Josef D. Jarhult1, 2

...tients and patients with risk factors for severe influenza disease as well as an important part of pandemic preparedness plans. Resistance development is a potential problem both in treated humans and in the environment. The use of oseltamivir for treatment of uncomplicated influenza in otherwise healthy patients should be questioned.

...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...canal which increase the risk factors associated with heart attack. Atherosclerosis is also associated with development of diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney failure. Hypercholesterolemia is mainly caused by high fat diet, obesity and diabetes.Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect of water based infusion of Withania somnifera was investigated in broiler chicks. One hundred and twenty (120) day-old broiler’s chicks were alienated into four treatment...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...fy the socio-demographic risk factors contributing to increasing susceptibility to heroin addiction in Pakistani populations. In this epidemiological study subjects were interviewed through a comprehensive questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions. Data regarding key factors such as age and ethnicity, communal domain, education level, employment status and demographic factors (drug route, drug dose) have bearing upon heroin addiction was coll...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...ationship with potential risk factors of diabetes on their first visit to a local hospital. Among the newly diagnosed diabetic subjects 33% (n=66) were with retinopathy. Out of which 30% (n=18) were male and 70% (n=48) were female. High density lipoprotein (HDL), both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol level and serum insulin were significantly higher (p< 0.05) in proliferative group of diabetic retinopathy, while triglyceride level, HbA1c (...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...is infection, associated risk factors and subsequently their antimicrobial susceptibility.The milk samples were screened with surf field mastitis test and furthered to biochemical analysis. Pearson’ Chi-square test at nighty five percent confidence interval was used to analyze the collected data. Antibiotic sensitivity was checked with twenty four antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Over all mastitis was found 52.5% (63/120) with leading subclinical (4...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...did tick species and risk factors associated with tick infestation and burden levels were studied in bovine from three distinct temporal zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Twelve hundreds ticks were collected from four hundreds animals comprising of two hundred and fifty cattle and one hundred and fifty buffaloes. Descriptive statistics with Pearson’s Chi-square test and regression model were applied to analyze the data. The results of...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
... respect to host-related risk factors in Bos permiginu s cattlewas conducted in farm houses at three main regions (Western by-pass, Spiny village, and Sariab region) of District Quetta from March, 2013 to March, 2014.   Around 1649 ticks were captured from six main body parts of 404 cattle. Of these 346 (65.96%) were observed to be plagued by one or more tick infestation. Compositions of tick species captured from the host were Hyalomma a...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

Rana Hanan1*, Muhammad Waqar Shafi1, Sumair Anwar2 and Numrah Nawaz1
...rious variable and fixed risk factors, this study was designed. The cross sectional study of 4 months was carried out on the students of Shalamar Medical and Dental College. Students were aged from 18-25 years and a sample of 100 students was enrolled by stratified random sampling after written consent. We recorded blood pressure at three different time points, one minute apart in sitting position after ten minutes of rest. The average of three measurements wa...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...mographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/696), for H7N7 6.03% (42/696), and 3.59% (25/696) as mixed infections, suggesting EIV current and active circulation in equine population of Pakistan. Statistical analysis suggested predicting variables including “loca...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...notype and determine the risk factors for increased frequency of acute exacerbations in local chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in a cross sectional analytical study design. For this purpose 137 patients were included in the study after obtaining necessary permissions from the ethical board of the hospital. COPD was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and a post bronchodilator values of FEV1/FVC<0.70 on spirometry. Frequent exace...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...f association of assumed risk factors with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied to check significance of results. The study noted overall 33.98% (123/362) of MDR S. aureus from subclinical mastitis milk samples while 123 of 192 S. aureus isolates (64.06%) were confirmed MDR. Non-significantly higher prevalence of MDR was noted in Cholistan area (38.38%) than to that of Sulaiman Range (29.98%) on subclinical mastitis samp...
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
...us in association of its risk factors in cattle and buffaloes of district Kasur, Punjab. Selenium status was evaluated by Atomic Absorptions Spectrophotometery (AAS) with respect to sex of animals, geographical area, age of animals, herd size, stage of animals, production level and concentrate feeding. Selenium deficiency was also evaluated as a risk factor of mastitis and repeat breeding. About 48.43% cattle and 72.39% buffaloes were found positive in seleniu...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...rmine the prevalence and risk factors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampling from apparently healthy lambs and were examined using the modified Ziehl Neelsen acid fast staining. Prevalence was calculated along with different risk factors associated with the disease (...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah*, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Abdulrahman Jarelnabi, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman and Mansour F. Hussein
...evaluate other potential risk factors and to assess the pathogenic effects and economic consequences of neosporosis in camels.
...
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
...correlation with various risk factors and host biomarkers concerned with the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep. Total 600 blood samples were taken each 200 from districts Bannu, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and screened through blood microscopy. The current study revealed an overall prevalence of ovine theileriosis as 27.5%, 13% and 19.5% in districts of Dera Ismail Khan, Tank and Bannu, respectively. Sex, tick infestatio...
Niamatullah Kakar, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Shafee and Tauseef Asmat*
...is along with associated risk factors in Quetta Jail, Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, 186 sputum samples were collected randomly from jail inmates. Sputum was processed for smear microscopy and culture inoculation for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Moreover, the suspected samples were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three samples were found positive by PCR test while other detection method...
Iqra Arooj1,* and Shahida Hasnain2
...countries. Some of their risk factors are smoking, obesity, diabetes, family history, high blood pressure etc. Previous genome wide association studies have identified association of large number of loci with risk of CHD in different populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of 6q25.1/rs6922269 and 9p21.3/rs1333049 loci with risk of CHD in a population of Punjab province of Pakistan. A total of 645 subjects were included in this s...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...revalence and associated risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) among large ruminants of the five districts (Peshawar, Nowshera, Charsadda, Mardan and Swabi) located in the central zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A total of 2400 large ruminants were sampled by convenience sampling approach and tested by comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT) for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Data regarding socio-demographic ...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
...ship with some important risk factors in small ruminants kept at nine government livestock farms of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1000 blood samples (500 each from goats and sheep) were collected from animals kept at the respective livestock farms. An indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA) was used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in the serum. Serological analysis revealed overall flock-level sero-prevalence of 92.3% which varied from ...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1*, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Dakwang Nalong1, Rengkat Jonah1 and Olabode Mayowa

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

...ies and to determine the risk factors associated with acquisition of the virus. A total of 326 blood samples were collected from consenting pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinic in Abuja, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demography and risk factors. The sera were obtained from samples were analyzed for IgG and IgM antibodies of human parvovirus B19 using SERION ELISA Classic Par...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
...ein levels are the major risk factors involved in the development of cardio vascular diseases. Lovastatin is formed as secondary metabolic intermediate initiated by anion moiety (acetate) through polyketide chain reactions. The current work was put away to investigate the potency of Pleurotus strains for statin formation by cultivating them on lignocellulosic substrates (wheat straw, rice straw, banana stalk) in SSF for 8 days. Among Pleurotus sp...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
...stitis (SCM), associated risk factors, involvement and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in the development of SCM in District Faisalabad of Pakistan. For this purpose, a total of 384 goat milk samples were screened for SCM through surf field mastitis test (SFMT) and mastitis-positives cases were further investigated for isolation of S. aureus using standard procedures. Coagulase gene was PCR amplified from the clinical isolat...

Nasir Raza Zaidi1, Mian Waheed Ahmad1, Mahesh Gautam1, Riffat Mehboob2*

Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Pakistani population- A crosssectional study
...to identify the possible risk factors that are linked to MS in Pakistani population. This study was conducted in
Department of Radiology, Mayo Hospital Lahore from 2013 to 2014. The first hundred patients who came for
reporting MRI of the brain and had positive findings of MS were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age of the patients
was 43.07±13.88 years, with youngest patient as 18 years old and eldest as 65 years. Our study depicte...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Memoona Chaudhary2, Riaz Hussain3, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Madiha Khan6, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Mehtab Ahmad7, Muhammad Sajid Hasni2Imran Qaiser8, Ghazanfar Rashid1, Ikramul Haq1 and Ikramullah Khan8
...n data for the potential risk factors. Results showed an overall prevalence of 47.14% for subclinical mastitis. Statistical analysis revealed non-significant (P>0.05) difference between Cholistan desert and Suleiman mountain range (48.18% and 46.09%, respectively). S. aureus was isolated from 53.03% of the milk samples, with significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence in Cholistan desert (66.10%) as compared to Suleiman range (57...
S. Justin Carlus1,*, Atiyeh M Abdallah1,2, Abdulhadi H. Al-Mazroea1, Mazen Khalid Al-Harbi3 and Khalid M Al-Harbi1
...lymorphisms appear to be risk factors for CHD in DS.
...

 Abdul Maalik1, Shahzad Ali1,*, Anam Iftikhar1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Haroon Ahmad2 and Iahtasham Khan1

... prevalence and possible risk factors of subclinical mastitis along with antibiotic resistance of one of the causative agent of bovine mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus. Ninety milk samples were collected from cows and buffaloes kept at different localities in district Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan. The possible risk factors inquired from farmers were animal type, breeds, urbanicity, age (years), teat washing, bedding area, l...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1, Batim Turdam1, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Waziri Ibrahim Anjili2 and Mayowa Olabode2 

...rmine the prevalence and risk factors for endoparasitic infections in donkeys at Ganawuri district market, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 300 donkeys and analyzed using a standard laboratory procedure. Coprological examination conducted using flotation and sedimentation techniques showed that 276 (92.0%) were positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. A greater proportion (70.7%) of the nematodes were Strongyles...
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
... which might be the main risk factors for cross-infection of Brucella species in their non-specific hosts. B. abortus could be identified as causative agent of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Pakistan. Results of this study can be used for the development of effective eradication and control strategies for brucellosis in small ruminants.
...
Fazal Abbas1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Zunaira Akhtar1, Khalid Mehmood2, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder3 and Umair Iqbal4
Asghar Khan1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Arfan Yousaf2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Mamoona Chaudhry1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Habibunnabi4 and Amjad Khan5
...and assess the potential risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis in lactating buffaloes in Pothohar region of Pakistan. A questionnaire based cross-sectional based survey was conducted in 30 commercial and subsistent farms in Pothohar region of Rawalpindi district, Punjab. Where randomly 196 lactating buffaloes were sampled. Data on several health, management and bio-security variables was collected in face to face interviews from farmers, managers and owners. M...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,*, Khalid Medmood3, Irfan Shaukat2, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem1,5, Ashar Mehfooz1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Zia-ud-Din Sindhu1, Shahid Ali Rajput4, Mubashar Hassan1,4, Saqib Umar1, Muhammad Ali Jamil1, Rao Zahid Abbas1 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi1

 

...lence related associated risk factors and hematological changes (due to bovine anaplasmosis) were studied in Sahiwal cattle and crossbred cattle of the district Faisalabad of Punjab province, Pakistan. Therapeutic efficiency of Oxytetracycline-Imidocarb dipropionate combination was compared with Enrofloxacin-Imidocarb dipropionate against Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). For this study, the blood samples of three hundred and sixty nine cattle ...
Salma Javed1, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah2, Sadia Tabassum1,*
...valence and the possible risk factors of type II diabetes in Hazara region Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The total area was divided into six clusters, and the data was collected randomly from different hospitals, clinics, and different localities of Hazara region.The report included 2,400 participants, amongst which, 1,000 subjects were suffering from type II diabetes, including 432 males (43.2%) and 568 females (56.8%). Whereas 814 (81.4%) of them were...
Ambreen Leghari1,2, Asghar Ali Kamboh2,*, Shakeel Ahmed Lakho1, Faiz Muhammad Khand1, Kanwar Kumar Malhi2,3, Iqra Bano Chandio4, Seema Baloch5 and Jan Mohammad Shah4
Shaukat Ali1,*, Sadia Batool2, Fatima Javed Butt2, Sundas Nasreen1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1

Punjab University Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 34, Iss. 1, pp. 1-104

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