Ruse, Michael, The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet, The University of Chicago Press, 2013, 251 pp, $26.00, ISBN 978-0-226-73170-4

 

Science, Religion and Culture

Tom Gilson & Carson Weitnauer (eds), True Reason: Confronting the Irrationality of the New Atheism (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2013), 315pp, US$17.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-8254-4338-1

Reviewed by Gregory W. Dawes, Associate Professor of Philosophy

Science, Religion and Culture
...slavery and genocide. No review could do justice to so wide a range of issues, so my aim here is simply to offer some general reflections on the strategies employed.

...

Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...man RVA strains. In this review, we have summarized and discussed the significance of recent research outcomes obtained from whole genomic analysis of common and unusual human RVAs. 

...

Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...cur in rural areas. This review lists the risks of emergence of diseases due to the on-going urbanization, with especial focus on vector-borne diseases, particularly Japanese encephalitis. It is concluded, that although the mechanisms required for an extensive human to human transmission is not present for Japanese encephalitis virus, there is evidence of urban virus transmission. Thus, considering increasing urbanization rates and intense contact between huma...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...amatically. In this mini-review, we discuss recent findings on the H5N1 viruses endemic in poultry and humans in Egypt, and suggest possible options to control the infection.

...

Lei Chen, Ling Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wan-Zhu Guo

 

Molecular Genetics of Aichivirus C (Porcine Kobuvirus) in China
...eny of pig diarrhea. The review represented the discovery of Aichivirus C in China, and made a brief summary about molecular and epidemiology characterizations of Chinese Aichivirus C strains. Mutiple Aichivirus C strains and Aichivirus C variants are circulating in China. Recombination events were also observed in Chinese Aichivirus C strains. More further studies are needed to clarify the evolutionary features and pathogenicity of Aichivirus C.

 ...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...In this article, I first review the classical philosophical understanding of the relation between the One and Many in which the One is conceived as ontologically prior to the Many as their necessary principle of unity and intelligibility. I then propose a new paradigm for the relation between the One and the Many in which the Many by their dynamic interrelation from moment to moment initially co-create and then sustain the One not as a higher-order individual ...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

... not be ignored. In this review, we summarised the findings of recent studies on H9N2 AIVs epidemics and strategies for their prevention in poultry in China.

...

Ye Liu2, Yulong Cong2, Yiming Shao1*

... of vaccines. Herein, we review recent developments of HIV Tat as immunoregulator using for optimizing the efficacy of vaccines. By highlighting preclinical/clinical applications of Tat and its working mechanisms, this review exhibits the superior potential of Tat as immunoregulator on optimizing immune responses mediated by vaccines. These examples of selected studies will provide researchers some implications and inspirati...

Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

...lecular therapy. In this review we have summarized recent advancements and applications of aptamers in biology.

...

Paulo Eduardo Brandao

...her viral diseases. This review is intended to present the current situation of RNAi against rabies, as well as insights into the future on the field.

...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...ective vaccines. In this review, we discuss the innate immune responses against HP-PRRSV infection and suggest new areas of investigation into this important interface between pathogen and host.

...

Hai-Bo Wang, Qiu-Hua Mo, Ze Yang*

...lated viruses. This mini review overviewed the basic principle of RT-NASBA and discussed the significance of these new findings.

...

Huaichang Sun

...or mutation escape. This review is intended to present the current situation of antiviral roles of amiRNAs, against variable RNA viruses in particular.

...

Thomas J. Coleman III1*, Ralph W. Hood Jr.1 and John R. Shook2

...search notes, and 3 book reviews on the topics of atheism, secularity, and science. Each article is introduced with brief commentary drawing attention to some of the key theoretical and methodological issues surrounding them as well as their implications for the study of atheism and secularity.

...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

... antivirus therapy. This review aims to reveal the exigency of developing a worldwide effort to acknowledge the importance of performing an extensive study of this deadly disease.

...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...etagenomic NGS. This minireview is revising our developed TUViD-VM protocol and selected other approaches regarding their suitability in metagenomics. We provide an overview on the difficulties, challenges and opportunities that developed alongside metagenomic virus discovery. The field of metagenomics from clinical specimens promises the identification of novel, yet unknown, infectious diseases and etiologies.

...

Kang-Seuk Choi

...applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specific applications in the field.

...

Mohammad Taghi Karimi

...yphosis. The aim of this review is to determine the effciency of various orthoses to reduce kyphotic curve based on the available literature. A search was performed in some databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Embasco and ISI Web of Knowledge between 1960 and 2015 years. Keywords such as kyphosis, spinal deformities were used in combination with orthosis, brace and corset. The searched outcome indicated that there were at least 15 articles publi...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

...unction. The aim of this review article is to screen for the available information on knee implant system and to propose a suitable remedy for effective management of such ailments. Out of the available and applied implants, none of them was evaluated by motion analysis system. It has been shown that severity of pain and overall function of knee joint were improved following the use of this implant. Although it has been mentioned that KineS...

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

...e genes is crucial. This review describes the history of the RT-qPCR technology, emphasizes the importance of reference genes and enumerates several algorithms to screen reference genes to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Additionally, several possible improvements in the selection of reference genes are discussed.

...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...dary labeling. This mini-review discusses the applications of reporter CSFV in the study of CSFV biology, including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.

...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...ine strains. The present review summarizes the knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the Maghreb countries.

...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...s and successes. In this review, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive hybridization that can be adapted to unanimously identify viruses of diverse genetic backgrounds. 

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...and South Asia. Here, we review, using available data in research papers and reports of international organizations and databases, the factors that enables the spread of PPR in Africa and the required countermeasures that are required to control and eradicate it. However, with challenges such as uncontrolled movement of animals across porous borders, limited financial capacity of farmers to expand or improve the systems, and inadequate supply of quality vaccin...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...eradication of PPR. This review comprehend the current scenario of recombinant technology based vaccines and diagnostics, virus like particles (VLPs), reverse genetics approach etc., in the development of diagnostics and vaccines against PPR.

...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...es may be required. This review shows that social science engagement in PE to date is virtually non-existent, but that increased efforts to draw lessons from the social sciences and to increase the degree of participation in PE could increase its potential as an important tool in disease impact assessment and control. Particular attention is paid here to the potential role of PE in future research on the epidemiology and control of PPR. <...

Hassan Tarik Atmaca

...nt research articles and reviews that have provided up-to-date and current research trends in the field to further facilitate disease eradication campaigns. 

...

Muhammad Aslam

...xt-align: justify;">This review paper intends to portray current scenario of agricultural productivity through yields and gaps of five major crops; wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane. The review discusses major constraints, identifies future prospects and makes policy recommendations for enhanced agricultural productivity in Pakistan. The review revealed that in Pakistan, on average ...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...olecules. In the present review, we concentrate on the recent advances in the development of aptasensors for antibiotics residue analysis based on electrochemical signal generation. Aptamers possesses the strong potential as receptors for the development of biosensors for antibiotics detection; therefore, a specially designed aptamer specific to an antibiotic may be suitable for this purpose. In this review, the importance o...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...condary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors involved. In the last years substantial progress has been reported in the identification of viral factors involved in the host immunosuppression, although future studies employing in vivo infection models are needed t...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...ainst viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in triggering the antiviral resistance in plants. Antiviral RNA silencing, R-gene mediated resistance and host factor related recessive resistance are categorized as most beneficial plant defense approaches used by plants. The review also briefly explains about introgression of durable resistance to generate virus resistant cultivars for econom...
...lications, both critical reviewers and cutting-edge research, in coming issues of the Hosts and Viruses.
...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...xt-align: justify;">This review defines the prose associated with the chemical ecology of the Asian Long Horn Beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis. It further provides a brief impression of ALB’s biological characteristics, ecology, chemical ecosystem, economic significance, and management. Beetles in the Cerambycidae family have implicit increasing importance as pests of green forest in addition to shade trees, shrubs, and pink wood products as...

Waqar Islam

...ases. Therefore, here we reviewed about this issue by highlighting that what farmers know about plant viruses, what is their perception about yield losses by virus diseases and what management strategies they choose to apply against viruses. We further added our suggestions that how plant viruses can be managed effectively through simple and credible efforts.

...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...atic. This paper takes a review of the researches done by various workers on the diversity, morphology ecology, physiology of nutrition, trap formation and mechanism of nematode capture as well as probable causes of death. The review traces the shift in the areas of research as well as ups and downs in the interest shown by the researchers. Guide lines for organized, coordinated research to i) screen different strains of NF ...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...ate of the host. In this review, we discuss the recent understanding in host responses to avian viral infection and their impact in health and disease. 

...

Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Khanum Zahra2, Arooj Zaheer2, Khizar Samiullah3

... immunogenicity. In this review structure and types of silk producing gland, spinning process, chemistry of spider silk fiber, mechanical properties and applications of silk in health, military industry and many other fields is discussed. Its antifungal and antimicrobial potentials are also explored. Researchers are trying to introduce advanced methods to manufacture spider silk artificially to enhance silk production. Silk fiber can be designed after determin...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...and transformation. This review discusses information regarding rust disease and resistance in wheat to tackle the disease through resistance breeding. 

...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...: justify;">This article reviews development, adoption and performance of Bt cotton against the background of monopoly pricing of its seed in Pakistan. The area under illegal Bt cotton is 80 % with nearly 36 unapproved varieties. Most of these varieties are Cotton leaf curl virus susceptible, poor in fiber quality and high input demanding unapproved varieties. Almost all these varieties employed Monsanto Cry1Acgene (MON 531) as it was not patented in Pakistan....

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...of institutional ethical review board (IERB), 250 subjects were selected for this comparative cross sectional study. Multiple stage probability technique was used for sampling. In the first stage one union council was selected from each district randomly. In the second stage, 25 subjects involved in rice cultivation from the last 10 years were selected from each union council. Similarly 25 subjects who never worked in the rice paddy field were also randomly se...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...ively. The present paper reviews these efforts, lapses and unfolds new strategies in research and extension in future.

...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
...roblems most often. This review focuses the use of fertilizers in conservation agriculture and their impact on weed management. Weeds are major constraint in the productivity of agro-ecosystems. Fertilizer use can influence weed emergence, weed persistence, weed dormancy, weed dynamics, weed growth and weed dispersion attributes. The rate, timing, type and method of fertilizer application affect biological trends of weeds. In conservation tillage systems, the ...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
... ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disease effects with predicted changing climate. The impact of changing climate on host, pathogen, a...

 Zafar Islam*, Abdul Ghafoor Mangrio*, Muhammad Munir Ahmad*, Ghani Akber*, Sher Muhammad**, Muhammad Umair*** and Yaskina****

APPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF IRRIGATION WATER UNDER VARIOUS SIZES OF CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
...spectively. According to review the DU and CU for all center pivot sprinkler systems should be in the range of 85% or greater and 90-95%, respectively, for excellent ratings. Scheduling coefficient of NARC, BWP and TBK locations were obtained 1.09, 1.07 and 1.12, respectively. Also the calculated linear relationship between values of CU and DU in the all sprinkler systems tested in this study is as follows: CU = 100-0.8(100-DU) R2=0.697

...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...tus of the disease. This review article focuses on the development of different molecular diagnostic assays from conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcriptase loop mediated isothermal amplification over the last decade. These diagnostic assays vary in their sensitivity, specificity, reliability and reproducibility. Although these assays are detecting PPRV with...
Waqas Ali1,*, Arshad Javid1, Syed Mohsin Bhukhari1, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Hira Rafique1
... target species. Current review inspects different sampling techniques, various issues related to surveys design, application and ethical issues connected with these sampling techniques. It can be concluded from the literature survey that all sampling techniques have biasness related to geographical position, habitat and species under consideration. Pitfall traps are more effective for collection of ground dweller amphibians and reptiles having less jumping an...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
...ds in Pakistan have been reviewed extensively. The disappearing trends of migratory birds are recorded from fresh water reservoirs of Pakistan and are mainly attributed to continued loss of wintering habitat, habitat modification, fragmentation, eutrophication, anthropogenic activities and illegal hunting. The adverse effects of habitat loss (Band tailed fish eagle, Black Stork and Water Pipit), pesticides (Gulls, Eagles, Terns, Ducks and Cormorants), eutrophi...

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

Ayesha Noreen1, Dilara A. Bukhari2 and Abdul Rehman1,*
...s. The objective of this review was to summarize the roles of ROS in different stages of cancer, cell invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis.
...

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

...ntal gene transfer. This review focused on the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus. Understanding the concept of resistance development and transfer will immensely help in curtailing the global rise in antimicrobial resistance in bacteria.  

...

Saif Ullah and Mohammad Akmal*

...unflower is essential to review. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer 2016. Nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1), P (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and S (10, 20 and 30 kg ha-1) were compared in a randomized complete block design in three replications. Plot (4m x 4.2m) with six rows were made and planted at 0.7m spacing on ridges. Results revealed that N 120 kg ha-1 resulted in the maximum days to ...

Yasir Ali1*, Muhammad Aslam Khan1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Muhammad Hussain2

...lecular approaches. This review provides a detailed discussion of the different aspects for controlling three rust diseases caused by P. recondita Rob. exdesm f. sp. tritici , P. striiformis West. f. sp. tritici, P. graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici and the importance of race specific and non-specific rust resistance genes in in global wheat varieties. This knowledge will help as basis for plant pathologist, plant breeders and genetics to develop non-specific rust...

Umair Riaz1*, Muhammad Ali Kharal2, Ghulam Murtaza3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Sana Javaid4, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Humera Aziz3 and Zafar Abbas1 

Muhammad Khan
...ncer activity. This review will mainly focus on the anticancer activity, cellular targets and anticancer mechanism of PSD-A which may help the further design and conduct of research and repositioning it for oncological clinic.
...

M. Tariq Javed1, Nazir Ahmad2, Gulbeen Saleem3, Haleema Sadia4, Farkhanda Manzoor5 and Ghulam Hussain Dilbar

EFFECT OF AGE AND SEASON ON SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF BUFFALO BULL - A REVIEW
...ts. An effort is made to review the literature gathered from different sources on semen characteristics in buffalo bulls which will be helpful to researchers and allied professionals in future research or policy planning. The review is bifurcated in different sections for easy understanding of the facts. The review suggests and effect of age and season on buffalo bull semen characteristics...

 Saiqa Andleeb* , Shaukat Ali

RNA interference; A tool for treatment of human diseases
...numerous disorders. This review paper provides the basis for further development of RNAi technology as a drug therapy against various human disorders.

...

Farah Deeba, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir, Muhammad Irfan, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Chitinase production in organisms: a review
...against degradation. The review focused on different sources of naturally chitinase production in organisms was discussed.

...

 Shagufta Andleeb*

Teratogenic potential of pyrethroids: a review
...ept teratogenicity. This review concludes the teratogenic potential of sublethal doses of different types of pyrethroids in various groups of animals in systematic way. On line available data interpretation through Pubmed Central NCBI, Google Scholar and Google was done to achieve the target and 122 references were found the most relevant in this perspective.

...

 Anam Javed, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Skin health implications of Chemical detergents and importance of biodetergents
... less side effects. This review highlights a wide range of dermal disorders which are produced due to synthetic detergents. It has studied that ultimate solution of the grave issues, is common utilization of biosurfactants from domestic to industrial level. Biodetergents do not cause health complications, and as they are readily biodegradable so do not persist in environment. Our body’s protecting shield, the skin, has more chances of exposure and biodet...

Shaukat Ali1,*, Sundas Nasreen1, Sobia Safeer1, Saiqa Andleeb1, Mubashir Ejaz1, Saira Bano2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3

Medicinal plants as therapeutic agents for cancer treatment
...ticle reports a detailed review of ethnomedicinally important anticancerous medicinal plants. It
will provide a new way to explore the therapeutic value of plants and characterization of biologically active
compounds from them that may lead towards developing anticancer drugs and proper treatment of cancer.

...

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
...wastes only. The present review focuses on the current
research on algal-bacterial consortia and the construction of consortia by keeping in view the environmental
conditions of country, suitable for microalgal growth to deal with pollution control and production of animal/fish feed
and other valuable metabolites.

...

 Zafar Iqbal

A review of fisheries education in University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
...accharification. In this review, we have discussed different
pre-treatment methods and their effect on recalcitrant structure of lignocelluloses
for making it readily available for enzymatic hydrolysis 

...

 Sobia Faisal1*,Qurat-ul-Ain Ahmad2, Maleeha Manzoor3, Madiha Manzoor4, Faisal Rifaq5

Socio-psychological factors related to tuberculosis diagnostic test seeking behavior in Pakistan
...elated articles had been reviewed for the period of 1998 to 2013.
Emphasis was laid to review all studies conducted in Pakistan however where
needed reference from other countries with similar socio-demographic
characteristics was also included. The four key components of Health Belief
Models; perceived susceptibility and severity and perceived benefits and barriers
explain the relation bet...

 Abdul Majid Khan*

Review report on mammalian dental defect (enamel hypoplasia) in different groups of mammals
...lady. The present
review correlates the research studies that have been conducted in deciduous as
well as permanent dental material of modern, archeological and palaeontological
animals belongs to multiple orders of class Mammalia and also provides a road
map for comparative analysis of dental health in different mammalian taxons.

...

Sabi-ur-rehman1, Farooq Azam1, Shaheed Ur Rehman2, Tasbeeh Ur Rahman3, Ayeza Mehmood4, Afshan Gohar5 and Abdul Samad5* 

...e main objective of this review was to highlight the relevant documented knowledge published about its botanical aspects, phytochemistry, traditional uses as well as therapeutic potential of Conocarpus erectus. This plant was selected due to its great medicinal importance like its leaves and fruits have been using traditionally as antipyretic, anti diabetic, anti malarial and for the treatment of conjunctivitis, syphilis, gonorrhea, orchitis, diarrhea, anemia,...
Juan Augusto Hernández-Rivera1, Jaime Molina-Ochoa2,*, Luis Jorge García-Márquez1, Omar Francisco Prado-Rebolledo1, Rafael Julio Macedo-Barragán1, Arturo César García-Casillas1 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah3
...in the environment. This review shows and update of the crossbreeding in dairy cattle in both hemispheres. Here, is reviewed the effect of heat stress on dairy cattle; the mechanism of autoregulation; the benefits of the heterosis in crossbreeding cattle by hybridization; the body condition score in crossbred dairy cattle; the yields in crossbreds; here is also discussed that even when there have been many crossbreeding in d...

 Sasha S. Euler

...g Theories, this article reviews cultural practices or perceptions regarding what happiness is and how it can be achieved. Mainly research on Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has identified many cultural differences in the pursuit of happiness, often described as East-West splits along categories such as highly expressed affect vs. quiet affect, self-assertion vs. conformity to social norms, independence vs. interdependence and the like. However, it is the ove...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...ral utility timber. This review article shows the work conducted on sheesham decline syndrome especially die back and wilt in Indian sub-continent. A diversity of plant pathogenic fungi has been identified and isolated from the various affected sheesham trees from Indian sub-continent, yet the actual cause of the diseases is still controversial. It is pertinent to mention here that no viruses or any bacteria has been reported from a singly tree in whole of the...
Jie Yang
...nal carcinoma) have been reviewed. Taken together, these results indicate that human PGLYRP1 encodes an innate immunity protein that breaks down the structure of microbial cell wall, plays a role both in antibacterial defenses and several inflammatory diseases.
...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...stify;">This is a status review article on the destructive bacterial blight disease of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, in rice producing areas. This article comprehensively reviews the etiology, symptomatology, pathogen biology, disease development, disease cycle, epidemics and epidemiology, geographical distribution and strategies for the disease management viz., exploitation of host plant resistance, cultura...
...n has exploited the peer-review process in the Journal of Zoology by generating fake reviewers email addresses. This led to an in-depth investigation by the Editorial Team and Executive Council of Zoological Society of Pakistan. The editorial team had written confidentially to all the reviewers at their official addresses, the list of which was provided by the corresponding author at the t...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

...e poultry industry. This review details the possible role and potential of some common captive and non-captive wild bird species in the spread of NDV and also its economic impact on the commercial poultry industry of Pakistan.  

...

Shaikh Abdul Lateef, Zhou Lin, Wu Jian, Junjie Qian, Jonathan Hartanto Tan and Zheng Shusen*
 

... present a comprehensive review characterizing the viral architecture, life cycle, infectivity mechanisms, immune escape strategies, disease epidemiology and preventive measures associated with HBV. The current antiviral therapeutics are not providing adequate protection against HBV. It is mandatory to characterize and devise novel antiviral therapies to control the spread of hepatitis  

...
Huaisheng Zhang1, Pengfei Li2, Huajun Wen2, Guangming Tian1, Hui Chen1, Lu Zhang1 and Jianqiang Zhu1,*
...’s deer in detail, review the research status and progress and examine the trends in the development and direction of Milu research in China, which should provide a reference for the healthy development and protection of the Milu population.
...

Muhammad Khuram Razzaq1,2*, Saeed Rauf1, Mohsin Khurshid3, Shahid Iqbal1,4, Javaid Akhter Bhat2, Ayaz Farzand5, Adeel Riaz1,6, Guangnan Xing2 and Junyi Gai

 

...ing generations. In this review, we have mainly considered the effect of abiotic stresses on pollen viability, selection and methods for the improved pollen viability and the management of heat stress.  

...
Shaukat Ali1,*, Sadia Batool2, Fatima Javed Butt2, Sundas Nasreen1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1
...or humanity. The present review article devised the modern cancer treatment paradigm which proposed directions towards probiotics or biotics-cancer treatment strategy. The probiotics are present in the human gut region and acting as a health promoter; as they have antioxidative, immunomodulatory, antipathogenic and anti-cancerous properties. Review based on the futuristic and modern aspects of cancer treatment, we believe th...

Khaled Kaboudi* 

...still little known. This review summarized the epidemiological situation of H9N2 subtype in poultry in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia. Human infection was reported in Egypt and serosurveys programs showed high positivity, particularly in poultry workers. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the most of H9N2 viruses circulating in North Africa were among the G1-lineage group. The presence of mammalian and human genetic markers were reported in ...

Ankur Abrol, Madhumeet Singh, Akshay Sharma* and Pravesh Kumar 

Ali Mujtaba Shah1,2,3, Ali Raza Shah3, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Yousif2, Zhisheng Wang1*
...oluble vitamins. In this review, an attempt has been made to study the composition of colostrum, i.e. fat, protein, immunoglobulin, lactose, oligosaccharide, vitamins, minerals, growth factors and nucleotides and its benefits to health of animals.
...
Hafiza Sadaf Zahra1, Asia Iqbal2, Sayyeda Hira Hassan1, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Muhammad Khan1*, Muhammad Irfan3, Chaman Ara1, Shaukat Ali4
...nes. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence based relationship between ALAN and oncogenes expression through epigenetic remodeling by DNA methylation and histone acetylation.
...

Muhammad Rehan3, Asim Aslam3, Javeria Umber4, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan3, Waqar Azeem3, Hassan Aftab5, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Abid6, Abdul Hameed Khan3, Hafiz Hasnain Ayoub5, Altaf Hussain2 and Muhammad Farooq Khalid1* 

...several infections. This review summarizes current knowledge on complex immune-modulatory role of vitamin D at cellular level as well as different mechanisms through which vitamin D exert protective role against different viral, bacterial, parasitic infections and non-infectious disorders.  

...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...endemic country. In this review, we describe different structures of mature pox virion with reference to vaccinia virus (VACV), list of immunogenic candidate genes presents in CaPV genome and their potential use in diagnostic/vaccine developments. 

...

Shilong Chen1,2, Shifeng Xiao1,2, Shao Wang1,2, Fengqiang Lin1,2, Xiaoxia Cheng1,2, Xiaoli Zhu1,2, Dandan Jiang1,2, Shaoying Chen1,2* and Fusong Yu3* 

... flocks. The aim of this review is to describe the current knowledge on SBDSV with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, genomic organization and pathogenesis. However, the pathogenesis mechanisms of cross-species transmission, retardation and beak atrophy are still needed to be elucidated. 

...
Mohammad Ejaz1, Salma Javed2, Muhammad Hamza1, Sadia Tabassum2, Muhammad Abubakar3, Irfan Ullah4*
...e, and vinblastine. This review is organized to describe the general study of natural bioactive molecules or secondary metabolites secreted by fungal endophytes as novel sources of anticancer drugs. The main purpose of this review is to organize the effective compound of the fungal endophytes for cancer treatments. 
...
Asim Faraz1*, Abdul Waheed1, Muhammad Mudasser Nazir2, Aneela Hameed3, Nasir Ali Tauqir4, Riaz Hussain Mirza1, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Rana Muhammad Bilal5

Ghulam Akbar1*, Muhammad Anjum Zia1, Ali Ahmad2, Neha Arooj1 and Shahneela Nusrat

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Iftikhar Nabi3, Amar Razzaq4, Raheel Saqib5, Allah Bakhsh6, Muhammad Mohibullah7 and Muhammad Luqman

... aim of this paper is to review and evaluate the performance of Pakistani basmati to international markets and to estimate the impact of different factors on basmati export from Pakistan. For this purpose, panel data of eleven markets are collected from 2003 to 2016. Independent macroeconomics variables used in the study are exchange rate of Pakistan, exchange rates of trading partner, inflation in Pakistan, inflation in trading partner and dummy variables joi...

Filza Fatima Rizvi1, Muhammad Umair1, Muhammad Kahlid Jamil2*, Masooma Hassan2, Komal Qayyum1 and Syed Mohsin Raza Kazmi

... study was undertaken to review energy consumption in the agriculture sector of Pothohar region of Pakistan. This region has no proper irrigation system due to its topography. Additionally, potential of renewable energy in Pothohar region that includes solar, wind and biogas has been calculated from the data, taken from different sources. Based on the analysis, it is estimated that the solar energy potential in Pothohar region is ~ 97321 MW, only ~ 126 MW (0.1...

Ghani Akbar 

... region. Therefore, this review study was focussed on identification of strategies for the conservation of natural resources, improvement of crops, horticulture, livestock, postharvest management and farm operation sectors in Malakand division. The study illustrated the potential for agricultural improvement, explored key issues and identified strategies and recommendations for agriculture sustainability and improved food security that may lead to better livel...
Fehmina Ashraf1*, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Shaukat Ali3, Muhammad Khan1
...leaching processes. This review article describes the whole overview of laccases.
 

Anurag Sharma*, Naresh Kumar, Geetanjali Singh and Anika Sharma 

...rmers. This article is a review of present literature data of Fenugreek and Giloy as potential nutraceuticals and galactagogue in animal husbandry. Both these herbs are known to have pharmacological effects which include hypoglycemic, hypo-lipidemic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and galactagogue activity. The commercially available drugs pose health threats and prove detrimental to both human ...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1 and Onyemocho Audu2 

...is the most common. This review highlights the need for more robust surveillance studies with introduction of opt-in testing at all clinics for better epidemiology the HCV disease burden more accurately.  

...

Naseem Zahra1* and Shajia Jabeen

...cin and vitamin B6. This review entails important and healthiest aspects of brown rice to include it in regular diet. 

...

Muhammad Nafees Khan1, Iftikhar Hussain2, Muhammad Tahir3, Misbah Ullah2, Shehzad Ali Jamshed4 

THE EFFECTS OF TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE ASPECTS ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE
...rmance. After a detailed review of the literature, list of tangible and intangible aspects were identified.
These aspects were utilized to develop a measure. The findings of the study indicate that organization Lucky
Cement Ltd. Pezu, Pakistan, is modestly offering these aspects to their employees. Moreover, results acknowledge
that tangible aspects and intangible aspects were related and both having positive effects on the employee perfor...

Muhammad Shahid1, Adiqa Kiani2* and Mahmood Shah3

Livestock Tackles the Major Sector Fluctuations in Agrarian Sector and Raises Economic Performance: A Study of Pakistan
...is insignificant. I have reviewed a lot of economic literature but not found single one study of this nature. This comprehensive research will assist the govt. in making policies on livestock to revive the economic performance of the country.

...

Muhammad Shahid1, Adiqa Kiani2* and Mahmood Shah3

Livestock Tackles the Major Sector Fluctuations in Agrarian Sector and Raises Economic Performance: A Study of Pakistan
...is insignificant. I have reviewed a lot of economic literature but not found single one study of this nature. This comprehensive research will assist the govt. in making policies on livestock to revive the economic performance of the country.

...

 Khizar Azam*, Abdul Shakoor*~ Afzal Khan*, Riaz Akbar Shah*~ Shaukat Ali Shah·

IDENTIFICATION OF VITAL VEHICLE MECHANICAL DEFECTS CAUSING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN PAKISTAN
...the years 2003-2012 were reviewed. The objective of this research was to establish the contribution of VMD to RTA. A vehicle surve.y, based on a convenience sample of 290 vehicles was also done at the Toll plaza of the Peshawar-Islamabad Motorway (M-1)...

 Syed Asif Ali Shah*, Iftikhar Hussain*

PERFORMANCE OF THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR OF PAKISTAN AND ITS COMPETITIVENESS CAUSE AND REMEDY
...g employment. This paper reviews the performance of Pakistan’s manufacturing sector and highlights its importance in economic development of the country and analyses the reasons behind the sectors apparent lack of competitiveness. It also discusses the standing of the Pakistani manufacturing sector and its capability of producing high-tech products and its share in the global export. Data provided by GEM Pakistan has been analyzed, that leads to suggest ...

Syed Farasat Ali Shah*, Amjad Naseer**, Rashid Rehan**

USE OF RUBBER WASTE IN CONCRETE TO REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION- AN OVERVIEW
...ble strength. This paper reviews the viable use of rubber wastes in concrete industry to address the problem of disposal of such wastes.
...
Sumaira, Ali Mujtaba Shah*, Ghulam Asghar Solangi, Ifra Anwar, Qudratullah Kalwar 
...lty Statement | This review exposed beneficial impact of camel milk on human health, on which previously little information exists. The work may be helpful in future for detailed re-search on camel milk and its uses for children. 
...

 Muhammad Qasim Khan1*, Syed Athar Masood1 and Shahzad Naeem Qureshi2

REFORMULATION OF PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL FOR PUBLIC SECTOR AUTOMOBILE REBUILD ORGANIZATIONS
...ified through literature review, qualitative and quantitative analysis, an inclusive productivity enhancement model for public sector automobile rebuild organizations was reformulated. Proposed model when implemented holistically in rebuild organizations can produce positive results whereas implementation of proposed practices in piecemeal/isolation may not accrue true and optimal outcomes. The findings of this research will facilitate top ...

 Riaz Sayed1, Khizar Azam1, Waqar Shah1, Inayat Babar1, Hamidullah1, and Sahar Noor1

A REVIEW OF DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF FATIGUE
...provides a comprehensive review of the previous literature regarding driver fatigue and drowsiness research, the present state of research and the future trends. Various factors that may contribute to driver fatigue and drowsiness, Fatigue related countermeasures from various sources along with their merits are discussed. The Center for Intelligent Systems Research (CISR) of the George Washington University conducted an experiment at their ...

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
...n in Bangladesh. In this review article, we will focus on epidemiology and modes of LSDV transmission, and its effective control and preventive measures to reduce or eradicate the LSDV infection from a recently infected country like Bangladesh. In addition, we will highlight on impacts of LSD outbreaks in cattle industry of Bangladesh, and necessity of farmers’ awareness building and telemedicine service during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) out...

Hosts and Viruses

June

Vol. 7, Iss. 3, Pages 39-58

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