azeem
...vide significant cardio-protective effects evidenced by an obvious reduction in the level of cardiac marker enzymes, inflammatory factors and lipid contents with marked improvement in the cardiac antioxidant status and reduction of lipid peroxidation relative to untreated infarcted group. The study concluded gamma irradiation could be used as an efficient method for sterilization and increasing the active contents of frankincense. Also, gamma-irradiated franki...
Asima Bano1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Hira Sherawat3, Muhammad Mutlib4, Muhammad Arshad5, Muhammad Akram Qazi6, Sajida Naseem5, Rabia Ishaq1, Iram Liaqat2 
...ne the overall level of protein was also found to be decline. It is concluded from the study that these enzymes can be used as biomarker in the diagnosis of breast cancer. 
...

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

...ysaccharides, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids, carotenoids, fatty acids like linoleic acid and linolenic acid, lignans, minerals and various phytochemicals. Due to the presence of two unsaturated fatty acids, these oils can reduce their biological activity on heating, volatilization, and other parameters like oxidation and UV rays. This limits the commercial application of these oils. To overcome such problems enca...

Shoaib Nawaz1, Muhammad Razaq1, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sajjad1*, Syeda Aneeza Ubaid1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2 and Usman Haider

...e to its nutrients like protein vitamin calcium potassium, value play an important role in Ghanaians diet. Sucking pest jassid become major problem on okra in tropical and subtropical regions and cause heavy losses. Neonicotinoid insecticide, like nitenpyram was used on calendar basis and ETL basis. Data was recorded on weekly basis. In first week jassid population in control and ETL treatments was equal with non-significant difference between them while in ca...
Sajid Ali Khan1, Mazhar Hussain Ranjha1, Azhar Abbas Khan2,*, Muhammad Sagheer1, Amjad Abbas1 and Zeshan Hassan2
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
... these fish were: seven protozoans species (Chilodonella sp, Trichodina sp; Ichthyobodo sp. Epistylis sp. Tetrahymena sp. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis; Piscinoodinium pillulare;); three monogeneans species including (Dactylogyrus extensus, D. vastator; Gyrodactylus turnbulli,); one digenean (Cryptocotyle sp.), two nematode (Capillaria sp., Camallanus sp.); two crustacean...

Hareem Mohsin, Azka Asif*, Warda Fatima, Sarooj Nadeem, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Assessment of biocalcification by the water absorption test using microorganism from oil contaminated site
...es the precipitation of protective layer of calcium carbonate on the cement based structures or buildings. In the present study, the biocalcification capacity of Bacillus pasteurii was studied on the cement samples. The cement samples were treated with urea and calcium salt (calcium carbonate) that act as a source of calcium along with the microorganism under optimum culture conditions. Alkaline conditions produced by the activity of the enzyme urease allowed ...

 Sumera Siddique1,†, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Muhammad Irfan1

Screening of some agri-wastes for economical cultivation of Candida tropicalis SS1
...SS1 for the single cell protein (SCP) production employing different fruit’s peels. The C. tropicalis SS1 was cultivated in media containing 2% pulverized peels of apples, mangoes, water melon and bagasse singly as well as in eleven different combinations. The media were inoculated with 1% (w/v) suspension of 24 h old yeast cultured in nutrient broth. The strain grew best in water melon (WM) at pH 7.0 and 37 °C und...

Muhammad Babar Khawar, Nadeem Sheikh*

Effect of paper industry leachate on various serological indices and serum proteins of wistar rats
...1) and High density lipoproteins (HDL) (P<0.0001) while a significant negative change in triglycerides (P=0.0002) and creatinine (P=0.0370) level in both experimental groups. Alanine aminotransferases (ALT) level showed a significant increment in Group 1 and a decrement in Group 2 compared to control group (P<0.0001). SDS page analysis revealed an overall decreased expression of various proteins in both experimental gr...

 Tahir Abbas*1, Khawaja Raees Ahmad2, Asmatullah3, Khalid Pervaiz Lone4, Muhammad Ali Kanwal2, Sadia Suleman2

Reno-hepatic protective effects of Jambul against chromium induced anomalies in mice
...nducted to evaluate the protective effects of Jambul (Syzygium cumini) against Cr induced reno-hepatic anomalies. Male albino mice (Mus musculus) were equally divided (n=10) as C; control, Cr-treatedandCr-JgroupsreceivingCr+6 in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) 50ppm for 10days ad-libitum while Cr-J group additionally given 0.25ml/12h Jambul Fruit Extract (JFE) for next 5days by oral gavage. On the 16th day blood, liver and kidney were collected for ...

Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*

Induction of acute phase in response to tacrolimus induced hepatotoxicity
...he level of acute phase proteins due to the toxic effect of an immunosuppressive drug (tacrolimus). Aqueous suspension of tacrolimus powder (3 mg/ml) was orally given to four experimental groups of wistar rats. Control group was provided with normal drinking water and dissections were done after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of tacrolimus dose. Densitometric analysis revealed considerable elevated level of some positive acute phase prot

Riffat Mehboob1*, Sami Ullah Mumtaz2, Zoya Manzoor3, Sajid Abaidullah2, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad1

Deranged biochemical and hematological profile of septicemia patients in Mayo hospital, Lahore
...of patients while total protein was in normal range in 97.02% patients and the trend of albumin was towards low (44.55%).In Renal function tests, urea was elevated in 71.29% and creatinine in 51.48% patients and in electrolytes Na+ was low in 41.58% patients K+ were normal in majority of patients. Hematological parameters such as WBCs were high in 84.16%, hemoglobin was low in 78.12% and platelets were normal. The most common causes were urinary tract infectio...

 Shagufta Andleeb*

Teratogenic potential of pyrethroids: a review
...uctive toxicology and neurotoxicology is available except teratogenicity. This review concludes the teratogenic potential of sublethal doses of different types of pyrethroids in various groups of animals in systematic way. On line available data interpretation through Pubmed Central NCBI, Google Scholar and Google was done to achieve the target and 122 references were found the most relevant in this perspective.

...

Nasir Raza Zaidi1, Mian Waheed Ahmad1, Mahesh Gautam1, Riffat Mehboob2*

Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Pakistani population- A crosssectional study
...he myelin sheath
protecting the neurons. Many environmental and genetic factors have been associated with MS. The aim of this study
is to identify the possible risk factors that are linked to MS in Pakistani population. This study was conducted in
Department of Radiology, Mayo Hospital Lahore from 2013 to 2014. The first hundred patients who came for
reporting MRI of the brain and had positive findings of MS were retrospectively eva...

Muddasir Hassan Abbasi1, 2, Noor Fatima1, Syed Shahid Imran Bukhari1, Asma Rashid khan3, Nadeem Sheikh2*

Variations in proteins and transaminases following experimental induction of Bisphenol A in mice
...the estimation of total protein and albumin and aminotransaminases activity. The sodium dodecyl sulphate
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was also run to analyze protein bands. Statistically significant
increase in total protein contents, albumin and aminotransaminases were noted in sample in comparison with control.
Comparative analysis between experiment...

 Abir Ishtiaq, Muhammad Naeem*

Length-weight relationships and condition factor for farmed Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) from southern Punjab, Pakistan
... 15%, 20% and 25% crude protein (CP). The regression
estimates for LWRs were highly significant (P <0.001) with coefficient of determination, r2-values being >0.930 in the
three studied groups and for overall data. The value of the regression coefficient (b) indicated negative allometric
growth (b= 2.87), isometric growth (b= 2.95) and positive allometric growth (b= 3.22) for fish fed 15 %, 20 % and 25
% crude p

 Jhan Zeb, Muhammad Javed

Forecasting percentage contribution of plankton biomass towards increase in fish yield under composite culture conditions
...entary diets at varying protein level viz., 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32% digestible protein (DP), respectively @
2% of their wet body weight daily. However, control fish (T7) although had an access to plankton; but were devoid of
the availability of any supplementary diet. Data on dry weights of plankton biomass and increase in fish yield were
collected on monthly basis and subjected to regression analysis...

 Zafar Iqbal*, Hafiza Madhia Imtiaz

Parasites of double tail goldfish, Carassius auratus L. imported to Pakistan
...d fishes in Pakistan to protect the local biodiversity of
Pakistan.

...

Dilara Abbas Bukhari1, Abdul Rehman2*

Isolation of bioactive compounds from exudate of edible fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus
...exudate of a fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus. Exudate as liquid droplets on the mycelium was checked for antimicrobial activity against bacterial strain, Bacillus subtilus. Biochemical techniques, thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, were employed to study fungal exudate. A total of fifteen different metabolites were detected in the sample by GC/MS. The detected metabolites could be classified ...

Sadaf Niaz1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Asif Nadeem1, Misbah Hussain1, Riffat Mehboob3*, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad3

Mutation analysis of RING1 domain of Parkin in early onset of Parkinson’s disease in Pakistani patients-a pilot study
...domain of Parkin
protein was performed in a sample set of 30 patients (selected from different areas of Punjab, Pakistan) to find out
any Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP).No SNP was detected in RING1 domain that could be related to the
disease. The data suggests that no genetic predisposition in RING1 domain may be responsible for the occurrence of
disease in local population. It may be due to genetic changes in any other part o...

 Bushra Siyal1, Sanjota Nirmal Das1, Rafia Rehana Ghazi2, Aly Khan3

Heterotestophyes gibsoni sp.n. (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the bird little tern (Sternula albifrons) in Sindh, Pakistan
...s of trematode genus Heterotestophyes gibsoni
sp. n. was recorded from the intestine of little tern (Sternula albifrons) collected from Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. The
new species is characterized by having small body, maximum width attained at the level of mid body region and
twisted at the level of pharynx. Oral sucker terminal, rounded and broader than long. Esophagus long, intestinal
bifurcation is above the acetabulum. Ventral s...

 Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi1, 2, Sana Fatima3, Khawaja Abdul Mujeeb2, Nadeem Sheikh1

Alterations in proteins and transaminases activity induced by thioacetamide in albino rats
... tissue and serum total proteins and
albumin along with urea, uric acid and serum transaminases activity after 12 and 24h of TAA administration in albino
rats. Rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=3) namely control group, 12h group and 24h group. Each
experimental group (12h and 24h) was administered 300 mg/ kg TAA intraperitoneally (i.p) while control received
same volume of normal saline solution. Rats of 12h and 24h gr...

 Anam Javed, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Skin health implications of Chemical detergents and importance of biodetergents
...nment. Our body’s protecting shield, the skin, has more chances of exposure and biodetergents have potential to eliminate the associated risk. Economical production of biosurface active substances at industrial level through utilization of bio-waste origin feedstocks would also enhance recycling and energy conservation in the environment. Through the application of biosustainable developments in the field of biotechnology, we would be able to get rid of ...

 Zubair Ahmed#, Muhammad Farhanullah Khan, Habiballah Rana*

Toxicological effects of Haloxylon recurvum Bunge ex Boiss (Khar Boti) whole plant extract and novel insecticide chlorantraniliprole against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky
...
stored products protection due to ecological concerns and insect resistance to
chemical insecticides. In these regards, a study were carried out to evaluate
toxicity of crude methanol extract of whole plant of Haloxylon recurvum (Khar boti)
and a novel insecticide chlorantraniliprole. A serial concentration of extract i.e.,
1.2%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 4.8%, 6.0% and insecticide 0.00224%, 0.00448%, 0.00896%,
0.01792%, 0.02688%, ...

 Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1*, Zafar Iqbal Khan2, Saira Batool2, Kafeel Ahmad2, Salma Begum2

Residual effect of lambda-cyhalothrin on abundance of insect pollinators in marigold field patch
... should be minimized to protect the population
of insect pollinators.

...

Nabila Roohi, Mehjabeen, Samina Ashraf*

Effects of cigarette smoking on serum proteins profile in male active and passive smokers
...analysis of serum total proteins and fractions
(albumin, total globulins, gamma globulins and non-gamma globulins) of active and
passive smokers. Blood samples of 180 cigarette smokers were collected from
different locations of Lahore and 60 healthy non-smokers from University of the
Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam campus Lahore, in terms of comparable age, height, weight
and socioeconomic set up. Serum prot

 Siddra Tayyab Akhtar, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Twitching, swimming, swarming in biofilm forming strains in response to chemical and physical factors
...otilites whereas
proteinase K enzyme showed weak antimotility effect against all tested bacterial
strains. From this study we proposed that instead of biofilm detachment by
expensive commercial detergents, we could change the physical environment of
sewage systems as well as flooding some specific chemicals, which disrupt
bacterial motilities and biofilm formation.

...

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
...l methods involving whiterot/
brown-rot fungi and bacteria, and quite a few combinations thereof to
breakdown the lignocellulose into its components. Pre-treatment process changes
cellulose morphological, chemical and physical features, making it prone to
enzymatic attack for saccharification. In this review, we have discussed different
pre-treatment methods and their effect on recalcitrant...

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed* and Muhammad Afzal 

...ely. On the contrary, spirotetramat, pymetrozine and spinosad were least effective against O. obesus termites. Conclusively, based on the results of this study, chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, pyriproxyfen, triflumuron and indoxacarb are recommended to be incorporated in future integrated pest management programs against subterranean termites. 

...

Akshay Sharma*, Mohit Mahajan, Madhumeet Singh and Pravesh Kumar 

...ubercle, median raphe, scrotal and penis impression. With the aid of ultrasonography and color Doppler technique, it is possible to determine the twins’ zygosity and viability. 

...

Farkhanda Asad1*, Samina Qamer1, Tayyaba Ali1, Ammara Behzad1 and Tahira Yasmin2 

... mg/Kg while, for crude protein higher value of nutrient digestibility was recorded in test diet T3(G/0.2, CrCl3.6H2O mg/Kg).It was concluded that chromium supplementation with gelatinized corn in fish (Cirrhinusmrigala) diet can improve the nutrients digestibility more efficiently as compared to non gelatinized and Cr-free diet. 

...
Qingling Hu1,2,3,* and Jinian Feng3
..., a new species Megalurothrips longus sp.n. from Hainan Island of China is described and illustrated. This new species is unique in this genus by the combinations of having 5 pairs of long setae on pronotum, the ultrashort chapped craspedum on posterior margin of abdominal tergites, and the shape and relative locations of setae on tergite IX.
...
Muhammad Kashif Maan1, Ghulam Mustafa1, Munibullah2 and Sajid Umar2,*
... were large and usually protruded through the palpebral fissure and infiltrate the entire eye ball. Diagnosis was made based upon the clinical and histopathological examination of the tumor sample. In all cases, tumor resection was performed followed by cauterization of the remaining surface with silver nitrate. No postoperative complications or local recurrence were reported by owner of each case.
...
Chao Zhao1,2, Juan Feng1, Haidong Xu1, Lihua Qiu1,2,*, Qibin Yang1, Zhenhua Ma1 and Jian G. Qin3
...P < 0.05). Heterotrophic bacteria and vibro counts in the formalin treatment were significantly lower than UV treatment and untreated group (P < 0.05). Based on the results obtained in the present study, we suggest that formalin treatment could be a better away to control bacteria in P. monodon larvae culture.
...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1, Hina Ashraf2,*, Muhammad Arshad3, Sabeeha Parveen4, Amna Aslam4, Nargis Naz4, Zahid Kamran1, Sumbul Gohar Khalid5, Sajid Hameed1, Muhammad Ashfaq6 and Muhammad Mukhtar7

 

...made and concentrated by rotary evaporator and finally dissolved in distilled water before taking their antiviral trials in 7-11 days old chicken embryonated eggs. The viral loads were determined through heamagglutination (HA) test. The methanolic extract of each plant was found effective against NDV but in varying order. The active extracts were further used in different concentrations and IC50 of each extract was calculated. The extract of Achy...
Fatih Korkmaz1, Veysel Parlak2, Özgür Kaynar3, Arzu Ucar2, Gonca Alak1,* and Muhammed Atamanalp2
... evaluated based on the protein profile, bacterial content (total aerobic mesophilic, psychotropic and lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and pH values on quality during 12 days. The decrease in bacterial growth activity, physicochemical values (TVB-N, TBARS and pH) and prolonged shelf life in a natural preservative dependence were observed in the fillets. Generall...
Abderraouf Chouaib Rebbah1, Mohcen Menaa2,*, Salah Telailia3,Menouar Saheb1 and Mohamed Cherif Maazi2
... woodlands. We noted 20 protected species, only one endangered species, and five endemic species to the Maghreb and/or to North Africa. The presence of these species with patrimonial value reinforces the importance of the conservation of Sidi Reghis avifauna. Bird abundance, species richness and species diversity were significantly higher in pure pine woodlands than in mixed oak-pine and oak forests. According to PERMANOVA and ANOSIM tests, and the NMDS plot,...
Xiao-Ying Ren1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
... special status in Microtus, Arvicolinae. In order to investigate the geometric morphometrics of the craniums and mandible in nine species of Eothenomys (E. fidelis, E. melanogaster, E. chinensis, E. proditor, E. custos, E. cachinus, E. eleusis, E. miletus and E.olitor), ANOVA analyses, principal components analysis, thin plate spline, UPGMA and Multidimensional Scaling were used. The...
Gangchun Xu1,2, Fukuan Du2, Yuyu Wang2, Yan Li2, Zhijuan Nie2 and Pao Xu1,2,*
...ng Frame that encoded a protein of 388 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions were 269 bp and 139 bp, respectively. The full length ortholog PTGES2b was 1,457 bp and contained a 729-bp ORF that encoded a protein of 242 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions were 402 bp and 326 bp, respectively. One polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) was present 14 nucleotides upstream of the poly...

Muhammad Tahir Amin, Khalid Usman*, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik and Nishter Ali

...e tiller followed by one rotavator at 7–10 cm depth). Five irrigation intervals (7th, 10th, 13th, 16th and 19th day) and phosphorus levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg P2O5 ha-1) were kept in main- and subplots, respectively in RCBD with split plots arrangement with three replications. Results revealed that irrigation intervals significantly affected all the parameters such as plant height, sympodial branches, seed cotton yield, and quality-related traits...

Nadejda Lukanova1*, Radka Vlaeva2 and Boriana Ivanova

...dy includes 34 purebred trotter mares and 292 gestations. Some of the mares are born in Bulgaria, and some are imported, as they represent four different trotter breeds – Standardbred, Orlov trotter, Russian and Italian trotter. The study refers to a period of 19 years, from 1997 to 2016. The aim of the recent study is to examine some reproductive ...

Sahar Shibli1,2*, Farzana Siddique1, Saeeda Raza2, Zaheer Ahsan3 and Irum Raza4 

... to 26.43±1.15 % proteins, 13.23±2.20 to 19.42±3.83 % carbohydrates and 4.95±0.06 to 8.53± % fiber. Mineral analysis of peanut cultivars showed 12.60±0.38 to 16.61±1.51 mg/100g Fe , 2.34±0.075 to 3.37±0.040 mg/100g Zn, 38.64±3.50 to 48.24±32.58 mg/100g Ca, 67.81±7.86 to 82.72±9.09 mg/100g Mg, 199.19±33.18 to 342.00±19.03 mg/100g Na and 1220.6±9.045 t...
A.H. Shahzad1, A. Sattar1,*, A. Husnain1, I. Ahmad2, N. Ahmad1, D. Nak3 and Y. Nak3
...R-Ovsynch based resynch protocol in lactating Holstein cows at two different geographical locations. On location A, 160 postpartum cows were enrolled in standard CIDR-EB protocol. Cows were subjected to timed AI and randomly assigned into two groups: 1) control (n=70), subjected to AI on detected estrus (AIDE) from d18-d30 post TAI. Pregnancy rate was diagnosed on d30, d60 and d90 post TAI, 2) resynch (n=90) received ...

Saima Yousaf1,2, Ali Zohaib2*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum2, Tahira Tabassum2, Tasawer Abbas3, Sohail Irshad4, Usman Javed5 and Naila Farooq6 

... yield, oil content and protein content of soybean, as compared to un-inoculated control. Seed inoculation with P. fluorescens was more effective than R. japonicum in improving grain yield and quality. The genotypes did not differ significantly in grain yield, biological yield and oil content; however, differed in protein content. Swat-84 was superior among all genotypes pertaining to yield formation and p
Tamoor Azeem1,*, M. Yasin Tipu1, Asim Aslam1, Sajjad Ahmed2, Salman Ahmed Abid1, Abdullah Iqbal3, Naeem Akhtar4, Muhammad Saleem4, Aamerzish Mushtaq4 and Sajid Umar4
...while decrease in total protein and albumin (p>0.05).
...
Muhammad Huzaifa Mehmood1, Muhammad Ahmad Iqbal2, Muhammad Daood1, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq3*, Khubaib Ali3
...d. The pH texture, fat, protein, blood lipid profile and PUFA concentration was significantly affected by the incorporation of oat in rabbit feed. It was concluded that the supplementation of 2% oat in rabbit feed increase n-3 PUFA in meat while improvement in serum lipid profile was observed by 4% supplementation of oat seeds. It was also observed that fat percentage in meat was also reduced by oat seed supplementation.
...

Mehran Ali1*, Inamullah1, Muhammad Bilal2, Salman Ali1, Farooq Nawaz1 and Muhammad Owais Iqbal1 

...nts (mould board plough, rotavator, disk harrow and cultivator) were used as main plot factor and N sources (control, cattle manure, poultry manure, sheep manure, mushroom spent, mungbean residue and urea) as subplot. The results exhibited that, improved bulk density, grain yield, harvest index and soil total N (STN) were observed when N incorporated with MB plough. In case of N sources poultry manure, sheep manure and mushroom spent gave at par yield with ure...
Pingping Cang1, Mingming Zhang1, Guo Qiao1,Qirui Sun1, Dehai Xu3, Qiang Li1, Xinghua Yuan4 and Wenbin Liu2,
...al differences in crude protein (CP), crude lipid (CL) and ash contents of gibel carp muscle between BFT and control group at the end of experiment (P >0.05). The essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids and total amino acids contents of gibel carp muscle in BFT group were higher than those in control group. Bioflocs were composed with 29.8% CP, 3.2% CL and 19.1% ash at day 60. CP content was appropriate, and LP was lower for gibel carp. Econ...
Bei Liu1, Yanli Hong1, Huifang Zhou1,*, Zhenzhen Cao1, Shuang Zhang1, Jing Jin1, Miao Jiang1, Cunsi Shen2 and Jianjian Ji2
...ach group. The mRNA and protein levels of GnRHR, the hub genes and key transcription factors in the downstream cAMP-PKA signaling pathways in RPC cells were also detected. The secretion and transcription levels of FSH and LH in Cetrorelix group were significantly decreased, while the expression of GnRHR was significantly increased compared to the blank group (p<0.05). Use of CSF with BSZYD alone showed no significant effect on the secretion of RPC, a...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

...e issues are related to protection of natural environment and biodiversity which is one of the critical problems encounter by farmers of Pakistan. It is vitally important to take proactive measures to enact timely solutions to this issue, and avoid further losses in biodiversity. The present study was aimed to determine the awareness level of the respondents regarding biodiversity conservation. The results showed that farmers were relatively aware of regarding...
Tafail Akbar Mughal1, Muhammad Zubair Saleem2, Shaukat Ali3,*, Khawaja Khurshid Anwar1, Muhammad Majid Bashir1, Muhammad Babar4 and Muhammad Adeeb Khan1
...also to investigate the protective effect of Vitamin E pre-treatment on the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Study included the estimation of the activities of the enzymes such as ALAT (alanine aminotransferase), ASAT (aspartate aminotransferase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) and biochemical components like glucose, urea, lipids, cholesterol and protein contents both in the liver and blood while DNA and RNA con...

Omer Baris Ince* 

...the disease is endemic, protective vaccinations are performed with inactive vaccines of suitable serotype and measures are taken in order to reduce the prevalence of the disease. In this study, blood samples were collected from clinically healthy sheep and bovine in the surrounding region of the southeast of Konya province that were classified as non-vaccinated, single-vaccinated, multiple vaccinated, aged 0-1 and 1-3 and ma...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...nt of MYMV by improving protection level by the induction of systemic acquired resistance. 

...

Muhammad Aslam Rajput1,3, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Rehana Naz Syed3 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi3* 

...zed germplasm screening protocols as well as optimized inoculation techniques are required. The pathogen inoculation method should be less cumbersome, simple, and rapid. Here, we compared the effectiveness of six different inoculation methods, i.e., dipping, paste, wound+paste, soil infestation, spraying and injection methods for the establishment of smut disease. It appears that disease expression was significantly influenced by pathogen inoculation method. T...

Rehmat Ullah* and Khalid Nawab 

...y measures and Personal Protection Equipment on self-reported acute poising cases. Binary logistic regression analysis depicted highly significant negative association between adverse effects of pesticides like headache, dizziness, feeling weak, difficulty in seeing, chest pain, burning sensation, and fever with precautionary measures/Personal Protection Equipment’s recommending that these precautionary measures and PP...
Khalid Khan1, Saima Liaqat2*, Somaiya Rasheed1 and Ihsanullah Kakar3
...chistan. Livestock is a protagonist in stimulating the economy and improving people’s living conditions. The study used primary data which were composed via well-regulated questionnaires from one hundred livestock farmers of diverse Tehsil/Union Council of District Lasbela. The findings of the study exhibited that trivial farm holders widely used livestock for income generation. Furthermore, livestock have a predominant role to accomplish the rudimentary...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
...the absorption of crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), and metabolized energy (ME). However, the values of red blood cells and packed cell volume were non-significant whereas white blood cells, haemoglobin, and new castle disease antibody titer were significantly higher in basil supplementary group. The weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly improved in basil treated group, while ascorbic acid and basil significantly decreased the water intake. B...
Hua-Lun Luo, Yi-Yu Zhang*, Yuan-Yu Qin and Lei Wu
...ponsive element-binding protein) plays a crucial role as a central regulator of lipid synthesis and glycolysis in animal liver. In this study, the relative quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the duck ChREBP mRNA is widely expressed in all examined tissues. ChREBP mRNA level was the highest in abdominal fat and the lowest in gizzard. The g.247075G>A silent mutation in exon 10 was first identified by direct sequencing approach, and resulted in...
Rishen Liang*, Meng Zhou, Zhenxiang Lin, Guozhang Li, Yuan Chen, Xuan Lin and Zaohe Wu
...typical structure of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and one noncoding control region. Genomic composition, organization and gene order were similar to that obtained in most vertebrates. By comparative analysis of the two genomes, 941 variable sites (5.69%) were found. Sequence divergences of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region which are commonly used as molecul...
Sakhra Mahmood1, M. Younus1, A. Aslam1, A.A. Anjum2, S. Umar3, Aamerzish Mushtaq3 and M.L. Sohail4,*
...the quails, an emerging protein source in developing countries.
...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abdual Rauf Shakoori2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub3, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Sehrish Firyal1, Zaheer Hussain4 and Munir Ahmad5
...inant enzyme as soluble protein. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity column chromatography. The characterization studies of purified protein demonstrated the optimal enzyme activity at 90°C and pH 4.8. The presence of cobalt enhanced the cellulase activity and 2.5 mM cobalt was recorded the optimal concentration for the maximal cellulase activity. SDS-PAGE anal...
Doğukan Ölmez1 and Gonca Alak2,*
...rich wastes in terms of protein. These wastes can be converted into different economic value products under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, byproducts have the potential to be converted into nutrients suitable for human consumption, as well as different products that have economic value. For this purpose, hydrolysates were prepared by enzymatic methods at different time periods using different trout byproducts. In this study, two different ...
Yang Liu1, Jing-xin Mao2, Xiao-dong Wei2, Man Yi2, Xiao-long Zhang2, Ke Zheng3, Xian-xin Chen4, Guo-Ze Wang5 and Bing-bo Chen1,*
...he control group, total protein, albumin, and albumin/globulin ratio were increased in lactobacillus BFA group. The total bilirubin decreased significantly (P<0.05) both in lactobacillus BFA and Bacillus BFA group. Total weight gain and daily gain were increased in mixed fermentation BFA group significantly than the control group (P<0.05). For feed conversion rates in each group, the mixed fermentation BFA group had the highest feed efficiency, increased...
Tahira Moeen Khan* and Amat ul Mateen
...e (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella) and one gram positive (Clostridium tetani). The minimum concentration of leaf extracts needed against these bacterial strains were also calculated. The present study indicated that Melia azedarach and Morus nigra leaf extracts can be used successfully for nanoparticles synthesis and CuO as significantly active antibacterial material. Antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles wa...
Naveed Ahmad1,*, P.J.A. Siddiqui1, Amjad Ali1, Khan Mir Khan2, Rafaqat Masroor3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Amin5 and Mohammad Attaullah6
...ptimum level of dietary protein on growth performance, feed utilization, survival and carcass composition of yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus arabicus. Five semi-purified experimental diets were formulated containing 350 (P30), 400 (P35), 450 (P40), 500 (P45) and 550 (P50) grams of protein kg-1 of dry matter. Thirty healthy fish (20.94±0.81g initial weight) were stocked in each floating net cage (1....

Aqsa Khan1, Sabyan Faris Honey2*, Babar Bajwa2, Nelofer Jamil1 and Muhammad Sohail Mazhar2

...ir composition as major protein source and one diet without wheat germ were used. Addition of wheat germ in the diet composition for larvae resulted in significantly high percent survival (maximum value) (60± 4.56 and 56± 2.56) and significantly increased larval body weight of codling moth (0.58± 0.04 and 0.42± 0.03 gm). While diet without wheat germ resulted in low percent survival (40 + 5.46) and reduced larval body weight (0.15 +...

 Adile Tatliyer1,*, Sinan Bas1 and Serdar Yagci2

 

...lying the Varimax rotation in explanatory factor analysis. In the first period of average 11 days after birth, 2 factor scores (FS) were used as new latent predictors in order to predict live body weight in multiple linear regression model. The 2FS at the first period, 3 FS at the second period, 4 FS at the third period accounted for 80, 45 and 57 % of the total variability in live weight, respectively. The achieved results revealed that using of b...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...seolina causing charcoal rot of sunflower is major fungal pathogen which can survive for months to years in soil and also over season in the seed. Therefore, population density and their aggressiveness to cause the disease is playing critical role for management of this pathogen. For such purpose colony forming units (cfu) per gram of soil and seed were determined and capability of previously characterized M. phaseolina isolates to cause the disease was tested...
Shehzad Ghayyur1,3, Sadia Tabassum1, Munawar Saleem Ahmad2Naveed Akhtar1 and Muhammad Fiaz Khan1,*
...ent, while total plasma proteins and triglyceride level were significantly decreased (p < 0.05).

...

 Jawaria Shaheen1, Samiah Shahid1, Sabahat Shahzadi2, M. Waheed Akhtar1,3 and Saima Sadaf1,*

...as isolated by standard protocol of centrifugation and then isolation of total RNA including miRNA was done. About 100ng of isolated miRNA was converted to cDNA after addition of poly (A) tailing and then expression profiling was done by using real time-qPCR technique in which miR-specific DNA primers were used to increase sensitivity of reaction. Expression of miRNA panel was normalized with mir-16 and expression fold change was calculated by 2-Δ&D...

 Sohaib Afzaal1, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3,*, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1

...8 h growth in skim milk broth, while the least (12.131 mg/mL) was produced by pediococci. These LAB strains are being studied for their probiotic properties and good quality indigenous starter cultures from them are anticipated to be employed in food industry.

...

 Şaban Çelebi

... laying hen diets could protect these animals from detrimental effect of free radicals by increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes.

...
Jie Yang
...ptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are innate immunity proteins that are conserved from insects to mammals, recognize bacterial peptidoglycan, and function in antibacterial immunity and inflammation. Mammals have four PGRPs (PGLYRP1, PGLYRP2, PGLYRP3 and GLYRP4). They are secreted proteins expressed in different tissues. It is significant to make a study of human PGLYRP1 because neut...

 Asad Sultan1, Rabia Ali1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1, Naila Chand1 and Ambrina Tariq3

...n period). Standard lab protocols were adapted to measure proximate analysis, minerals and phytate content in grain and fecal samples. Sorghum cultivars were different in nutrient profile with red higher in protein content (11.41%). It was observed that phytase inclusion in grain increased the availability of all nutrients except crude lipids. Total tract nitrogen retention was increased by 3% in red sorghum compared to whit...

 Tazeen Jamil, Saba Ijaz, Rabia Arif*, Faiza Akram and Muhammad Saleem

...nsposons.

...

Ihsan Ullah Khan*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Muhammad Ashraf, Ashiq Saleem, Sundas Awan, Samra Azam and Shamim Ul Sibtain Shah 

...arents. Overall, the heterotic effects were more prominent on the PHT, ST, HD, 100-GW and SY (kg ha-1) as compared to other traits both relative to mid- and better-parent values. The hybrid vigor (%) in the hybrids over the standard check regarding seed yield ranged from 4.84 % in the cross CMS-77 x R-18 to 20.09 % in the cross CMS-77 x R-83(1). The discovery of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration genes gave a new direction to heterosis ...

 Mahroze Fatima1*, Muhammad Afzal2 and Syed Zakir Hussain Shah3

...d for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and ash content in fish body. Lipid peroxidation was determined in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzyme activities. The minimum value of TBARS was recorded in VE150 group, which was increased again with supplementation of high vitamin E levels. Similarly, adequate supplementation levels (VE1000, VE1500) reduced the superoxide dismutase (SOD), ...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,2, Azhar Qayum3, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Naif Awdh Al-Maliki4, Abdulaziz Alamri4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,5,*
...>ein.
...
Muhammad Shahid Nadeem*, Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi and Jalaluddin Azam Khan
...oli as heterologous protein under 0.3mM IPTG. The recombinant enzyme was purified by DEAE-Sephadex colum based anion-exchange chromatography. On SDS-PAGE, the enzyme exhibited a molecular weight of about 36 KDa. Its specific activity was 1650 U per mg of protein with about 5% glutaminase activity and no activity against D-asparagine. Optimal enzyme activity was found at 75°C and pH 9. The KM value of 5.9mM...
Faiza Jabeen1,*, Bushra Muneer2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3
...g the wastes nutrients. Protein production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-dairy wastes in production medium both with and without nutrients at pH 7.0 for 48 h at their respective suitable temperatures. They yielded enough thermostable protein suggesting their potential in production of various enzymes and proteins in unconventional and economical substrates suitable for vari...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...ovide various levels of protection against challenge with different NDV genotypes, raising the importance of the relationship between vaccines and field strains. The aim of the current work is to evaluate the effect of moisture percentage and pH on the persistence of velogenic NDV genotype VII in the poultry manure which considers a major threat to the Egyptian poultry industry since 2011 onwards. In the present study, manure of specific pathogen free (SPF) ch...
SiRui Wang1,2, Fekede Regasa Joka1,2, XiaoLong Wang1,2,* and SuYing Bai2,*
...xovirus-resistance (Mx) protein in the evolution of different wild birds, 10 wild bird species, including Anas formosa, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Mergus squamatus, Accipiter nisus, Buteo hemilasius, Buteo lagopus, Passer montanus, Psittacula roseata and Emberiza elegans, were selected.The sequences of the GTPase effector domain (GED) of the Mx gene were determined by PCR sequencing....
Tianlong Cai1, Falk Huettmann2, Kisup Lee3 and Yumin Guo1,*
...nd is not well known or protected even. Here, we present the spatial distribution of the stopover habitats for hooded cranes in the East Asia. A machine learning modeling algorithm of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) weas applied and evaluated with Stochastic Gradient Boosting and Random Forests based on 115 every year used occurrence points (1990-2013) and 14 environmental layers as predictors. Results show that the Songnen Plain and Korea Peninsula are the most impo...

Saud Khan and Inamullah* 

...) plough, cultivator and rotavator were allotted to main plots and P levels (control, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1) to subplots. MB plough applied one time was followed by cultivator; while cultivator and rotavator were applied once in separate experimental units. The results revealed that higher number of achenes (grains) capitulum-1 (974) and thousand achenes weights (51.4 g) were produced with MB plough which were statistic...
Fukuan Du1,2, Yongkai Tang1, Juhua Yu1, Shengyan Su1, Fan Yu1, Jianlin Li1, Hongxia Li1, Meiyao Wang1 and Pao Xu1,2,*
...h on C. nasus to protect the wild population. In this study, we sequenced the brain transcriptome of C. nasus using Illumina Hiseq 4000 platform. We obtained 123,764 unigenes with an average length of 1092 bp and a total of 115,169 putative Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs). Among them, 37 SSRs were selected for the validation experiments. All of the loci were found to be polymorphic and showed bi-allelic in 60 individuals of C. nasus. These ...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...e pressures on NDV glycoproteins and their role in changing the NDV evolution in Egypt. 

...
Fan Yi1,2, Xiaobin Yang1, Shigen Ye1, Hua Li1 and Ruijun Li1,*
...eding had higher immune protection against Edwarsiella tarda infection; and the relative protection ratios were 60% and 50%, respectively. It was also obtained that interval feeding experiments also significantly boost non-specific immunological function of P. olivaceus compared with continues feeding experiments, HCT application in P. olivaceus farming potentially enhances P. olivaceus resistance...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub2, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1, Sehrish Firyal1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...oduction of recombinant protein. Higher level enzyme activity was recorded at 25°C, pH 7.0 when the cells were induced with 0.5 mM IPTG with 22h post induction incubation. Supplementation of LB medium with 1% glucose and yeast extract enhanced the production of recombinant thermostable cellulase. Enzyme showed strong potential for its use in paper and poultry feed industry. Under the optimal conditions we could able to produce 48 U/mL of recombinant...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...), Streptococcus (10%), Proteus (7%) and Salmonella (3%). The study reported high percentage of E. coli in cases of subclinical mastitis. It may be due to transfer of pathogen from cow to buffaloes and from the environment in herds of mixed farming. The study results may be helpful in developing the strategic policies against the control of disease. 

...

Gulnaz Saleem1, Aijaz Hussain Soomro1*, Nouman Rashid2 and Mehar un Nisa Narejo3 

...Masoor-93 was higher in protein content (25.16%) than all other varieties. The supplementation resulted in a significant increase in protein, fat, crude fiber and ash contents of the biscuits. The thickness and spread factor of biscuits differ significantly while non-significant effect was observed in the width of the biscuits. Sensory analysis revealed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05) amongst all treat...
Zahra Nazir1, Saba Ijaz1, Roquyya Gul2 and Mahjabeen Saleem1,*
...ase was recognised as a protein with 47kDa molecular weight by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH of purified polygalacturonase activity was found to be 4.5 and stable within pH range 3.5-5.5. Temperature dependent studies revealed temperature optimum of enzyme to be 40°C and stable up to 60°C. Among substrates, polygalacturonic acid was established as the best substrate for polygalacturonase showing its specificity in the hydrolysis of polysaccharide galacturon...
...ct of Different Dietary Protein Levels on Growth and Proximate Composition of the Eggs and Broodstock of Giant Murrel, Channa marulius (Forsskal). Pakistan J. Zool., vol. 50(2), pp 595-602
...

Fraza Ijaz1*, Umair Riaz2, Shazia Iqbal3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Muhammad Furqan Ijaz5, Hina Javed1, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi1, Zuhra Mazhar3, Ahmad Hassan Khan6, Hassan Mehmood7 and Ijaz Ahmad8 

...itious Parameters crude protein (30.23%), neutral detergent fiber (33.45%) and acid detergent fiber (26.56%) gave significant results as compared to control (T1). Results indicated that the combined application of Rhizobium species and Tryptamine performed better by improving growth and yield and quality parameters. It is concluded that precursor-inoculum combination is an effective approach and should be tested in different ecologies. 

...

Muhammad Sohail1*, Asad Sultan2, Said Sajjad Ali Shah3, Muhammad Sajid1 and Adnan Khan4

...% and 17.04 MJ/kg). The protein levels in wheat varieties were 12.15 and 11.89% which were more than that of both of corn (8.21 and 8.05% respectively) and sorghum varieties (10.41% and 9.89% respectively). The bioavailability of crude protein was higher in maize followed by wheat and sorghum. The phytic acid contents were found highest in both varieties of sorghum (0.85% and 0.87% respectively) as compared to the wheat vari...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...lceration on udder and scrotum. Increase in WBC, lymphocytes, monocytes count while decrease in RBC, platelets count and Hb concentration in diseased animals representing hematological investigation.  

...
Ailing Huang, Lingyu Meng, Wei Zhang, Junyan Liu, Guangyao Li, Huihua Tan, Wen Lu and Xialin Zheng*
...ides on detoxifying and protective enzymes in P. flammans larvae were also measured. Results showed that the LC50 value of beta-cypermethrin, abamectin, chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam and bisultap against P. flammans larvae were related to the instar and pesticide. Control efficacy of beta-cypermethrin was the best among of these pesticides, and the LC50 value of which against 1st instar larvae in P. flammans r...
Shengjie Zhou1,2, Pengfei Wang1,2, Chao Zhao1,2, Mingjun Fu3, Jian G. Qin4, Lihua Qiu1, Zhenhua Ma1, 4,* and Maoshang Lin1
...type fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP) gene in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus larvae was cloned in the present study. The full length of L-FABP cDNA from golden pompano was 604 bp, including a 5’-untranslated region (UTR) of 154 bp, a 3’-UTR of 69 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 281 bp. L-FABP encoding a polypeptide of 126 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 14.06 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.7...

Bina Khanzada1*, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed1 and Nazir Ahmed2 

...sted were honey, sugar, protein hydrolysate solution to enhance fecundity and fertility of the parasitoid under laboratory conditions and compared with the provision of flower nectors such as ornamental sunflower, merry gold and hollyhock in the laboratory. The ornamental plants sunflower, merry gold and hollyhock were also tested in the field for conservation of the C. flavipes. The results showed that during 2013 and 2014, the C. flavipes fed on Hollyhock pr...
Sheng Niu1, Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Fa-jie Jia1, Xin Li1, Guan-bao Ning1, Ding Zhang1, Hai-li Ma1, Wei-fang Hao2, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Shi-min Gao1, Jian-hui Li1, Gui-lan Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Huan-chun Chen1,3 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
...transferase A3 (rGSTA3) proteins. We explored the responses of HDPs in erythrocytes to thiram-induced TD and rGSTA3 protein by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed many HDPs expressions were suppressed by thiram-induced TD, and the expressions of HDPs were upregulated by rGSTA3 protein. These findings demonstrated that mRNA expressions of HDPs are highly related to thir...
Muhammad Ahmad, Zohaib Noor*, Karim Johar Khan, Waqar Younas and Ajmal Hussain
...es of (P<0.05) crude protein, fats, carbohydrates, Mg (%) and K (%) was recorded in the H. molitrix than C. catla. The results of the study showed that H. molitrix probably consumed all the phytoplankton density by filtering the water continuously resulting in the reduction of growth in other fish species in the polyculture system.
...
Nursinatrio and Rudy Agung Nugroho*
..., feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), survival rate (SR) and carcass proximate of red tilapia were measured. The results showed that HCFM up to 12% could be used as supplementation and showed positive effects on all growth parameters. Supplementation of HCFM above 6% in the red tilapia diet increased the protein and fat content of red tilapia’s carcass. The highest survival was found on red tilapia fe...
Yuyu Wang, Gangchun Xu*, Zhijuan Nie, Quanjie Li, Nailin Shao and Pao Xu*
...significant lower total protein (TP), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and glucose (Glu) content in serum compared with those reared at low density on day 90 and 120 (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present results indicated that the largemouth bass (36-308 g) could be reared at high stocking density without depressed growth and chronic stress in commercial-scale in-pond raceway systems under this experimental conditions.
...
Wang Zaigui1,*, Guo Panpan1, Ye Miao1, Sun Linghong1, Zhang Hongfu2 and Liu Chaoliang1,*
...P<0.01). (5) The proteinase activity in middle intestine was higher than that of the blank group (P<0.05). Collectively, the results indicated that adding B.subtilis to the feed of silkworm had positive effects on growth performances of the Bombyx mori L. apparently.
...
Iram Gull*, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam, Imran Tipu, Roohi Mushtaq and Muhammad Amin Athar
...uman latency associated protein with insertion of HCV NS3 protease cleavage site at splicing junction is reported.
...
Wali Khan1,*, Mudassar Iqbal2 and Israr Khan2
...e appropriate treatment protocol. All the infected children were randomly divided into 2 groups (A and B). Children in group A were treated with albendazole (bendazol) 400mg/kg while children in group B were treated with albendazole (zentel) 200mg/kg orally once a time. Eggs per gram of faeces were counted in each group before and after treatment. The % efficacy of albendazole (bendazol) and albendazole (zentel) against ancylostomiasis, ascariasis, taeniasis a...
Shamsudin Bojang1, Idris Abd Ghani2, Jugah Kadir1, Adamu Saidu Paiko1, Yasir Iftikhar3 and Muhammad Kamran3,4,*
... sparsely growth and chlorotic appearance of the greens. A total of 36 soils and roots sample were collected. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to identify the parasitic nematode. Both the field symptoms and SEM micrographs confirmed that the nematode isolate was M. graminis. Since this nematode has been known to damage the greens and other plants in other part of the world then the probability for the specie to adapt to other hosts other than...
Abid Hussain Shahzad1, Abdul Sattar1,*, Nasim Ahmad1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Deniz Nak3 and Yavuz Nak3
...ency of standard Ovsych protocol (OVP0) and its modified forms (OVP5 and OVP7) as postpartum reproductive management tools in cyclic dairy cows. In total, 167 Holstein cows were randomly divided into three treatment groups. The OVP0 group was comprised of 58 cows. Other two groups, OVP5 (n=55) and OVP7 (n=54), were similar to OVP0 except the intravaginal insertion of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) inserts for 5 or 7 days, respectively. Pregnancy was d...
Muhammad Shoaib Saleem* and Muhammad Faheem Akbar
...cs insecticides in crop protection has also led to development of resistant strains of pests and have adverse effects on non-target organisms including natural enemies and pollinators. Amongst bio-rational insecticides, neonicotinoids and insect growth regulators (IGRs) may be exploited as eco-friendly approach in crop pest management. We therefore, evaluated the effectiveness of nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (Mixture of Nitenpyram and Chlorfenapyr) and B...
Pin Lyu1, Xiangxian Chen2* andQinlong Liu3*
...tructure and C-reactive protein levels, followed by the other three groups. C-reactive protein decrease in exercise and massage, massage only or exercise only groups was significantly different comparing to control group (p<0.05).Combined treatment of exercise and massage therapy showed the best effect in inflammation suppression, skeletal muscle regeneration, control of skeletal muscle fibrosis and muscular tissue...
Xiaona Cao1,3-5, Yuanyuan Ren2-5, Xiaoteng Cui2-5, Baoxin Qian2-5, Chunyan Zhao 2-5, Jie Yang2-5, Chao Su2-5,* and Xingjie Gao2-5,*
...bution of three nuclear proteins, including heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), Hu Antigen R (HuR) and T cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1), in the SG aggregation and nucleus/cytoplasm localization under stress condition. We found that hnRNP A1, HuR and TIA1-containing SGs were aggregated in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells, and accompanies the alteration of nucleus/cytoplasm localization during arsenite induc...
Hong Zhang1, Shu-Fen Han2, Jing Wang1, Shao-Kang Wang1, Gui-Ju Sun1 and  Cheng-Kai Zhai1, *
...ase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, CWD can improve blood lipid and blood sugar levels, and at the same time improve obesity and fat accumulation in rats. CWD significantly augmented the relative level of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and suppressed the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) protein expres...
Bo Zhang1, Changbo Zhu1, Zihao Meng1,4, Baosuo Liu1, Lian Zhong3, Guiju Huang1, Jiaqi Su1, Sigang Fan1 and Dahui Yu1,2,*
...omically important and carotenoid-containing bivalve shellfish that is cultured for pearls and acts as a source of seafood. To investigate the distribution of carotenoids in P. fucata and establish a more efficient method to assess carotenoid contents, we measured the carotenoid levels in selectively bred P. fucata individuals of different ...
Jun Yan Bai*, Shuai Yang, You Zhi Pang, Xiao Hong Wu and Guang Lu Li
... quail (P<0.05), the protein height of Beijing white quail is greatly higher than those of ret two species (P<0.05). Based on comprehensive evaluation, the egg quality of Korea quail is better than those of other two species, egg production and laying rate of China yellow quail are significantly higher than those of Korea quail and Beijing white quail (P<0.05). The average egg weight of Korea quail is significantly higher than those of China yellow qu...

Waqar Akhtar1*, Munir Ahmad2, Nadeem Akmal1, Hassnain Shah1 and Asif Ali Mirani2 

...(0.72). The measures of protection showed that there was more dis-protection for fresh dates as compared to dried dates. Despite more resource use efficiency in the fresh dates only 16 percent produce was processed as fresh dates remaining 84 percent produce was converted into dried dates. This finding implicates that the overall dates production system secure low domestic resource use efficiency in the production of dates i...
Hashim Ullah1, Abdur Rahman1, Rifat Ullah Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2 and Ambrina Tariq3, Shabana Naz4,*
...cholesterol, fat, crude protein, ash, moisture and dressing percentage of WaziriandMazaisheep. A total of 36 mature sheep of Waziri and Mazai were selected and processed for dressing percentage and meat quality through proximate analysis. Wazirisheephad lower cholesterol as compared to Mazai. With the increasing BCS, the cholesterol content was significantly increased in both the breeds. The dressing percentage and crude prot
Zhengfei Wang*, Dan Tang, Xuejia Shi, Huayun Guo, Xiuping Chen, Daizheng Zhang and Boping Tang*
...s.
...
Hong Ma*, Bo Fu, Liang Wang, Zhong-qiu Li and Di Liu*

 

...ll 117 (HSPC117) protein has been identified as being involved in placental formation, and can be modified by epigenetics. However, whether HSPC117 affects development of cloned embryos mRNA expression is unknown. To investigate the influences of HSPC117 on embryonic development, we generated transgenic porcine embryos by handmade cloning. We then assessed the embryonic developmental rate at cleavage and blastocyst stages. Our results show...
Muhammad Afzal1, Nighat Sultana1, Ali Hassan1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2,*, Mahroze Fatima3, Syed Makhdoom Hussain4, Muhammad Bilal5 and Majid Hussain2
...es of dry matter, crude protein and crude fat in Labeo rohita juveniles when fed CA supplemented diet. Similar observations were also recorded for the group fed on PHY supplemented diet. Citric acid addition in the diet also resulted in improved (