Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...Asian II isolates demonstrated central node with Nepal-2003, Bhutan-2004, Pakistani, Afghani and Iranian isolates. The O/PAK Lahore vaccine was at two mutations from central node, while HE647819 and HE647820 were clustered into a separate single taxon at eightieth (80) mutations from central node. Taken together, these findings highlight the continuous circulation of serotype O of FMD in the region.

 

...

Gregg D. Caruso

Science, Religion and Culture
...Miletus and other pre-Socratic philosophers began to offer scientific explanations of the natural world, questions about the relationship between science and religion began to emerge. Given that science and religion are two great manifestations of human culture, and that the scientific and religious worldviews dominate our understanding of the cosmos and our place in it, it is no surprise that these issues are of profound importance to many of us. It is vital,...

Keith Ward

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...o;Why is there something rather than nothing? Why do we exist?’ and ‘Why this particular set of laws and not some other?’ (p. 19). In his book he proposes to answer those questions, from a purely scientific point of view (‘Philosophy is dead’, he announces on p. 13, even though the whole book is an exercise in scientifically informed philosophy). But there is something very odd about this. Nowhere in the book does he mention consc...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...Asian II isolates demonstrated central node with Nepal-2003, Bhutan-2004, Pakistani, Afghani and Iranian isolates. The O/PAK Lahore vaccine was at two mutations from central node, while HE647819 and HE647820 were clustered into a separate single taxon at eightieth (80) mutations from central node. Taken together, these findings highlight the continuous circulation of serotype O of FMD in the region.

 

...

Francisco J. Ayala and John C. Avise (eds.)
Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 547 pp., $47.64 (hbk),
ISBN 1421413051.

Reviewed by David Pindel

 

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...ht in the scientific literature – no volume of essential readings in evolutionary biology exists, despite the fact that evolution remains central to and is the unifying principle of the biological sciences. To remedy this, they have put together an impressive collection of classical papers, encompassing virtually all aspects of evolutionary biology and including all of key figures in the development of this field.

 

...

John Shook

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...e. Theology’s desperate maneuvers for avoiding science and scientific atheology only delay the inevitable. Partner atheologies wielding logic, ethics, and civics await to help theology extinguish the gods.

 

...

Tom Gilson & Carson Weitnauer (eds), True Reason: Confronting the Irrationality of the New Atheism (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2013), 315pp, US$17.99 (paperback), ISBN 978-0-8254-4338-1

Reviewed by Gregory W. Dawes, Associate Professor of Philosophy

Science, Religion and Culture
...ral reflections on the strategies employed.

...

Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
... as an example, I demonstrate the validity of such criticisms. Then, I offer two examples of alternatives to objectifying ethnography before tracing developments in anthropological method in the last decades that have greatly improved the lens used for the anthropological gaze. Finally, I conclude by suggesting the collaboration between anthropology and theology in the restoration of a wor...

Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
... with high case fatality rates. The main vectors preferably feed on livestock and breed in rice fields, and the majority of cases subsequently occur in rural areas. This review lists the risks of emergence of diseases due to the on-going urbanization, with especial focus on vector-borne diseases, particularly Japanese encephalitis. It is concluded, that although the mechanisms required for an extensive human to human transmission is not present for Japanese e...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...Asian II isolates demonstrated central node with Nepal-2003, Bhutan-2004, Pakistani, Afghani and Iranian isolates. The O/PAK Lahore vaccine was at two mutations from central node, while HE647819 and HE647820 were clustered into a separate single taxon at eightieth (80) mutations from central node. Taken together, these findings highlight the continuous circulation of serotype O of FMD in the region.

...

Lei Chen, Ling Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wan-Zhu Guo

 

Molecular Genetics of Aichivirus C (Porcine Kobuvirus) in China
...ue to the high detection rate in the severe diarrhea in China, Aichivirus C is thought to be a potential pathogeny of pig diarrhea. The review represented the discovery of Aichivirus C in China, and made a brief summary about molecular and epidemiology characterizations of Chinese Aichivirus C strains. Mutiple Aichivirus C strains and Aichivirus C variants are circulating in China. Recombination events were also observed in Chinese Aichivirus C strains. More f...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...so-called “meta-narratives” that offer a comprehensive vision of reality on the grounds that their authors are consciously or unconsciously trying to control the thinking and behavior of others. Yet, as Colin Gunton points out, human beings, thus faced with an enormous diversity of options in virtually every area of human life, end up making important decisions simply on the basis of momentary personal preference. In this article, I first review th...

Reviewed by David Svolba, Fitchburg State University, USA email: dsvolba@fitchburgstate.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...h our society ‘tolerates’ religion is by exempting citizens from laws that compel them to act in ways their religions forbid, or that forbid them from acting in ways their religions require. According to Brian Leiter, religious tolerance, in this sense, is prima facie morally justified.1 It is prima facie morally justified because religion is a source of claims of conscience, and liberty of conscience is supported on both broadly Kantian and utilit...

Reviewed by John Shook, University at Buffalo, USA; Email: jshook@pragmatism.org

Science, Religion and Culture
...y informative and inspi- rational, and frequently revealing in stunning ways. Comparing the answers from the impressive figures in the book takes readers on a journey through truly deep and important issues with honesty and clarity.

...

Reviewed by Rick Repetti, Kingsborough Community College, CUNY; Email: Rick.Repetti@kbcc.cuny.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...aphorisms, guidelines, strategies, talking points, dialectical examples and analyses of real-life “interventions” designed to progressively tutor armies of atheist evangelists in the art of demolishing faith, which Boghossian claims is “pretending to know things one doesn’t know.”

...

Stephen Kershnar

...aning in life in the literature. It is an extraordinary work and is required reading for anyone wishing to think seriously about the topic. It includes a comprehensive and in-depth study of the literature, devastating criticisms of rival theories, and a restructuring of the issues in a way that will shape future discussions of the field. It is also well-written, including interesting-and-enjoyable references to historical fi...

H. Bruce Rinker

...science that later accelerated especially with the emergence of ecology and evolutionary thinking. However, the strict determinism and mechanistic assumptions inherent in the physical sciences delayed unification and, thereby, contributed inadvertently to the present-day scourges of fragmentation such as human-accelerated climate change and biodepletion. A philosophia prima is now required to repair and reunite human thought...

Muhangi Denis

...(Italy), the Russian Federations, the Caucasus and it has shown possibilities of spread within Eastern Europe. Involvement of all stakeholders in the pig value chain in designing and implementing of prevention and control strategies could be explored in future control programs. This may call for investing resources in changing disease management behaviour in managing this disease.

...

Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

... is the expression acceleration of sequestrome 1(SQSTM1) / aggrosome and colocalization of HDAC6 to the cytoplasm. The key player HDAC6 is investigated for modelling several intracellular processes that come into action to bring out the viral clearance. The shuttling of HDAC6 takes place from nucleus to cytoplasm and vice versa controlling the overexpression of IFN-beta and ISGs which subsequently triggers virus specific immune response.

...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...ion is the predominant strategy to prevent and control H9N2 AIVs. There are three inactivated vaccines of H9N2 AIVs have been used in domestic poultry in China. But H9N2 AIVs occurred frequently and caused severe economic losses to the poultry industries. H9N2 AIVs can evade the pressure of vaccination by genetic evolution and antigen variation. Moreover, the ratio of L226 in the haemagglutin (HA) receptor binding site has i...

Ye Liu2, Yulong Cong2, Yiming Shao1*

...me implications and inspirations for using HIV Tat to optimize immune responses of vaccines.

...

Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

...antibodies. They are generated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. These single stranded nucleic acid aptamers can acquire various secondary and tertiary structures to bind their cognate targets with high affinity and specificity. The ease in synthesis and modification makes them an attractive candidate for a variety of applications. Since the last decade, aptamers have been regarded as an emerging player in biology. They have found application...

Maureen McKeague1, Maria C. DeRosa2*

...nition elements, are generated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. The selection of aptamers with optimal specificity and high affinity remains a challenge, leading to the recent emergence of elegant new approaches and tools for SELEX. In this commentary, we discuss recent advancements in the selection of aptamers.

...

Mark Zelcer

...hough for reasons I elaborate on later, I would not recommend this to experts in those fields, but rather to non-professionals.

...

Bruce L. Gordon

.... For scientifically literate non-Christians, it presents an obstacle to Christian faith, and for young Christians who have been raised to equate YEC with the teaching of Scripture, it can destroy their faith altogether when its falsity is discovered. With a view toward encouraging a culture of biblical and scientific literacy and overcoming the anti-intellectual legacy of fundamentalism that sustains this particular “scandal of the evangelical mind&rdqu...

Kathryne E. Taylor1 and Karen L. Mossman1,2*

...CP0 field.

...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...re present through deliberate inoculation with a particular virus strain or bacterial species and being maintained free of unwanted microbiota in sterile isolators. The sterile surgical derivation and gnotobiotic status of the pigs allow studies of the infection, disease and immune responses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regulators, and intestinal and environmental microbes. Due to the si...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...al, pathological and laboratory findings of this outbreak. The disease was clinically manifested by the depression, diarrhea, difficult breathing, muco-purulent ocular-nasal discharges with matted eyelids and encrusted nostrils and finally death. Clinical outcome, gross lesions and histological observations were suggestive of PPRV infection, which were confirmed by the application of a reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Collective...

Gregg D. Caruso

...ll skepticism in the literature. It contains a reworked and expanded version of the view he first developed in Living without Free Will (2001). Important objections to the early book are answered, some slight modifications are introduced, and the overall account is significantly embellished—for example, Pereboom proposes a new account of rational deliberation consistent with the beli...

Dana Kay Nelkin

...challenges serve to elaborate, extend, and deepen the view. The result is a book that, along with the first, will be a centerpiece of the conversation about the metaphysics of free will, about morality, about moral responsibility and our related emotions and practices, about the pressing practical and moral issues concerning punishment, and about meaning in life. Finally, the book itself is a wonderful manifestation of a commitment to certain intellectual va...

Derk Pereboom

.... Fischer’s core strategy for resisting this argument is (at least initially) a soft-line reply. Soft-liners claim that in some manipulation cases the agent is not morally responsible, and in others he is. A corollary of the soft-line reply is that there is a plausible compatibilist condition on moral responsibility that has not been met in some of the cases. One prominent response of this sort is that a key condition on basic desert moral responsibility...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...ys a crucial role in moderating the virulence of influenza virus by multiple mechanisms. Due to C-terminal ‘tail’ (CTT) truncation of NS1, there are length variation types of NS1 in different subtype influenza viruses. CTT functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune responses. Here, we discuss those different effects of CTT truncation or elongation of NS1 protein in different genetic backgrounds of influenza experimentations. Con...

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...ductive and economical strategy for wheat production following cotton. It is concluded that wheat seeded in zero tillage following cotton did not decrease stand or yield compared to conventional tillage and wheat grain yield and N agronomic efficiency increased with application of 150 kg N ha-1 in three equal splits viz. at sowing, first irrigation, and second irrigation.

...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

...ochar was applied at the rate of 0 and 50 t ha-1 with four N levels of 0, 90, 120, 150 kg ha-1 to subsequent maize crop. Biochar significantly enhanced plant height and grain yield. The plots previously sown with legumes produced taller plants and high number of grains ear-1. Nitrogen application increased plant height, number of grains ear-1, thousand grains weight, grain and biological yield. It is concluded that integrati...

Zaheer Ahmed Deho1, Shamsuddin Tunio2, Qammaruddin Chachar2, Fateh Chand Oad2

... opening (%) into consideration, it was observed that at 50% boll opening most of the traits exhibited values likewise in higher boll weight (3.17g), seed index (7.7g), staple length (27.60mm), seed oil content (20.83%) and seed germination (74.66%) as compared to other pickings.

...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

... to 15 days at room temperature (20oC) and then applied to appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, compost @ 0.7 t ha-1 and poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 were applied with half of the recommended dose of NPK @ (75:60:30 kg ha-1) with or without EM. In 2009-10, the application of EM with Press mud @ 20 t ha-1 significantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm), numb...

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

...Garden soil+ FYM) at the rate of 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 were assigned to sub plots. Days to 50% sprouting, survival percentage, number of roots plant-1 and plant height were significantly affected by planting dates and soil media. Maximum survival percentage (29.16%), number of root plant-1 (13.31), and plant height (40.42 cm) was recorded for the cuttings planted on 20th Feb. On the other hand minimum days to 50% sprout- ing (28.49) were recorded for c...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...ere conducted in the laboratory to assess the effects of Helicoverpa armigera nu- cleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV) applied to eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olive, on emergence of and para- sitism by female Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) emerged from HaNPV- treated host eggs. The percent emergence (mean) of tiny parasitoid from host eggs treated during egg, larval and pupal stages with the virus at field dose (x), 2x dose, and 0.5x dose ranged from 83.2- 87.3%, 87.1- 9...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...ted through multistage stratified random sampling technique during 2009-10. Stochastic frontier analysis was employed for the estimation of technical efficiency levels and its determinants. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique was applied to estimate stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production function to ascertain the level of technical efficiency. The econometric computer software STATA was applied for the estimation. The estimated value of technica...

Arshad Ali Khan1, Muhammad Sajid1, Abdur Rab1, Sahib Alam2, Abdul Bari3

...d SOP at 50-50 and 75-25 ratio may be used as an optimum fertilization dose for obtaining higher yield and improved fruit quality of tomato crop.

...

Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas Ullah Jan, Dawood Jan

...ded using Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) data from Pakistan Social and Standards Living Measurement (PSLM) 2010-11. The elasticities of interest were obtained via log-log inverse (LLI) functional form of Engel equation. The quantity and expenditure elasticities remained less than unity with reasonable differ- ence in magnitude across urban and rural households. Quantity and expenditure elasticities of all the vegetables were higher for rural house...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

...ean maximum average temperature at the time of maturity, ceteris paribus with one oC increase in temperature the average wheat yield increased by 56.64 kg per hectare in the study area. It was deduced from the economic variable that the level of input used was less than optimum. The negative coefficient of the location variables revealed that increasing the area virtually decreased the yield. It was concluded from...

Sajid Ali1, Nouman Badar1, Hina Fatima2

E-mail | sajid_economist@yahoo.com

...and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models of forecasting. Using data for 1948 to 2012, productions and yields of both crops were forecasted for 18 years starting from 2013 to 2030. ARMA (1, 4), ARMA (1, 1) and ARMA (0, 1) were found appropriate for sugarcane production, sugarcane yield, and cotton production respectively, whereas ARIMA (2, 1, 1) was the suitable model for forecasting cotton yield. Some diagnostic tests were also performed on...

Stephen Suleyman Schwartz

...nt>e.

...

Hussein Rashid

...Benghazi, Libya. This narrative sets up an easily understood conflict between Islam and free speech.

...

Massimo Pigliucci, K.D.

...t of view: that of a moderate liberal atheist.

...

Varadaraja V. Raman

...led, oppressed, and frustrated citizens (Irish Catholics, Algerian Muslims, Sri Lankan Tamils, etc.) have terrorized people and governments for various causes.There has also been terrorism by the majority on the minority in communities and nations: for example, Jews in Nazi Germany, Kurds in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and Blacks in South Africa. In recent years a new kind of terrorism has been emerging in which individuals or groups attack and murder innocen...

Ali Sina

... have come out to demonstrate.

...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...ence of at least two separate introductions of PPRV into Southern Tanzania, underlining the transboundary nature of the disease, particularly in regions with uncontrolled livestock movements.

...

Paulo Eduardo Brandao

...vo, and the high failure rate of this treatment in human patients, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) for Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS) has witnessed an increasing interest from those concerned with a cure for rabies, inspired on the success obtained for other viral diseases. This review is intended to present the current situation of RNAi against rabies, as well as insights into the future on the field.

...

Muhammad Mushtaq

E-mail | mushtaq@uaar.edu.pk

...r trials with low concentrations of strychnine alkaloid and decreasing the poison-baiting duration are suggested.

 

...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...HCV, and high prevalence rates have been found in hemodialysis units around the world. HCV induces chronic liver disease, which is characterized by a persistent hepatic parenchyma inflammatory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patients with viral hepatitis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Geneti...

Chun-Yi Lin1, Meng-Ling Wu2, Tang-Long Shen1, Hsin-Hung Yeh3, Ting-Hsuan Hung1*

 

...elop proper prevention strategies in the near future.

 

...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

... Partial land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercropped maize was 0.96 than respective sole crop. Maximum partial LER of mungbean (0.70) was recorded in intercropping systems. Total LER in maize + mungbean intercropping systems was 1.66 which indicates that 66 % more area would be required to attain same yield from respective sole cropping systems. Likewise, in fertility treatments total land equivalent ratio (1.78) was recorde...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...er, highest benefit-cost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was found best compromise between forage yield and quality for maize cultivar Kissan under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The study also indicates that crude protein and mineral content in fodder maize can be improved through N application and complete reliance on protein and mineral supplements for farm livestock can be reduced.

 

...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...isal-2008 exhibited comparatively more drought tolerance with less decrease in growth rate (18.70%); total dry matter (26.94%), 100-grain weight (23.45%) and grain yield (21.50%) as compared with all other treatments. It was concluded that water stress induced at grain filling stage showed a significant impact on wheat growth as compared with other growth stage stresses. Regarding genotypes, Faisal-2008 was least affected by...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

...whereas, feed conversion ratio (FCR) at week-4 only. Imported quail strain (M) performed better in almost all the studied parameters than that of other strains of quails.

 

...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...n to GDP, employment generation, and export earnings in the economy of Pakistan. Due to modernization in agriculture sector over the last few decades, credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. The current study attempts to analyse the impact of credit on wheat productivity in district Jhang. Furthermore, study explores the purpose of farmers for acquiring...

Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Aysha Sameen1, Mahr un Nisa2

 

...ulfil omega 3 Poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration that contributes 8.5% of the total fatty acids. Rabbits were reared for the period of eight weeks. Enrichment of 7% flaxseed in the diet of rabbits significantly enhanced growth performance of rabbits and improved poly unsaturated fatty acids in the meat of rabbits as compared to other groups.

 

...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

... fertilizer management strategies for rainfed cultivation under lentil (lens culinaris) based cropping systems field trials were conducted at University Research Farm, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during 2007-2009. Lentil was planted in winter and during summer sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and mung bean (vigna radiata) followed lentil. Five different fertilizer treatments i.e. farmyard manure (FYM) 30 tons ha-1, NPK 35-40-2...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...ne reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a major concern for the swine industry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate imm...

Huaichang Sun

...as becoming a feasible strategy against various virus infections. Recently, a significant advance in RNAi technology is the use of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to fight virus infections. However, different strategies are needed to prevent virus variation or mutation escape. This review is intended to present the current situation of antiviral roles of amiRNAs, against variable RNA viruses in particular.

...

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...ton mealybug) in the Laboratory, it is necessary to know the development capacity of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), on different host plants. Such studies would identify the best host plant for its efficient rearing. The present study investigated some basic life table parameters i.e. female life span, adult female weight, longevity and reproductive potential of P. solenopsis on okra (Abelmoschus esculentu...

Asma Noshad1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Hamida Bibi2, Saifullah3, Salma Bibi4, Hamid Ullah Shah1

...lia and fermentation filtrate obtained from Pleurotus ostreatus also known as the oyster mushroom. The percent mortality of Macrosiphum rosae (rose aphids) and the LC50 values were calculated and used as an indicative of insecticidal potential. The maximum mortality of aphids was achieved at 80 µg mL-1 and the LC50 for the fruit body extract after 24 HRS was calculated as 12.83μg mL-1, followed by the extrac...

Muhammad Shah Zaman1, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Aish Muhammad1, Khalid Farooq2, Iqbal Hussain1*

...ee and Cardinal were moderately tolerant varieties to NaCl stress. The most sensitive variety Asterix produced minimum plant height (2.7 cm), number of nodes (2.4), number of roots (2.6), root length (0.7 cm), root weight (0.021 g) and shoot weight (0.045 g) at 20 mM NaCl. The most salt sensitive potato varieties evaluated in this study would be used in Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation of AtNHX1 to improve their tolerance against salinity stress.

...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

...o. The parameter of seed rate variable is also negative and statistically significant. A technical inefficiency of 22% is present in the production of wheat crop in the selected district. Majority of the farmers typically utilize the last year’s crop seeds to economize the cost but this comes at another cost of loss of potential yield, which could be obtained through the use of modern varieties of seeds. Also considering the ecological conditions of the ...

Faheem Khan*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...f respondents were illiterate while the 20 percent of respondents who were literate had achieved various levels of education. In the years 2012 and 2013, the average yield of educated sugarcane growers was 76 t/ha while illiterate sugarcane growers was 64 t/ha. It is recommended that sugarcane growers should be educated through Farmer Field School and other extension programs and extension...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...ea cropping system. Integrated nutrient management is important for higher crop yields and sustainable agriculture. A field experiment was conducted to study the residual effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of chickpea crop. The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1), Farmyard Manure (20 t ha-1), Poultry Manure (20 t ha-1), NPK ...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

...hip with residual transpiration, osmotic adjustment, cell membrane stability, flag leaf weight, specific flag leaf weight, while negatively correlated with specific flag leaf area. These results indicated the importance of physiological traits and their positive influence on grain weight. Multivariate techniques, including factor analysis (FA) and cluster analysis, indicated that the magnitude of variability existing in the gene pool was satisfactory for initi...

Ryan T. Cragun1*, Joseph H. Hammer2, Michael Nielsen3

...lity (r = .92). Two exploratory and one confirmatory factor analysis of the NRNSS supported the hypothesized two-factor solution: (a) institutional religiousness and (b) individualistic spirituality. The NRNSS also demonstrated convergent validity through theoretically-expected correlations with established measures of religiousness and spirituality (the Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Religiosity, Humanistic Morality, and Trad...

Luke Galen

...r examination of the literature reveals that the mechanisms of most beneficial associations with religiosity are attributable to factors other than beliefs, chiefly, social engagement and embeddeness in supportive groups. Often, those with the lowest levels of well-being and prosociality are uncommitted or indifferent religious believers, not socially engaged nonbelievers. Therefore, defining individuals who are not committed or engaged in socially supportive ...

Joseph Langston1*, Joseph Hammer2, Ryan T. Cragun3

...ign: justify;">This exploratory study contributed to research on nonbelievers, their communities, and the atheist movement in general by dividing nonbelievers (N=1,939) into four groups based on degree of formal affiliation and assessing attitudes, perceptions, and preferences in three areas. First, we examined the preferences of nonbelieving group members (“secular affiliates”), former members, and nonbelieving non-members (“secular nonaffi...

John Stinespring, Ryan T. Cragun*

...model to forecast future rates of religious nonaffiliation. A two-period, two-variable Markov switching model is used which yields a tractable steady state solution and growth path for the share of the population that is nonreligious. The model setup and solution are shown to be both intuitive and determined by three parameter values. The authors illustrate its use by estimating these parameter values using biannual data fro...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

...phasis on communal deeds rather than cultural creed, the rabbis still feel comfortable functioning in communities, school settings and informal educational roles. We therefore may expect little existential angst; this was found to be only partially true. Some have found other expressions of their talents, while others anxiously await the opportunity to find alternate means of financial support. Specific issues of Jewish dietary practice, Sabbath observance and...

Amanda Schutz

...avigate tragedy, or cooperate effectively with others in society. Phil Zuckerman spends the remainder of the book refuting this claim. His goal is to explore “how secular people navigate their lives,” which is no small task. Throughout the book he discusses how secularists do in fact have morals, successfully raise children, deal with death and heartache, and build communities—basically, how they carry on without supernatural guidance.

...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa and Muhammad Arshad Khan

...phate (DAP). Urea at the rate of 608 kg/ha and DAP at the rate of 260 kg/ha was applied on six mulberry varieties. The results showed a deficiency in nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and manganese in soil before the fertilizer application. Contrarily, high copper and potassium contents were found. After three weeks of fertilizer application, concentration of N, P, K and Fe in the soil almost dou...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...sp;under civil system by rationalizing the water allowance.

...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...ocess. Lye solution penetrates inside the msesocarp and than endocarp during four weeks of treatment process. The lye treated olive fruits were treated afterwards into brine solution for the next week and so on which gradually remove the bitter taste of lye solution and got salted taste during four week of treatment process. The residual water of treated olive fruits were changed on weekly basis and their residual water were analyzed physic...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...lied @ 15 L ha-1 in integration with Dual Gold @ 1.25 L ha-1 showed weeds mortality of 65.5 %, resulted in seedcotton yield of 3949.7 kg ha-1 and net monetary benefit of Rs. 2,19,821. Sole application of Dual Gold @ 2.5 L ha-1 reduced weeds by 55.9%, produced seedcotton yield of 3212.7 kg ha-1 and net resulted in net benefit of Rs. 1,77,414. It is noteworthy that interculturing twice (30+60 DAS) caused maximum (67.7%) suppression of weeds, ...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...of meat samples refrig- eration storage at 4±1 °C. The pH of meat samples were checked and recorded on similar intervals. During 12 days storage, significant reductions (i.e. P <0.05) were found in both E. coli O157: H7 and S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these treatments. Results revealed that levels of citric and lactic acid concentrations effect were maximum for 5.0%, followed by 3.0% and least for 1.0...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...of neuroAIDS, the incorporation of
spatial, temporal, and demographic inference into intra-host evolutionary analysis using Bayesian phylogeography allows for inference of pathogen migration between infected tissues and cell types, provides valuable insight into immunopathological processes, and ultimately paves the way for a better understanding of the interplay between viral evolution and pathogenesis...

Reviewed by Dr William Patterson

...ll. His aim is to demonstrate that the contrasting mindsets underlying science (with its emphasis on rationality, evidence, experimentation, and observation) and religion (with its emphasis on faith) are intrinsically opposed and that all attempts to reconcile them must result in failure. Coyne has much of use to say on the topic and many of his points are powerfully made. His case is weakened, however, by his incoherent tre...

Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye1, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji1, 2 *

...ria. Samples were concentrated and inoculated into MCF-7 and RD cell lines. Isolates from MCF-7 were passaged in RD and L20B cell lines while isolates from RD cell line were passaged in L20B cell line. Subsequently, all isolates were subjected to panenterovirus 5l-UTR, partial VP1 and EV-C-3Dpol/3’-UTR PCR assays, amplicons sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Both sites yielded two isolates each on MCF-7 cell line while on RD cell line one ...

Elly Vintiadis

...tood, theism incorporates science since it too, just like science, requires people to seek the truth and to think critically. In order to go about showing why this
is so, Steane embarks on showing what theism is and how it offers an explanation of the world and life of which science is a part.

...

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

...able than SP-ELISA as titration method for the detection of antibodies against FMDV structural proteins.

...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1*, Aayesha Riaz1, Asim Shamim2, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 and Arfan Yousaf

E-mail | murtazhassan@yahoo.com

... Group A animals were operated for partial excision of the lesions, Group B were inoculated with autogenous vaccine alone and Group C were treated with inoculation of autogenous vaccine supplemented with immune-modulators (Levamisole and Vitamin E+Selenium). The animals treated with autogenous vaccine along with immune-modulators showed complete regression of the papillomas compared animals, which were treated with autogenous vaccine alone. The ...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...f Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midge vectors from April 2009 to March 2010 in Morocco. In order to assess the implementation of integrated control measures and disease risk analysis, this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...r canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) in dogs. Other disease agents include various respiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective was to develop a sensitive and sp...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...lign: justify;">Next generation sequencing (NGS) opened up a plethora of new research possibilities in biology and medicine. Metagenomics is one of these emerging NGS applications and offers the opportunity to study i.e. whole ecosystems. Basically, the metagenomics approach is similar to well-known shotgun-sequencing, though on a much bigger scale. For instance, the metagenome of a lake would include all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...osed to different concentrations of the insecticide, ranging from 0 to 40 grams active ingredient per hectare (g.a.i ha-1) through foliar spray. Analyses were done at days 3, 7, and 15 after treatment. Lipid peroxidation rates and contents of proline, ascorbate (ASC), glutathione (GLU), antioxidative enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were assessed. ...

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...ation and in vitro regeneration offered new dimensions of research to improve important crop species including wheat. The tissue culture by itself has increased the crop improvement potential to develop new cultivars with desirable traits through somaclonal and gametoclonal selection. While successful tissue culture is critical for genetic transformation, it has been facing greater impediments in wheat and related crop species. Its success&...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

...ed that potassium at the rate of 200 mg pot-1 and maleic Hydrazide at 1500 ppm provided the best results for quality chrysanthemum flower production under the agro climatic conditions of Peshawar, Pakistan.

...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1*, Arfan Yousaf1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1, Faisal Ayub Kiayani1, Matee ul Islam2 and Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 

...rnia. The decision to operate the calf was made after confirmation of umbilical hernia resulted in septic shock. Animal was first stabilized with supportive treatment prior to surgical decompression. A modified two-layer hand-sewn anastomosis technique was used. Herniorrhaphy was done with sliding mattress sutures. After first 10 days post-surgical decompression and administration of fluid, antibiotics and non-steroidal anti...

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

...sed to develop three generations F2, BC1 and BC2. Heterosis (in F1) and inbreeding depres- sion (in F2, BC1 and BC2) were quanti ed for traits including shelling percentage, kernels per row, kernel rows per ear, and 100-grain weight and grain yield. Non-additive gene action was evident for shelling percentage, kernels per row and 100-grain weight and grain yield for which both heteros...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

...gar beet was sown at the rate of 6 kg ha-1 at four seeding depths from 1 to 4 cm. Nitrogen was applied at band and broadcast methods at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 mixed with biochar at the rate of 25 and 50 t ha-1. The data collected on various parameters were statistically analyzed and planned mean comparisons were carried out to explain significant differences. Seeding depth significantly a...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...tteva sciodoxa under laboratory conditions of 27±2ºC, 75% RH and 12:12 h photoperiod. Instar 3rd responded with 100% mortality at 5x107 conidia ml-1, while same level of mortality was recorded in 5th instar at 1x108 conidia ml-1. Instar 5 also showed the lowest mortality (33.3%) at 1x106 conidia ml-1. Median effective concentration (EC50) ranged between 9.87x105 and 21.30x105 conidia ml-1 for 3rd to 5th instars....

Kang-Seuk Choi

...s mimic the naive configuration of authentic IBD virus particles. The VLPs show intrinsic immunogenicity and a high safety profile.  Thus, VLPs are considered one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specific applications in the field.

...

Mohammad Taghi Karimi

...sed on the available literature. A search was performed in some databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Embasco and ISI Web of Knowledge between 1960 and 2015 years. Keywords such as kyphosis, spinal deformities were used in combination with orthosis, brace and corset. The searched outcome indicated that there were at least 15 articles published on this topic and most of them have a small number of subjects. Although some new orthoses have been dev...

Monireh Ahmadi Bani1*, Mostafa Kamali2, Iman Borji3, Soheyla Aslani3, Francis Fatoye4

... to be sensitive and accurate than one minute.

...

Fatemeh Kheiri

... plate and a polar heart rate monitoring. The difference between the kinetic and kinematic between sound and prosthetic sides was evaluated by two sample t-test. The physiological cost index of amputees varied between 0.42 and 0.74 beats per minute. there was no signi cant di erence between the range of motion of ankle, knee, hip and pelvic rang of motions between both sides. The plantar exion moment in prosthesis and sound sides varied from 0.92-0.98 N/BW an...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...n associate with post-operational complications. The aim of this study is to design an orthosis which is easy to use, economical and effective. A new knee orthosis was designed to improve the performance of OA patients during standing and walking. Two subjects with knee osteoarthritis recruited in this research study. The gait performance of the subjects and their stability to stand was evaluated by the use of motion analysis system and a force plate (Kistler)...

Rongfei Lu1, 2, Zhiyang Liu1, Peng Fang1, Guangyi Chen1, Feng Sun1, Yongjian Fan1, Yijun Zhou1, Tong Zhou1*

...d the reliability of generated data can be enhanced significantly appropriate measures. As a standard for the relative expression of target genes, the selection of reference genes is crucial. This review describes the history of the RT-qPCR technology, emphasizes the importance of reference genes and enumerates several algorithms to screen reference genes to normalize the RT-qPCR data. Additionally, several possible improvem...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

.../P-Cdc2). First, we used rat glioma cell cultures persistently infected with a laboratory strain of BDV (C6BV ) to establish the assay. Next, in situ PLA was applied to detect BDV P in brain tissues of infected animals. Finally, protein-protein interactions were visualized in both C6BV and brain tissues of experimentally as well as naturally infected animals (rat and horse, respectively). ...

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

...nal controversy, but generated a new one that continues today, for example, about whether the condemnation proves the incompatibility between science and religion. Recently the Galileo affair has been studied by several scholars whom I label “Berkeley para-clericals,” chiefly philosopher Paul Feyerabend and historian John Heilbron. Their approach is distinctive: it views controversial topics involving the relationship between science and religion f...

Muhammad Amjad Nadim1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Kashif Waseem2

...7 [98-DAS]), crop growth rate (40.42 and 40.96 g m-2 day-1), relative growth rate (88.94 and 84.14 mg g-1 day-1), net assimilation rate (3.58 and 3.89 mg m-2 day-1) and grain yield (4.40 and 5.29 t ha-1) during the years of experimentation. Similar trend was also noted by the application of micronutrients (alone and in combination with NPK). Addition of boron @ 2 kg ha-1 enhanced almost al...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...xt-align: justify;">Integration of green manuring crops along with the inorganic fertilizers in the prevailing cropping system may increase crop productivity and net profitability through improving soil physico-chemical properties and fertility. Two years field experiments were conducted at the Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar- Pakistan (semiarid conditions) to investigate the effect of two green manuring crop species (guar and millet), their in...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...teristics and MFSC registration duration and Rank Based Quotient was calculated for problem identification. It was found that machinery was provided to almost half of the respondents. Similarly seed was the most provided input followed by fertilizers. Top most source of agriculture information was input dealers followed by Model Farm Services Center. The top learned skills by respondents in MFSC were the agronomic practices ...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...rcated forty-sampled quadrats from both irrigated and non-irrigated farms. Information on socio-economic activities of the rice farmers, level of rice yield, agricultural practices for rice production and farm management techniques employed in the study area were observed. The study employed simple percentages to analyse the farmers’ responses; while regression model established significant relationships between rice yield and farm management methods ado...

Moorthy S. Muthuswamy

...a good chance of reinvigorating modernity in affected Muslim communities.

...

John G. Bruno1*, Chien-Chung Chao2,3, Zhiwen Zhang3, Wei-Mei Ching2,3, Taylor Phillips1, Allison Edge1, Jeffery C. Sivils1

...R; a resazurin-like substrate) version of a rapid (< 1 h) aptamer magnetic bead sandwich assay. The optimal sandwich aptamer combination utilized the same aptamer sequence (designated Rt-18R) for both capture and reporter functions while producing a signal to noise ratio of > 4.0 for detection of ~ 1,000, R. typhi cells. Titration experiments conducted in buffer revealed a lim...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...aks have a case fatality rate of up to 40%, which is alarming. It is a zoonotic disease and the virus is transmitted mainly to the humans through hard tick bite and direct contact with blood of the infected animal. The occurrence of CCHF outbreak in Pakistan is increased quite significantly near Eid-ul-Adha. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure this dise...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...by stamping out, a new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried blood samples collected from mink, a VP2 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) system was recently evaluated. However, such estimations of disease progression are commonly based on single sampling occasions and it is essential to know if estimated antibody levels vary ...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...the moon-soon outbreak duration in the season. Present study was aimed to quantify delay-sowing response with increasing N-rate on crop productivity at Agronomy Research Farm, University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. Sunflower (cv. Hysun-33) was planted on different dates i.e. Jul. 1, 11 and 21 treated with different N-rates starting from 40 kg ha-1 with a 40 kg increment to...

Haq Aman Ullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Ijaz2 and Aqeel Javeed3

...bran and homemade concentrate mixture of dairy goats was investigated in district Lahore of Pakistan. A total of Twenty 20 goat farms were randomly selected and out of that 40 feed samples 2 from each farm were collected in the month of April. All the samples were analysed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 by using reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Out of total samples Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 33 feed samples, with a percent c...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...n Libya and Egypt demonstrated the need for a robust surveillance system to detect and respond effectively to exotic infections. Emergence and re-emergence of FMD virus genotypes/lineages has been detected necessitating frequent replacement of the vaccine strains. The present review summarizes the knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the Maghreb countries.<...

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

... field of peach and comparative non-orchard field with an attempt to know about the soil and wheat crop contamination caused by heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Ni). Soil samples were collected from both orchard and non-orchard fields and were extracted with Aqua-regia and Mehlich-3 extracting solutions for total and available metals respectively. Wheat crops from both fields (orchard and non-orchard) were collected and analyzed with aqua-regia for heavy metals conten...

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

... effect of selected dehydration techniques sun drier cabinet drier, tunnel dryer, solar drier and portable solar dryer, on the white mulberry fruit (Morus alba) variety grown in District Skardu, Gilgit Baltistan. After drying, mulberry fruit was stored for 150 days and evaluated for physiochemical and sensory parameters (water activity, ash content, percent acidity, pH, moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, taste, texture, color and overal...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

... Dec. 2014) using a seed rate of 130 kg ha-1. Nutrients were applied as one bag urea (N 46%) and di-ammonium phosphate (N 18% and P 46%), each at sowing time during seedbed preparation and an extra bag of urea in February at stem elongation stage of the crop (each bag 50 kg ha-1). Rests of the cultural practices were kept common to all plots. Both sowing dates and varieties have resulted differences in ...

Tahir Khan, Raziuddin, Fakharuddin* and Muazam Jamal Razi

...eme length displayed moderate to high broad sense heritability and maximum genetic advance for most of the F4 populations. Current results suggested the effectiveness of selection in early generations for the improvement of these traits.  

...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Hidayat-ur-Rahman2, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Fakharuddin2

...ible combinations to generate 7 x 7 diallel crosses. In 2008 and 2009, all F1 hybrids along with their parent cultivars were planted in randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replicates at Tobacco Research Station Mardan (plain) and Tobacco Research Substation Mansehra (hilly). Data for all traits were analysed in pooled analysis and individual environments. Heterosis over better parent was determined for all traits across environments. He...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...s of animals have demonstrated an expansion of the distribution of the disease. Having been in the shadow of rinderpest virus for decades little is understood regarding factors that influence the outcome of infection with both viral and host genetics being thought to influence the outcome of disease. Following the successful global eradication of rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus has also been targeted for global eradication by the...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...after implementing the strategic mass vaccination programme. The decreased number of outbreaks in recent years as well as changes in the disease severity patterns and distribution might be due to the effectiveness of vaccine, timely vaccination, circulation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies a...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...ls etc. derived from literature, discussion with experts, and based upon scientific facts. Different mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increased abortion, cost of high feeding and rearing inputs in young and adult sheep/goats etc. The results revealed that at the annual 10%...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...diagnostic development strategies for the effective control and eradication of PPR. This review comprehend the current scenario of recombinant technology based vaccines and diagnostics, virus like particles (VLPs), reverse genetics approach etc., in the development of diagnostics and vaccines against PPR.

...

Neil Levy

...but the collective deliberation that underlies the power of cumulative culture is more powerful when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Neil Levy

...but the collective deliberation that underlies the power of cumulative culture is more powerful when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...ticipation and to incorporate lessons about participation and power from the social sciences may be required. This review shows that social science engagement in PE to date is virtually non-existent, but that increased efforts to draw lessons from the social sciences and to increase the degree of participation in PE could increase its potential as an important tool in disease impact assessment and control. Particular attention is paid here to the potential rol...

Ali Tahmasebi1, Parvin Raji1*, Mostafa Kamali2

...ck (MVF). Results demonstrate that there were no significant differences in mean values of static stability parameters in EC condition between children with spastic diplegic CP and typically developed children (P˃0.05). There were no significant differences in mean values of static stability parameters during EC and EO condition in typically developed children (P˃0.05). Children with spastic diplegic CP experience the best static standing stability i...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...IV and they formed a separate sub-cluster along with recent isolates from Nepal, Bhutan and China. On genetic analyses, it appeared that the N gene of PPRV is less conserved as compared to the F gene. Two unique amino acid substitutions (K423Q and E426G) were observed in Bangladeshi and Chinese isolates in the partial sequence of N protein.The recent Bangladeshi isolates are somewhat divergent from the earlier Bangladeshi isolate, indicating that the PPRV stra...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...ar discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed within two weeks. Interestingly, the disease was exclusively observed in goats and all sheep kept in the same herd were serologically positive but did not show any clinical signs of PPR. The active PPR virus (PPRV) infection was confirmed by antigen capture...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...olive and palm oils. Laboratory experiment on “Effect of stress conditions on the quality and stability of olive and palm oil blends” was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Tarnab Peshawar and The University of Agriculture Peshawar KP-Pakistan during 2015. Olive: palm oils treated in sole or admixture at various ratios were kept at different stress conditions for three months. Data was...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

... the influence of incorporating wheat flour (WF) on broken rice flour (BRF) at different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 g/100 g) on the proximate compositions and functional properties. It was found that percent protein (8.93–12.25%), ash (0.52–1.01%) and moisture contents (4.47–7.09%) showed significant (P < 0.05) increase, while fat content (1.41-1.17%) showed significant (P < 0.05) decre...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...ing and then were incorporated to plots at sowing both the years. All treatments including control were either supplemented with half of the recommended dose (75 kg N ha-1) of Urea-N or no Urea-N. Compost, its composition, mineral N and their interactions significantly affected maize yield and yield components over two years average data. Compost application produced more maize ears m-2 (13%), grains ear-1 (28%), 1000 grains weight (14%), biological yield (56%...

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
...2SCA) and predictability ratio (σ2GCA/σ2SCA>1.00) indicated that gene action was predominantly additive for days to flowering while, for the rest of the traits non additive gene action was responsible as the predictability ratio was less than unity which was further confirmed by higher values of variances of SCA than GCA. In present study for all the traits except days to flowering, non-additive gene action wa...

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...rmers. The credit access ratio formula was employed that measured farmers’ access, in relative terms, to their landholdings. Likewise, credit adequacy formula was used to investigate farmers’ credit adequacy. A probit model was employed to find the important factors affecting access to credit. Results of access to credit ratio showed that small farmers had lower credit access to formal sources compared to medium ...

 Aqila Shaheen

... degradation that deteriorates both soil quality and land productivity. Determination of soil characteristics and nutrient status of eroded lands is pre-requisite for restoring their productivity. The objective of present study was to quantify the selected soil properties and nutrient status of eroded soils.  The study was undertaken on eight soil series (Missa, Pirsabak, Guliana, Rajar, Balkassar, Rawalpindi, Chakwal and Satwal) in tehsil Gujar Khan of R...

 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

...Crop nutrition from integrated sources is advocated for higher productivity and soil fertility. The current research was designed to the exact ratio of nutrients from organic and inorganic sources for water eroded lands during 2007-08. The combination of nutrient sources tested were; control, NPK50 (50% NPK), NPK75 (75% NPK), NPK100 (100% NPK), FYM10 (10 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM10, NPK75+FYM10, NPK100+FYM10, FYM20 (20 t ha-1 F...

 Zahir Shah, Shakoor Ahamd, Mian Saeed Sarwar, Murad Ali Khan and Javid Ali

...r five days as a post-operative measure. Catamnesis revealed that the healing was complete in 14 days with no recurrence and untoward consequences.

...

 Zafar Khan, Asad Sultan, Rajwali Khan, Sarzamin Khan, Imranullah and Kamran Farid

 
...human health. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn) present in poultry egg and meat were determined in the following three districts; Peshawar, Dir Lower and Malakand of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In all the three districts the egg albumen was found to contain significantly higher levels of Pb, Cd and Cr as compared to egg yolk which contains significantly higher levels of essential elements (Fe, Mn...

 Gul Naz and Mohammad Akmal

...re comprising of seven N-rates i.e. 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 kg ha-1 as main plots treatment and the five wheat varieties i.e. Saleem-2000, Uqab, Pirsabak-2005, Tatara-96 and Pirsabak-2004 as subplot treatment. Results revealed higher spikes m-2 (286), grains spike-1 (38.55) and thousand grains weight (44.67 g) which resulted maximum grain yield (3308 kg ha-1) from N-rate 150 kg ha-1 as compared to the control. Among...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

...expected, the increasing rate of K significantly (p<0.05) increased various growth traits and yield of grass pea genotypes. The crop supplied with 20 kg K2O ha-1 produced maximum branches per plant (5.2), pods per plant (32.3), seeds per pod (4.7), seed index (82.7 g) and seed yield (2589 kg ha-1) when compared with 0.0 and 10 kg K2O ha-1. Interestingly, Sel-449 was the most responsive genotype to K nutrition which resulted in higher branches per plant (5.3...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calculate haplotype, haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity for the two species. Based on combined loci of cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and cytochrome b (CytB), twelve haplotypes were generated for G. p. palpalis and five for G. m. submorsitans. Similarly, for the combined loci, haplotyp...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

... a major cause of deterioration in the quality of food and food products. Oxidation can occur in both triglycerides and phospholipids of food because lipids are divided into two main classes; polar lipids (phospholipids) and neutral lipids (triglycerides). Lipid oxidation has been long been recognized as a major problem in the storage of fatty acids in foods. Oxidation occurs by several molecular mechanisms such as generatio...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

...alanced nutrition is imperative for efficient nutrient management and has considerable role in enhancing crop yield. To study the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) on maize hybrids, field experiments were laid out at the Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2013 and 2014, respectively. Nitrogen (0, 250, 300, 350 kg ha-1) and Sulfur (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha-1) in main plots, whereas maize hybrids (R-3305, R-2210, R-220...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...o the aptamers being generated could bind target molecules on live cells in their native conformation and it is possible to know the molecular profile of the cellular surface. Whole CELL SELEX is very useful in the field of diagnostics and targeted therapy and the aptamers generated can be utilized to differentiate cancerous cells from normal cells or even different types of cancerous cells, detect live pathogenic organisms,...

Koksal Karadas1, Muhammad Tariq2, Mohammad Masood Tariq3* and Ecevit Eyduran4

... sheep was measured comparatively by model assessment criteria, such as R2, R2ADJUSTED, SDRATIO, CV(%), RMSE, RAE, MAPE, MAD and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between actual and predicted milk yield values, respectively. Minimum farm numbers for parent and child nodes were assigned at 10:5 for producing the best predictive accuracy in CART and both CHAID algorithms. According...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...ompared to control. Integrated application of eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 30 ml kg-1 of soil and eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil showed highest inhibitory effect. In both aforesaid treatments, lowest and statistically similar values of germination, root/ shoot length and fresh/ dry weight seedling-1 were recorded for both C. arvensis and C. rotundus, respectively. The water ext...

 Ian von Hegner

...l rights. The basic democratic idea posits that all of its members have a full and equal status. If this status is generalized to be universally applicable, then it follows that humankind likewise are not second and first class among hypothetical gods. The existence or nonexistence of the gods is here defined as the secondary question, whereas the principal acceptance of hypothetical gods’ right to rule in a democratic...

Yingbin Wang*, Ting Ye, Xiaogang Wang and Congyu Zhou

...E), and sea surface temperature (SST). The results showed that the interpretation ratio (IR) of the 6 factors reached 83.76%, within which the IR of the RELE is the largest (26.02%). The IRs of NMV and PTV also exceed 20% (20.21% and 20.10%, respectively). The IRs of SST, PMV and NTV are similar, and all are between 5.6% and 6%. The catch of P. trituberculatus positively correlated with the fishing efforts of main catch vess...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...tal shaking at room temperature. The same procedure was performed for commercial dyes. The dye was removed due to the interaction with the polysaccharide starch and flocculation phenomenon. Chitosan starch based polymer composites can be used as an efficient and cost effective method to treat waste water polluted with carcinogenic dyes by coagulation-flocculation. Moreover this method is beneficial over other methods that employ toxic polymers or mineral coagu...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...on increasing the concentration of gums and the samples having guar gum were less hard. On sensory evaluation, the maximum scores were awarded to full fat cheese, while the negative control attained the minimum liking. Addition of gums improved the sensory acceptability of cheese. The sample containing 0.45% guar gum was awarded the scores comparable to the full fat cheese for most of the traits. Hence, it was concluded that hydrocolloids particularly guar gum...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...research was on the comparative efficiency and the productivity analysis of BT- Cotton varieties with those of the conventional non-BT-Cotton varieties. The population  of  this research covers the area of Rahim Yar Khan of Pakistan. Two hundred and fifteen farms were selected from each of the NonBT-cotton farms and BT-cotton farms. The Cobb- Douglas Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) has been employed to determine the technical efficiency of these g...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...luded that due to this irrational agriculture land use changes, the present nomadic pastoral system is in transition from pure nomadism to commercial vegetable farming in upland areas and this has exposed the traditional nomadic life to socio-economic and environmentally vulnerability in upland areas.

...

 Shaoling Lin and Jiamiao Hu

... In this study we demonstrated that HCMV pUL23 interacts with an essential component of capsid, the minor capsid protein (mCP, pUL85). Interaction was determined and confirmed with yeast two-hybrid, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. This interaction may serve as a link in the processes of HCMV capsidation and tegumentation. This study provides further evidences in the functions of tegument proteins in the assembly of HCMV virons.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...ur to the plants. In laboratory experiment, L. muscarium was the most effective against nematode eggs (95.6%) and second stage juveniles (J2) (95.8%) infection. In greenhouse experiment, similar trend was found. L. muscarium proved to be more effective against M. hapla whereas S. rugosoannulata and C. rosea showed better results among other tested fungi in experiments. Moreover, plant growth parameters were also improved due ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...icides were able to penetrate into cysts. Reproduction rate (Pf/Pi) of L. muscarium treated plants was documented minimum as compared to that of control but slightly higher compared to that of treated with nematicides. More interestingly, plant growth parameters including shoot and root were tremendously improved in L. muscarium treated plants than that of other treatments.

...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

...are important adaptive strategies for small mammals. Ambient cues, as temperature and photoperiod, play important roles in animals’ physiological adjustments. In order to determine the contributions of temperature and photoperiod to seasonal changes in body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri, we examined seasonal-acclimatized and lab-acclimated animals on severa...

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

...DGS. After 105 d administration of experimental diets, growth performance, pork quality traits, and fatty acid composition in loin were analyzed. No significant difference in growth performance and quality traits of pork loin between control and DDGS was observed. Fatty acid composition in pork belly, however, was significantly affected by DDGS treatment. Levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and oleic acid (C18:1) which are positively associated with meat flavor...

Muhammad Aslam

...extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality seed production, improving irrigation water management and improving reclamation and drainage.

...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...s of milk marketing cooperatives working in two districts (Vehari and Muzzafargrah), geographically located in the southern region of Punjab province of Pakistan. The study analyzed the significance of milk marketing cooperatives by revealing and evaluating possible returns to smallholders in dairy sector. The hypothesis that milk marketing cooperatives are beneficial for milk producers wa...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...8.88 mg/dl) while no alteration in LDL contents. Significantly effect of water based infusion was notice on mean serum glucose (73.83 mg/dl) Observation of the study indicating that water based infusion of W. somnifera are a potential source of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic agents.

...

Gerald E. Marsh

...rg’s lament is the rather gloomy conclusion that the existence of the universe, and of intelligence in particular, appears to have no meaning. This essay explores the epistemological basis of this lament.

...

Tarun Kumar Sharma, John G. Bruno and William C. Cho

...ential of aptamers and strategies to create the “bench-to-bedside” translation of aptamer technology.

...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...onse to APAP toxicity in rats. Serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, total bilirubin, hepatic glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LP) levels were estimated. Moreover these biochemical parameters were confirmed by histopathological examination using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Mason trichrome stains (MTC). Immunohistochemical invest...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

... (up to 1 acre), they operated. Similarly the small farm households (Owners, Owner-cum-tenants and tenants) of developed villages (i.e. Dawood Zai and Rajjar) perform more off-farm employment than the small farm households (Owners, Owner-cum-tenants and tenants) of underdeveloped villages (i.e. Garhi Baghbanan and Mufti Abad). This could be associated to the developed means of transport and communications, better education facilities, market facilities as well...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

... from the Household Integrated Economic Survey for the years1985-86, 1993-94, 2001-02 and 2007-08. Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) is employed to estimate the budget shares and test for these shifts. The results confirm for the significance of the quadratic variables in the model except for the Oils’ group. The presence of these shifts have been proved in Pakistan and h...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...tion onset, low literacy rate, peer pressure, occupation type, and stress are among risk factors increasing susceptibility towards heroin addiction in our studied cohort. Drug abuse initiated at an early age seems to trigger transition to heroin addiction under the influence of environmental risk factors.

...

Abida Saleem, Sajida Parveen and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...ed with FYM, PM or BC at rate of 10 g kg-1. The suspension was shaken on horizontal shaker for 20 h continuously to assess the equilibrium Zn concentration (EZnC). The difference between the IZnA and EZnC was assumed to be adsorbed. Results showed that FYM, PM or BC yielded lower EZnC and higher Zn adsorption (x/m) at higher IZnA but at lower IZnA< 20 mg Zn L-1 the reverse was observed. The data in non-treated soils were ...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...n order to develop new strategies to prevent mastitis, a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the host immune response to the infectious agents is necessary. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. This article presents a systematic integ...

Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

...il fertility; its sequestration is essential for sustainable agriculture. Soil organic carbon of three land uses viz. forest land, grassland, and cultivated land were quantified. These land uses belonged to two soil groups having different soil type and climate. Selected soil groups were Inceptisols (site 1) and Mollisols (site 2). Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density (BD), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), extra...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

...tic analysis also demonstrated clade Amblyopinae included all three species and that O. lacepedii has been proved to be a much closer affinity to O

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

...the CHAID analysis illustrated suitable eggs for egg cartons and shipment in poultry industry. As a result, it was determined in the study that CHAID analysis may be used to better prove relationship mechanism between egg quality characteristics which are of great importance for higher price and more income of fertile and table eggs.

...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...ned in many studies. Laboratory experiments showed that invasive ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) suppress ghost ants Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) through interference competition. However, relatively less testing have been done to evaluate the competition for mutual exploitation between the two ant species in the field. Here, we investigated the interference of the fire ant S. invicta on the interactions between the ghost ...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

... Chao-1 (70.75). The Quadrate diversity Indices were applied to the data and Bootstrap replicates mean values of the following indices were recorded as Chao 2 (70.8), Jackknife 1 (72.9), Jackknife 2 (71.9) and Bootstrap (70.17). The study further indicated that the population of many endemic and commercially important fish species has declined while the exotic family Cichlidae representative of three species (Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis aureus and Ore...

Sadiq Hussain, Muhammad Sharif, Sarmad Khan, Fazli Wahid, Hina Nihar, Wiqar Ahmad, Imran Khan, Nadeem Haider and Tabassum Yaseen

...he basis of its P concentration. The recommended dose of N @ 120 kg ha-1 was applied in the form of vermicompost and urea, while K was applied in the form of sulphate of potash. Spores of mycorrhiza were isolated from fresh growing crop of berseem at the University research farm and used as inoculums in this experiment. Results showed the maximum grain yield of 15.09 and 14.7 g pot-1, highest total dry matter yield of 36.3 g and 36 g pot-1, maximum roots dry w...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

...using the Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2011-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food. Economic factors such as food commodities price and household’s income and their socio-economic and demographic characteristics are included in the mode...

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

... data of House Hold Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) collected by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics to obtain the income and expenditure level of sampled House Hold. The HIES data set of year 2011-12 for KP Province was comprised of the total of 1352 sampled House Hold. However, the sampled rural House Hold was 926. The statistical framework comprised of Lorenz curve and Gini Coefficient to gauge the income inequality in the study area. To assess the income inequ...

Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

...ow significant declines; rather it appears largely static, suggesting Pakistan imports trade could not be benefited much by reductions in trade restrictions associated with the implementation of WTO in Pakistan domestic market. This stated analysis thus supports partial acceptance of hypothesis, which states that “Pakistan’s foreign trade is expected to be largely better off once WTO’s regime is fully implemented in Pakistan and rest of the w...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has also been reported from different localities of Pakistan. The main objective of this study was to screen out locally used pesticides i.e.,...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...resent review, we concentrate on the recent advances in the development of aptasensors for antibiotics residue analysis based on electrochemical signal generation. Aptamers possesses the strong potential as receptors for the development of biosensors for antibiotics detection; therefore, a specially designed aptamer specific to an antibiotic may be suitable for this purpose. In this review, the importance of detection of ant...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...deg;C for 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4°C. Straws were then kept over liquid nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Thawing was performed after 24 h of storage, at 37°C for 30 seconds and post-thaw sperm quality parameters were assessed. Sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, viability and chromatin integrity was higher (P<0.05) in extender containing melatonin 0.1 mM and 0.5 ...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

...ion, development and maturation stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Queen oviposition rate was 1.4-fold higher in polycarbonate box compared to wooden and cardboard materials. Early start of egg-laying (first oviposition period) and earlier emergence of first worker were found in polycarbonate box as compared to others. Similarly, colony foundation stage in polycarbonate box too...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

... to varying acute concentrations of glyphosate and paraquat. The fishes responded, exhibiting different behavioural abnormalities like hyperactivity, abnormal swimming, restlessness, loss of equilibrum and haemorrhage. Observation of opercular ventilation count (OVC), tail fin movemant rate (TMR) and air gulping index (AGI) showed a marked difference between control and exposed fishes, indicating that the herbicides negative...

Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

...e toxicological data generated from deltamethrin-resistant populations was compared with deltamethrin-susceptible population that has not been exposed to any insecticide since thirteen years. From analysis of metabolic profile, it was found that soluble proteins, glucose contents and free amino acids increased, whereas glycogen and lipid contents were reduced in all deltamethrin-resistant populations as compared to deltamethrin-susceptible population. Soluble ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...st in sugar beets in laboratory and greenhouse trials. The fungi chosen were Arthrobotrys oligospora, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, and Lecanicillium muscarium. In the laboratory experiment, S. rugosoannulata proved to be the most efficient biocontrol agent by parasitizing the maximum number of eggs, whereas D. oviparasitica appeared to be the least efficient after 72 hours. Th...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

... spp. Furthermore, temperature had a significant positive correlation with B. tabaci, N. inconspicuous and Empoasca spp, suggested increased in temperature also increased their population. In conclusion, B. tabaci, Empoasca spp and N. inconspicuous are major pests of sunflower which should be controlled by exploiting of spiders and lady beetles.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...d, the root systems were rated for galling, and the egg masses were measured on a 0 to 5 scale, where 0 = no gall or egg masses, 1 = 1-2, 2 = 3-10, 3 = 11-30, 4 = 31-100, and 5 = >100 galls or egg masses per root system. The nematode reproduction rate (Pf/Pi, where Pf = final nematode population / initial nematode population) decreased proportionately with the increased initial fungal conidial Pi. Foliage growth was direc...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...raits such as low concentrations of FSH, LH and T and delayed puberty. In conclusion, mutations in GNRHR may cause delay in male puberty in Pakistani population.

...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

...ign: justify;">The accelerated longitudinal bone growth at puberty or pubertal growth spurt has been ascribed to reciprocated physiological influences of both somatotropic and gonadal axes, manifested as higher secretion of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (T). GH and T affect linear growth velocity (LGV) directly through stimulation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Furthermore, T promotes LGV through augmentation of GH secretion. Nevertheless, age and dev...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...8,000), nematodes did migrate to the larvae and caused some infection after 2, 3 and 4 days. Greatest invasion took place with the highest dose (80,000) with 8 IJ successfully finding and penetrating the larvae. A positive correlation was observed between dose and time and invasion of the host. It is concluded that application of EPN in cadavers may be appropriate in Pakistan because of the non-availability of industrially p...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...signs observed were prostration, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, anorexia, trembling and mortality that lasted for 6 days. Postmortem findings include ecchymotic hemorrhages in the breast and thigh muscles, mucosa of the junction between the proventriculus and gizzard, severely enlarged and hemorrhagic bursa of Fabricius (BF) and splenomegaly. The bursa of Fabricius was harvested for laboratory investigation using AGID for infec...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

... first egg (AFE), laying rate (LR), egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), average egg weight (AEW). Two polymorphisms (G50831C and G62976A) were detected and located in exon 42 and intron 54 in HTT gene, respectively. One of them (g. 50831 G>C) was a missense mutation. Genotype and allele frequency analysis showed that SNP G62976A and SNP G50831C of the HTT gene in chicken had some effects on reproduction traits, and the genotype GG was the advantageous gen...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus SS1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which demonstrated high expression level in the brain. During embryogenesis, SS1 mRNA was detected during early-stage embryonic development, decreased during subsequent developmental stages then increased gradually from the...

Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

...nuum was prepared by maceration method and the total polyphenolic and flavonoids contents were determined using a spectrophotometric method. The antiradical scavenging property and the maximum nontoxic concentration of the extract was determined using DPPH assay and MTT method, respectively. Serial concentrations of the extract not exceed the maximum nontoxic concent

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...ied algorithms quite accurately predicted BW of Beetal goats, which may be helpful in making decisions upon standards, favourable drug doses and required feed amount for animals. The ascertainment of the body measurements associated with BW using data mining algorithms can be considered as an indirect selection criterion for future goat breeding studies. 

...

Ali Raza Awan*, Sehrish Firyal, Muhammad Tayyab, Lala Rukh, M. Zia ul Haq, Shagufta Saeed and Muhammad Wasim

...milarity of 99.37%. Comparative analysis indicated 4 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) sites in the Pakistani wild Rose-ringed parakeet’s Cytb gene which tags the peculiarity to the Pakistani wild Rose-ringed parakeet. This is the first report that lays bare the molecular classification of Pakistani wild Rose-ringed Parakeet at sub-specie level using novel Cytb gene polymorphism.

...

Shakeel Ahmed* and Sarwat Jahan

...le of peripheral administration of neuromedin S (NMS) on adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin) secretion in 48-h fasting and normal fed adult male Rhesus monkeys. After NMS administration plasma adipokines levels were determined in fed and fasting monkeys. Four intact adult male monkeys were used in this study. 50 nmol of NMS was injected intravenously. Blood samples were collected individually 60 min before and 120 ...

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

...6.7 to 7.4), high concentration of phosphorus (4.50% and 4.33%) and nitrogen (3.26% and 2.37%) favor seed germination, enhance root growth and soil fertility.

...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

...ytes at different concentrations. The results showed that the blastocyst rates in injection 560 ng/μL Npm and 1000 ng/μL PGA groups were higher than those of other groups. Moreover, the blastocyst rate was highest in injection 560 ng/μL Npm group and was lowest in injection 100 ng/μL PGA group. These data suggested that addition of recombinant Npm obtained by prokaryotic expres...

Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

...u) for 15 days under laboratory conditions. Gill cells of mussels were used to determine the DNA damage by comet assay. The tail DNA (%), comet tail length and olive tail moment (OTM) were the parameters selected to detect DNA damage. Low doses (120 µg L-1) of each metal induced significantly higher levels of DNA strands breaks as compared to medium dose (240 µg L-1) and very low levels of DNA damaged was observed at high dose (360 µg L-1). C...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...nown immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors involved. In the last years substantial progress has been reported in the identification of viral factors involved in the host immunosuppression, although future studies employing in vivo infection models are needed to clearly understand t...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...;1.8%. In fish meal preparation, 24 species belonging to different families were noted in which the most abundantly used species were sardine (Dussumieria acuta), mullet (Liza carinata, L. subviridis), herring (Chirocentrus dorab), elongated sole (Solia elongate), black fin sea bream (Acanthopagrus berda), grunts (Pomadasys hasta), croaker (Otolithus ruber), silver sillago (Sillago sihama), sea perch (Lates calcarifer) and jaw fish (Johnius goma). In majority ...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...r (p< 0.05) in proliferative group of diabetic retinopathy, while triglyceride level, HbA1c (%), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were non-significantly higher (p> 0.05) in diabetic retinopathy groups. To conclude high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was observed among newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

...ant when they are incorporated into sacred texts. This would seem to be the case not only for Judaism, Islam, and mainline Christianity, but also for Mormonism, a distinctive branch of Christianity. Officially known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), Mormonism shares some root metaphors with other Christians but differs in important ways in its development and use of these metaphors. In this paper we discuss the journey, battle, and cont...

Faiqah Ramzan*1 and Muhammad Haris Ramzan2

...As, dose dependent degeneration of prostate gland has been described following intraperitoneal kisspeptin treatment. However, effects of kisspeptin administration on the levels of prostatic citric acid remain elusive till date. The present study, therefore, addresses the effects of 12 day administration of kisspeptin on prostatic citric acid levels in male mice. Kisspeptin-10 was administe...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...decimpunctata, under laboratory conditions was done. These include mustard aphids (Lipaphis erysimi) cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis), grain moth eggs (Sitotroga cerealella) and honey. Results revealed complete development of all larval stages on all diets with maximum survival of lady bird beetle larvae on mustard aphid (76.6%) followed by on grain moth’s eggs (20%), immature mealybugs (6%) and the least survival on honey. These findings can lea...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

...ophic scars are an exaggeration of fibroplasia in dermal repair. Keloids are found solely in humankind, and not in animals. Thus far no practicable animal model of Keloid has been made. Recently a prototype rabbit ear keloid model has been produced by the authors by giving Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 injection, and then skin punch excision on rabbit ear. In the present follow-up study consisting of eight refind techniques, best Keloid was produced by th...

Atta ur Rehman1, Sher Ali2 and Sajid Malik2*

...ts, fragmentation and migrations. In order to observe the genetic differentiation in lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) region, ABO and Rh blood groups record of nine Pashtun populations, i.e., Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Hangu, Karak, Kohat, Kurram Agency, Lakki Marwat, South Waziristan Agency, and Tank, was collected. Absolute gene diversity, gene differentiation and genetic diversity were estimated to be 0.01, 0.019 and 0.515, respectively. There were the highest ...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...luence of different temperature ranges on the reproductive potential of native and exotic species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) was checked on Galleria mellonella larvae. The native species included Steinernema asiaticum and Heterorhabditis indica whereas exotic species were S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. G. mellonella larvae were exposed to 300 IJs of each species. After inoculation at different temperatures, the r...

John G. Bruno

...ing aptamer-magnetic separation in food samples, leading to a greater ability to detect these serotypes if coupled with genetic identification techniques such as PCR or gene probe hybridization.

...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...chemical analysis concentration of boron in both wheat straw and grains increased with B application but there was no effect of fertilizer B on NPK concentration of straw and grains. These results are very heartening; signifying that for any soil, B adsorption isotherm need to be worked out for location precise fertilizer B use.

...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...ecreased specific growth rate (SGR), net weight gain (NWG), average daily gain (ADG), survival, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the addition of the 4TX in the diets. Among different dietary groups of the fish, % survival was not affected significantly (p<0.05). T1 showed maximum NWG (45.49±3.85), FER (0.739±0.02) an...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

...onses which include colouration of the fish skin and opercula colouration were observed. Aluminium phosphide elicited effects on the haematological parameters of the fish such as a decrease in Hb when compared to the control; reduction of MCV, MCH and MCHC to all exposed concentration of aluminium phosphide, significant increase in neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil and monocytes throughout ...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...tive drugs. The recovery rate was 60-80%.

...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

....5), AF and PAS; and moderately by PAS/AB (pH 2.5) (AB dominant). In the mid part of the gastrointestinal tract, goblet cells were also stained strongly with AB, PAS and PAS/AB (pH 2.5) (AB dominant), however, their reactions to KOH/PAS treatment were recorded as negative. Because of numerous supranuclear vacuoles of the epithelial cells, only a few goblet cells could be differentiated in posterior parts of alimentary channel, with their weakly reaction to AB ...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

....5), AF and PAS; and moderately by PAS/AB (pH 2.5) (AB dominant). In the mid part of the gastrointestinal tract, goblet cells were also stained strongly with AB, PAS and PAS/AB (pH 2.5) (AB dominant), however, their reactions to KOH/PAS treatment were recorded as negative. Because of numerous supranuclear vacuoles of the epithelial cells, only a few goblet cells could be differentiated in posterior parts of alimentary channel, with their weakly reaction to AB ...

Noor Us Saher1, Zunaira Amanat2, M. Asif Gondal3 and Naureen Aziz Qureshi4,*

...elationships were demonstrated that the males of M. planipes and A. lunaris were larger in size and heavier than females (4.34g ± 0.9g; 14.86 ± 6.8g and 3.87g ± 0.6g; 11.66 g ± 5.4 g) respectively. There was a negative allometry for both male and females of M. planipes and A. lunaris for length and weight relationship. The estimated carapace size at onset of sexual maturity was 3.2 cm and 3.3 cm for males and females of A. lunaris w...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

...m F16. This study demonstrated that Yellow Sea can be considered as a valuable natural source of Penicillium species, which can be used for the production of medicinally important different secondary metabolites and organic acids. 

...

Nighat Sultana1,2,*, Shazia Iftikhar1, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif2 and Iffat Tahira2

...2, AFG1 and AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) analysis showed that AFB1was present with high frequency in fresh (37.5%) and ensiled (41.66%) fodder, with an average concentration of 9.49 and 8.36ng/g respectively. Aflatoxin B2 was detected in only two samples (16%) (1.2 and 1.3ng/g), aflatoxin G1 and G2 were not found. Ochratoxin A was found more frequently in fresh (54.16%) than in ensiled (20...

Asmaa Hamid1,* and Samia Kalsoom2

...;">Albino Sprague-Dawley rats (n=42) were randomly divided into seven groups, each of six rats. One group comprised of normal rats fed on basic purified diet AIN-76-A, three groups were alloxan induced diabetic rats which were fed basic purified diet AIN-76-A, Kabuli chickpea HFD and Bengal gram HFD and were monitored for random blood glucose and weight ...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

...vides the maximum concentrations of nutrients. Zooplankton communities were more correlated to phytoplankton community biomass than environmental factors. Results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that water temperature, Secchi disk depth (SD), total phosphorus and phytoplankton biomass were the most significant factors that influenced zooplankton. Strong correlations between SD and Brachionus leydigi, Chry...

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

...e pigs, rabbits, and big rats. The mice with reproduction fast cycle, lower costing, and close to human genes, can be showed about some phenomenon quickly, also more easy to form model of atherosclerosis. Thus, a mouse model of vascular injury is vitally important for researching the pathophysiological mechanisms to restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) as well as translational approaches. In this Experiment, we established a u...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...que, we successfully generated transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs carrying a fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter gene regulated by the 2.2-kb human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (hGFAP-DsRed). This study characterized transgene expression in such transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs and their offspring. Our findings indicate that the hGFAP promoter contains matching regulatory elements for directing specific expression in porcine astrocytes. However, t...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

... production model incorporating covariates) contain Fox and Logistic models. The average annual landings of S. longiceps stocks were 38 353 t while the highest and lowest 65 050 t in 1994 and 26 937 t in 2009 was recorded correspondingly. The MSY was estimated using the initial proportion (IP) value of 1 because the starting catch was approximately 100% of the maximum catch. The estimated values of MSY using CEDA with the Fox model under three error assumption...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

...lk indicated that proliferation of S. aureus was successfully ceased until six hours post infection when applied at and MOI of 100.

...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...opment Programme administrative zones (Zones C and D) in Kwara State where fish farming is prominent and well-practiced was carried out. Forty fish farmers were then randomly selected from the fish farmers’ association chapter present in each selected Local Government Area. Interview-schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The findings revealed that the fish farmers were economically active with a mean age of 42.5 years, majority (7...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...CR based amplification strategy. The serum samples were analyzed for determination of metals and minerals through Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA 6600 Shimadzu). The statistical analysis indicated that non-significant association existed between SOD1 (rs2070424) gene polymorphism and RA (p>0.05). Results of HWE estimation indicate that allele frequencies were not deviant from HWE in RA group. The results of present study indicates that Pb and Cr con...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...ter) and were fed at six ration levels of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0,3.5, 4.0 and 4.5% body weight per day (BW d−1) and four feeding frequency i.e., once, twice, thrice and four times per day. Fish in all replicates were fed with diet comprising 40% protein and 20% lipid for 75 days. Higher percent weight gain (% WG), best feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were recorded a...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...inimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts was also determined. Syzygium aromaticum was proven to have excellent antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms, while C. sinensis and M. piperita showed weak antimicrobial activity. Methanolic plant extracts exhibited greater antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition exhibited by...

Bin Wang, Bo Zhang, Nan Yang, Liang Dou and Jianghong Ran*

...ina and is known to cooperatively breed in a population habituated to supplemental feeding by humans. The social structure and demography of this species, however, have not been examined in natural populations. To determine if cooperative breeding occurs in populations unassociated with humans, we surveyed two natural populations in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in western China. We compared the demography of the n...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

..., Pakistan. Three concentrations of each plant extract (5, 10, 15 and 20%) and synthetic pyrethroids (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03%) were evaluated in this study. We observed significant results with each treatment. For both repellent and growth inhibitory effects, A. indica and deltamethrin were most efficient among plant extracts and pyrethroids respectively. At highest dose rates, more than 90% repellency was recorded with both A....

Muhammad Saeed* and Iftikhar Hussain Khalil

... and σ2sca and its ratio (σ2gca/σ2sca) indicated that non-additive genetic expression were pre-dominant for most of traits studied. Line BRF3 and testers ZM04 were good general combiners for most of traits under consideration, while F1 hybrids B4N11 × PS08, B4N11 × JZ, BRF1 × ZM04, BRF1 × KT10 were best specific combiners observed for several important traits including grain yield pl...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...emical fertilizer in the ratio of 100 : 40 : 56 kg ha-1 as N, P and K (T5). Each treatment was applied alone and with EM. Results showed that EM + pressmud combination significantly improved soil physical and chemical properties as well as spinach growth compared to other fertilizers with EM. Maximum soil organic matter content (OM) and K was observed in treatment where pressmud was co-applied with EM. While greater N and P were found where compost and poultry...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

... Rs. 5 thus benefit-cost ratios for buffalo and cow is1:1.43 and 1:1.07, respectively, which show buffaloes were more productive and profitable than cows. Results from Cobb-Douglas production function analysis show that dry fodder, green fodder and daily labor hours have positive significant effect on milk production, while herd size has negative significant effect. Furthermore, the addition of estimated coefficients is less than 1, indicating a decreasing ret...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

... grain yield. Though the rate and distribution of rainfall during the cropping season were the main contributing factors in the varied performance across years, however, the grain yield of synthetic derived wheat lines across different environments was not significantly disturbed within each year and hence, are suitable for areas of prolonged drought. Some lines of synthetic derived wheat especially those carrying blood from T. tauschii germplasm were equivale...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

... in the family, total operational holding, last year yield of sunflower, access to extension services and share of non-agricultural income. By increasing 1 percent in these parameters will increase the probability for adoption of sunflower. Keeping in view the importance of this crop it is suggested to provide market structure for sunflower growers near to their field areas and Research efforts should be made to overcome the problems faced by sunflower growers...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...ware STATA. Result illustrates that technical efficiency of sugarcane crop for the period under study in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ranges from minimum 0.47 to maximum 0.98 with mean value of 0.84 percent. This mean that with same resource base average sugarcane growers can increase his yield up to 14% and most technical inefficient grower can increase his per acre yield up to 52% in order to achieve technical efficiency level (98%) of efficient fellow grower in study...

Mariano Gastón Asla

...stic fertility.

...

Sheraz Ahmad Khan and Ghulam Hassan

...were recorded low to moderate for all parameters. Grain yield was observed to have positive significant association with most of the important yield related traits such as fertile tillers, spike length, 1000-grain weight and grains per spike. These results suggest that all the traits showing significant correlation with grain yield needs better attention in future wheat breeding programs for increasing yield.

...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...ciency. The result illustrates that none of the farmers to be optimally using their inputs. The average allocative efficiency was around 75%. Approximately 36 percent of farms allocative efficiency varies from 0.20 to 0.60. Around 60% of farms allocative efficiency ranges from 0.61 to above 0.90. The under and over-utilization of inputs such as land, seeds, fertilizers and pesticides reflect the general performance of the inputs in terms of their degree of cha...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...cedure of pass book preparation, amount less than requirement, unavailability of timely credit and non-availability of collateral. The study recommends amount of loan according to the farmers’ requirements, bank staff cooperation and one window operation to address the problems of farmers while obtaining loan/credit from ZTBL. Such type of credit program ensuring proper utilization o...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...However, the same concentration of crude (1 µg.mL-1) showed 62.20 ± 2.51% growth inhibitions against Fusarium oxysporum using agar well diffusion method. Further investigation, including various chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses on the separation and isolation of potent metabolites is suggested to get a useful lead structure for development of novel antibiotics to combat resistant pathogens.

...

Zaffar Malik, Moazzam Jamil, Ghulam Hassan Abassi, Muhammmad Nafees, Muhammad Rafey and Muhammad Kamran

...t-align: justify;">Ameliorative effects of soil amendments on the physico-mechanical properties of vertic soils were studied. The potential soil amendments were fly ash (FA) and three types of biochar (straw biochar (SB), woodchips biochar (WCB), waste water sludge biochar (WSB). The physical and mechanical parameters of vertic soil like soil consistency limits like plastic limit (PL), liquid limit (LL) and plasticity index (PI), tensile strength (TS), shear s...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...to WT, both at room temperature and at 42°C. The above results showed that HsfA1d positively regulates thermotolerance in tobacco plants and can be used as target gene for engineering thermotolerance in crops.  

...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

...oach was found much cooperative in elaborating the genetic parameters of the data on the basis of its high explanatory aptitude and graphical demonstration.

...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

... and ultrastructural alterations by transmission electron microscopy. Our data clearly shows that ceranib-2 is more effective than C2 ceramide in promoting apoptosis. The cytotoxic effects of these components cause ultrastructural changes in A549 cells.
...
Yusuf Koc1, Ecevit Eyduran1* and Omer Akbulut2
...ent of variation (%), SD ratio, relative approximation error (RAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Pearson correlation between actual and predicted weaning weights were estimated for each combination. It was determined that CHAID algorithm constructed more suitable tree structures, biologically in comparison to Exhaustive CHAID and CART data mining algorithms. Consequently, it is recommended that the biological suitability of the constructed tree structure sho...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
... enzyme MspI and the generated bans corresponded to the predicted size.
...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...s of plant crops in temperate areas of the world. They are monophagous as well as polyphagous and damage wheat, oilseeds, vegetables and fruit crops. This study was carried out to observe the effect of plant extracts and semiochemicals on physiology and performance of endoparasitoid of aphids, Diaeretiella rapae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and plant extract were applied on aphid pests, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi <...
Muhammad Arshad1*, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2*, Faisal Hafeez3, Ravaid Sherazi1 and Naeem Iqbal4
...was evaluated in the laboratory in no choice and free choice feeding assays. In the no choice feeding assay, the stages of beetle (adults, 3rd and 4th instar) consumed more aphids than early stages (1st and 2nd instar). In the free choice feeding assay, the consumption of pea aphid (77.647) was statistically high followed by spinach (66.276), coriander (66.14) and cabbage (61.48) aphids. Manly’s preference inde...
Önder Duysak*andKübra Azdural
...kenderun Bay. The concentration of heavy metal in P. caerulea tissues tended to vary significantly between season and stations.The distribution of heavy metals in P. caerulea followed in their muscular tissues in order; Çevlik > Kaleköy> Payas > Arsuz > Dörtyol > Konacık > Yumurtalık > İskenderun for spring and Kaleköy > Payas > İskenderun > Arsuz > Dörtyol > Yumur...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6
...ought to aquaculture laboratory of the Centre for 15 days acclimatization. After acclimatization, they were randomly distributed into the rectangular tanks (3 × 1.5 ×1.5 ft each). In each tank, 10 fish were stocked with three replications for each treatment. Four isonitrogenous diets containing different oils i.e., fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), olive oil (OO) and palm oil (PO) were given to the juveniles for 60 days. Best specific growth ...
Muge Aliye Hekimoglu*, Kgrşat Fırat, Şahin Saka, Cüney Suzer, Aysun Kop and Yaşar Durmaz
...The best feed conversion ratio was found in at Group B. The total carotenoid content of skin of fish were found to be 0.77±0.61 µg.g-1 on the initial day in the experimental group. As a result of the measurements performed on the 120th day, the pigment values were determined as 30.39±0.39 µg.g-1 in Group A, 39.07±1.12 µg.g-1 in Group B and 35.68±10.69 µg.g-1
Serkan Sayiner1* and Hilal Karagul2
...ted whether these concentrations were adequate. Heifer blood, feed samples including concentrate feed or roughage were analysed. It was found that there are significant seasonal differences for each region and regional differences in each season were due to different feeding conditions. Heifer blood selenium and plasma vitamin E levels were generally found within adequate ranges in all regions for both seasons. We suggest th...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
... effect of constant temperatures on developmental time and parasitization rate of Citrostichus phyllocnistoides was evaluated on Phyllocnistis citrella at nine constant temperatures ranging from 15ºC±1 to 35ºC±1 in 2.5ºC increments in the laboratory. Developmental periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 day...
Irshad Ahmad
...sures applied under integrated pest management program (IPM) and includes the cautious use of chemical insecticides, mechanical means, cultural and biological control methods for the substantial control of walnut borer. The present study offers valuable information through IPM, which appears to be a promising approach for the control of walnut borer. Collectively this strategy has resulted in significant reduction of the pes...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...tification using an integrative taxonomic approach that combines morphology and molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. Adult P. websteri exhibit a high degree of morphological plasticity in the palp pigmentation pattern, the shape of the anterior edge of the prostomium, the shape of the major spines on chaetiger 5, and the shape of the pygidium. The COI gene sequence demonstrat<...
Muhammad Mohsin Javed*, Muhammad Azhar Nisar, Bushra Muneer and Muhammad Usman Ahmad
...le waste extract as substrate. The power production was analyzed for three days. Maximum power density of 88990mW/m2 with a current density of 314.4mA/m2 was observed on the second day of process with minimum internal resistance comparatively i.e. 123.23Ω. The higher power density shows efficiency of this U-shaped design compare to other dual chamber MFCs.
...
Hafiz Aftab Ahmed1, Asif Ali2, Akbar Ali2, Salman Ahmed Abid3 and Sajid Umar4*
...ures using silk. Post-operative care was continued for five days. Clinical signs abated in all operated animals, proving that the technique employed was effective and of simple execution for the treatment of dorsal patellar fixation in bovine.
...
Mahanama De Zoysa1, Si-yun Ryu1, Hyeon-cheol Kim2 and Bae Keun Park1*
...goldfish (Carassius auratus) purchased from commercial aquarium in Korea. Based on the morphological comparison with all Argulus species, isolated fish lice was identified as Argulus japonicus Thiele, 1899. A. japonicus is native to Asia, which also is a habitat for its typical hosts, such as goldfish and common koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). A. japonicus has not previously been described from goldfish from the ornamental...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Ghulam Sarwar1, Waqar Ahmad1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1, Ammara Balouch1 and Muhammad Khalid Rafique1
...as recorded for 10 min duration on hourly basis between 0800 h to 1600 h for 3 days per week. The data was collected at 0800–1000 hours (early morning foraging activity), 1000-1200 hours (late morning foraging activity), 1200-1400 hours (Noon foraging activity) and 1400-1600 hours (afternoon foraging activity). The pollen collected in the pollen trap trays at regular intervals for a period of one month using pollen traps fitted at the entrance of the hiv...
Arif Jan,* Abdul Rab, Rooh Ullah, Haroon and Ikram Ullah
...2014 to January 2015. Kumrat valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The GSI values recorded monthly ranged from 2 to 13.5, the highest value was recorded in March while the lowest was recorded in April and October. We inferred that S. plagiostomus spawn twice a year, once in March-April and then in October-November.
...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...% (442/3,288) showed moderate to high reactivity, suggestive of domestic pigs’ exposure to tick-bite. Antibody reactivity’s were found in eight of the 10 states studied and all the states have favourable climatic conditions for soft ticks’ survival and national parks harbouring wild swine (warthogs) able to maintain the developmental cycle of these ticks. This provides some evidence of interaction between the host and the vector within the Ni...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...sugars and other carbohydrates. These food resources are commonly obtained from animal secretions or plant exudates which include honeydew, fruit juices and both floral and extra-floral nectar. A direct behavioral assay was conducted to investigate the dietary preference and effects of different diets on the fecundity, sex ratio and longevity of B. hebetor. Three different diets [Honey syrup, sugar syrup, date syrup a...
Sidra Ilyas1, Abdul Rehman1* and Qasim Ilyas2
...d Cu exposure. GSH: GSSG ratio declined after As, Pb and Cr treatment, whereas non-protein thiol levels were higher after Cd and As treatment followed by those of Pb, Cr and Cu treatment. Candida sp. PS33 was able to remove 78% (Cd), 70% (As), 82% (Cu), 65% (Cr) and 87% (Pb) from the medium after 8 days of incubation. This multi-resistant yeast can be used efficiently for the removal of toxic metals from the wastewater.
...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...V with minimum infection rate (MIR) 11.1 while that of Wazir Bagh showed 16.67% positivity with MIR 5.5. Similarly, the Ae. albopictus of Shuba Bazaar resulted in 22.22% positivity with MIR 7.4. The pooled larvae showed 3 (17.64%) positive out of 17, the pooled Ae. aegypti larvae from Shuba Bazaar resulted in 40% positivity (MIR=13.3) while the Ae. albopictus showed 33% positivity (MIR=11.1). These results indicated the vertical mode of de...
Muhammad Afzal1,Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi1,*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Irfan Hussain1
...says conducted under laboratory and field conditions. Visual rating according to (AWPA, 1997) scale, mass loss, wood consumption per termite and mortality rate were determined to evaluate resistance of wood against H. indicola. Populus euramericana and Dalbergia sissoo were observed most palatable and resistant wood species, respectively, in no-choice labo
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
...adi have been incorporated in the commercial wheat cultivars to help manage R. padi. During this study seven wheat genotypes were evaluated as antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance. These tested genotypes were (Pir Sabaq-2004, Atta-Habib, Saleem-2000, Serin-2010, Khyber-87, Sarhad-82, and Khushal-69) in three separate experiments. Antibiosis resistance was identified to R. padi in wheat cultivar (Serin-2010...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...i> including ─ sex ratio, length-frequency distributions (LFDs), length-weight relationships (LWRs), length-length relationships (LLRs), condition factors (allometric, KA; Fulton’s, KF; relative, KR), relative weight (WR), form factor (a3.0), size at first sexual maturity (Lm) and natural mortality (MW) in the Ganges River, northwe...
Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...sm, changes the survival rate and induces apoptosis in a hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). We determined in vitro survival rate with MTT assay, the morphological changes with an inverted microscope, apoptosis using flow cytometry and statistical significance with one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test. IC50 values of licofelone were determined as 171 µM for 24 h and ...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
..., Mandi Bahauddin-II, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sargodha. The activities of all esterases tested were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations when compared with phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher esterase activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations of T. granarium. The increased level of esterases in phosp...
Mehmet Cilbiz1* and F. Banu Yalim2
...>o), mortality rate (Z, M, and F), recruitment pattern and yield were investigated for Oncorhynchus mykiss in Karacaören I Dam Lake. Fish were collected on monthly basis between July, 2013 and June, 2014. Growth parameters were analyzed by ELEFAN with monthly length–frequency data. The b values of the length-weight relationship, mean condition factor, K (growth coefficient), L(asymptoti...
Yaoguo Li1,2 and Maoxian He1
...e methylation in invertebrates has only recently been characterized in-depth. In this study, we firstly investigated the associations of genome methylation level and growth traits inpearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata). The incidence of type II locus (hemi-methylation locus) was significantly correlated with the shell height and the shell length, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.204 and 0.233, separat
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...scular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelets while total leucocytes count (TLC), neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were increased significantly (P < 0.05) which indicated hemolytic anemia. While, serum biochemistry showed significant elevation in alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (...
Abida Butt,* Imtiaz Alam and Rabia Naz
...tercepted insects in decorated and non-decorated webs. For the study, 236 randomly selected webs of A. trifasciata were observed in the rice fields around the cities of Sheikhupura and Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. In the adult spiders, mesh height, capture area and capture thread length was positively correlated with IVth leg length; mesh size also showed positive correlation with carapace width and wet weight...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...am and cinxacin were moderately effective against Staph. aureus. The concluded remarks of research staged Staph. aureus to the most obvious pathogen and widely resistant to antimicrobials camel mastitogen. The risk factors were found soul determinants of pathogen spread among mammary glands of camels.
...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...n (5.6 to 7.5ml/l), temperature (25°C to 28°C). pH (7.6-7.8), ammonia (NH4-N) and `nitrites (NO2-N) less than (0.001mg/l), Secchi’s disc visibility (8 cm to 46 cm). Higher percent weight gain (2665 g), specific growth rate (2.76±0.5 % day-1), best feed conversion ratio (0.14), condition factor (4.1), viscerosomatic index (7.1...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...g more data and more accurately recorded pedigree for several generations however, this is really useful firsthand information.
...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
...us and 07 families. Ceratina hieroglyphica, Halictus subauratus, Osmia caerulescens were reported first time from Pakistan.
...
Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
... 2) 30 min after administration of 1 mL of 1 mol/L N-isopropyl oxamate injected in biceps femoris muscle, the concentration of N-isopropyl oxamate in blood was 0.08 mmol/L; 3) in skeletal muscles of the inhibitor group and the control group, the LDH activities were 6.30±0.50 U/mg and 10.01±0.59 U/mg, the contents of LD were 0.28±0.039 mmol/g and 0.84±0.16 mmol/g, and the ATP level we...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...The Wap65 is a warm temperature acclimation-related protein, and it plays an important role in adapting temperature shock. But the research about Wap65 in crucian carp is very limited. In this study, the CDS of Wap65 was firstly cloned and characterized from crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This sequence is 1338bp that encodes a polypeptide of 445 amino acids. The calculated molecular weight of crucian carp ...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Ehsan Kamrani1, Narges Amrollahi Biuki1 and Hossein Zamani2
...ads is in spring. The operational sex ratio (OSR) of E. mathaei was female-biased and was not significantly different during the study. The monthly adult sex ratio (ASR) was significantly different. It means that the sex ratio has no effects on OSR. Moreover, the gonadosomatic indices GSI 1, GSI 2, and GSI 3 were 8.2±0.6, 4.1±0.3 and...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
...2) visitation rate of bee was recorded at 1400 h. Individuals of A. florea showed two peaks of visitation between 1400 to 1600 h. First peak (15 honeybee/3 m2) was recorded at 1600 h, whereas second peak (12 bees) was recorded at 1400 h. Lowest visitation rate of both species was noticed during evening after 1800 h. High frequency of both speciesfound engaged in foraging during 20th an...
Nagwan F. Zahran, Ali F. Hamza and Rehab M. Sayed* 
...f adult males showed alterations from the control. Exposure to radiation caused very frequently the appearance of some extra bands and the deficiency of others in the RAPD-PCR amplification patterns of the irradiated insects. 
...
Mürşide Dartay*, Tuncay Atessahin and Erdal Duman
...ing to different hanging ratios (E=0.5, 0.67), materials (multi-monofilament and multifilament), water temperature, and water depth. CPUE values were found to be higher at 24.5 °C water temperature and 13.7 m water depth with multi-monofilament gillnets with a result of 15.23 g/m, and the lowest was with multifilament gillnets with a result of 3.95 g/m (0.5); however, multi‑monof...
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...udies. Bile tissues, aspirates and blood samples of the same animals were analysed. The infection was found prevalent throughout the year but during post monsoon season it was relatively high. Morphological identification of G. expalanatum was carried out on the basis of size and shape of worm. The hematological and bile biochemical changes were found in two groups. Pathologically significant changes were observed in the infected tissue. The parasites h...
Andrea Rezic1, Ivica Boskovic2, Piera Lubinu3, Marina Piria1, Tihomir Florijancic2, Massimo Scandura3 and Nikica Sprem1*
... as to obtain a more accurate expression of form and better differentiation between the sexes.
...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...al factors, such as temperature, relative humidity and sunshine. The highest mean population of fruit fly remained at 499 in the month of August. It started to decline afterwards and remained at 348 in the month of September. The lowest population was recorded at 26, 3, 2 and 1 for November, December, January and February, respectively. The optimum monthly average temperature and relative humidity ranged from 26 to 35 °C...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...r defense and tolerant strategies against viral infections. In the 21st century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in plants against viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in triggering the antiviral resistance in plants. Antiviral RNA silencing, R-gene mediated resistance and host factor related recessive resistance are categorized as most beneficial plant defe...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...e and daily minimum temperature may be related to energy requirements or prey activities. The average group size of the scaly-sided merganser was 3.91 ± 2.94 individuals, and extremely significant differences existed at different time of day (F = 25.540, df = 11, P < 0.01). The largest group size (5.22 ± 5 individuals) appeared at 16:00–17:00, and the smallest at 08:00–09:00 (2.6 ± 1.12 individuals), similar results o...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...using specific and degenerate primers. ToLCNDV is geographically wide spread Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae), considered as a close relative of TYLCV, and cause severe losses for many economical important crops in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This is the first report of the use of heterologous polyclonal antibodies (PAbs), raised against a geographically distinct begomovirus, ToLCNDV. The described results have shown to exhibit a many fold...

 Nosheen Noor Elahi* and Misbah Mughal

...: justify;"> A comparative study of stem epidermis of fourteen sugarcane varieties (i.e., L-l18, CP72-2086, CP43-33, HSF-240, CPF-237, SPF-213, COjv-84, CO-1148, COL-54, COL-29, CO-975, BL-4, Triton and BF-162) was carried out using Schultz’s maceration method followed by staining with chloloiodide of Zinc. The results indicated substantial differences among the sugarcane varieties for various stem epidermal cell ...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...e tumor, abnormal proliferation and series of tumors in connective tissues and other visceral organs. To evaluate the status of lymphoid leukosis virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection in free-range chickens in five different cities of Anhui province, a total of 732 serum samples were analyzed through enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in 2015 and 2016. The diagnosis of avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A) infection was confirmed by necropsy, histopathol...

Tuli Dey, Sonnet Poddar and Mukti Barua

...condition. Proper postoperative treatment with antibiotic, antihistaminic and hormonal drugs were given. This case as well as the condition of the animal were followed up and gave the result of successful recovery without any complication.

...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...ce with the clinical laboratory standards and confirmed by PCR. In life birds, only E.coli and Salmonella could be recovered from Cloacal swabs, while in freshly dead birds all four pathogens disseminated in various organs with higher incidence of mixed compared to single infection. Different serotypes of E.coli and Salmonella could be recovered from dead birds however E.coli (O78) and S.enteritidis were recovered mainly from heart and liver. The recovered E.c...

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

... proper sedation. The operated site was prepared for aseptic surgical procedure. A vertical incision was given in middle of the left flank region. Twin fetuses (one male and female) were surgically removed with care to avoid proliferation of uterine contents into the peritoneal cavity. Penicillin powder was dusted into the surroundings area of the uterus. The cow was treated with antibiotics, analgesics and liver tonics duri...

Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul M. Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa, Khurram Ziaf, Irfan Afzal and Muhammad Qasim

...de (CaCl2), potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium chloride (KCl) and Hydropriming) on germination and seedling vigor of Gerbera jamesonii and Zinnia elegans. Seeds of Gerbera jamesonii and Zinnia elegans were primed in salt solutions and distilled water for 24 h and 12 h, respectively, and germinated at 25 ± 1 °C with 40-60% R.H. in 16/8 hours day/night conditions. Results revealed that pre-sowing seed treatment particularly halopriming with CaCl2 was...

 Abdul Wajid Khalil and Zafar Iqbal

...s. The result of carbohydrate (75.56±0.046%) of aerial parts was found higher as compared to the roots (31.22±0.05%) while protein (37.46±0.02%) and organic matter (21.25±0.03%) was recorded higher in roots than the aerial parts of B. procumbens. Calcium (309.73±0.06mg/100g), potassium (274.59±0.08mg/100g) and iron (32.58±0.05mg/100g) were found in highest amounts in aerial parts as compared to the roots. The Ca...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...hygiene. Waste water generated during these activities typically has high presence of organic material such as blood, fat, flesh and excreta. In developing countries like Nigeria where access to portable water is lacking, it is not uncommon to “reuse” rinse water for processing several batches of poultry carcass.Several samples were collected from three poultry slaughterhouses within Jos metropolis at intervals for a period of 6 months to check for...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...ameters remained as temperature (28.1±0.2°C), dissolved oxygen (6.10±0.1 ml/l), pH (6.6±0.1 ml/l) and ammonia (0.02±0.004 ml/l) throughout the study period. Taking into consideration the number of fertilized eggs and survival of fry data attained in the present study, a salinity level of 20% is suggested for red tilapia breeding in concrete tanks.
...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...effect on bacterial enumeration of Ileum (P<0.05). The use of antibiotic caused a reduction in all three forms of microbial population. On the other hand, herbs added as feed additive acted as prebiotic and enhanced the lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, supplementation of herbs as feed additive improved growth parameters and present results suggests herbs could be used as alternative to antibiotics growth promoting feed additives.
...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
... order to make control strategies and prevent toxic syndromes to this type of contamination.
...
Cansu Akbulut1,*, Tuğba Kotil2, Burcu Öztürk1 and Nazan Deniz Yön1
...croscopy. Numerous degenerated follicles with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitotic catastrophe in mitochondria , chromatin condensation, mitochondrial vesiculation and dispersion at ooplasm were observed. In mitochondria, mitotic catastrophe , vesiculation, swelling and loss of organization of cristae were detected.Here we showed that TiO2 exposure trigger paraptotic type cell death in zebrafish ovary.
...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...he number of adults, sex ratio and size of emerging adults were recorded. Smaller and larger host species were used to determine the survival potential of the wasp. It was observed that maximum number of adult wasps emerged from the hosts G. mellonlla (95 ±2.30 (se) and S. litura (81 ±1.15 (se)) by placing the lowest number of wasp eggs (4 eggs per larvae) on the hosts larvae and minimum number of adult wasps was recorded from the h...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...ement of insecticide saturated sticks into larval sites can reduce the spread of ALB in the regions of China. The ecological, in addition to biological uniqueness and development of sawyer beetles (Monochamus alternates) are also discussed.
...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...nd in age group of 16-25 rather than teenage (≤16) and older age group (≥50). From the result of this febrile illness study we concluded that males and young people are more susceptible to Dengue virus infection. Moreover serotype-2 was the main causative serotype of the 2013 outbreak of dengue fever.
...
Memoona Akber1, Muhammad Mushtaq1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1 and Noor-un-Nisa2 
...production of the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus in urban areas of Rawalpindi city, Pakistan, live trapping of commensal rodents was carried out from May 2011 through April 2012. A total of 100 rats (R. norvegicus = 65, Rattus rattus = 35) were trapped during 720 trap nights @ 0.13 captures per nigh...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...age and route of administration on the efficacy of live IBDV vaccines on broilers. A total of 120 broilers were randomly divided into six groups (20 birds in each) were coded A, B, C, D, E and F; vaccinated with various combinations of IBD through different routes. Results showed that the birds of different groups received different maternal antibodies did not induce any antibodies as recorded in all groups received vaccines at days 1, 9 or 12 exhibited simila...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...asis to an extent corroborates the proclaimed eradication by Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) from Dera Ismail Khan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province.
...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1
...es of PCV (%), Hb concentration (gm/dl) and RBCs during tick infestation.
...
Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Shahid Munir2 and Irfan Ahmed2
... as killed during the operation. The results of the study showed that coumatetralyl is a promising and potential alternate to sodium flouroacetate compound (1080) for managing wild boar populations in diverse environments.
...

Habib Ullah Khan1*, Saleem Ullah1, Hamid Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Arif2

... P, Pb and Ni showed moderate variability. It was concluded that acid base treatment of the wood coal resulted in pH, EC and minerals changes which might have good or bad effect on plants grown in those soils.

...

John G. Bruno

...udy was conducted to generate anti-idiotypic aptamers against Fab fragments of these antibodies and to determine if the aptamers were capable of emulating rickettsial antigens to enable sensitive detection of rickettsia exposure in humans who have seroconverted. Such anti-idiotypic aptamer antigens might also serve as rickettsial vaccines, if fully developed. The top five highest affinity R. rickettsii and top five R. typhi anti-Fab aptamers as assessed by enz...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...ns with different concentrations of plasmid DNA and the sera were collected weekly post vaccination for antibody detection by HI test. All immunized chickens shown high HI antibody titers (9Log2) two weeks post-booster dose. The chickens were then challenged using homogenous AI H9N2 strain. During the course of infections, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from all chickens at 3, 5 and 7 days post-challenge (p.c.) for virus tit

Waqar Islam

...ropical conditions. Integrated management approaches involving utilization of virus resistant crops and efficient management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are rarely applied due to lack of farmer’s knowledge about plant virus diseases. Therefore, here we reviewed about this issue by highlighting that what farmers know about plant viruses, what is ...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

...e tool for early and accurate diagnosis of Mycoplasma infections from samples collected from clinically sick and apparently healthy birds. In this way, current approach could be contributed well towards elimination and reduction of losses due to Mycoplasma infections in commercial poultry.

...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

....16%, respectively. Comparatively, the other weeds were having a very low relative density and relative frequency at most of the locations studied. Importance value also shows that P. hysterophorus, C. sativa, C. dactylon and C. album were predominant weeds in district.

...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
...Maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and wind velocity were negative and non-significantly correlated while, % relative humidity (%R.H) was found non-significantly and positively correlated both with USDA accessions and local varieties. On overall basis, during the course of the season, lowest number of jassid/leaf was recorded on USG-12-8 (1.7) followed by USG-12-44 (3.2) and USG-12-24 (3.3) while, number of whiteflies/leaf on USG-14-2460 (11.6) followe...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...M. m. musculus migrated from northern China to eastern China and that M. m. castaneus invaded from southern China. The two subspecies form a hybrid zone in eastern China. There were three major well-differentiated clades within M. m. castaneus, which were designated as CAS1, CAS2 and CAS3 and confirmed previous internal sublineage differentiation of this subspecies. Of the three clades, only CAS1 was detected in all the samples from mainla...
Jun Gao1,2, Liang-Liang Yue3, Xianhuan Jiang1, Liju Ni4, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Yuxun Zhou,1 Kai Li1,* and Junhua Xiao1,*
...s divergence and separated time at around 0.77±0.64 million years ago (Mya) located in the Penultimate Glaciation. Divergences within the three clades taken place during the interglacial period between the Penultimate Glaciation and the Last Glaciation. Bayesian skyline plot indicates the effective population size of M. fortis had been experiencing a downward trend in the past decades, which may due to the habitats loss and environmental degr...
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
... toxic under 0.5% concentration. Treatment under this condition also showed mite mortality of 16.67% within 12 h and 23.33% within 24 h. The insecticidal activity of stigmasterol was weaker than that of ageraphorone compound obtained from E. adenophorum Spreng. Through preliminary separation. However, in the experiments, we found an interesting phenomenon, that is, the dead state of mites treated with stigmaste...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
...wheat bran in the concentrate feed mixtures on digestibility, blood and ruminal parameters, growth performance, meat analysis and feed intake of growing lambs. Fifty one Barki lambs with body weight of 30±0.57 kg; in three groups (17 animals, each). Experimental rations were composed of concentrate and clover hay in a 60:40 concentrate: roughage <...
YaQiu Liu and ZhiJian Wang*
...;0.34 μm. Respiration epithelial cells of posterior intestine are a kind of modified squamous epithelial cells which show the ultrastructural characteristics of both types I and II pneumocyte of lung alveoli in mammals. The blood is composed of three layers: the thin layer of the extended cytoplasm of respiratory epithelial cells (1.47±0.23 μm), the thin sheet of cytoplasm of endothelial cells (0.2...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
...o;s disease (AD) involve rats and mice, yet the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) is in many respects more similar to primates than rodents are. To demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of using the tree shrew as an AD model, we examined how well the model recapitulates features of the disease. Injecting animals intraperitoneally with d-galactose to induce acute senility, and then injecting them with β amyloid f...

Muhammad Noor, Hidayat ur Rahman and Muhammad Iqbal

...eeding programs more accurately. This study was conducted to estimate the magnitude of heritability for flowering and maturity attributes along with plant and ear height parameters in four popcorn populations. Broad sense heritability estimates varied from 0.69 to 0.76, while narrow sense ranged from 0.38 to 0.69. Maximum broad sense heritability estimate of 0.84 was observed in cross-II for days to anthesis. Minimum narrow sense heritability of 0.46 was calcu...
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

... out effective control strategies in future.
...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

...an be concluded that accurate use of cheaper rock phosphate, farm yard manure and effective microbes proved as an alternative of costly fertilizers and sustaining the agricultural productivity. Residual effect of rock phosphate with additional use of farmyard manure with effective microorganisms would be a promising strategy for enhancing P use efficiency and productivity of wheat crop in eco friendly way.

...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...ogy and biochemistry laboratory, Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences (ISES), University of Agriculture Faisalabad. In this experiment Randomize Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangements having three replications was used. Significantly maximum 1000 achene weight, achene yield, biological yield, harvest index and protein content were recorded where seed inoculation with PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and full dose of recommended chemical was applied du...

Zia Ur Rahman1*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Hidayat Ur Rahman1, Fida Mohammad1, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Ijaz Ahmad Khan2

..., and UoA-123 showed moderate levels of resistance while eleven rice accessions viz. UoA-4, UoA-6, UoA-22, UoA-41, UoA-60, UoA-67, UoA-68, UoA-84, UoA-126, UoA-129 and UoA-133 displayed strong resistance against the disease. The use of these resistant rice accessions are, therefore, recommended for deploying bacterial leaf blight resistant genes into commercial rice cultivars.

...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
...alance between leaf temperature, leaf energy exchange and photosynthesis. The experiment was undertaken to study the association of leaf related traits i.e. leaf area (LA), leaf angle position (LP), number of lobes per leaf (NL), leaf chlorophyll contents (SV), relative water content (RWC), leaf hairiness (HL), leaf color (LC) and yield related traits i.e. boll weight (BW), number of seeds per boll (NS), number of locules per boll (NLB), seed index (SI) and se...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...stem in HKH region. Integrated and collaborative approaches are needed for pasture resources management with efficient and sustainable livestock production in Northern Pakistan.

...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...extracts at known concentration of chlorogenic acid were then applied against different bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of isolated compound was also measured. Two antibiotics were used as references compounds for antibacterial activities. The aqueous ethanolic extract having 968.125 µg/ml of chlorogenic acid inhibited significantly the growth of tested bacterial strai...
Ahmad Khan1, Raza Ullah Khan1*, Muhammad Zameer Khan1, Fayyaz Hussain1,Muhammad Ehsan Akhtar2, Jalal-Ud-Din3
...on onion yield. Four HSs rates; 0, 20, 30 and 40 kg/ha were applied to onion (variety Red Swat) transplanted earlier to field (plot size=1.2×0.8 m2). Results showed that maximum bulb yield of 25.1 and 24.5 t/ha were obtained with application of plant derived HSs; SFDHSs and MDHSs respectively, while 24.7 t/ha bulb were obtained with CDHA applied at the rate of 20 kg/ha. Almost same trend was observed ...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...e intervals at room temperature” was conducted at post harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the year 2015. The research work was conducted in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and storage intervals (0, 3, 6, and 9 days). The data was recorded onfirmness (kg/cm2), weight lo...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

... CO2, variations in temperature and precipitation are helping tools to forecast scenarios for the climate in an area. Changes in these tools from the past due to any unavoidable circumstances for today and in the future is refers to climate change (CC). Besides other living being, crops are either benefited or adversely affected by these changes in the climate of an area. Maize is one of the widely grown crops in the world and even in Pakistan has also influen...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

...correlated with the temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity.

...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...alactosamine (D-GaIN) in rats. With this in mind, the rats were categorized into five groups. The study groups were given saline, 0.2 % dimethyl sulfoxide, D-GaIN, EA plus D-GaIN and D-GaIN plus EA, respectively. In the group given D-GaIN, the following transmission electron microscopic and light microscopic results were found: degenerative changes in the liver tissue, significant decrease...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...in/species level for accurate diagnosis.

...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...nda leaves have been separated and identified.Formulated trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vegetables.Biopesticides (formulated trichoderma) and bio-agents (bracon,trichogramma, ladybird beetle) and sex pheromone are in the pipeline for commercial use.

...

 Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Evaluation of shelf life of some value added organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum
... unit (c.f.u.)/g of substrate up to 120 days at 30 days interval. In all organic products or their amendment with oil cakes c.f.u. increased up to 60 days and then gradually declined. Among the four organic media, vermicompost retained 21.3 x 10 c.f.u./g at 120 days where as leaf mold,FYMand rice bran retained 20.1 x 10 c.f.u./g, 17.3 x 10 c.f.u./g and 15.1 x 10 c.f.u. /g of substrate respectively at 120 days of incubation. ...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
... and 0.1 per cent concentrations, respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after 12 days were 0.57 and 1.26 mg kg . In another experiment, cold water dip treatment in carbendazim solution @0.05 and 0.1 percent was given for 10 min to a separate lot of fruit having no pre harvest spray. Dissipation of carbendazim in whole fruit again followed...

Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)
...maximum and minimum temperature,rainfall, wind velocity, evaporation and positive with afternoon and morning relative humidity. The values of coefficient of determination (R ) were high (0.92 to 0.99), indicated that the population of L. erysimi governed significantly with the weather parameters. It concluded that the temperature (max. 18.7 and min. 5.0 C), relative humidity (morning 91.5 ...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
...d soil application of phorate followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos,imadicloprid and cartap hydrochloride, respectively at 40, 55 and 70 DAP than other treatments. Maximum yield of healty potato tuber was recorded in the plot treated with chlorpyriphos before planting and foliar spray of acephate, imadichloprid and chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin at 40, 55 and 70 DAP(T ).Yield of damaged tuber caused by soil pests was found maximum in control plot and it was reco...

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
...ext-align: justify;">Laboratory studies were made to compare the toxicity of botanical insecticides viz. Neem oil, Pongamia oil and Nicotine extract in different conc./combinations along with dimethoate and dichlorvos on four coccinellid bio-control agents (Micraspis crocea, Micraspis discolor, Brumus suturalis and Scymnus bourdilloni ). All botanicals tested showed least mortality and was on par with unsprayed control. Dimethoate (0.1%) was highly toxic causi...

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
...fruits per plant and moderately lower fruit fly incidence,BCSM-4 andBCSM- 8 may possibly perform better than the other genotypes in the lower Gangetic plain if sown during end of January.
 

 

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M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
... with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum relative humidity and number of rainy days.

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1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...iotic factors viz., temperature (maximum & minimum), relative humidity% (maximum & minimum) and bright sunshine hour had significant effect on aphid population. The same abiotic factors were quite different between the first and second year. This was due to the fact that the climatic conditions in second year varied distinctly from the first year.

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B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...Granular or pellets preparations and Trichoderma enriched FYM have been used for soil application directly and have provided effective control of diseases both nurseries and field conditions. To ensure that the products of Trichoderma do not affect the environment, human beings and other living organisms adversely and to prevent the sale of poor quality products to the farmers, the Central Insecticide Board of Government of India has made regist

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...; 0.07) mm and egg shape ratio is 0.53. Eggs were mostly of broad type. Distinct quiescent period was also observed. Morphological changes completed within 1st to 5th stages. In the 1st stage, total length ranged from 0.8-1.5 mm. Terminal form of workers and soldiers were attained at the 5th stage (4.1- 4.5 mm in body length). During the period of observation, it was found that total length of the nymph, head length and head capsule width are significantly cor...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...g location-specific integrated management schedule of the parasite, crops, other than sugarcane, grown in the target area were evaluated for their potential as trap and catch crops of the parasite. Twelve crops, selected on the basis of germination induction test of A. pedunculata seeds on root exudates as compared to that of three germination inducing chemicals (viz.; NaOCl, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and GR24-a strigol analogue) and growth of...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...persici on tomato in laboratory and pot culture experiment. All the isolates were isolated by serial dilution and cultured in liquid protein supplemented broth medium and culture filtrates (CF) were prepared. In in-vitro test single eggmasses of uniform size were kept in 5ml CF in 5cm diameter Petri plates. Antifungal activity was tested by dual culture of wilt fungus with antagonist fungus and bacteria isolates in PDA media...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
... in nature. Based on laboratory studies on immature and mature fruits of lady's finger; the total period of all four nymphal stages lasted for 32.6 ± 4.17 days at an average room temperature of 28 ± 2ºC and 70-75% RH during September, 2009. Male mealybug has a short life span of 3.0 ± 0.21 days. Females live for nearly 80.7 ± 10.43 days with an oviposition period of approximately 21 days. Thi...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...er factors, such as temperature, total rainfall, number of rainy days and relative humidity on the development of diseases like canker (Pestalotia psidii), anthracnose and die back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), stem canker and dry fruit rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and Phytophtora fruit rot (Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica) of guava were analysed for predictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix showed si...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...d Bilhari] exhibited moderate resistant reaction against A. rugosa. Awani Pan (Piper hamiltonii) exhibited resistance against A. rugosa. Keywords: Betelvine, Piper betle, Aleurocanthus, insect plant interaction

...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...tegral component of integrated plant disease management framework for sustainable crop production. A considerable number of biocontrol agents have been established successfully for their bioconrol potential including strains belonging to bacterial genera such as Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Bacillus, and fungal genera such as Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Ampelomyces, Candida and Coniothyrium. Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens are the most im...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
... of the Trichoderma preparation ha-1 at quarterly intervals were given. The maximum foot rot disease was recorded in control treatment. The yield parameters like fresh weight of 100 leaves and leaf yield were good in treatments where BM was applied. Trichoderma applications resulted in better c : b ratio during 1 st year, where as applications of P. fluorescens over two year analysis of pooled data gave the best c : b

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...t of P. fluorescens preparation at 0.15% for three times at an interval of 15 days. The results revealed that the lowest percent disease incidence (PDI) of leaf spot of Thankuni caused by Alternaria sp. and highest yield in number of leaves per sq.M was recorded where carbendazim was sprayed. The highest yield in fresh weight, dry weight of leaves, fresh weight and dry weight of 1000 leaves was recorded. Application of mancozeb resulted in the lowest PDI of ta...

Amitava Konar, Palash Mondal and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of potato pests in different dates of planting in Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India
...r of healthy tubers. The rat damage was not so influenced by different dates of planting. But, the total tuber yield was obtained maximum in second date (4th week of November) which was closely followed by 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th dates of sowing.

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D. Sharmah, K.C. Deka and A.K. Phukan

Field evaluation of efficacy of some botanical dust against rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabr.)
...e rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabr.) during 2000-2001 on the basis of per cent reduction under field condition. The per cent reduction in number of rice bug adults due to neem seed kernel powder, neem seed kernel powder + multani powder, multani powder, neem leaf powder, neem leaf powder + multani powder, neem leaf powder + ash, soap nut kernel powder, soap nut kernel powder + multani powder tested as dust were found to be 24.44, 14.78, 5.65, 17.06, 11.88,...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Population proliferation and spread of Trichoderma spp. in soil under two different delivery systems
...cation population proliferation (build-up) and spread of Trichoderma spp., Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride in three different types (sterilized, solarised and natural) clay loam soil at 50% water holding capacity (pH 6.5) was studied both under laboratory and field conditions following two types of delivery systems, through organic based (vermicompost + neem cake (90% + 10% w/w)) and seed based (sterilized wheat...

P. Barma and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal activity of fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq.) on pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) and weather relations
...maximum and minimum temperature had significant positive correlation (r = +0.386 and +0.501, respectively) on the population build up of the pest. The relative humidity % of morning hours had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.451) and that of evening slightly positive (r = +0.284). Rainfall had insignificantly positive (r = +0.195), soil temperature significantly positive (r = +0.555) and the bright sun shine hours ...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...t plant resistance, preparation and application methods of new botanicals and microbial pesticide formulations, evaluation of field bio-efficacy and conservation of biological agents, cultural control measures, genetic techniques and sex pheromones technology. In tea husbandry, cultural control measures such as plucking, pruning, shade regulation, field sanitation, fertilizer application, manipulation or destruction of alternate hosts and selection of pest res...

Nilesh Suresh Gole and Bijan Kumar Das

Biology of Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), a serious pest of Indian ipecac, Tylophora indica
...ted in the field and laboratory of All India Coordinated Research Project on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants and Betelvine (AICRP on MAPB) at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal during 2010-2011 on seasonality, extent of damage and biologoy of D. sagitta on T. indica. The larvae were active almost throughout the year, fed voraciously on leaves and flowers causing extensive damage to T. indica during June and December. Eggs ...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...riming with mycelia preparation of the antagonist Trichoderma harzianum at 4g/kg of seed and organic formulation of the antagonist in vermicompost along with 20% neem cake (w/w) gave best disease control along with yield of cowpeas over leaf mold +20% neem cake formulation of the antagonist, talc base formulation and seed treatment with carbendazim at 2g/kg of seed. Seed priming with mycelial mat of the antagonist improved seed germination vigour of the cowpea...

Sunita J. Magar and D.D. Nirmal

Effect of plant spacings and cultivars on spread of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) disease
...cv. Parbhani Kranti. The rate of infection was higher at 45 to 60 days after sowing in both kharif and summer while in cv. Local it was higher at 30 to 45 days after sowing. Less infection rate was observed at 30 to 45 days after sowing in closer plant spacing 30 x 30 cm in both kharif and summer seasons also the minimum infection rate throughout its growth period was observed in closer pl...

SK Fashi Alam, Atanu Seni and Ajoy K Sahoo

Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on sprouted potato and brinjal plant
...potato tubers in the laboratory. The female nymphs moulted three times for becoming adults while the male took four moultings. The female and male nymphs completed development in 14.45± 0.96 days and 19.53±1 days, respectively on brinjal plant at 20-36.2° C temperature and 15.1±1 days and 18±0.82 days respectively on sprouted potato. The ratio of the male: f...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...ket soil treatment of phorate 10 G @ 15kg ha-1 at planting plus drenching the ridges with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5ml/L of water on appearance of pest (T5) was found most effective in decreasing the incidence of cutworm and molecricket followed by soil treatment at planting with phorate 10 G @15kg ha-1 with addition drenching the ridges with imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.004% (2ml/10L of water) on the occurrence of the pest (T6 )...

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
...s soil application of phorate at transplanting, followed by foliar spray with acephate, thiodicarb and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki at 50, 70 and 90 days after transplanting, respectively) and seedling treatment with imidacloprid before transplanting, succeeded by foliar spray with imidacloprid, novaluron, B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki and novaluron at 30, 50, 70 and 90 days after transplanting were most effective in reducing the aphid and whitefly po...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...ld-mass-multiplication-strategy. Further, the farmers of neighbouring fields were encouraged and facilitated through thirteen field staff to take the bug infested leaves and fruits from parasite-released fields and dispersed in new fields. The effective mass-spreading of parasitoid was made thorough door-to-door contact and farmers were monitored not to take up spraying. The infested plant parts from infested fields were availed regularly by TNAU to facilitate...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique, whereas 15% increased seed germination and 26% reduced disease incidence is recoded when compared to untreated control. In pot experiments, there is an increase in height and weight of the plants by 22% and 44% respectively in seeds treated with C. aromaticus when compared to chemical fungicide Bavistin and also 13% reduction in disease incidence is observe...

S.K. Sahoo

Incidence and management of mustard aphid (Lipaphis ery-simi Kaltenbach) in West Bengal
...Incremental cost benefit ratio indicated that most favourable return was obtained under Dimethoate 30EC (1:20.8 & 1:13.3) followed by Oxydemeton-methyl 25EC (1:16.8 & 1:9.1), while poor incremental cost-benefit ratio was observed in Fipronil 5SC (1:5.8 & 1:2.1) and Acephate 75 SP (1:7.1& 1:4.3) during the year 2010-11 and 2011-12, respectively.

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
... at an average room temperature of 25 ± 1ºC and 67 ± 5 % RH. The adult life span for male and female were 29 and 27 days, respectively. P. marginatus is a devastating insect pest causing immense damage to the field crops, vegetables and ornamental plants of economic importance in Bangladesh perspectives.
 

 

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Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
... Mill.) with culture filtrate of biocontrol agents and found both positive and negative effect on seed germination, plant growth and vigour. Maximum increase in germination by 13.64% (chilli), shoot length by 59.69% (tomato), root length by 84.51% (cauliflower) and biomass by 46.55% (cauliflower) were obtained by the isolate B16 followed by B14 and B13. However, the isolate, B18 showed negative result with maximum reduction in germination by 25.56% (cauliflowe...

M.S. Islam, M.Ali, and I. Ahmad

Efficacy of sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP to control die-back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh
...1600 and 2000 ppm concentrations. Sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP caused colony growth inhibition, respectively by 75.00-90.77% and 75.88-91.33% in 2008 and 74.66-90.55% and 75.66-91.11% in 2009. In a field experiment at the main farm of Bangladesh Tea Research Institute (BTRI), both fungicides were applied as foliar spray for three times at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg ha-1. In 2008, sedomil 72WP gave 45.52-92.78% and recozeb 80WP gave 46.47- 90.39% reduction in PD...

Biswajit Pramanick, Sruti Karmakar, Koushik Brahmachari, Rupayan Deb 

An integration of weed management practices in potato un-der New Alluvial soil
... maximizing benefit cost ratio.

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Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik and M.L. Chatterjee

Evaluation of new and conventional insecticides for the management of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on rapeseed (Brassica juncea L.)
...Incremental cost benefit ratio indicated that highest return was obtained from imidacloprid (1:16.12) followed by lambda-cyhalothrin (1: 15.68) treated plot.
 

 

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A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...rise in atmospheric temperature and carbon dioxide differ from one region to the other. The latest assessment report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts an increment in mean atmospheric temperature from 1.1 to 6.4°C toward the year 2100 with equally increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Such climatic changes could profoundly affect insect’s population on essential crops. This s...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...s an emulsifiable concentrate. The formulation of 10EC at 0.25% was standardized as the best emulsifiable concentration for use against the pathogen. The pre inoculation spray of the formulation was observed to produce 63.62% reduction in lesion height caused by the sheath blight pathogen. Two isoforms of poly phenol oxidase, PPO 1 and PPO 3 were observed to be induced only in Ganosol 10EC sprayed plants and were absent in c...

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik, Pronobesh Halder and M. L. Chatterjee

Determination of relative toxicity and base line data of dif-ferent insecticides against cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley)
...ext-align: justify;">Laboratory bioassay was conducted to determine the toxicity of some insecticides and their LC50 values against 3rd instar nymphs of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis in the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Mohanpur during 2012. Both treated food untreated insect and treated food treated insect methods were followed. The lowest LC50 values through treated food untreated insect method ...

S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...maximum and minimum temperature had major role to build up the population of diamond back moth, C. plutellae and coccinellids beetle while aphid population was enhanced only by maximum temperature. Relative humidity and rainfall had negative influence on pests and natural enemies during the study period. 

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D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...here they undergo concentration and pro-duce potential, long term, adverse health effects. Pesticides in developing countries in Asia and Pacific region are mainly available as dust, wettable powder, emulsifiable concentrates, solutions, etc. These types of formulations are regarded now as ?conventional‘, ?old technology‘ or ?classical‘ or ?traditional‘ because of their increased in dose

Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
...gical factors viz., temperature (maximum and minimum), relative humidity, total rainfall and bright sunshine hours were collected for the entire period of study from the Department of Agrometeorology, AAU, Jorhat.The incidence of red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae on tea leaves was maximum during month of April to May-June and September-October (2011). The minimum number of mites was recorded from July- August and November (2011) to February (2012). The data...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...virus (PMTV) and Tobacco rattle tobra virus (TRV) was reported on the basis of characteristic symptoms expression, bait test, infectivity assays and double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both the viruses were prevalent in Hazara and Malakand divisions. The average symptoms based incidence in Hazara divi-sion for PMTV was 8.83% and TRV was 6.80% while in Malakand division the average symptoms based inci-dence for PMTV was 8.46%...

M. S. Joshi , D.M. Sawant and A.P. Gaikwad

Isolate variations in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting pomegranate
... other isolates were moderately virulent irrespective of varieties. Fruit varieties Aarakta and Bhagwa were found to be highly susceptible as both displayed maximum mean DRI 10.38 and 8.56, respectively irrespec-tive of isolates. Resistant varieties Yarcud local and Bedana thin skin showed uniform resistant reaction against six isolates of the pathogen. The interaction between isolates x varieties was also statistically significant. Highest DRI (15.22) was rec...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
...ncreasing effect of temperature. It is also concluded that K. Chandramukhi was susceptible to aphid, and K. Jyoti and K. Jawahar were tolerant to aphids while K. Chipsona-1, K. Chipsona-2 and Atlantic germplasms of potato were quite resistant. Therefore, it may be inferred that Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chopsona-2 and Atlantic needed only one or two insecticide application at 15 days interval during late January to protect the crop against the aphids while other...

Anil Sehajpal, Saroj Arora and Parminder Kaur 

 

Evaluation of plant extracts against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice
...fect at different concentrations against the pathogen whereas 8 plant extracts, viz. Abrus precatorious, Acacia auriculiformis, Bougainvillea glabra, Convolvulus arvensis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Morus alba, Thevatia peruviana, and Withania somnifera did not exert any effect. Among all the plant extracts, A. sativum exhibited strong fungitoxicity even at the lowest concentration, i.e. 100 ppm, with relative magnitude of inhi...

S. Pal, H. Banerjee and N. N. Mandal 

Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.)
...div align="justify">Comparative efficacy of penoxsulum 24 SC against weeds in transplanted kharif rice was studied at Regional Research Sub-Station (New Alluvial Zone), Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Chakdaha, Nadia, West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with 7 treatments and 3 replications. The results revealed that the major weed flora associated with the transplanted rice during kharif season was mainly comprised of Ec...

Someshwar Bhagat and Sitansu Pan

Comparative ecological behaviour of some pre- and post-tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from Andaman & Nicobar Islands
...-align: justify;">A comparative ecological study of some pre- and post Tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, was undertaken to assess the effect on some ecological behavoiur of these biocontrol agents. All the isolates showed better parasitic ability and rhizosphere colonization when the competition of other organisms withdrawn compared to natural and sun dried soil. Both competitive parasitic beha...

Dhananjoy Mandal

Eco-friendly management of mealybug and wilt in pineapple
...mers’ practice: phorate 10 G @ 20 kgha-1 during planting + monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.03% at 100 DAP + endosulfan 35% EC @ 0.02% during 150-180 DAP]; T2 [Treating planting materials (basal portion) with monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.02% + phorate 10 G @ 15 kg ha-1at 100 DAP + Neem oil 1500 ppm spray @ 2.5 m/L-1 at 150 DAP]; T3 [Treating planting materials (basal portion) with monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.02% + pho

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...ple of community or cooperative approach to farming, which has high prospect in India. But it is far from both PA (sensu lato) and SSAPA (sensu Dasgupta 2006, 2007b) as applied by us in this trial for methodology development. As a prelude to SSAPA we are comparing nine rice- and vegetable-based cropping sequences between improved and farmers’ practices in terms of five parameters, viz. crop growth and productivity, soil nutrient management, pest manageme...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...g @ 40 ha-1 at land preparation + seed piece tuber treatment with carbendazim 2.5 gL-1 and Streptocycline @ 1 gL-1 + stable bleaching powder drenching with out removal of affected plant at 40 Days After Planting (DAP) @ 10 gL-1, along with protective banding with well decomposed cowdung + oilcake + Single Super Phosphate + Muriate of Potash mixture at 20:5:3:1 in each bacterial wilt affected plant + mancozeb spray @ 2.5 gL-1 at 50, 57 and 60 DAP) were the best...

K. K. Hegde and B. S. Nandihalli 

Bioefficacy of some indigenous products in the management of okra fruit borers
...ncremental benefit: cost ratio was noticed in endosulfan treatment (15.00) followed by treatment involving NSKE alternated with cow urine 10% (13.00), repeated sprays of GCKE (10) and NSKE alternated with cow dung 10% (7.90).
 

 

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Shrinivas Mudigoudra and Shekharappa

Evaluation of plant products aganist sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani
...ma, Aloevera @ 5% concentration and were compared with carbofuran 3 G @ 30 kg. ha-1 to know its efficacy on shoot fly in sorghum ecosystem. The results clearly indicated that NSKE (5%) recorded less eggs of shoot fly (0.40egg/plant), per cent dead heart (14.97%) and maximum grain yield of 13.22 q.ha-1 among different plant products. The next best plant product was found to be V. negundo @ 5% in recording less incidence of shoot fly and obtaining higher grain y...

S. Choudhury and S. Pal

Population dynamics of mustard aphid on different Brassica cultivars under terai agro-ecological conditions of West Bengal
...e of infestation and the rates of population change of the aphids on different Brassica cultivars seem to be governed by varietal characteristics of different germplasms. Brassica campestris varieties as a group harboured relatively higher populations of the aphid than Brassica juncea varieties.
 

 

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N. Mandi and A. K. Senapati 

Integration of chemical botanical and microbial insecticides for control of thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood infesting chilli
... (43.43%) were found moderately effective. However, two sprays of acetamiprid and thiamethoxam followed by two sprays of neem pesticide and BT proved to be effective for management of thrips and it gave highest marketable yield, higher cost benefit ratio and percent reduction in thrips’ population.
 

 

...
Zhensheng Liu1,2, Hui Gao1,2, Jiapeng Dong1, Mingming Zhang3 and Liwei Teng1,2,*
...he two sexes live in separate groups outside the breeding season. We studied the seasonal activity of blue sheep from May 2010 through August 2012 to test the activity budget hypothesis, which predicts that females spend more time on feeding and that the activity synchronization of same-sex groups is higher than for mixed-sex groups. Our results support the hypothesis. Both males and females spent most of their time on feeding and moving. Feeding behavior diff...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...BDV field isolate at the rate of 0.1ml of EID50 (virus titer 105.50/100μl) on 2nd week of age through eye drops. Group B specific antibody negative (SAN) chicks were challenged with same dose at 2nd week of age. While the group C and D was unchallenged control containing commercial and SAN chicks. The Blood samples were collected from group A, B, C and D on 3rd, 5th and 7th day of post infect...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...ents, therefore, administration of gluten free diet might be a better strategy for SLE patients. However, further confirmatory studies are required in this regard.
...
Nasreen Memon1,*, Rukhsana Parveen2 and Imtiaz Ahmad2, Nadir Ali Shah3
...ies are described, illustrated and compared with the allied species. Illustrations include dorsal view, scent gland apparatus, external and internal male and female genitalia. A key of nine species is also given.
...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...inimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactoferrin was determined by 96-well plate method using ELISA reader. Results depicted that CM-Sephadex C-25 was a good cation exchanger for recovery of lactoferrin. Camel raw milk produced 2.4 mg/mL of lactoferrin. The lactoferrin isolated from camel milk exhibited promising antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Concentration of lactoferrin ...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...mammals were the major strategies in response to the changing food resources. In order to investigate the physiological responses to fasting and refeeding in Apodemus chevrieri, body mass and body fat mass, resting metabolic rate (RMR), organs morphology, serum leptin levels and food intake were measured in the present study. The results showed that food deprivation decreased body mass and body fat mass. After refeedi...
Sohail Ahmed, Muhammad Arshad and Babar Hassan*
...ns types in three concentrations were applied by brushing and dipping on wooden stakes which were exposed to termites’ for a period of 4 weeks in the field. Weight loss before and after resin treatment was indicative of effectiveness. Highest concentration of all resins significantly reduced the chances of termites’ infestation as compared to other concentrations by dipping app...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
... in plant photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content. Untreated plots had significantly less grain yield as compared to treated plot in all three crops. Cost benefit ratios were significantly different among three crops as 1:7.3, 1:5.7 and 1:4.8 in mid-Nov, end-Nov and mid-Dec crop, respectively. It is concluded that aphids infestation during the season cause for a decrease of grain yield in untreated plots compared to the ...
Yasemin Bircan Yildirim* and Hediye Tugce Vurmay
...d sea bream (Sparus aurata), Bogue (Boops boops), horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus), red mullet (Mullus barbatus), brushtooth lizardfish (Saurida undosquamis), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), threadfin bream, (Nemipterus randalli), which were caught from the Iskenderun Bay at 6 different locations (local fishermen’s fish market) were evaluated. The Serratia s...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...rolytic enzyme in concentrate ration on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and composition, and diet digestibility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Four lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes of 3rd and 4th parity and milk production of 8±2.3 kg/day were selected and offered a basal diet based on sorghum forage and concentrate ration supp...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
... to determine the sexual ratio in their population and to see if they effect the operational sex ratio (OSR). The number of males and females were 71 and 126, respectively. Twenty samples by the total wet weights less than 12 g were non-sexual. The wet weight of the gonads was ~8.25% of the mean total wet body weights. The most distribution of gonad wet weights and total wet weights were g...
Madeeha Arshad1, Naveed Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Khalid3, Asmatullah1, Mohammad Tahir2, Khadija Naveed1 and Asia Iqbal4
...med at determining the teratogenic effects of different doses of Cr VI, administered to pregnant mice. LD50 of Cr VI, was calculated as 88mg/kg of B.W in pregnant mice. Among 05 groups of pregnant females (10 females in each group), three were treated with 50%, 25% and 12.5% of the LD50 of Cr VI, respectively, with one control and one vehicle control group. Fetuses were recovered on 18th day of gestation and fixed for morphomet...
Jia-xiang Wang1,2,* and Peng Li1,2
...e pancreas of many vertebrates. While ghrelin has been found in the cerebellum and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks, little is known about its distribution in the pancreas ofthe African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the African ostrich pancreas were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that the pancreas is divided into twosections: th...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...he (i) adeptness of integrated module of prophylactic soil disinfection and bio-control, (ii) only prophylactic soil disinfection, and (iii) only curative soil disinfection over uprooting and destruction of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yi...
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
... bio-efficacy of new generation molecules against rice insect-pests. Control of pests in seedbed is relatively less expensive than transplanted main-field because of smaller area of nursery that can be managed better way as compared to transplanted field. In the present study, chlorantraniliprole granule was applied both in seedbed and transplanted field along with spraying of some new generation insecticides like indoxacarb...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...storage and benefit-cost ratio. Therefore, seed dressing with neem or mustard oil at 2ml/kg seed can be finally recommended from the present findings for safe storage of black gram for the purpose of food and seed under homestead conditions of Purulia district of West Bengal.
...
Obaidullah1, Zafar Ali Shah1* and Sami Ullah2
...ent and running its comparative TLC against standard, added with structure elucidation by FT-IR spectrum. Silver nanoparticles of Lapachol were  synthesized by treating 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution with 1 mM solution of Lapachol in the presence of sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) in double distilled water at pH of 7.6 having temperature 40 °C for 3 hours. Whereas, copper-Lapachol ...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...udied using relevant literature. The pathogenicity of the isolates was examined to select biocontrol agent against host weed. 
...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...chemical analysis demonstrated the presence of higherquantities of carbohydrates, proteins and secondary metabolites in methanol compared to other extracting solvents. Moreover, only ethanol (5 and 10%) and petroleum ether (5%) demonstrated significant hair growth promoting effects (p < 0.05) compared to standard, i.e., 5% minoxidil and extracts in other solvents. Likewise, ethan...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...sease genotype VII. Comparative blood profiling in vaccinated and challenged, non-vaccinated and non-challenged and non-vaccinated and challenged indicated that MDA for H5N1 gradually decreased from 5.1 to 0.4 log2 and disappeared with in a month. While MDA for NDV remained 2.1 log2 until 28th day of age, the Geometric mean titers (GMT) for H5 were increased from the 7th day of age using both antigens (RE-5 antigen) and (S75/Egy/2015 antigen). Generally, GMT p...
 

Amir Ismail1, Muhammad Riaz1,2*, Saeed Akhtar1, Amjad Farooq3, Muhammad Arif Shahzad1 and Ahmad Mujtaba4

 

... International Dairy Federation (1979). The mean levels of Ni, Cu and Co were found in the normal ranges. The data for estimated daily intake of heavy metals through milk showed that infants are most prone towards heavy metal toxicity due to the higher rate of milk consumption.

...
Mehmet Avci1, Recep Aydin1,* and Jale Metin Kiyici2
...the effects of different ration forms on growth, feed conversion and behavioral characteristics of Brown Swiss calves. The calves in treatment group were supplied with mixed ration of chopped roughage (5-7 cm) and concentrate calf starter feed and the calves in control group were supplied with natural roughage and concentrate feed sepa
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
...STM, GSTA and GSTT. Comparative genomics and syntenic analysis provided new evidences for better understanding on gene fates post whole genome duplication (WGD) of common carp. The expression patterns of all GST genes were established in various tissues, including brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, gill, liver, skin, blood and muscle of common carp. Expression profiles provided us more evidences to understand GST gene functions as well as their functiona...
Erol Akkuzu1,*, Hidayet Güzel2 and Özkan Evcin1
...I. sexdentatus were grater in stands with site index-III than those with site index-I, and 3) the body length of the pest did not differ significantly between two site productivity classes and between two stand compositions. 
...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
...al in commercial broiler rations. A total of 150 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly distributed into fifteen replicate groups (n=10), and consequently reared on five experimental diets according to a completely randomized design. Feed intake was higher in D4 group in comparison with other groups (P < 0.05). Live body weight was higher in D4 group than D2, D3 and D5 groups (P < 0.05). FCR and dressing percentage were similar among the all gro...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
...he effect of the administration of slow release boluse of trace elements bolus in Naemi ewes during late gestation. Thirty Naemi ewes were divided into two groups. One group served as a control while the other was treated with rumen bolus of trace elements containing copper (Cu) cobalt (Co); selenium (Se), manganese (Mn); zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). Blood samples were collected from ewes and their newborns at parturition. Colostrum yield and biochemical analysis...
Viram Kumar1,*, Moolchand Malhi1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi2, Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani3 and Khushal Das Malhi1
... RBC, MCV and MCH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) and the serum total protein and Mg concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in male compared to female peafowl. In conclusion, the present study provides base-line values for hematology and serum biochemistry of apparently healthy Indian adult blue peafowl of Thar and can be used as reference values to evaluate the health or diseased condit...
Wenqiao Hui1, Jishun Tang1, Dejian Zhu1, Qian Ban2* and Sheng Chen1*
... process of physical maturation of an animal with the capability of sexual reproduction. In domestic animals, age at attainment of puberty is an event that contributes significantly to lifetime reproductive efficiency. Anhui white goat is a native Chinese breed, with the characters of early time puberty onset and high fecundity. However, the molecular mechanism of puberty onset has not been well understood. It has been demonstrat
Muzammil Sattar
...ext-align: justify;">Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the influence of varying amounts of different proteins in the diet of adult Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). Results show that proteins play a vital role in the fecundity, fertility and all the biological parameters of F1 for mass rearing. The tested proteins were: Casein, Protein hydrolysate, Torula yeast and Nu lure. Al these proteins were tested in labo
Ahmad Ali1,*, Sheikh Muhammad Azam2, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Mujahid Kaleem3
...in May, 2014 due to respiratory failure and cardiac arrest and female cub died in 2005 due to canabalism.
...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...nd out of 498 broiler operations yielded 17 (3.4%) positive isolates and 44 golden type native chicken farms yielded 05 (11.36%) isolates of AIV H9N2 and 58 captive pheasant’s samples were negative. It was observed that frequency of H9N2 prevalence in poultry population was directly proportional to temperature, season and elevation.
...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
.... The HBV PCR positivity rate was 80.18% (n=255) in males and 78.30% (n=267) in females patients. Among different age groups HBV PCR positivity was highest (n=181, 83.41%) in the age group of 31 to 40 years. HBV genome was detected in 79.21% of HBsAg positive samples, showing that HBsAg on ELISA is much more sensitive than PCR as HBV shows chronic conditions and both of the tests are needed against HBV.
...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...romising for designing strategies for the biological control program of cotton mealybug.
...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1*,Ibrahim Alhidary1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Rifat U. Khan3, Abdel Raouf S. Bello4, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2 and Ramzi A. Amran1
...n: justify;">Total mixed rations (TMR) based diet is a high energy diet, which negatively deteriorates the rumen health through pH reduction .This study investigated the effect of different protocols of alfalfa hay supplementary on ruminal characteristics and performance of growing Naemi lambs fed TMR. Four groups, each of 3 months old growing Naemi male lambs (28.85±1.09 kg), were fed on TMR (NDF=41. 95%) (T1). TMR p...
Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
...exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol-A (10,100,1000μg/l) for 14 days. BPA exposure strongly elevates vtg mRNA level in fish exposed to 100μg/l but at 1000 μg/l exposure of BPA, vtg level decreased compared to 100µg/l exposed fish. These results showed that BPA has estrogenic action and cause endocrine disruption in juvenile C. catla at environmentally relevant concentration. Moreo...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...Twelve-arm olfactory apparatus was used to evaluate the response of C. septempunctata toward aphids and different host plants of aphids. Different horticultural plants and field crops were used singly or in combination with prey as a host. An increased numbers of C. septempunctata was observed when host plants were added with aphids. But was no significant difference in most of the combinations except wheat with aphids (3.8889±0.4554). The...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

..., net return, value cost ratio and relative increase in income as compared to soil applied method. However, maximum grain protein content was recorded in soil applied method in comparison to foliar N application. In conclusion, higher results for all the quantitative parameters were observed at 120 kg N ha-1.

...

Khurram Shahzad and Mohammad Akmal*

...y split applicarion of N rates and timings for wheat performance in recent weather condiction. Experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar in 2015-16 in a randomized complete block (RCBD) design with four replications. Seedbed was prepared as recommended for wheat, planting was made with basic seeds (cv. Pakhtunkhwa) using seed drill in rows spaced 0.25 m equal distances. Recommended rat
Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
... kg ha-1 seed rate with 30 cm row spacing, fertilizer dose @ 20:50 kg ha-1 N:P2O5 and inoculation with rhizobium strain Vm M1 were optimal for its maximum yield. Inqalab Mung outclassed among all candidate lines included in National Uniform Yield Trial (NUYT)- 2007 with an average yield of 1092 kg ha-1 at 12 locations across country, with highest grain yield of 3620 kg ha-1 at Agricultual Res...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

... and the feed conversion ratio was observed weekly. After 42 day of the growth, the birds were slaughter with the Islamic Halal Method and the blood samples of the birds were preserved for antioxidant enzymes assay analysis. The data showed that as the citrus waste percentage in the feed of the broiler was increased, its feed intake and the body weight decreased but the citrus waste has non-significant effect on the feed conversion rat...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
...composting of source separated organic substance of municipal solid waste (MSW) produced in low, middle and high income areas of Peshawar having the a population more than 2 million. Outcomes of MSW investigation showed the occurrence of great proportion of Decomposable organic matter, adequate moisture content and C/N ratio. On windrow composting, not only the bulk of the waste was compacted but also formed a powdery earthy...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
...(Saunders), at 2% concentration in a free choice bioassays. Acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used for extraction from leaves. Amongst the various treatments applied, the acetone extract of D. alba showed the highest repellency of 84.14%, whereas, the lowest repellency of 10.73% was observed by the chloroform extract of T. peruviana. Significant ovipositional deterrent effects of the extracts applied have been observed. Maximu...
Hazrat Ali1,*, Wajid Ali1, Karim Ullah1, Fazle Akbar1, Sher Ahrar1, Irfan Ullah1, Irum Ahmad1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Ikram Ilahi2 and Muhammad Anwar Sajad3 
...vision, Pakistan. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were determined in fish samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Highest Cu concentration of 4.52 ± 0.24 mg kg−1 wet weight was observed in muscles of M. armatus at Chakdara on River Swat while highest Zn concentration of 18.00 ± 1.88 mg kg−1 wet weight was observed in muscles of ...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...i>HLA-DRB1*11 demonstrated significant association with aeroallergens and could have a protective role for allergy while HLA-DRB1*12 did not show any association with aeroallergen sensitization.
...
Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
...oup was found at maximum rate of 30.60%. Their fork lengths and weights ranged between 6.0-22.8 cm and 3.7-134.62 g for females; 6.1-22.1 cm and 2.7-110 g for males, respectively.The growth parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation were found as Lt=34.71 [1-e–0.116(t+0.867)] for females and Lt=32.87 [1-e–0.127(t+0.717)] for males. The length-weight relationships were estimated to be WT= 0.0269 FL2.720 (R2
Farah Ashfaq* and Tasnim Farasat
...circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), diastolic and systolic blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose, serum resistin and insulin of three hundred over weight, obese males and females, 17 to 30 years and 100 comparable control subjects were included. Serum resistin and insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were found significantly high in overweight and obese groups as compared to the normal weight group (p<0.01). In overweight gr...
Muhammad Imran Shabbir
...n this way, simple illustrations incorporate a considerable amount of information that provides the opportunity to determine genotype and phenotype probabilities for monogenic Mendelian traits without the need to draw Punnett square for every parental genotype combination. These illustrations provide information for both forward (phenotype to genotype) as well as reverse genetics (genotype...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...ngrass (Cymbopogon citratus), oregano (Origanium vulgare), lemon (Citrus lemon) and thyme (Thymus linearus), formic acid at three different concentrations of 25%, 50% and 100% and control were used against T. clareae in naturally infested honey bee, A. mellifera colonies in Honeybee Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The percentage of infe...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...Forecasting plays an imperative role in adjusting the vision and applicability regarding aspirations. The study attempted to forecast major crops area, production, yield and per capita food availability using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops and per capita food avai...
Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...MLP) were evaluated comparatively. Several factors thought as independent variables in the survey were age of beekeeper (AB), education level (EL), number of full beehives (NFB), bee race (BR), the time spent in plateau (TSP), feed of autumn and spring (FAS), working period in apiculture during year (WPA), frequency of changing queen (FCQ), and controlling beehives in summer (CFB), respectively. Minimum beekeeping farm numbers for parent and child nodes were a...
Hassen Allaya1,2,*, Abderraouf Ben Faleh1, Manel Rebaya1, Sonia Zrelli3, Abdallah Hattour2, Jean-Pierre Quignard4 and Monia Trabelsi1
...unny Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque, 1810) inhabiting Tunisian waters. Our investigation based on the analysis of morphological characteristics of Euthynnus alletteratus from two distant sampling sites (Mahdia and Zarzis) along the Tunisian coast using 11 morphometric and 3 meristic characters in order to investigate the morpholgical variation among them. Uni and Multivariate analysis of variance of 64 adul...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

...) as compared to other N rates (50, 100, 150 kg ha-1). Significant differences were also observed in cultivars, CIM-496 produced higher seed cotton yield than other under arid climate of Multan in Cotton-Wheat Cropping system. Empirical model was developed on the basis of field observations to compute the seed cotton yield beyond the application of 200 kg N ha-1. It is predicted that seed cotton yield increased with additional increment of nitrogen (>200 kg...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...ced hypercholesterolemic rats. Insoluble dietary fiber (lignin and cellulose) was extracted from wheat and maize, while ß glucan was extracted from barley and sorghum. Male rats (n = 32), weighing 200-220 g were induced with hypercholesterolemia and were equally divided into 5 groups to study the effect of purified diet-AIN-93 G, wheat bran feed (WBF) , maize bran feed (MBF), sorghum ß glucan feed (SGF) and barle...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...leted wheat straw. The duration of the trial was 42 days. Moisture content in litter materials and FPD occurrence and severity were assessed weekly. First signs of FPD were observed in 21-day old chickens reared on chopped wheat straw (FPD score = 0.52±0.10) and a week later in a group of birds kept on pelleted straw (FPD score = 0.34±0.07). At the end of the experiment in both groups of broilers percentage of severe FPD was high. Severe lesions ...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

... extra vegetative growth rather than seed cotton yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield. The results further illustrated that, genotype DNH-105 ranked first for plant population, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, weight per boll and seed cotton yield when sown on April 01. CIM-616 was the 2nd sui...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

... supervision and administration of agricultural activities. The current study was carried out to measure the level of competency of AEOs in skills regarding management of supervision and administration that is considered necessary in order to deal with farmers where a wide range of variations exists in their personalities and habits. A significant difference was reported in required and possessed competencies of preparing tr...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

... were influenced by temperature.
...
Saba Irshad1,*, Ayesha Ashfaq1, Ammara Muazzam1 and Abida Yasmeen2
...ugh to reduce the growth rate of M. canis and A. flavus up to 35%, with no inhibitory influence on Candida species and F. solani. These extracts fully inhibit growth of PC3 cells. Moreover, partially purified lectin, from Curcuma longa L. with a molecular weight of 17.3 KDa might be useful to treat patients as a considerably cheap herbal drug which can be prescribed to poor people efficiently at an affordable cost.
...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...lfsii and their integrated management by using derosol, cadusafos and Trichoderma harzianum in the green house at 25 ± 4ºC. Primarily, 15 chilies cultivars viz., 28-2010, C-72, Sanam, C-73, Gola Peshawari, 27-2010, Tata Puri, C-302, C-33, C-19, 5-2010, C-68, 11-2010, 18-2010 and 15-2010 were evaluated against M. incognita and S. rolfsii. Two week old chilies plants were inoculated with M. incognita, S. rolf...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...trol of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this study was to construct Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based vaccine against a currently circulating avian influenza virus H5N1 strain in Egypt targeting the HA gene. The HA gene of AIV Egyptian strain H5N1...

Murad Ali1, Farmanullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad2* and Imran Khan1

...er application from integrated organic and inorganic sources is universally accepted agronomic practice for improved yield and soil properties. However, determination of a suitable dose from either source that could beneficially and easily combine to give maximum output still needs lots of research. The experiment was conducted during wheat season 2014-15 on a selected water eroded site in District Swabi. Fourteen treatments viz the control (T1), recommended d...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...1) were fed at the rate of 5% of live wet weigh and feces were collected twice daily. The results of present study showed improved growth performance of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings in response to phytase supplementation. Maximum growth performance was observed by the fish group fed on test diet-III having 1000 FTU kg-1 level. Similarly, nutrient digestibility was also significantly increased (p<0.05) by 1000 FTU kg-1 lev...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...sing rice husk as a substrate for processing with the objective to produce a nutritionally enriched bulk feed ingredient and to explore its potential as wheat bran replacer in total mixed rations for the ruminants. For this purpose rice husk was subjected to different processing techniques using acid, alkali, water treatment and fermentation to prepare processed moiety on pilot scale. All these processed materials were inclu...
Ali Karabacak1, Senol Celik2, Adile Tatliyer3, Ismail Keskin1, Yakup Erdal Erturk4, Ecevit Eyduran5, Yasir Javed6 and Mohammad Masood Tariq7,*
...t of variation (CV%), SD ratio, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Relative Approximation Error (RAE), and Pearson correlation coefficient between actual and predicted values were calculated. For both Models, CHAID and CART were chosen as the best algorithms in the estimation of CCW trait, whereas only CHAID was the ideal tree-based algorithm in the estimation of BW trait. In conclusion, the determination of the best data mining algorithm on the estimation of BW a...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

... of these isolates illustrated no insertion, deletion and substitutions compared to A/DK/HK/Y280/97 lineage and human isolates (A/HK/1073/99 and A/HK/1074/99). Several amino acid substitutions at various regions of the NA protein were determined with unknown functions and consequences. These findings warrant future studies for analysis of whole genome sequencing of prevailing H9N2 viruses in Pakistan which may further contribute towards the better understandin...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...rea under rice crop, NPK ratio, Seed, number of irrigation hour, weedicides, insecticides and pesticide variable would significantly contributes to improve the rice production. On average technical efficiency of sample rice farmers is 86 percent, which indicates that rice farmers in selected areas can increase the production of rice 14 percent only by managing efficiency level, without increasing input quantities. Hence, it is possible for rice farmers to incr...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...ng grid based sampling strategy, soil samples (n= 1280) were collected from villages (n=256, 5 samples/village) of the nine districts. Brucella genus specific DNA (bcsp31) was detected using Real Time PCR and prevalence was 2.11%. Out of five species, only two species B. abortus and B. melitensis were detected through conventioneal multiplex PCR. Prevalence of soil borne species specific DNA of B. abortus and B. melitensis...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...%), with a case fatality rate in goats reached 74.69% in the 2nd outbreak. Affected animals exhibited fever, stomatitis, mucopurulent to bloody nasal/ocular discharges, watery to bloody diarrhea and lameness. The major gross lesions were erosive stomatitis, hemorrhages in lung, liver, abomasum, small and large intestine. PPRV NP was detected in sheep (n=20) and goats (n=18), anti-PPRV NP was also detected among sheep and goats (n=162) by ELISA, 3ABC-FMD enzyme...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

... served as an income generating activity but also an employment generating activity in present and in future. The major constraints in beekeeping were the expensive inputs, pest attack, lack of modern production and rearing techniques, and trainings which can be overcome by a comprehensive program focusing on the provision of low cost inputs, pesticides/insecticides, modern techniques and trainings, and value chain market fa...
Fareeda Tasneem1, Farah Rauf Shakoori1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*

 

... giving it a clearly separate position. Phylogeny results based on the H4 gene sequences corresponded to the results obtained by 18SrDNA sequences. Both markers proved the FT8 strain is a highly divergent species based on the phylogenetic relationships, opening new realms for the researchers of this field.
...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
...fy;">Aquaculture feeding rate is an important factor affecting the growth of giant gourami. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different feeding rates on the growth, and carcass composition of giant gourami (initial weight 14.17±0.15 g and length 9.88±1.11 cm). The nutrition content of the diet was a cross energy of 3,340.50 kcal/kg, made up of 30% crude protein, 7% crude lipid, 6% crude fi...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

... litura F. under laboratory conditions. Both NPV and flubendiamide were applied using diet incorporation method. Larvae were allowed to feed for 48 h. Mortality was recorded until larvae died or pupated. Second instar larvae showed more susceptibility as compared with 4th instar larvae. Maximum mortality was recorded in 2nd instar larvae (91.02±2.04%) in comparison to fourth instar larvae (69...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
...r field recommended dose rates upon attainment of ETLs of most of the sucking insect pests. Data regarding insect populations were recorded 3 and 7 day post treatment. Results revealed that Confidor proved to be most effective systemic insecticide against all insect pests, followed by Pouch, Senator, Blaster, Bugatti and Jozer. However, Confidor, Jozer, Bugatti, Blaster and Senator showed a top-down effect on beneficial insects causing 50–90% reduction i...
Ayşe Gül Harlıoğlu*
...kiss). The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found the highest followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the unfertilized eggs. On the other hand, PUFA was the highest followed by SFA and MUFA in the semen. The proportions of the some fatty acids, such as C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6, C2...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...n the spleen/body weight ratios of mice infected with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosome-Lysosome fusion was dramaticly impaired, and profound increase of apoptosis rate after exposure of RAW264.7 to omp10 mutants at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h compared to RAW264.7 exposed to 2308. Results indicate that Δomp10 mutant would affect its survival and pathogenicity.
...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...t three different concentration viz., R, R/2 and R/4. Combination of bio agents (T+P) gave maximum results at R concentration against R. bataticola and M. incognita.
...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...ted subjects (59.5%; odd ratio 2.53; p=0.008). Co-infection was most prevalent among HSW group (90.9%; OR 8.67; P=0.005) followed by FSW group (20%) and IDUs (14.3%). There is a pressing need for HIV prevention plan that should emphasize on raising awareness and promote use of preventive measures to limit HIV/AIDS and syphilis infections in HRGs especially among the HSWs and FSWs.
...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...urgical and chemical castration on body weight and some hormones. In the present study, 2.5-3-month-old weaned male Norduz sheep were used. The sheep were obtained in the year 2015 from Livestock Application and Research Directorate of Yuzuncu Yil University. The sheep were randomly allocated into three groups each of which contained 10 sheep. The groups were formed as; Group 1 The Control Group (No cast
Kulsoom Akhter1, Tahseen Ghous1,2,Saiqa Andleeb3,*, Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim4, Samina Ejaz5, Zain-ul-Abdin1, Bilal Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammed Naeem Ahmed1
...t maximum studied concentration of metal ions (250 mgl-1), in above sequence, the strains accumulated 118.2, 121.87 and 90 mg/g Cr (VI), 135, 127.5 and 146.25 mg/g Ni (II) and 120, 129.37, 135 mg/g Cd(II). Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied and found suitable to describe biosorption of selected metals by the isolated strains.
...
Ibrahim A. Alhidary1,*, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Moez A. Ayadi1,3 and Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2
...of different total mixed ration diets (TMRs) with three different levels of NDF on growth performance, metabolic profile and rumen characteristics in Naemi lambs. Fifty growing Naemi lambs at age of three months with an average bodyweight of 27.77 ±1.09 kg were randomly distributed to five different treatments, ten lambs each, as follow: 1. Alfalfa hay and barley grain (ABG); 2. Pelleted alfalfa hay and barley (PAB); 3. TMR1 (25.67% NDF); 4. TMR2 (30.88...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...ted to decrease and temperature has to rise for wheat growth in Pakistan. Wheat crop is planted on more than 52% area as rainfed crop in the providence Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (KP). The study, therefore, aims to plant wheat in season from early to late i.e. November 15 to December 25 with about 10 days intervals. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar in winter season 2015-16. Experiment was in a randomized...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

...toxic heavy metal concentration in the wastewater, irrigated soil, their accumulation in vegetables, and potential human health risks. The results reveal that Cr concentration in the wastewater, Cd and Zn in soil and in vegetables have been found well above the permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO) which may lead to a detrimental effect on soil quality, leading to food contamination. The extractable concent
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
...e supplementation at the rate of 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 g/kg feed, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher weekly and total feed intake and weight gain were recorded in group Bet-2.0. Higher level of betaine supplementation significantly (P< 0.05) improved feed conversion ratio (FCR). Betaine supplementation significantly (P< 0.05) improved dressing percentage. The treatment groups had significantly (P<0.05) lower h...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...onstituents and survival rate of snakehead (Channa marulius) cultured in plastic tanks (42.5 liters water carrying capacity each). Fish juveniles (length: 10.63 ±0.980 cm, weight: 9.030±1.40g) were stocked after acclimatization. A total of 3 treatments were tested following 2 replications i.e. first treatment (T1, Squid feed), second treatment (T2, Tubifex feed) and third treatment (T3, pellet feed). Juveni...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...al leaves was 3.1 kW. Operating cost of sisal decorticator together with a combing machine was Rs. 507.9 h-1. The break-even point or payback period of this technology was 233 h. Sisal fibre needs to be washed, dried and brushed after decortication process for getting good quality fibre to make domestic products. This technology has a great potential and needs to be commercialised in sisal growing areas of the country.
...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
...by its lower germination rate. To address the problem of poor germination and low seed viability, a field study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, during spring 2011. The experiment was composed of two soybean varieties (Faisal Soybean and 95-1) and five priming techniques (control, on-farm priming, hydro priming, hydration inoculation and osmo priming with 0.5% urea solution. Res...
Shazia Rasheed1,* and Javed Mustaquim2
...ckii Gray, 1825. The rate of infestation was found markedly low in P. pelagicus (2.9 %) and P. sanguinolentus (10.8 %) during present investigation. Octolasmids prevalence was significantly higher in female P. pelagicus (81.2%) than that of male (18.8%) while in case of P. sanguinolentus the prevalence was significantly higher in male (60.5%) rather than female (39.5%).
...
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...rasites, with prevalence rate 6.98 %. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection during the period of study was as follows; Ascaris lumbricoides (n= 205, 1.8%), Giardia lamblia (n= 178, 1.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (n= 174, 1.57%), Trichuris trichiura (n= 118, 1.06%), Hymenolepis nana (n= 51, 0.46 %), Enterobius vermicularis (n= 28, 0.25%) and Taenia saginata (n= 21, 0.19%) respectively. The prevalence

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

... culture, 25 °C temperature, media of pH 5 and light fermentation.The EtOAc extract exhibited the minimal value of MIC (10.41±4.50 µg/mL) against gram negative E. coli, while its acetonitrile fraction yielded (6.50±2.25 µg/mL) of MIC against S. aureus. Hence, it is revealed from the results that T. harzianumis a potential source of antibiotic drugs as it showed a wide range of bioactivity against both phyto and human pathogenic ba...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...ar 1999, started a new strategy of Farm Services Center for the empowerment of farmers that aimed to provide agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, machinery along with advisory services in order to increase per acre yield. This study was conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in the year 2016. The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Farm Services Centers (FSCs) in district Charsadda regarding provision of agricultural servic...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

... 50 ppm). Results demonstrated that minimum fruit drop (5.95%), fruit density (0.80gcm-3) with maximum number of new shoots (55.7), number of new flowers (225.3), fruit weight (197.5g), and fruit volume (245.5cm3) were recorded in plants deblossomed in September treated with 50 ppm of GA3. While maximum fruit density (1.13gcm-3) was recorded in the month of July fruits treated with 10 ppm of GA3. While maximum fruit drop (11.69%), titr...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
... justify;">Carbon sequestration study was conducted in grazed and in un-grazed sites at Pabbi hills Kharian, District Gujarat, Pakistan. The study area was surveyed and homogeneous sites for conducting experiment were selected for grazed and un- grazed range land at Pabbi hills Kharian, District Gujarat, Pakistan. Carbon is played a vital role in the green house gases. Carbon sequest
Sumit K. Satpathi1, Suprakash Pal2*, Rupsanatan Mandal2, Nonigopal Shit2 and Ashutosh Sarkar3
...ted in poor cost-benefit ratio. However, the biopesticides and new ecofriendly molecule flubendiamide were found to have less hazardous effect on the population of natural enemies as compared to the pesticide based treatments; thus this approach is augmenting the natural control of pests.
 
Keywords: Cowpea, insect pests, biopesticides, bioefficacy, cost-benefi...
Shantanu Jha1, A. Rama Devi1, Ngalaton Kasar1 and Abhishek Mukherjee2
... The programme was inaugurated by Prof. D. D. Patra, Hon’ble Vice-Chancellor, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV) and was chaired by Professor C. Sen, President of Association for Advancement in Plant Protection (AAPP). Oher dignitaries attended the meeting were Prof. T. K. Maity, Dean, Faculty of Horticulture, BCKV and Prof. M. R. Ghosh, Taxonomist and Retired Professor of Agriculture Entomology, BCKV.
...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
...uals. Our results demonstrated that the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five and the mean number of alleles was 3.67. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.227 to 0.545 and 0.201 to 0.630, respectively. The polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.181 to 0.573. Null allele frequency varied from -0.0548 to 0.0563. The sets of loci proved to correctly discriminate populations using Principal Coordinate analysis. ...
Gülnur Metin* and İlker Aydin
...uctive season, first maturation size (LM50) and sex ratio) of the jinga shrimp, Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne Edwards, 1837), in Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey) were investigated. A total of 2894 M. affinis were obtained from commercial fishermen between November 2008 and January 2011. The total length and weight of the females or males were measured as 7.3–17.5 cm and 2.6-38.9 g or 7.8&n...
Muhammad Fiaz1, Khadija Munawar2, Muhammad Mushtaq2,*, Mukhtar Ahmad3, Mushtaq Ahmad Chaudhry3, Muhammad Aslam3, Tanveer Ahmad1 and Nasrullah4
...rms of FCR. The survival rate in lambs fed ewe milk and replacer-I remained 100% as compared to 75% in case of lambs fed milk replacer-2. The calf milk replacers were cheaper in terms of milk cost per kg gain than natural ewe milk. It was concluded that high quality calf milk replacer can be used as an efficient substitute of ewe milk for optimum growth performance in neonatal Salt Range lambs after mandatory colostrum feeding.
...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...ulls, diluted in tris citrate egg yolk based extender and cryopreserved using standard protocol. The semen straws were thawed at 37oC and stained using different protocols as followed: Protocol 1 (washing effect); washing either with normal saline (NS) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Protocol II (heating effect during incubation in tampon solution); smears were immersed in tampon either at room temperature or ...
Shabana1,*, Farah Ehsan1 and Shahida Hasnain1,2
...482Ser variant of proliferator activator receptor γ coactivator 1α (PPARGC1α) gene with diabetes in Pakistani population. A total of 900 blood samples (diabetic=451, controls=449) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. A significant difference in genotype distribution was observed between cases (Gly/Gly, 66.9%; Gly/Ser, 20.17%; Ser/Ser, 12.8%) and controls (Gly/Gly, 67.4%; Gly/Ser, 28.5%; Ser/Ser, 4.00%) (p = 0.013). The cases showed significantl...

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

...ium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium sulphate) at three calcium concentrations (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0%) stored for 30 days at 10 days interval. The experimental results showed that calcium sources, concentration and storage duration significantly affected all the studied attributes. More fruit firmness (5.57 and 5.69 kg cm2), less Total soluble solids [...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

...a+ accumulation, Na+/ K+ ratio and BER incidence as well as increased the leaf K+ and Ca content of tomato fruit, yield and fruit firmness. The interaction of salinity and calcium significantly affected the yield and BER incidence of tomato fruit. Whereas, the yield of tomato decreased with increasing salinity levels, the decrease in yield was comparatively less with foliar calcium application. By contrast, salinity increase...
Umair Talib1*, Ijaz Ashraf1, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhary1, Riaz Ahmad2
...s and development of a strategy to enhance the effectiveness of extension work. The specific objectives were to ascertain the satisfaction smallholder rice growers regarding the extension work conducted by public and private extension organizations; to analyze the satisfaction of smallholder rice growers with public and private organizations; and to develop a strategy to enhance effectiveness of extension work. Gujranwa...

Qudsia Khalid, Safdar Hussain Shah*, Faiza Zaeem and Saad Hussain Shah 

...n (0.25 mg/l). For regeneration MS medium with 1.0mg/l NAA and BAP + 30g/l D-Sorbitol was used. LiCl adapted line showed significantly higher indices of tolerance than unadapted line at 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM NaCl stress. Adaptation resulted in enhanced accumulation of saturated fatty acids (myristic and stearic acids), while unsaturated fatty acids exhibited variable profiles with enhan...
Muhammad Hannan Ahmed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Abu Bakar M. Raza1, M. Afzal1, A. Khaliq1, Yasir Iftikhar2 and Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3
...factors (especially temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) also play vital role in the population dynamics of sucking insect pest complex like jassid, aphid, thrips and mites. The present study was conducted on six cotton cultivars (3 Bt and 3 non-Bt) to monitor the population dynamics of thrips in relation to abiotic climatic factors. Interaction effect was found significant in Bt varieties but not for non-Bt cultivars. Avera...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...e is the most suitable strategy for the availability of free phosphorus for the growth of monogastric poultry birds. Current study deals with the production and characterization of recombinant thermostable phytase from Thermotoga naphthophila (PHYTN). This study was an initial step for the fulfilment of domestic industrial requirement of phytase in Pakistan.The PCR resulted in the amplification of 1.8 kb phytase gene. SDS-PAGE confirme...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

...osed to different concentrations of LET. At 130 dph, sex ratio was recorded. The results showed that continuous exposure to LET induced the changes of sex ratio. High concentration of LET can promote male-biased sex ratio. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism by which LET caused sex reversal, juvenile carp (120dp...
Asad Abdullah1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Waqar Hassan2,    Samina Khalid3, Yasir Iftikhar4, Muhammad Arshad1 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6
...% NSE while at 2% concentration of NSE after 148 hrs, 39. 16% reduction was observed. While maximum reduction on non-Bt cotton at 6% recorded as 66.60% and minimum at 2% concentration recorded as 48.72% of neem seed extract against B. tabaci. In case of A. biguttula, maximum reduction in population was observed at 6% concentration of NSE (64.94%) and minimum at 2% conc...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
... are mandatory to corroborate our initial findings.
...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
...calyptus oil at 5ml dose rate gave best result and can be recommended to manage the varroa mite in apiculture.
...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...mucosal surfaces of respiratory, intestinal and reproductive tracts are the primary entry points for viruses into host cells. Amongst these, respiratory tract is prone to direct and continuous exposure to viral infection. Respiratory viruses including influenza virus, coronaviruses and herpes viruses are important pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, su...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...rcent MSC. All the three rations were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogeniuos. Each cow was given a daily feed ration according to NARC standards. Milk yield of each experimental animals were recorded twice daily while its composition were checked through milk analyzer twice a week. Mean daily production of milk among three groups was significantly (p<0.05) different, however highest milk production (4.8±0.74 liter/day) w...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...tus, and R. decoloratus were noted 41.67, 18.42, 9.83, 8.25, and 6.83% respectively, whereas least prevalence was noted as 0.42% in case of A. pomposum and D. circumguttatus; 0.25% each was shown by D. rhinocerinus, Heam. Excavatum, and H. impeltatum; 0.17%exhibited by Heam. Houyi and R. distinctus; and 0.08% each displayed by Heam. Parmata, and H. egyptium, H. rufipes, R. longus and R. parvas. Risk f...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
..., 200 and 250 MPa), temperature (40, 50 and 60 oC), for processing time of 3 minutes and thermal treatment was done in a water bath at 70 oC for 90 seconds. In HPP treatment (250 MPa/60 °C/3 min), significant reduction was observed in microorganisms, PME and PPO whereas improvement was observed in cloud value, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, DPPH activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total flavonoids (TF) and total flavon...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
...cuits, moisture, carbohydrates and caloric value decreased from (1.84% - 1.33%), (62.87% - 54.57%), (525.64 Kcal /100 g to 502.84 Kcal /100 g) respectively while ash, fat, fiber, protein, iron, zinc, magnesium and manganese contents increased significantly (p < 0.01). There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect on the color, flavor, taste and texture of biscuits. So, it is concluded that replacement of wheat flour with pea flour up to a level of 20% im...
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...od products for the preparation of value added, healthy and nutritious diets.
...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
.... armigera under laboratory studies for toxicity, sublethal and antifeedant effect. The result showed that ethanol based extract was the most effective to control the H. armigera followed by the ethyl acetate. The sublethal concentration of ethanol based extract of C. colocynthis increased larval and pupal duration as compared with control. The percent pupation, ad...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...ew; the average fledging rate: 75.00%; 5) the average breeding success rate was 70.14%. The results will help guide the recovery and expansion of the Chinese crested ibis populations and for other reintroduction programs.
...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...ests that SA at a concentration of 3mML-1 concentration could be used commercially to improve yield of strawberry.
...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

... mean ELISA antibody S/P ratios from 0.099 to 0.995 between weeks 2 and 6 post-vaccination against IBV antigen, while for vaccine B group mean S/P ratio dropped to 0.550 at week 6. Virus neutralization test showed that birds vaccinated with vaccine A showed neutralizing antibodies against IBV Massachusetts, 4/91, D274 and Qx types, while titers for vaccine B were not detected, suggesting a role of the poor emulsion quality o...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...experimental feed at the rate of 0.5% in T1 and 1.0% in T2 while control T0 was without fenugreek supplementation. Fish was fed for six days a week at the rate of 4% of its body weight twice a day. Results showed significant (P≤0.05) higher growth performance among the three treatment groups. Highest weight gain (5.07±0.72g), increase in total length (24.25±4.31 mm) was obser...
Nasira Kazi1, Muhammad Israr2 and Shahina Fayyaz1,*
...9 is described and illustrated from Pakistan. Paradorylaimus dorsocaudali new species differ from all known species of the genus in having smaller body length, tail length and odontostyle length. The new species is characterized by 1.3-1.6 mm long female body, lip region truncate, offset by weak depression, odontostyle 21.4-23.2 µm long is and 2.8-3 µm wide, twice as long as the lip region width; vulva longitudinal; female tail 5.9-6.6 anal ...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

...d stored at ambient temperature (22-320C). The jam was studied for physicochemical attributes (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid) and organoleptic characteristics (flavor, color, texture and overall acceptability). The results revealed decrease (P<0.05) in pH, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity while increase in acidity, total soluble solids...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...vestigate impact of temperature and rainfall on wheat growers’ net-return in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Data for this purpose are collected from 255 wheat growers, selected from Southern, Central and Northern climatic zones of KP. Results from descriptive statistical analysis demonstrate that net-return per acre from wheat crop is highest in the Central zone because of conducive agro-climatic conditi...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

...whole plant can be regenerated. The results indicated that optimal embryo physiological age is 15 and 18 days after pollination and transient transformation efficiency decreased at 22 days after pollination. Enhanced transient beta glucuronidase (GUS) expression with average frequency of 40.56% was noticed with three days of co-cultivation period while two days of co-cultivation period resulted 24.07% transient GUS expression. Addition of 100 mgL-1 L-cysteine ...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...t and reproducible regeneration system from coleoptilar node of elite maize inbred line was developed. Regeneration from coleoptilar node circumvented tedious procedures of raising the immature embryos as a starting material for genetic transformation. Unlike immature embryos, the development of coleoptilar node is seasonal free and green house independent which would accelerate the work r...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

... irrigation management strategies for improving irrigation eficiency. The study revealed existing average application efficiency of low quarter (AE lq) 71%, 87%, distribution uniformity of low quarter (DU lq) 70%, 80% and adequacy of low quarter (AD lq) 100 %, 90% for NB and WB, respectively. Majority (67%) of WB irrigations monitored were under irrigated while large number (50%) of NB irrigation were over irrigated. Simulation modelling showed that achieve...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
... consist of equal concentration of each ALA and DHA (0, 3, 5, 10,15ng/ml). Extended semen was cooled at 5oC for 2 hours at 5oC and then packaged in 0.25ml straws and stored into liquid nitrogen for 24 hours. Successively, thawing and evaluation was performed for sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, morphology, malondialdehyde (MDA), fatty acid composition and super oxide dismutase (SOD). Sperm characteristics such as sperm motil...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
...N) and high ambient temperature (HAT) on immune response and oxidative status of four broiler strains. Day old broiler chicks (n=242) of four different commercial strains (Ross, Hubbard, Cobb and Arber Acer) were placed in brooding room in first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT zones. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature, while chicks in HAT zone were kept at high...

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

...he tested genotypes. Moderate to high broad sense heritability were observed for all the traits. Hybrid, HP1097-21 showed minimum days to tasseling, anthesis, and silking (70.5, 73.0, and 76.5, respectively) and hence proved to be the earliest maturing hybrid. It also had desirable plant and ear height of 148.80 cm and 70.00 cm, respectively. The present study revealed considerable amount of variation among the tested hybrids that may be exploited in future br...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...tion coefficients demonstrate that education, frequency of FAs visits, accessibility of FAs office and establishment of demonstration have highly significant association with provision of new knowledge at (P≤0.01) level of probability. Analysis of variance confirms that most of the farmers with more than 20 hectare land visit the offices of FAs more frequently. Rank Based Quotient technique depicted that the top priority ...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
...d Boron dearth is an imperative soil constraint in Pakistan. Zinc (Zn) and boron (B) deficiency in soil is primary hindrance to achieve yield potential of maize. An experiment was conducted with the objectives to optimize methods of B and Zn application in maize and ultimately enhance profitability. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement during autumn 2015. Treatments were replicated three times. The treatmen...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...EGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficient strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis. Several anti-VEGF drugs have been developed over the last two decades and some are still at different development stag...
Mahmood-Ul-Hassan*, Naeem Fiaz, Muhammad Akhlaq Mudassir and Muhammad Yasin
...essential since low temperature severely effects the sprouting of subsequent ratoon in cane growing areas. A field study was conducted on loamy soil during 2011-2013 at Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI), Faisalabad to explore the ratooning ability of five sugarcane varieties/clones under varying harvesting dates of plant crop using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot a...

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

...osities for policy and strategy. Given that results are ceteris paribus,other incentives to raise agricultural production and measures to ensure that funds are used for the specified agricultural activities are suggested. 

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Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...r comparison of the comparative advantages of Chinese and Vietnamese rice products showed that the comparative advantage of China’s rice exports is greater in Vietnamese rice markets. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and Relative Trade Advantage Index (RTA) were used to understand the relative competitive advantages of China and Vietnam rice export. The results showed that ...