El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...antadine have increased dramatically. In this mini-review, we discuss recent findings on the H5N1 viruses endemic in poultry and humans in Egypt, and suggest possible options to control the infection.

...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...aphysics as theoretical framework for more empirically oriented research in science and in the humanities seems to be either ignored or regarded with great suspicion at the present time. Natural scientists, for example, by and large employ an instrumentalist approach to the study of the laws of nature. Their aim is to deal, not with things in themselves (the Kantian noumena) but with their empirical manifestation (Kantian phenomena) via tentative hypotheses su...

Muhangi Denis

...ed in future control programs. This may call for investing resources in changing disease management behaviour in managing this disease.

...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

... no official control program for BVDV. The significance of cattle production losses or the potential implementations of commercial barrier by other countries can possibly reason the placement of governmental veterinary measures in the near future.

...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...later in 2006 following dramatic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and the current study detail the clinical, pathological and laboratory findings of this outbreak. The disease was clinically manifested by the depression, diarrhea, difficult breathing, muco-purulent ocular-nasal discharges with matted eyelids and encrusted nostrils and finally death. Clinical outcome, gro...

Dana Kay Nelkin

...ommitments, new ways of framing certain issues, and detailed responses to a good number of the very many challenges to the view as originally set out in Living Without Free Will and related articles. The responses to challenges serve to elaborate, extend, and deepen the view. The result is a book that, along with the first, will be a centerpiece of the conversation about the metaphysics of free will, about morality, about moral responsibility and our related...

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

...ood results in most of parameters, rather than month of January and March. In case of planting media most of the root and growth parameters were best in (silt: Garden soil: FYM at the ratio of 2:1:1). Based on the result from the experimental work, it is recommended that Kiwi cuttings should be planted in Febru- ary in soil media with combination of (silt: Garden soil: FYM at the ratio of 2:1:1) for better growth and develop...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

... sitism by female Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) emerged from HaNPV- treated host eggs. The percent emergence (mean) of tiny parasitoid from host eggs treated during egg, larval and pupal stages with the virus at field dose (x), 2x dose, and 0.5x dose ranged from 83.2- 87.3%, 87.1- 91.6%, and 83.7- 89.7%, respectively, relative to control eggs treated with water. The parasitism rates by female parasitic wasps emerged from host eggs treated at x dose when parasi...

Ozgur Koca

...e al-Qaeda, ISIL, Boko Haram and the escalation of sectarian violence between the Shi’a and the Sunnis in Iraq and Syria.

...

Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
...and the opening view panoramic: Imagine a world still living with centuries-old routines and patterns of individual and communal life, submerged in the slow rhythm of a pre-modern era, about to encounter modernity! This is the world that Elshakry describes in her groundbreaking work, a world which encounters cylinder-powered platen printing machines, the telegraph, the steam ships and railways—all coming from countries dimly perceived and barely understo...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

... its ability to undergo dramatic phenotypic changes in response to physical demands, age and disease. The contributions of skeletal muscle to immune response and virus pathogenesis are increasingly recognized. Recent evidence strongly indicated that skeletal muscle cells fully support productive replication of influenza A virus (IAV) and could play an important role in disease outcome. We are of the opinion that skeletal muscle could be a key innate immune ti...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

...0 chicks each). Growth parameters i.e. weekly body weight (g), weight gain (g), times of weight gain, feed intake (g) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were calculated during the study period. Data were analysed by ANOVA technique and means were compared by using DMR test. The results of the present study showed that the weekly mean body weight (g) of Japanese quail birds obtained from the four strains designating as M, K, S, and Z showed non-significant differe...

Dallin D. Oaks

 

...ailable post-Babel time frame versus the lengthy time frame that linguists have assumed to be necessary for the current diversification of languages.

 

...

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

... some basic life table parameters i.e. female life span, adult female weight, longevity and reproductive potential of P. solenopsis on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.), brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.), potato (Solanum tuberosum Linn.), China rose (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The experiment was conducted under Laboratory conditions (25-32°C, 55-65% R.H. and 12:12 light: dark, photoperiod) during 2012. Result...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

...study reveals that the parameter estimate of wheat variety is negative and significant also. The parameter of seed rate variable is also negative and statistically significant. A technical inefficiency of 22% is present in the production of wheat crop in the selected district. Majority of the farmers typically utilize the last year’s crop seeds to economize the cost but this comes at another cost of loss of potential y...

Faheem Khan*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

... and other extension programs and extension agents should motivate and train the growers to cultivate sugarcane using scientific techniques, paying special attention to those who are illiterate, to the point of developing special extension tools for those who cannot read.

...

John Stinespring, Ryan T. Cragun*

...nd determined by three parameter values. The authors illustrate its use by estimating these parameter values using biannual data from the 1973 to 2012 General Social Surveys (GSS). The parameter estimates from the first half of the GSS data series, 1973-1991, provide a good fit to the 1993-2012 data. Calibrating the model to the latter half of the data, 1993-2012, produces a forecast range...

Rick Repetti

...adically different frameworks, methods, and modes of discourse that are distinctively Buddhist, much of which it presents in its own modality.

...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

... a rigorous statistical framework. As recently described in studies using the SIV-macaque model of neuroAIDS, the incorporation of
spatial, temporal, and demographic inference into intra-host evolutionary analysis using Bayesian phylogeography allows for inference of pathogen migration between infected tissues and cell types, provides valuable insight into immunopathological processes, and ultimately paves the way for a better unders...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...nome comparison program was used to select a suitable target DNA sequence. A PCR targeting the bfrZ gene was developed which showed no cross-reactivity in silico or when tested with a panel of bacterial isolates. The limit of detection was determined to 4x103 bacteria per mL of nasal swab sample and less than 10 copies of target DNA per PCR reaction. Out of 23 isolates of B. bronchiseptica tested, one isola...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...e, ranging from 0 to 40 grams active ingredient per hectare (g.a.i ha-1) through foliar spray. Analyses were done at days 3, 7, and 15 after treatment. Lipid peroxidation rates and contents of proline, ascorbate (ASC), glutathione (GLU), antioxidative enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were assessed. Imidacloprid enhanced malondi- aldehyde (MDA) and proline contents over their respecti...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

...tly influenced all the parameters except the stem diameter. Minimum days to flowering (118.1), maximum plant height (45.83 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (54.1), fresh flower weight (44.29 g) and dry flower weight (5.12 g) was obtained with the application of 200 mg K2O pot-1. In case of maleic hydrazide, the plants grown under control treatment took minimum days (112.9) to flowering, maximum plant height (47.06 cm) and number of leaves (57.89) plant-1. Maximum...

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

...t hybrid development program. In this context, we explored heterosis and inbreeding depression in indigenous maize germplasm comprising inbred lines NCMLQ1, NCMLQ2, NCMLD1, NCMLD2, NCMLD3, and NCMLD4. ese genotypes were crossed to get ten F1 hybrid combinations, which were used to develop three generations F2, BC1 and BC2. Heterosis (in F1)...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

... yield and its related parameters of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) at Sugar Crops Research Institute Mardan during 2011-12 and 2012-13. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement in four replications. Sugar beet was sown at the rate of 6 kg ha-1 at four seeding depths from 1 to 4 cm. Nitrogen was applied at band and broadcast methods at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 mixed with biochar at the rate of 25 and 50 t ha-1...

Monireh Ahmadi Bani1*, Mostafa Kamali2, Iman Borji3, Soheyla Aslani3, Francis Fatoye4

...ively. Their stability parameters were evaluated based on the old and new methods. Paired sample t-test was used for comparison between two methods and different conditions (eyes open and eyes closed). Traditional method for stability analysis showed no difference between two conditions in one minute standing (p ≥ 0.05). However, the new method confirmed that stability parameters significantly decreased in five minutes st...

Fatemeh Kheiri

...kinematic and kinetics parameters were evaluated by use of the motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate. The stability of subjects during standing and their energy consumption while walking were analyzed by the use of a Kistler force plate and a polar heart rate monitoring. The difference between the kinetic and kinematic between sound and prosthetic sides was evaluated by two sample t-test. The physiological cost index of amputees varied between 0.42 ...

Muhammad Amjad Nadim1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Kashif Waseem2

...nced almost all growth parameters. The use of NPK and organic fertilizers had, however, non-significant interaction with micronutrients during both the experimental years. It was concluded that application of NPK (recommended dose) along with boron was the best combination for obtaining higher yields of wheat.

...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...izations of the pigeon paramyxovirus type I (PPMV-1) from pigeon in Egypt during 2014. Pathotyping, based on the mean death time (86 hours) in eggs and the intracerebral pathogenicity index (1.2), and the amino acid motif, (112KRQKR116), at the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein indicated the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of the F and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes indicated that the isola...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...females in a control program for AD, the optimal sampling time at which the ADV antibody levels best can predict the breeding performance of the female needs to be further evaluated.

...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...fication of viruses is paramount to not only define the cause of uncharacterized infections but also to estimate the dynamics of viral population in the infected hosts. Several recent methodologies and chemistries have been proposed for viral diagnostics with variable outcomes and successes. In this review, we discuss a novel approach to identify the least transcripts of viral genomes using suppression subtractive hybridization that can be adapted to unanimous...

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

...iochemical and sensory parameters (water activity, ash content, percent acidity, pH, moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, taste, texture, color and overall acceptability). Statistically minimum decrease was observed in water activity, pH, moisture content and organoleptic characters. While, stable increase was noted in percent acidity and ash content during storage. It was concluded and recommended on the basis of mentioned facts that mulberry f...

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

...It was found that most parameters were non significantly influenced by growing conditions and planting dates. The experimental findings revealed that cuttings planted under plastic tunnels growing conditions showed less number of days to buds sprouting (17 days) and more sprouting percentage (96%), number of sprout plant-1 (6.45), sprout length (27.41 cm), sprout thickness (0.12 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (16.33) and plant survival per...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...gic mass vaccination programme. The decreased number of outbreaks in recent years as well as changes in the disease severity patterns and distribution might be due to the effectiveness of vaccine, timely vaccination, circulation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states ...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...s of the family paramyxoviridae is a major threat to small ruminant farming. Global announcement of PPR eradication by 2030 has opened lot of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous systems across the globe for development of vaccines a...

Ali Tahmasebi1, Parvin Raji1*, Mostafa Kamali2

...es of static stability parameters in EC condition between children with spastic diplegic CP and typically developed children (P˃0.05). There were no significant differences in mean values of static stability parameters during EC and EO condition in typically developed children (P˃0.05). Children with spastic diplegic CP experience the best static standing stability in EC condition. The standing stability of these c...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...ons in all the studied parameters tested in different blends under various stress conditions. Maximum PV (10.76%), FFA (2.44%), AV (2.29), IV (77.09) and CI (0.609) were recorded in sole olive oil, while minimum PV (9.69%), FFA (0.65%), AV (0.88), IV (53.40) and CI (0.146) were noted in sole palm oil. The samples kept in sunlight showed maximum PV (12.82%), FFA (1.32%) and AV (1.39), while maximum IV (63.10), CI (0.371) and BC (11.30) value were observed in sa...

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
...re rapeseed breeding programs. The estimates of variances of combining ability (σ2GCA, σ2SCA) and predictability ratio (σ2GCA/σ2SCA>1.00) indicated that gene action was predominantly additive for days to flowering while, for the rest of the traits non additive gene action was responsible as the predictability ratio was less than unity which was further confirmed by higher values of variances of SCA than GCA. In present study for all ...

 Aqila Shaheen

...cies, strategies and programs for the conservation of eroded lands.

...

 Zahir Shah, Shakoor Ahamd, Mian Saeed Sarwar, Murad Ali Khan and Javid Ali

...otic was administered intramuscularly for five days as a post-operative measure. Catamnesis revealed that the healing was complete in 14 days with no recurrence and untoward consequences.

...

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

... the Biorisk Management framework and One Health perspective. A total of 410 and 202 blood samples were collected from cattle and humans respectively. Total 40 samples of subsistence farms and 30 nomadic herds were analysed. Forty eight farm workers, 40 farm owner 36 abattoirs workers, 15 veterinary assistants, 15 veterinarian and 40 butchers were also screen out. Overall sero-prevalence in cattle was 15.36% on SPAT, 14.39% by i-ELISA and 14.14% through PCR. H...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

.... coli O157 and related Gram negative bacteria. However, unrelated Gram positive bacteria exhibited very few, if any, bands in common with those identified on the E. coli Western aptamer blots, thus attesting to the specificity of these aptamers. In general, the use of aptamers in Western blot formats is advantageous for validation of aptamer binding and specificity based on molecular weight matching of detected electrophore...

Koksal Karadas1, Muhammad Tariq2, Mohammad Masood Tariq3* and Ecevit Eyduran4

...mounts of indigenous Akkaraman ewes reared in Sanliurfa (137 farms) and Hakkari (113 farms) provinces of Turkey. For the determination process, the statistical predictive accuracy of GLM (General Linear Model), CART (Classification and Regression Tree), CHAID (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector), Exhaustive CHAID, and a ANN type MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) in the prediction of lactation milk yield in sheep was measured comparatively by model assessment ...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...croscopy. The physical parameters such as weight and swelling degree of composite were studied. Chitosan starch based composites were used in treatment of waste water to remove a toxic anionic dye Congo red. Congo red solution (0.015 mM) was treated with polymer composite at neutral pH overnight with 150 rpm orbital shaking at room temperature. The same procedure was performed for commercial dyes. The dye was removed due to the interaction with the polysacchar...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...Moreover, plant growth parameters were also improved due to antagonistic relationship of fungi and nematodes in soil.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...estingly, plant growth parameters including shoot and root were tremendously improved in L. muscarium treated plants than that of other treatments.

...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...over these biochemical parameters were confirmed by histopathological examination using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Mason trichrome stains (MTC). Immunohistochemical investigations for the expression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax) and the expression of macrosialin cluster of differentiation (CD68). APAP elevated of most of the previously measured parameters and decreased GSH, SOD, and total protein levels. Liver s...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...ng skill development programs.

...

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

...as 926. The statistical framework comprised of Lorenz curve and Gini Coefficient to gauge the income inequality in the study area. To assess the income inequality both income and expenditure approaches are employed to construct the Lorenz Curve and Gini Coefficient values. The major finding of this study divulge that the Gini Coefficient value through income approach of rural region of KP province is 0.35 which illustrates that there is 35% of income inequalit...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...ost-thaw sperm quality parameters were assessed. Sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, viability and chromatin integrity was higher (P<0.05) in extender containing melatonin 0.1 mM and 0.5 mM compared to control. In conclusion, the addition of melatonin 0.1-0.5 mM to extender improved the post-thaw quality of buffalo bull semen.

...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

...justify;">Life history parameters of bumblebee Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were investigated by using rearing boxes of wood, cardboard and polycarbonate materials on three developmental stages i.e., colony initiation, development and maturation stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Queen oviposition rate was 1.4-fold higher in polycarbonate box compared to wooden and cardboard materials. Early start of egg-laying (first oviposition pe...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...tively impact on these parameters. These behavioural and morphological anomalies became more pronounced with increasing concentrations of the herbicides. Mortality was also observed to be concentration dependent. After 96 h of exposure, the 96hr LC50 for paraquat was found to be 0.07mg/L while that of glyphosate was found to be 0.530mg/L. The result revealed that glyphosate and paraquat have the ability to induce unusual behaviours in fish and can therefo...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...n regard to the growth parameters, root and shoot growth (cm) were enhanced after the application of L. muscarium, followed by D. oviparasitica and S. rugosoannulata. The reproductive rate (Rf = Pf/Pi) of nematodes was much higher in the non-treated plants than those that were treated. The root quality of the fungus-treated plants was significantly improved. All fungi conclusively proved to be effective against H. schachtii and need to be further investigated ...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

... epidemiological field parameters to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propagation. Influential habitats would serve as key targets for interventions. To achieve this aim, we have designed a pseudo-longitudinal survey to be undertaken for two years in Kibera ...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

...ated using the phase program. Haplotypes combinations constructed on these two SNPs of HTT gene were associated with some reproduction traits. In particular, diplotype H1H1 had positive effect on reproduction traits, diplotype H2H4 had negative effect of reproduction traits. In conclusion, our study showed that polymorphisms of the HTT gene were significantly associated with egg production traits in two Anhui local chicken breeds, but the suggestions that HTT ...

Ali Raza Awan*, Sehrish Firyal, Muhammad Tayyab, Lala Rukh, M. Zia ul Haq, Shagufta Saeed and Muhammad Wasim

...ed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is sub-divided in 4 sub-species (P. krameri krameri, P. krameri parvirostris, P. krameri manillensis and P. krameri borealis). Identification of the sub-species is an intricate chore. This study aimed to genetically identify and classify the indigenou...

Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

... moment (OTM) were the parameters selected to detect DNA damage. Low doses (120 µg L-1) of each metal induced significantly higher levels of DNA strands breaks as compared to medium dose (240 µg L-1) and very low levels of DNA damaged was observed at high dose (360 µg L-1). Cu and Pb showed significantly higher value of % of tail DNA (56.74±1.81, 47.36±1.23) and comet tail length (41.30±0.758, 49.15±1.90), respecti...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...ies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors involved. In the last years substantial progress has been reported in the identification of viral factors involved in the host immunosuppression, although future studies employing in vivo infection models are needed to clearly understand the mechanisms developed by these viruses, in particular PPRV, to i...

Imed Ben Salem*, Aymen Ben Ibrahim, M’barek Chetoui and Said Nouira

...ing them through the program MorphoJ. Our results show that L. griselda has the largest skull, whereas L. zebra has the smallest. L. griselda and L. rosalia have greater breadth of the braincase, length of the nasals and length of the tympanic bulla, than the other species. This is probably related to a phenotypic evolution due to selective pressure, as is also the case in the genus Gerbillus.

...

Atta ur Rehman1, Sher Ali2 and Sajid Malik2*

... Hangu, Karak, Kohat, Kurram Agency, Lakki Marwat, South Waziristan Agency, and Tank, was collected. Absolute gene diversity, gene differentiation and genetic diversity were estimated to be 0.01, 0.019 and 0.515, respectively. There were the highest affinities between the samples obtained from Lakki Marwat and Tank districts, whereas the least affinities were evident between Karak and South Waziristan Agency populations. Collectively, these results show the pr...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

...ntatus population. All parameters decreased with increasing density of Rumex dentatus except loss in grain yield which increased (1.3 to 69.8%) with increasing density of Rumex dentatus (from 5 to 30 plants m-2). The threshold level of Rumex dentatus was observed in T5 and became worse with further increase in population density of Rumex dentatus. It is concluded that yield and yield related parameters were adversely affecte...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...e effect on the growth parameters tested except in the case of PER. T3 (0.5% 4TX+2 ppm AFB1) showed better PER (31.42±1.74) when compared to T4 (0.5% 4TX+ 4 ppm AFB1) group (27.76±0.67). Interaction between different growth parameters of tilapia fed AFB1 and 4TX supplemented diets showed that net weight gain (NWG) was significantly (p<0.01) correlated with average daily gain (ADG), specific growth rate (SGR)...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

... on the haematological parameters of the fish such as a decrease in Hb when compared to the control; reduction of MCV, MCH and MCHC to all exposed concentration of aluminium phosphide, significant increase in neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil and monocytes throughout the duration of exposure and decrease in the lymphocytes . The results on gill and liver tissues sampled showed concentration and time dependent significant increase (p < 0.005) in the values of...

Asmaa Hamid1,* and Samia Kalsoom2

...chickpea HFD and Bengal gram HFD and were monitored for random blood glucose and weight for a period of six weeks. Another three groups of rats with induced hypercholesterolemia were fed the same diet as the diabetic rats and were monitored for total serum cholesterol. It was found that both Bengal gram and chickpea had a significant effect on lowering glucose level and total cholesterol of these experimental animals. Bengal...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...cultural Development Programme administrative zones (Zones C and D) in Kwara State where fish farming is prominent and well-practiced was carried out. Forty fish farmers were then randomly selected from the fish farmers’ association chapter present in each selected Local Government Area. Interview-schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The findings revealed that the fish farmers were economically active with a mean age of 42.5 year...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

...tz, Richards and Three Parameter Logistic models were used. The best model was determined by considering the root mean square error, R2 % and asymptotic correlation coefficient criteria. We concluded that the Gompertz and Richards models were favourable for singletons and that the Richards model was favorable for determining twin Colored Mohair goat growth characteristics. Birth type should be considered in subsequent genetic evaluations. Furthermore, producin...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...cent increase in these parameters will decrease the probability to adopt sunflower. Whereas supporting parameters were highest educations level in the family, total operational holding, last year yield of sunflower, access to extension services and share of non-agricultural income. By increasing 1 percent in these parameters will increase the probability for adoption of sunflower. Keeping ...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...itiation of breeding program in the country. A site near Bagh district (Arja) Azad Kashmir was found suitable and used for morphological evaluation, phenotypic diversity analysis and their flowering behavior sugarcane under local conditions. Two year data revealed that genotype HSF-242 showed maximum mean values for, internodes length, brix percentage and reducing sugar while S-08-FSD-19 showed maximum values for number of tillers and stem girth, whereas S-05-...

Sheraz Ahmad Khan and Ghulam Hassan

...ow to moderate for all parameters. Grain yield was observed to have positive significant association with most of the important yield related traits such as fertile tillers, spike length, 1000-grain weight and grains per spike. These results suggest that all the traits showing significant correlation with grain yield needs better attention in future wheat breeding programs for increasing yield.

...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...ffect of ZTBL credit program on maize productivity in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For this, a sample of 226 farmers was selected by employing multi stage sampling technique. At first stage, all the three tehsils (i.e.; Mardan, Takht Bhai and Katlang) of the district were selected. At second stage, two villages from each tehsil were randomly selected. In third stage, all the beneficiaries of ZTBL credit program

Zaffar Malik, Moazzam Jamil, Ghulam Hassan Abassi, Muhammmad Nafees, Muhammad Rafey and Muhammad Kamran

...hysical and mechanical parameters of vertic soil like soil consistency limits like plastic limit (PL), liquid limit (LL) and plasticity index (PI), tensile strength (TS), shear strength (cohesion (C) and angle of friction (φ)) were studied. Results showed that amendments had improved soil physico-mechanical properties. No specific trends were observed for consistency limit, however, PI decreased for all the amendments applied and LL showed correlation with...

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

... Shilozan and Pewar in Kuram Agency in the northwest of Pakistan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test. The results of the paired t-test reveal that farmers observed a significant difference in the overall income and income from tomato crop after the conflict as shown by larger t-values of 6.17 with (p<0.01) and 10.91 with (p<0.01) respectively. It was mainly due to restrained mobility during the conflict, farmers had limited...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

...;0.01) for the studied parameter. Promising genotypes for seed yield i.e. L-4, L-5, L-7 and T-4 were identified as best parents as they outclassed all other genotypes by producing maximum seed yield per plant of 28 g. Since, the line × tester source was significant, hence data was further subjected to combining ability analysis. For the inheritance of the studied trait (seed yield plant-1), additive as well as non-additive genetic mechanisms were found i...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...ify;">Investigation of ceramide and ceramidases on cancer therapy had become popular in recent years. Ceramide is a metabolite in sphingolipid pathway of the cells that has an ability to promote cell death in tumor cells when produced endogenously in the cells or applied exogenously. Ceramidases, which are main component of ceram...
Irshad Ahmad
...ated pest management program (IPM) and includes the cautious use of chemical insecticides, mechanical means, cultural and biological control methods for the substantial control of walnut borer. The present study offers valuable information through IPM, which appears to be a promising approach for the control of walnut borer. Collectively this strategy has resulted in significant reduction of the pest population in the target area of district Dir, Pakistan.
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
..., a prototype of Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1), have been reported previously both in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (HN) genes of NDV strain isolated from an outbreak in a peacock flock was undertaken. Proteolytic cleavage site of F0 showed a ...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...tation of biocontrol program for the suppression of pyralid pest insects damaging different agricultural crops of economic importance.
...
Muhammad Afzal1,Naveeda Akhtar Qureshi1,*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Irfan Hussain1
...dicola. Populus euramericana and Dalbergia sissoo were observed most palatable and resistant wood species, respectively, in no-choice laboratory and field trials. Five different wooden pairs were evaluated in choice bioassays in laboratory and field conditions. In force feeding field bioassays, least mass loss was recorded on D. sissoo (0.19±0.07g) and maximum on P. euramericana (1.50.1...
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
... for future breeding program.
...
Mehmet Cilbiz1* and F. Banu Yalim2
...>In this study, growth parameters (i.e. condition factor, length-weight relationship, K, L, to), mortality rate (Z, M, and F), recruitment pattern and yield were investigated for Oncorhynchus mykiss in Karacaören I Dam Lake. Fish were collected on monthly basis between July, 2013 and June, 2014. Growth parameters were analyzed by ELEFAN with monthly length–f...
Abida Butt,* Imtiaz Alam and Rabia Naz
...lationship of some web parameters of the spider, Argiope trifasciata, with its body measurements was investigated. Also, role of stablimenta in efficiency of capturing prey was discussed by comparing web parameters and number of intercepted insects in decorated and non-decorated webs. For the study, 236 randomly selected webs of A. trifasciata were observed in the rice fields around the cities of Sheikhupura an...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...milking per day. Antibiogram of Staph. aureus indicated very strong resistance to oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicilline, amoxicillin, azlocine, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive. Piperacillin, Tazabactam and cinxacin were moderately effective against Staph. aureus. The co...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
... period, water quality parameters of the experimental ponds remained as salinity (15‰ -20‰), dissolved oxygen (5.6 to 7.5ml/l), temperature (25°C to 28°C). pH (7.6-7.8), ammonia (NH4-N) and `nitrites (NO2-N) less than (0.001mg/l), Secchi’s disc visibility (8 cm to 46 cm). Higher percent weight gain (2665 g), specific growth rate (2.76±0.5 % day-1), best feed conversion ratio (0.14),...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

Faiz Muhammad,1, 2,*, Zhang Zhi-Feng,1, Shao Ming-Yu1 and Muhammad Shafi3
... 495 bp of open reading frame (ORF), encoding 164 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.6 kDa. The LvCypA has four β- strands. Tissue distribution of the LvCypA after real time analysis revealed that expression is in order of muscle, gill, lymphoid organ and hepatopancrease. 
...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
...ntimeter, weight in kilogram was measured to calculate BMIKg/m2. Serum ferritin (ng/mL) and hemoglobin (gm/dl) alongwith hormonal assay of GH (ng/mL), T3 (ng/mL), T4 (µg/dL), TSH (μIU/mL), and kisspeptin (ng/ml) was done. BMI and hemoglobin were significantly reduced (P<0.001), while serum ferritin were significantly increased (P<0.001) in all four thalassemic groups on comparison with control. Kisspep...
Andrea Rezic1, Ivica Boskovic2, Piera Lubinu3, Marina Piria1, Tihomir Florijancic2, Massimo Scandura3 and Nikica Sprem1*
... function analysis and parametric test did not reveal significant differences between the sexes, while dorsal mean skull shape was statistically significant (p<0.05). The shape comparison between males and females using permutation tests with procrustes distance yielded with significant results for both skull and mandible shape. Further studies are required with increased sample size and number of landmarks so as to obtain a more accurate expression of form...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...ulfa methoxazole and Chloramphenicol) and showed dissimilar pattern of resistance to critical important antibiotic group. Salmonella isolates showed antibiotic resistance to Nalidixic acid (100%) and Nitrofurantoin (42.9%). Strict biosecurity measures are required to reduce the incidence of mixed bacterial infection and subsequently reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance genes between bacterial spp.

...

 Sheraz Ahmed and Fida Mohammad

...any crop improvement program. One hundred recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from four F4 populations of Flue Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco were tested to identify effective selection indices. Experimental material was planted at two locations i.e. Mardan (E-1, E-3 and E-5) and Mansehra (E-2, E-4 and E-6) using alpha lattice design with three replicates during 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15. Heritability in broad sense was generally low for all traits excep...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...permil;. Water quality parameters remained as temperature (28.1±0.2°C), dissolved oxygen (6.10±0.1 ml/l), pH (6.6±0.1 ml/l) and ammonia (0.02±0.004 ml/l) throughout the study period. Taking into consideration the number of fertilized eggs and survival of fry data attained in the present study, a salinity level of 20% is suggested for red tilapia breeding in concrete tanks.
...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...ditive improved growth parameters and present results suggests herbs could be used as alternative to antibiotics growth promoting feed additives.
...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...gement. Beetles in the Cerambycidae family have implicit increasing importance as pests of green forest in addition to shade trees, shrubs, and pink wood products as well as vectors of tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packing substances have been remarkable tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against disturbances, for instance fires in addition to windstorms, ...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...nea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) from Dera Ismail Khan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province.
...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1
...ects of ticks on blood parameters and efficacy of different drugs on controlling tick’s infestation in commercial layer, a double blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. For therapeutic trials, the 80 birds (n= 60 infested with ticks, n= 20 healthy birds) were selected and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D), each comprising of 20 birds. Group A and B were treated with Ivermectin @ 0.2mg/Kg orally for two days and Fipronil (Spray at once), ...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

..., effective breeding program with these two genotypes may lead to development of new genotype that will give higher yield consistent with higher fiber quality.

...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...cipation in training programs and their higher educational qualification. The differences were considered as training needs and the AEOs need in-service training to enhance their ability in agricultural mechanization. A significantly high competency level was found in describing the agriculture machines and equipments and use of hand tools and implements. Most of the respondents have high competency level having practical farming experience. Study suggests pre...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...cacy was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of SPF chickens with different concentrations of plasmid DNA and the sera were collected weekly post vaccination for antibody detection by HI test. All immunized chickens shown high HI antibody titers (9Log2) two weeks post-booster dose. The chickens were then challenged using homogenous AI H9N2 strain. During the course of infections, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from all chickens at 3, 5 and ...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...flora edulis) in Mizoram, India and infected plants showed declined symptoms and poor fruit yield. Infested plants displayed stunting and yellowing and thick-root symptoms. The association of the root knot nematode species was identified based on observations on morphology of different life stages, beta-esterase phenotype and amplification of rDNA and partial sequence homology of ITS-1and ITS-2. Host differential tests confirmed the race 2 of M. incogni...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
...ity, blood and ruminal parameters, growth performance, meat analysis and feed intake of growing lambs. Fifty one Barki lambs with body weight of 30±0.57 kg; in three groups (17 animals, each). Experimental rations were composed of concentrate and clover hay in a 60:40 concentrate: roughage ratio.There was no effect of bakery by-products inclusion on nutrients digestibility and nutritive values except digestion coefficients of crude protein and digestibl...
YaQiu Liu and ZhiJian Wang*
...intestinal tract of Paramisgurnus dabryanus with light and electron microscopies. Intestinal tract was divided into three parts. Morphologically complex folds were formed on surfaces of anterior and middle intestines where many secretory cells were present. Highly developed junction complex were seen in anterior intestine. Cytoplasm contained abundant mitochondria and pinocytotic vesicles. Epithelium of posterior intestine was thin, translucent and squa...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1
...xtract for all studied parameters. Based on the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that supplementation of green tea extract in semen extender showed significant response on the post-thawed spermatozoa motility, viability and membrane integrity of Achai bull.
...

Muhammad Noor, Hidayat ur Rahman and Muhammad Iqbal

...ign: justify;">Genetic parameters particularly heritability estimates for a trait of interest help plant breeders to plan their long term breeding programs more accurately. This study was conducted to estimate the magnitude of heritability for flowering and maturity attributes along with plant and ear height parameters in four popcorn populations. Broad sense heritability estimates varied ...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

... @ 50 l ha-1) on yield parametrs of wheat crop planted after the harvest of rice. All yield parameters significantly increased by the treatments consisting of RP (100 kg) with FYM (5 t ha-1) and EM @ 50 l ha-1, which also enhanced the nutrient uptake of the crop. It can be concluded that accurate use of cheaper rock phosphate, farm yard manure and effective microbes proved as an alternative of costly fertilizers and sustaini...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

... best results for most parameters. Overall situation indicated that plants planted at 11 x 22ft (T1) showed better results as compared to plants planted at 11x11ft (T2) and 22 x 22ft (T3) of both species. Musambi showed best results as compared to Kinnow. So this study helped to optimize best planting distance in citrus adopted for high yield and good quality fruit with some extra care and management practices in orchard and proved to be the best planting dist...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...antly affected all the parameters. Interactive affect of varieties and storage intervals significantly affected all the parameters except firmness (kg/cm2), taste and weight loss (%). The fruits of safeda variety lowest fruit decay (5.82%), more TSS (11.530Brix), taste (5.17) and moisture content (42.68%), while fruit store for zero days no fruit decay (%), weight loss (%), less firmness(1.43 kg/cm...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...io-agents (bracon,trichogramma, ladybird beetle) and sex pheromone are in the pipeline for commercial use.

...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...were surveyed to record gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera, Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua, plant hopper of Pentatomorpha group, termite Odontotermes spp, and cut worm Agrotis ipsilon in chickpea whereas Campoletis chlorlidae was recorded as natural enemy feeding on H. armigera larvae. In pigeonpea crop, mainly H. armigera, leaf webber Grapholita (Cydia) critica, Myllocerus spp, spotted pod borer Maruca testulalis, plume moth Exelastis atomosa, t...

Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)
...antly with the weather parameters. It concluded that the temperature (max. 18.7 and min. 5.0 C), relative humidity (morning 91.5 and afternoon 50.5 percent), rainfall (000.0 mm), evaporation (below 1.55 mm), bright sun shine hours (below 5.8 hr) along with wind velocity below 3.4 km/hr were found very conductive for this pest.

...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...ity and meteorological parameters revealed that BLS disease severity showed significant positive correlation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum relative humidity and number of rainy days.

...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
... and 2007-08 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly,West Bengal to evaluate the population dynamics of aphids with the help of yellow pan trap and yellow sticky trap. The population of aphid catches was quite lower in yellow pan trap than yellow sticky trap. Aphids were first observed in traps during third week of December and the population of pests gradually increased to reach the peak in second week of February in the first year of study (2006-07) while i...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...e Act. Quality control parameters set by CIB are inadequate for knowing potentiality of a bioagent. Apart from the counts of live propagules in the formulation, bioefficacy also should be taken as a quality parameter to ensure availability of better products to farmers. Keywords : Trichoderma, mass production, formulation quality control, registration delivery, shelf-life, disease management.
 

&nb...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
...population and weather parameters for its forewarning. Results revealed that initial incidence times of aphid varied from 19 November to 3 December, depending upon dates of sowing done during 1 October to 5 November, which fall under recommended dates of sowing. In crops sown during 22 October to 5 November, critical periods of aphid infestation (having greater than 30 aphids plant-1) prevailed between 19 December and 21 January. Number of aphids plant-1 was c...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...ca (L.) Breauv.), black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.), dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata (Willd.) Pers.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), jute (Corchorus olitorius L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.), and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were found effective as trap crops for their ability to germinate the seed of A. pedunculata. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was identified as a catch crop for its ability to support further growth and development of A. pedu...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...r and dry rot with all parameters at 1% significant level. In case of Phytophthora fruit rot, positive correlation was also recorded with all parameters, except maximum relative humidity. Keywords: Disease prediction model, weather parameters, Pestalotia psidii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica.

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
... genetic improvement programmes. Till date, scanty information is available on the source of tolerance, if any, against betelvine blackfly. The reaction of some betelvine cultivars to A. rugosa was evaluated in the boroja with different varietal collections from different parts of India. None of the entries under the purview was completely free from infestation. A few cultivars [CARI- 2 (AN), CARI-6(AN) and Bilhari] exhibited moderate resistant reaction agains...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...lant disease management framework for sustainable crop production. A considerable number of biocontrol agents have been established successfully for their bioconrol potential including strains belonging to bacterial genera such as Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Bacillus, and fungal genera such as Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Ampelomyces, Candida and Coniothyrium. Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens are the most important and widely used bioconro...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...l treatment. The yield parameters like fresh weight of 100 leaves and leaf yield were good in treatments where BM was applied. Trichoderma applications resulted in better c : b ratio during 1 st year, where as applications of P. fluorescens over two year analysis of pooled data gave the best c : b ratio.

...

Amitava Konar, Palash Mondal and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of potato pests in different dates of planting in Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India
... and 2007-08 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal, India. Kufri Chandramukhi was planted in five dates of planting starting from 3rd week of November with one week interval upto 3rd week of December with a spacing of 60×20 cm. The trial was laid in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with four replications. The recommended practices for raising the crop in the field was maintained except the application of i...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...e in pest management programme. A tentative IPM strategy for tea cultivation in Bangladesh has been proposed in this paper. Thus the proposed integrated pest management (IPM) strategy should help tea industry for successful long lasting plantations which will ensure consistent crop with much care but lesser cost.


...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...sting potato at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Mogra, Hooghly, West Bengal (India) during 2007-08 and 2008-09. The field trial was conducted in Randomized Block Design with six treatments and five replications. Among the various treatments for managing soil pests of potato (cv. Kufri Bahar) i.e. cutworm and molecricket soil treatment of phorate 10 G @ 15kg ha-1 at planting plus drenching the ridges with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5ml/L of water on appearance of pe...

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
...experiments at 'Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal, India in two consecutive kharif seasons i.e., 2010 and 2011. The experiment was laid in RBD with seven treatment schedules and three replications. Among all the treatments soil application of phorate at transplanting, followed by foliar spray with acephate, thiodicarb and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki at 50, 70 and 90 days after transplanting, respectively) and seedling treatment with i...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...pported the training programmes by deploying its field staff in release and multiplication of the parasitoid. For enabling initial multiplication of the released parasitoids, farmers of heavily infested papaya fields were compensated for the yield loss to serve as field-mass-multiplication-strategy. Further, the farmers of neighbouring fields were encouraged and facilitated through thirteen field staff to take the bug infested leaves and fruits from parasite-r...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
... assist the breeding program for developing resistant varieties and other purposes like regulatory and nematode diagnostics. Attempts have also been to made to understand the molecular signaling events during compatible plant nematode interactions by identifying the genes during the transition from preparasitic to parasitic stage in ear cockle nematode and molya disease of wheat. Currently attempts are being made to utilize RNAi technology to identify the gene...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
... and 2004-05 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hoogly, West Bengal to find out the incidence pattern and population dynamics of aphids on various potato germplasms. The common potato germplasms viz Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Jawhar along with three processing varieties like Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chipsona-2 and Atlantic were screened against aphids. Potato seed tuber was planted by end of November following all s...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...vation has reduced at Agaram Village, Dharamapuri, Tamil Nadu of Adhiyaman Precision Farmers Association (Ramasamy 2007). Their “PA” is a fine example of community or cooperative approach to farming, which has high prospect in India. But it is far from both PA (sensu lato) and SSAPA (sensu Dasgupta 2006, 2007b) as applied by us in this trial for methodology development. As a pr...

S. Choudhury and S. Pal

Population dynamics of mustard aphid on different Brassica cultivars under terai agro-ecological conditions of West Bengal
... instances the weather parameters showed low order of associations with aphid population. Thus, the ecological factors exhibited little impact on the population build up of mustard aphid. The degree of infestation and the rates of population change of the aphids on different Brassica cultivars seem to be governed by varietal characteristics of different germplasms. Brassica campestris varieties as a group harboured relatively higher populations of the aphid th...

S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...the lepidopteran pests, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) was found most important inflicting serious damage to Carnation, Gerbera, Gladiolus, Chrysanthemum and Straw flower. The green semilooper, Plusia orichalcea caused damage to Gerbera and Gladiolus by feeding on the leaves. The tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) was serious on Gladiolus and Anthurium. Cutworm (Agrotis segetum) damaged the seedlings of Gladiolus. Among the Coleopteran pests, the B...
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
... for future breeding programs.
...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...i>.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.) were found infesting the wheat crop. At the time of aphid invasion crops were at different growth stages such as 1st node (crop 1), at stem elongation (crop 2) and at end of tiller (crop 3). Maximum aphid infestation was recorded in all crops in the 3rd week of February when crops were at booting stage (crop 1), at flag leaf stage (crop 2) and at 2nd
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...be influenced by other parameters. 
...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...-align: justify;">Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) is widely cultivated during May to September under the rainfed unbunded uplands of Purulia, West Bengal and the produces are stored by farmers under homestead condition for the purpose of consumption and seed for the next year sowing. Callosobruchus sp.(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the major stored grain pest of blackgram under homestead condition resulting 15 &nda...
Süleyman Kök*
.... Intensive breeding program has mainly been used for purebred TGC that are under the conservation of Bandırma Livestock Research Institute (BLRE) ex-situ program. This study aims to compare 3 SNP of the genetic features of purebred TGC that are under the conservation of ex-situ (51 cattle) program with the ones raised by the smallholders (79 cattle) in the villages. Acc...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
..., however, other blood parameters and carcass characteristics indicated no significant differences (P > 0.05). Cost per kg of feed gradually decline with increasing dietary level of SCM inclusion levels (P < 0.05), indicating higher economic benefit. However, the gross return per bird and profit per kg meat were higher for diet D4 (P < 0.05). It was revealed that replacement of soyabean meal with silkworm meal did not affect broiler performance and ca...
Viram Kumar1,*, Moolchand Malhi1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi2, Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani3 and Khushal Das Malhi1
... and serum biochemical parameters were determined to establish the reference values in the wild Indian blue peafowl (Pavo cristatus) of Thar (desert) region in the Sindh province of Pakistan. A total of 60 blood samples were collected from peafowl (30 males and 30 female) in months of March and April, 2015. The gender difference showed that RBC, MCV and MCH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) and the serum total protein and Mg concent...
Muzammil Sattar
...and all the biological parameters of F1 for mass rearing. The tested proteins were: Casein, Protein hydrolysate, Torula yeast and Nu lure. Al these proteins were tested in laboratory at four concentrations, i.e., 1, 3, 5 and 7 mg/ml in diet. Significantly higher fecundity 785.12±25.7, fertility 89.23±0.36 % of eggs and longer oviposition period 42.13±1.11 days were recorded in adults feeding on a diet containing Nu lure f...
Yun Wang1,*, Lei Guan1, Jiding Chen1, Yaping Kong1, Lang Si2 and Asif Shah3
...ng the route selection parameters for the proposed upcoming expressway. Using the procedures of field investigation along QTH during months of May, August and December in 2014 and 2015, we recorded the occurrence frequency, number of ungulates, and the perpendicular distance between QTH and QTR. To improve the protection mechanism for the four large ungulates viz., Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsonii, Tibetan gazelle Procapra picticaudata
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...e biological control program of cotton mealybug in Pakistan, but its multiplication for inundative releases has been impacted by a hyperparasitoid, Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: Eriaporinae). Traditionally the detection of hyperparasitoid is done by host-rearing, but that is time-consuming when working with field populations at larger scale. The current study used morphology and DNA sequences from mitochondrial (cytoch...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

...r all the quantitative parameters were observed at 120 kg N ha-1.

...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

... effects on the growth parameters, however it has positive effects on the antioxidant enzymes profile of the broilers.

...
Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
... native fish (Acanthobrama mirabilis) in upper Akcay River. The age distribution for both females and males of S. cephalus populationwas betweenI-VII, and the second age group was found at maximum rate of 30.60%. Their fork lengths and weights ranged between 6.0-22.8 cm and 3.7-134.62 g for females; 6.1-22.1 cm and 2.7-110 g for males, respectively.The growth parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation were foun...
Farah Ashfaq* and Tasnim Farasat
...bjects. Anthropometric parameters including age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), diastolic and systolic blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose, serum resistin and insulin of three hundred over weight, obese males and females, 17 to 30 years and 100 comparable control subjects were included. Serum resistin and insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were found significantly high in overweight and obe...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...onse was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens with two different concentrations of Egy-H5 plasmid DNA 15µg and 60 µg. Results demonstrate that chickens developed detectable HI antibody titers up to 6log2 within two weeks post-booster vaccination. The challenge experiment was performed using isolate A/chicken/Egypt/A6/2011 (H5N1) with concentration of 105 EID50 to evaluate the protective efficacy of the Eg...
Ali Karabacak1, Senol Celik2, Adile Tatliyer3, Ismail Keskin1, Yakup Erdal Erturk4, Ecevit Eyduran5, Yasir Javed6 and Mohammad Masood Tariq7,*
...m five sheep breeds (Akkaraman (9), Dağlıç (10), Kivircik (10), Merinos (10) and Karacabey Merino (8)) reared in Konya province conditions located in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. For measuring the predictive performance of three algorithms in Models I and II, goodness of fit criteria (coefficient of determination (R2%), adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2%), coefficient of variation (CV%), SD ratio, Ro...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...icant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating virus entry and release, the present study was conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationship of currently prevailing H9N2 isolates in Pakistan. A sum of ten H9N2 AIVs were isolated from 400 suspected samples and were confirmed through serological and molecular assays. The sequence analysis of NA genes shown 99% homology with the H9N2 AIV recently isolated from Pakistan and ...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

...asing effect on growth parameters compared with control. Highest germination (85.42% and 84.31%) was recorded from wheat varieties (Lalma-2013 and Pirsabak-2005). Minimum germination (64.40% and 73.89%), tillers plant-1(2.83 and 3.49), leaves plant-1(11.44 and 12.79), leaf area (21.47cm2 and 25.20cm2) and more days to emergence (9.92 and 8.98), was recorded from salinity levels of 135mM and 90mM, respectively compared with maximum germination (94.80%), tillers...
Muhammad Aslam Farooqi1,*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Sohail Akhtar1Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Naveed Aslam3 and Muhammad Rafay4
... reliable monitoring programs in honey.
...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...e by a comprehensive program focusing on the provision of low cost inputs, pesticides/insecticides, modern techniques and trainings, and value chain market facilities at the local and regional level. 

...
Fareeda Tasneem1, Farah Rauf Shakoori1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*

 

...isolated strains of Paramecium species including a standing-alone on the basis of 18SrDNA gene sequence strain FT8. In order to readdress the relationships of FT8 strain with other strains of Paramecium species, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed on the basis of H4 gene sequences. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the aligned sequences of our study with 22 entries of closely related species...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
...g the growth of giant gourami. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different feeding rates on the growth, and carcass composition of giant gourami (initial weight 14.17±0.15 g and length 9.88±1.11 cm). The nutrition content of the diet was a cross energy of 3,340.50 kcal/kg, made up of 30% crude protein, 7% crude lipid, 6% crude fiber, 12% ash, and 12% moisture as a percentage of fish body w...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...omp10 mutant was dramatically attenuated for survival in macrophages and mice than the parent strain 2308. With decrease in the spleen/body weight ratios of mice infected with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosome-Lysosome fusion was dramaticly impaired, and profound increase of apoptosis rate after exposure of RAW264.7 to omp10 mutants at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h compared to RAW264.7 exposed to 2...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...refore, an awareness program about the beneficial status of Cattle egret in agro-ecosystem is recommended to protect and promote their habitats from anthropogenic activities.
...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

... observed in optimized parameters like shaking flask culture, 25 °C temperature, media of pH 5 and light fermentation.The EtOAc extract exhibited the minimal value of MIC (10.41±4.50 µg/mL) against gram negative E. coli, while its acetonitrile fraction yielded (6.50±2.25 µg/mL) of MIC against S. aureus. Hence, it is revealed from the results that T. harzianumis a potential source of antibiotic d...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...) effected most of the parameters adversely. Significant reduction in plant height was observed for all the genotypes under the influence of the gamma rays treatments. Increased level of radiation posed adverse effect on number of branches plant-1. However, in case of Bt -121, branches were enhanced in treated as compared to control. Similarly, rise in the number of bolls in the seedlings of Gomal-93, Bt-131 and Bt -121 were observed which seed...
Shantanu Jha1, A. Rama Devi1, Ngalaton Kasar1 and Abhishek Mukherjee2
...31 participants. The programme was inaugurated by Prof. D. D. Patra, Hon’ble Vice-Chancellor, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV) and was chaired by Professor C. Sen, President of Association for Advancement in Plant Protection (AAPP). Oher dignitaries attended the meeting were Prof. T. K. Maity, Dean, Faculty of Horticulture, BCKV and Prof. M. R. Ghosh, Taxonomist and Retired Professor of Agriculture Entomology, BCKV.
...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
...ild sables has declined dramatically in recent years due to the high value and increasing demand of their fur. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure for the conservation and management of sables (Martes zibellina), we developed six microsatellite markers using a method of fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) from them in this study. The primers designed by Primer Premier 5.0 based on conservative ...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1

Mian Ahmad Raza*, Ghulam Hassan and Naqib Ullah Khan 

...d in future breeding programs for the improvement of desired traits. 

...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
...niques on some quality parameters of grapefruit juice were investigated based on pH, acidity, ºBrix, viscosity, cloud value, hunter color values, bioactive compounds, microorganisms and enzyme analysis. The grapefruit juice was treated with processing variables of HPP treatment (0, 150, 200 and 250 MPa), temperature (40, 50 and 60 oC), for processing time of 3 minutes and thermal treatment was done in a water bath at 70 oC for 90 sec...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
... indicated rheological parameters including water absorption, dough development time, dough stability, gluten content and falling no. values differed significantly (p < 0.01) among all the treatments of composite flour. Wet and dry gluten content decreased from 22.16 ± 1.58 % (T0) to 16.43 ± 1.32 % (T3) and 7.46 ± 0.47 % (T0) to 5.03 ± 0.38 % (T3) respectively. With increasing percent o...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...ated pest management program for the management of H. armigera.
...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...na, a reintroduction program was conducted in the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve in 2007. Wild birds bred in semi-wilderness were reintroduced. Habitat selection and breeding ecology of crested ibis in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve has not been studied. To clarify the breeding status of the crested ibis and to provide more reference for the reintroduction of this species, the process of pairing, nest site selection, egg laying, incubation and brooding of ...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...tein while rest of the parameters remained same. Apparent digestibility of crude protein and fat was found non-significantly different among treatments. It is concluded that addition of fenugreek in fish feed can improve growth performance and also protein content of the fish meat as well.
...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

... recorded on agronomic parameters of rice crop, plant tissue and post-harvest soil analysis. But in this paper, data on availability of major plant nutrients, soil organic matter and plant dry weight are presented. The data revealed that cyanobacteria strains had significantly (p < 0.05) increased the availability of major plant nutrients and SOM under the saline soil conditions. Among the strains, Gloeobacter MMF-4 significantly increased the soil organic ...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

...ts for physicochemical parameters as well as for organoleptic evaluation.  

...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...in plant growth, yield parameters of wheat and water use efficiency. The inorganic fertilizer gave significantly higher total dry matter, grain and straw yield and also due to the greater grain yield the water use efficiency calculated was greater in the NPK treatment. Bulk density, porosity and organic matter were significantly improved by the cattle manure and compost treatments. The moisture content and water holding capacity revealed non – significan...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

...nvestigating different parameters such as embryo physiological age, co-cultivation period, addition of L-cysteine in co-cultivation medium, heat shock to immature embryos prior to infection, resting stage and Agrobacterium strains that deliver T-DNA into plant cell from which whole plant can be regenerated. The results indicated that optimal embryo physiological age is 15 and 18 days after pollination and transient transformation efficiency decreased at 22 day...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...L-1 BAP and 5 mgL-1 picloram produced maize seedlings with expanded coleoptilar nodes. Longitudinal cut sections of expanded coleoptilar nodes produced maximum primary calli on callus induction medium containing both 0.5mgL-1 2, 4-D and 1 mgL-1 picloram. Eighty percent of embryogenic calli were obtained on MS medium containing only single auxin while combination of auxin and cytokine in MS and Chu’s N6 media produced 5...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
...ozen-thawed bull sperm parameters when compared to control.
...
Rabia Arif*, Shahar Bano, Muhammad Ishfaq and Muhammad Saleem
...cola. Circular Phylogram showed close relatedness among the strains under study and potential association with the Ascomycetes. This study for the first time reports the variations at the molecular level between strains from two different environments. V3 and V4 regions showed genetic variations at two sites i.e., 212 A (C); 213 G (A) in strains isolated from the stressful environment while V9 showed no polymorphism. Sequences were submitted to NCBI...

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

...d in future breeding programs for developing early maturing maize hybrids accompanied with other desirable attributes.  

...
Mehmet Guvenc1,*, Ayşe Nilay Guvenc3, Ökkeş Yılmaz2 and Mehmet Tuzcu2
...r for some biochemical parameters in fructose induced non-alcoholic fatty liver.
...
Rehana Shahida1, Tasnim Farasat1, Shagufta Naz1,* and Shahjahan2
...chosen pro atherogenic parameters including plasma glucose level, serum levels of insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α. Serum level of thrombomodulin was assessed as a measure of vascular damage. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, waist /hip ratio, B.P., personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Fasting glucose and HbA1c was done by chemistry analyzer. Fasting serum insulin, IL-6, TNF-α and thrombom...

Amjad Ali1*, Sher Aslam Khan2, Abid Farid2, Ayub khan2, Shah Masaud Khan2 and Naushad Ali2 

...correlations among the parameters, and establish selection criteria.Highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) differences were found among the genotypes for number of tillers, plant height, cane length,number of nodes, internodes length,number of millablecane and cane yield while non-significant differences were recorded for cane diameter. The effect of genotype and crop interaction was highly significant fornumber of tillers while non-significant for other characters....
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
... study, some important parameters were optimized for effective extraction and purification of total flavonoids from corn silk, and the anti-hyperlipidemic activities was analyzed in rabbits by feeding experiment. Firstly, the high extraction yield (5.32 mg·g-1) of total flavonoids were obtained under the optimal extraction conditions, which are 80°C for 3 h with corn silk over 60% ethanol ratio of 1:30. Then, the AB-8 resin was selected f...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...(L.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). Mean seasonal aphid population (no. of aphids/tiller) on wheat plants during the whole season was the highest in NW-1-8183-8 and NW-3-3341-7 and the lowest in Faisalabad-08. However, grain yield was the highest in Galaxy-13 and the lowest was in Lasani-08 variety. Two applications of insecticide, (imidacloprid @ 625 ml/ hectare), significantly controlled the aphid population and enhance...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...ects of micro-credit programme of KBL on agricultural productivity in district Mardan in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The study was conducted in three purposively selected villages namely; Nasir Kaly, Shankar and Kodeenaka. From the field surveys, it was found that majority of the respondents were smallholders or tenants. After procuring and properly utilizing credit, the yield of the major crops such as wheat, maize, and sugarcane and the resultan...
Muhammad Imran Mahmood* and Muhammad Zubair
...ion sources and growth parameters of forest trees Shisham, Neem, Siri and Sufeda. The effect of different irrigation levels exhibited the highest plant height in Sufeda under flooding which were 135 and 125cm after and before the experiment. However, Neem showed maximum plant height after experiment (103 cm) under drought condition. But, the minimum plant height (57 cm) before experiment was observed in Sufeda under droughtexhibiting 50% decline than Sufeda un...

 Zeenat Bano1,*, Sajid Abdullah1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Anjum Zia3 and Wardah Hassan1

...es in physico-chemical parameters of water samples collected from all the sites. The concentrations of Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were higher in river water as compared to farm and hatchery. Different organs of fish collected from different sites showed variations in their metal concentration. In Indus River fish, the concentrations of metals were highest in liver followed by kidney and gills. The Indus River fish also exhibited highest SOD ...
Boran Karataş, Muhammed Arabaci and Şükrü Önalan*
... days. When the growth parameters in polycultures of rainbow trout and brown trout are considered, it was determined that the growth rates were not statistically different between rainbow trout monoculture and rainbow trout G75K25 and G50K50 groups, however rainbow trout in G66K34 experienced statistically significantly less growth when compared to others (p<0.05). Growth parameters of brown trout in polycultures d...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
... species revealed three dramatic amino acid mutation areas. Our results also indicated that c-kit expression was higher in the white cashmere goat than in the black goat, and this significant difference was detected by q-PCR and western blotting. All cashmere goats of different colors examined by immunohistochemical analysis showed either weak (the black cashmere goat) or strong (the white cashmere goat) expression of the KIT protein. These findings sug...
Sher Khan Panhwar1,2,3, Zhou Yong Dong1,4,*, Gao Tianxiang1,3, Wang Ping5, Han Zhiqiang1, Wang Zhongming1,4 and Wang Yang1,4
...389 mm in 2013. Growth parameters of asymptotic length ranged from 515.6 to 768.6 mm in 2004 and 2009, growth coefficients ranged from 0.230 to 0.685, and t0 from -0.654 to -0.494. The rate of total mortality (Z) ranged from 0.82 to 2.73 year-1 in 2013 and 2001, respectively. The exploitation rate was estimated to range from 0.660−0.797 year-1. Catch per unit effort estimates showed a consistent decline in catches. This s...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...st defense against GNB (gram-negative bacteria) and their endotoxin by means of its antibiotic and endotoxin neutralizing and disposing functions. BPI has several biological functions in mammals such as human, bovine, pig and rabbit, it also has major influence in the natural defense of the animal body. In this paper, by comparative study on BPI gene expression in various tissues between Rongchang pig and Landrace, we confirmed the expression of pig BPI gene i...

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...ts spray. Wheat growth parameters like plant height, number of tillers per m2, spike length and number of spikelets per spike remained statistically at par among various treatments. Significantly higher number of fertile tillers (172), Plant height (93.83 cm), spike length (7.4 cm) were noted with Wheat Star @ 370.5 g ha−1. Although treatments did not differ significantly with respect to wheat grain and biological yields, yet the highest grain yield (329...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

...antly affected all the parameters under study while their interactive effect was non-significant. Among green biomass incorporation treatments, maximum plant height (168.34 cm) cob length (16.32 cm), number of grains per cob (410), 1000-grain weight (200.22 g), biological yield (16.63 t ha-1) grain yield (5.75 t ha-1) harvest index (34.22 %) and grain protein content (8.56%) was obtained with (moringa green manuring).While Among fertilizer levels (100% of RDF)...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...ng skill development programs. 

...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

...nd datura (Datura stramonium) were used in traditional method. The overall results showed that the sprays at different interval indicated the highest pest population reduction at tobacco (17.45-15.09%) followed by neem (14.58-15.33%) and datura (11.72-7.81%) in both varieties and similar trend was also noted in the second year of the study. The effect of varietal difference of Bt. and non-Bt. cotton varieties was not much recorded in the 2015 but lat...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...na, a reintroduction program was conducted in the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve in 2007. Wild birds bred in semi-wilderness were reintroduced. Habitat selection and breeding ecology of crested ibis in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve has not been studied. To clarify the breeding status of the crested ibis and to provide more reference for the reintroduction of this species, the process of pairing, nest site selection, egg laying, incubation and brooding of ...
Fahad Tanveer1, Adnan Afzal2, Muhammad Adeel3*, Sana Shahid4 and Maham Masood5
... in Chaudhary Muhammad Akram, Teaching & Research Hospital, Lahore and Suriya Azeem Teaching Hospital, Lahore within six months from June 2015 to December 2015. A total of 75 subjects with non-specific neck pain using non-probability convenience sampling technique who fulfilled the specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly allocated to three groups; group 1 received SNAGs, group 2 Maitland mobilization and group 3 conventional treatment. Base...
Falah Baiee1,3, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff1, Ariff Omar,2 Nurhusien Yimer1, Salman Hammadi1, Tarig Ahmedeltayeb1, Asmatullah Kaka4
...t differences in semen parameters such as sperm volume, motility, morphology, viability, and concentration. In conclusion, gradation of electrical stimulation into three stages (our modified Method II) could help to ease the collection of semen samples from bulls with minimum discomfort signs. Furthermore, the modified method is also recommended to use for other animals, in particular, the wild animals.
...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
Quang Minh Dinh
...nown on its population parameters. This study was carried out at downstream of Hau River in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam to provide fundamental information on the population biology of T. vagina based on length-frequency distribution analysis of 1,527 individuals. The male to female T. vagina ratio was not significantly different within and between seasons, and the parameters of the von Bertalanffy curve of this f...

H.I. Hosein1, Sherin Reda Rouby1*, Ahmed Menshawy1 and Ahmed E. AbdAl-Ghany2 

...oral, internal iliac, supramammary lymph nodes, udder and spleen as well as milk of 46 lactating cows were subjected for bacteriological studies for isolation and identification of Brucella organisms. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 could be recovered from 64 (61.5%) tissue specimens and 28 (60.9%) milk samples. Brucella cultures were further identified on molecular basis using universal and Bruce ladder PCR. 

...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Munir3 and Muhammad Sohail Khan

...ysico-chemical quality parameters. Results revealed that pollination times affected all the parameters significantly. Maximum fruit set of 98.12, 93.14% and fruit yield of 79.43 and 78.80 kg palm-1 were recorded in 2012 and 2013, respectively, from pollination at spathe opening day. Mean values for these parameters decreased when pollination was carried out after spathe opening. Late polli...
Ümit Kumbıçak, Zübeyde Kumbıçak* and Gülnare Huseynli
...phase chromosomes, karyogram and course of meiosis of Hersiliola bayrami were determined based on Giemsa-stained testicular chromosomes for the first time. Results of spermatogonial metaphases showed that the chromosome number and the karyotype formula of the species was 2n♂=35 (X1X2X30) which is the first record for the family Hersiliidae. Both autosomes and sex chromosomes were...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
...wo computer software programs CEDA and ASPIC were used which were based on surplus production models. From CEDA Fox, Schaeder and Pella-Tomlinson were used with initial proportion (IP) 0.9 were used because the starting catch was 90% of the maximum catch the MSY estimated value from Fox with three error assumptions (normal, lognormal and gamma) were 3378 (R2=0.590), 3360 (R2=0.582), 3369 (R2 =0.586), respectively, whereas the o...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
İbrahim Aytekin1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Koksal Karadas3, Rifat Akşahan4 and İsmail Keskin1
...ing algorithm as a non-parametric regression technique was implemented. To measure predictive accuracy of MARS, model evaluation criteria such as coefficient of determination (R2), adjusted coefficient of determination (R2ADJ), SDRATIO andPearson coefficient (r) between actual and predicted values in fattening final live weight were calculated. To reveal the highest predictive ability in the MARS algorithm, numbers o...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
...f biological control program. However, additional research is needed to assess the properties of hibiscus to attract the parasitoid.
...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...n biological control programs, as it has little or no effects on biological control agents such as predatory mite, N. cucumeris, which is widely associated with the infestation of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae on tomato plants.
...
Wen-Feng Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying-Kun Huang*, Rong-Yue Zhang, Jiong Yin, Zhi-Ming Luoand Hong-Li Shan
...ined occurrence of Tetramoera schistaceana (Snellen) and Chilo sacchariphagus (Bojer) were measured in pesticide–treated and untreated areas during 2014-2016. The results indicated that the in untreated areas, percent dead-heart was 8.30% - 58.83%, the percent stalk injured was 26.73% - 96.67%, the percent internodes bored was 4.40% - 25.87%, and the effective stem number was reduced by 4440-21900 stalk/ha. Measured yield and sugar y...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...C40) + nitenpyram (LC40) mixtures under laboratory and field conditions (71.5 ± 7.4). The results showed a significant effect of binary treatments of fungi and chemical insecticides on biological parameters of C. pipiens and its progeny (P<0.05). The insect pathogenic fungi showed compatibility with insecticides and the combined application can improve the management prog

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...influenced biochemical parameters of M. gallopavo and significantly (P<0.05) higher values for cholesterol 6.18±0.07mmol/L and ALT 31.26±1.67 iu/L were recorded in birds reared under confinement rearing system. Values for globulin 1.92±0.36g/dL and creatinin 0.77±0.08 µmol/L were higher in birds reared under semiintensive rearing system while significantly higher urea concentrations 33.45±3.39 mg/dL were recorded fro...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
...some serum biochemical parameters. The hematological parameters did not show any significant variation between the two groups. From amongst serum biochemical parameters triglycerides (P = 0.02) in CGP55845 treated mice showed significant increase compared to the control mice. All other studied parameters remained unaffected indicating that CGP55845 can b...

Sajid Muhammad* and Fida Mohammad 

...cultivar development programs. Testing of genotypes across environments is required to determine yield stability of genotypes. The specific objective of the current study was to analyze genotype by environment interaction (GEI) of grain yield for 50 genotypes using GGE model. Germplasm was field-tested using alpha lattice design in two replications at Peshawar (E-1 and E-3), Hangu (E-2 and E-4) and Kohat (E-5) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan during 2011/...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Fakhra Fazal1, Faraz Akrim1, Hira Fatima1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
....05). Among anatomical parameters, among females, liver weight and heart length of the two species differed significantly (p < 0.05). Among males, significant differences were found between heart length (p < .001), weight of large intestine, stomach, liver and lungs, and weight of right and left testes (p < 0.05) of the two mongoose species. Other anatomical variables of the two species differed non-significantly (p > 0.05).
...
Faiza Hassan1, Mubshara Saadia1,*, Muhammad Sher1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Muhammad Arshad3,Asam Riaz4 and Mahmood Ahmad Khan5
...ting other biochemical parameters. However, significant role of garlic extracts; especially the ether extract (EGE) was noted in normalizing the biochemical attributes. On the basis of findings, it is recommended that the garlic ether extract should be applied in herb-drug combinations commonly used as antidiabetic.
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...vel. The hematological parameters like hematocrit, cholesterol and plasma triglycerides were similar among fish fed on different salinity level (P < 0.05).
...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...ormation in breeding programs to be performed. 
...
Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Saima Masood1,*, Hafsa Zaneb1, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Asim Aslam3, Kamran Ashraf4, Habib-ur-Rehman5, Muti-ur-Rehman3 and Muhammad Shabir Shaheen6
...alysis of the selected parameters. The results showed that carcass weight and carcass yield were significantly high (p < 0.05) in MOS+OAB compared to MOSG, OABG and CONT. The results of small intestine microarchitecture showed that villus length, villus width, villus to crypt ratio, villus surface area, acidic, mixed and total goblet cells increased significantly (p < 0.05) in birds that were fed MOS and OAB alone and in combination whereas crypt depth d...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...ected village. The key parameters addressed during survey were cropping pattern, sowing, harvesting date and yield per acre of different crops, pests and crops diseases, flowering time of fruits trees, biodiversity and livestock’s. Respondents were selected randomly but priority was given to elders and those possess land and practice agriculture. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on croppi...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

... production of 2898 kilogram per acre. The per acre average values of land preparation, NPK fertilizer, labor, seedling, farm yard manure and pesticides were recorded 6.00 hrs, 248 kgs, 143 man days, 24413 seedling, 1.48 trollies and 1.21 litres respectively. The results also showed that strawberry producers were having 81% of mean technical efficiency with minimum to maximum technical efficiency limits of 0.42% to 0.98% respectively. Moreover out of 382 the t...

Muhammad Zamin* and Abdul Mateen Khattak 

...ent growth and quality parameters including green cover, canopy stiffness, leaf length and width. Most of the ecotypes gave better performance at mowing height 3 and 4 cm, which comply with the standard mowing height for turf grasses. Ecotypes RS2, MZADS1 and SAADS1 resulted in the best performance against mowing shock. Based on their performance, these ecotypes could be used for turf purposes in public landscape under saline environments. 

...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
...5‰. The eggs per gram body weight were also recorded in all treatments and highest eggs were obtained i.e. 4.0-4.3 per female on 0‰-15‰. Water temperature (28.02±0.12°C), dissolved oxygen (6.4±0.02 mg/L), pH (7.47±0.04) and ammonia (less than 0.022±0.001 mg/L) were monitored throughout the study period. Water quality parameters remained within the recommended range....

Syed Asif Imran Shah1*, Shah Jehan Khan2, Kalim Ullah1 and Obaid Ullah Sayal

...ture cotton breeding program 

...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

... of the yield and soil parameters were affected by irrigation regimes significantly. Higher crop growth rate, leaf area plant, plant height, biological yield (above ground parts of the plant), grain and straw N contents were found in five times irrigated plots as compared with lower irrigation regime. Results showed that growth characteristics and quality of maize were significantly affected by soil conditioners (SC). Farmyard manure incorporation produced sig...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...le genes into wheat by pyramiding and transformation. This review discusses information regarding rust disease and resistance in wheat to tackle the disease through resistance breeding. 

...

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

...ability due to weather parameters on the population dynamics of P. xylostella at District Haripur. 

...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

...y affected the quality parameters of Sherkhana-I sweet orange fruits. The fruits of sweet orange having hot water dipping time of 15 minutes showed the maximum fruit juice content (51.07%), volume (141.94 ml), firmness (2.41 Kg.cm-2), acidity (1.50%) and ascorbic acid (34.50%). The storage durations also had significant effects on the quality attributes of sweet orange. However the maximum fruit volume (160.25 ml), juice content (57.00%), firmness (2.89 kg cm-...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...rs with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied to check significance of results. The study noted overall 33.98% (123/362) of MDR S. aureus from subclinical mastitis milk samples while 123 of 192 S. aureus isolates (64.06%) were confirmed MDR. Non-significantly higher prevalence of MDR was noted in Cholistan area (38.38%) than to that of Sulaiman Range (29.98%) on subclinical mastitis samples basis Similarly 66.36% of S....
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...trients use efficiency parameters were collected and analyzed. Results depicted that interactive effect of both the factors was non-significant for all the observed parameters. Considering the individual effect of fertilizer combinations, maximum number of productive tillers m-2 (392.3), number of grains per spike (45.27), 1000-grain weight (44.04 g), biological yield (14.11 t ha-1), grain yield (5.40 t...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

...weighing less than 2500 gram, enrolled from 1 August 2016 till31 January 2017.Kangaroo Mother Care is initiated after birth, after performing early essential newborn care practices. Weight gain of 20-30 gram for three consecutive days, establishment of breast-feeding for 20-30 minutes every two hourly and maintenance of body temperature at 37 degree centigrade is the discharge criteria. During the period of six months, total...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...evel less than 12 micro gram per ml and on Red Blood Cell indices, i.e. decrease in MCV, MCH and MCHC, and Microcytic Hypochromic cells in Peripheral Smear. Megaloblastic anemia was labeled when Macrocytic Hypochromic cells seen. Obstetric outcome in terms of Preterm delivery defined as delivery at <37 weeks of gestation (36 +6 weeks) and birth weight <2500g mand a need for operative delivery. Patients fulfilling the selection criteria as per operational...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
... different for all the parameters. Uniformity of Wr-Vr over arrays as well as significant deviation of regression coefficient (b) from unity confirmed the suitability of additive-dominance model to account for the data analysis. The estimates of genetic component of variation in all the traits exhibited the preponderance of
over dominance gene action. The estimates of average degree of dominance for spike length (1.139), 1000 grain weight (1.421), ...

Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Khalid Naseem, Muhammad Amjad, Amer Mumtaz and Saeeda Raza*

...6 to 2008. The quality parameters studied were test weight, 1000 kernel weight, foreign matter (non-edible and edible), broken/shrunken grains, damaged grains, moisture, ash, protein (N x 5.7), wet and dry gluten, falling number, and minerals (copper, manganese, iron, zinc). It was observed that wheat samples varied considerably within each region and also between regions. Attock region samples had highest test weight (80.50 kg hl -1), protein (11.80 %) and lo...

S. M. I. Hossain*, S. U. K. Eusufzai and M. A. Rahman**

...ls on growth and yield parameters of six sugarcane varieties (Isd 16, Isd 30, Isd 31, Isd 32, Isd 33 and Isd 34). The experiment was laid up in two factors split-plot design with five irrigation levels in main plots and six varieties in subplots. Irrigations at 21, 28, 35 or 42 days interval in addition to two live irrigations increased sugarcane yield from 15% to 46%. Irrigation at 21 days interval showed higher establishment, tiller, millable cane and yield ...

Naheed Akhtar, Azra Nasim*, Ata ul Mohsin**, Muhammad Ashfaque, Shaheena Yasmin, Ghulam Jilani, Afzala Tashfeen, Waseem Ahmed Gilani, Irshad Begum* and Muhammad Munir***

...d in future breeding programmes for better crop yield.

...

Naheed Akhtar, Noreen Moin, Ghulam Jilani*, Ata ul Mohsin**, Shaheena Yasmin, Afzala Tashfeen*, Munir Goraya**** and Irshad Begum*

...ed in wheat breeding programmes.

...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

... the set fiber quality parameters (fiber length and strength, GOT% etc.) and (iv) other desirable features required for the release of a normal commercial variety

...

 Z. A. Soomro, M.B. Kumbhar, A.S. Larik*, M. Imran** and S.A. Brohi***

...ympodia/plant. Genetic parameters computed through variance components method show that all the traits were highly heritable in F2 and F3 generations except sympodia/plant, indicating quantitative pattern of inheritance, offering better chances of selection for these traits in F2 and F3 generations. The traits namely plant height, bolls/plant and seed cotton yield/plant displayed high heritability (72.97 - 75.55%) with remarkable genetic advance (112.46 - 357....

 Babar Hussain*, Muhammad Ashfaq**, Mazher Abbas***, Khalid Mahmood**** and M. Ather Mahmood***

...991 to December 2006 of gram, in logarithmic form and empirically estimated the degree of integration in gram markets of Pakistan using co-integration analysis. Co-integration results show that all gram markets are highly co-integrated in the long run. The high degree of market integration observed in this case is consistent with the view that Pakistan’s gram...

Liaqat Ali Shahid, M. Azhar Saeed and Nadeem Amjad*

...tions namely Oilseed Programme NARC, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), NARC and Pakistan Oilseed Development Board (PODB) Islamabad are jointly working at federal level on the development and promotion of oilseed crops. More precisely, Oilseeds Programme is working on the development of new varieties and their promotion. ABEI in addition to other mandatory assignments is looking after the new producti...

 Sikander Khan Tanveer, Shaheena Yasmin, Imtiaz Hussain, M.Yaqub Mujahid*, Muhammad Munir and Muhammad Asif**

...s on the grain quality parameters of wheat. Nutrient treatments included full fertilizer NP (100:100:00), full fertilizer NP + FYM (100:100:20), half- fertilizer NP (50:50:00), half- fertilizer NP + FYM (50:50:20), FYM only (00:00:20) and control (00:00:00). N & P were applied in kg ha-1 and FYM in t ha-1. Wheat variety, Chakwal-86 was planted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Because of different combinations of fertilizer...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...long with plant growth parameters of Okra. The study revealed that combination organic fertilizers vermicompost and vermiwash combination [VW+VC] compared with control [CON] and chemical fertilizers [CHM], had great influence on plant growth parameters. The average yield of Okra during trial showed a significantly greater response in VW+VC compared with the control by 64.27 %. The fruits have a greater percentage of fats and...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...s, wheat bran (choker), grams and left over dry breads were the concentrates fed to goats. On the whole about 30% metabolizable energy requirements of non-milking goats and 34% of does were fulfilled by supplementation. Goats were supplemented maximum during January-March, June, November and December and grazed for greater periods in summer and autumn than in winter and spring seasons. It can therefore be concluded that in general the months when minimum suppl...

 Oguz Bilgin, Kayihan Z. Korkut, Alpay Balkan, and Ismet Baser*

...ctive wheat breeding programme. Highly significant genetic variability was present in parents and their genetic combinations for the characters. The degree and direction of heterosis varied for different characters and for different hybrids. The highest heterosis over mid and better parents (120.14-109.93%) was recorded in hybrid of Kyzyltan91xIDSN209 for grain weight/spike. Maximum limits of heterosis over mid and better parent for spike length, spikelets/spi...

 Ghulam Shabbir*, Muhammad Aftab, Abid Mahmood** Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah* and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

...as a strong breeding programme for oilseed research including Brassica crops. Long and consistent breeding efforts on Brassica improvement programme by the breeders has resulted in the development of a high yielding and drought tolerant elite line SPS-5, selected from the segregating progenies of a cross between Ganyou-4 x Westar. Breeding was carried out by the pedigree method and the elite line was evaluated for its yield ...

 Shazia Erum, Rashid Anwar and Shahid Masood*

... genotypes on the dendrogram, due to the geographical environment of Kasur in Punjab. In this connection ‘Benefit sharing’ mechanism can be accelerated by escalating farmer’s participation for more cultivation in the interest of country.

...

 Ashiq Saleem, Habib Iqbal Javed, Rashid Saleem,* Muhammad Ansar** and M. Amir Zia*

... three splits. All the parameters except plant height had significant effect in both maize and sorghum. Days to 50% silk in maize are significantly affected by potash when compared with control treatment, but there was no significant effect between single, two and three splits. The grain yields of these two crops increased significantly at K2O level of 120 kgha-1 with three splits. Level of 120 kgha-1 with three splits is recommended for potash application in ...

 Rahila Nazli, Tehmina Sohail, Bushra Nawab and Zahra Yaqeen*

...robial activity against gram +ve and gram-ve bacteria. The study was also extended to some species of fungi. Results showed that the activity was more pronounced against gram +ve organisms and fungi. Maximum inhibition activity was calculated against all the groups of organisms, which was between 0.5 and 1mg ml-1 against bacteria and 2.5 mg ml-1 against fungi. It is therefore concluded tha...

 Muhammad Afzal, Sarfraz Ahmad , Abdul Salam Baloch* and Qazi Bashir Ahmad**

 Naheed Akhtar, Waseem A. Gillani, Ehsan ul Haq, Javed Khan, Irshad Begum, Shaheena Yasmin* and Kamran Saeed**

... the future breeding programmes.

...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
...t;0.05). Hematological parameters were recorded among all groups and concentration of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), hematocrit (HCT) and numbers of lymphocytes were highest in treatment # 1 with the mean values of 1.29×10ˆ12 L-1, 54.9×10ˆ9 L-1, 18% and 48.7×10ˆ9 L-1. Microbial load was also determined inside and outside of fish as highest microbial load was observed in contro...
Saba Rafique1,2,*, Khalid Naeem1, Naila Siddique1, Muhammad Athar Abbas1, Aamer Ali Shah2, Akbar Ali1, Abdul Rahim1 and Farooq Rashid1
...m in the vaccination program of the affected region.
...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
.... The physico-chemical parameters of the test media viz. pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, total hardness, calcium, magnesium and total ammonia were monitored on daily basis. Significantly increased peroxidase activity was observed in gills and liver of Labeo rohita after exposure to PbCl2 due to all doses as compared to the control. All results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Fish liver exhibited significantly (p<0...
Asad Sultan1, Sahal Ahmad1, Sarzamin Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Tahir3 and Shakoor Ahmad2
...onversion ratio, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility at both levels of thermal zones. The results of silymarin on growth, nutrient digestibility and hematological parameters were comparatively lower (P<0.05) in broilers during TN and HS zones. The current results indicate that the supplementation of feed with silymarin and ZnO improved the growth performance, blood parameters an...
Muhammad Kashif Maan1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Muhammad Ijaz2, Hamid Akbar1, Sajid Umar 3 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*
...cal and cardiovascular parameters when compared to inhalation, so, it is a less safe choice during lengthy surgical procedures like ovariohysterectomy.
...

 Javid Iqbal, Asghar Ali Mian, Tanveer Ahmad*, Shamsul Hassan** and Sohail Hassan Khan* 

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC TRAITS OF FOUR IMPORTED BROILER STRAINS UNDER LOCAL CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...cost of broiler per kilogram live weight produced. The average body weights gained by the birds were 2264g, 2277g, 2256g and 1942g for A, B, C and D strains, respectively at 49 days of age. The birds in treatments A, B and C gained significantly (P <0.05) more weight than the birds in treatment D. On the contrary, the birds in treatment D (4371g) consumed significantly (P <0.05) less feed than birds in treatments A (4896g), B (4934g) and C (4905g) at 7 w...

 Faisal Khalil, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Ammaz Khan, Fakhar-ul-Hassan and Nabila Bibi*

EFFECT OF GIRDLING AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA)
...NAA and SA. All growth parameters were found enhanced in Uslu (V ) with exception for fruit drop percentage, fruit size and fruit weight 1 which was improved in Nochlerra (V ). 

...

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*

IMPACT OF CULTIVATION SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA) CV. CHANDLER
...ength and reproductive parameters i.e., number of trusses, number of flowers, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and qualitative measures viz., total soluble solids, total sugars, ascorbic acid were found significantly higher under tunnel condition as compared to other cultivation systems. The experiment was arranged by employing the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) by using five treatments, each comprising three replications with 20 plants per ...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...her yield contributing parameters including number of spikelet per spike, numbers of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight were at par in both seed sources. It was concluded that healthy and pure seed source gave high seed germination and good crop stand which enabled the plants to withstand abiotic stress especially drought during the crop season. The seed multiplication of crop varieties of rainfed areas can be done in irrigated areas to ensure the quality ...

 Safdar Ali, Sahiba, M. Azim Malik, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan and M. Ansar*

GROWTH OF RAINFED FODDER MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...e in vegetative growth parameters like plant height, stem diameter and leaf area. It was concluded that fertilizers combination of -1 180:90 NP kg ha was recommended for obtaining higher maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

...

 Naheed Akhtar, Yasmin Ahmad, Muhammad Shakeel, Waseem Ahmad Gillani, Javed Khan, Tahira Yasmin and Irshad Begum*

RESISTANCE IN PEARL MILLET GERMPLASM TO GREENBUG, SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (RONDANI)
...es greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). It was determined by the ability of seedlings to resist for plant stunting caused by aphid's feeding at seedling stage. The results indicated that out of 135 pearl millet entries tested, 21 were resistant, 69 were moderately resistant and 45 were susceptible to greenbug feeding. The resistant entries were: C-591, Pak-75211, Pak- 75212, Pak-75219, Pak-75194, Pak-75227, Pak-75238 Pak-75272, Pak- 75276, WCA-78, C-47, Pa...

 Saima Rani and Irum Raza*

COMPARISON OF TREND ANALYSIS AND DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING METHODS FOR PRICE ESTIMATION OF MAJOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...of major pulses such as gram, mash, masoor and mung during 1975-76 and 2009-10. Double exponential smoothing method was found to be pertinent for price estimation of major pulses in Pakistan because of smaller values of accuracy measures. Six-year's forecasts of prices of gram, mash, masoor and mung in Pakistan in 2010-11 were Rs.31.80, Rs.84.09, Rs.72.06, and Rs.47.69 per kg respectively along with 95% prediction intervals....

 Akhtar A. Siddiqui and Allah W. Rind*

EXTENSION FIELD WORKERS PERCEPTION OF COTTON INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME IN SINDH PROVINCE
...ated Pest Management Programme (Nat-IPM) for cotton. The basic principle of Nat-IPM programme was to enable farmers to be self sufficient, using practices that are agro-ecological friendly. This study was carried out in four districts of Sindh province (Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Matiari, and Mirpurkhas). The sample size comprised 48 EFWs who participated in Training of Facilitators (ToF) and erecuted FFSs during 2001 and 20...

 Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf*

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATUS FAB. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) AT VARYING TEMPERATURE ON RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI L.
..."> The biological parameters of Menochilus sexmaculatus Fab., as influenced by different temperature regimes and host were studied at Insectary-Biological Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of different temperature regimes on the development and predatory potential of M. sexmaculatus reared on Rhopalosiphum padi. The egg incubation period of predator beetl...

 Arshad Ali, Imdad Ali Mahmood, Muhammad Salim, Muhammad Arshadullah* and Abdul Rasool Naseem**

GROWTH AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE SODIC CONDITIONS
...ta on growth and yield parameters were collected randomly (average of five plants per replication) at the time of crop maturity. Ionic concentration in plant tissues and oil content in seeds were also determined. Comparatively more number of branches and pods per plant were produced by cultivar Dunkled closely followed by BARD-I while maximum seed yield (241.7 and -1 235.1 kg ha ) was obtained from Dunkled and Sultan Raya, respectively which was statistically ...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
...cted on the biological parameters of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera) feeding on grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela eggs at three constant temperatures and five different ages of host eggs at Insect Pest Management Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre, (NARC) Islamabad. The results revealed that maximum rate of paras...

 Sara Khalid*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz*, Khalid Saifullah Khan* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH, FRUIT AND YIELD QUALITY OF STRAWBERRY
...), T4 improved quality parameters like total solid soluble (TSS) (8.88) and ascorbic acid contents (64 mg) while T improved total sugar contents in 1 fruits (6.82%). Hence farm yard manure(FYM) and vermicompost based organic amendments enhanced vegetative growth and improved quality of strawberry fruits.

...

 Maria Rauf*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Javed Khan**, Abdul Rehman***, Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Asrar Ali**

BIOLOGY AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINN. ON SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM APHID UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
...ed on aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) at three constant temperatures 20±1 °C, 25±1 °C and 30±1 °C in Insectary-Bio Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that incubation period of C. septempunctata was 5.12, 3.62 and 3.20 days with 75.6%, 82.0% and 71.2% hatchability, respectively. The larval durations were 29.5, 15.9 and 8.1 days with predatory potential of 573....

 Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Amjad* and Malik Shah Nawaz*

STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR ECONOMIC TRAITS IN SESAME ( L.)
...ype(s) using stability parameters, and to determine inter-parameters correlation. Two locations (NARC and D.I. Khan) were suitable for high productivity. PR-19-9-S produced maximum (341 kgha ) at NARC and V-90005 produced 344 kgha and PARS-I produced 304 kgha at D.I Khan. The variance due to GE interaction was highly significant for all the traits showing heritable variation among the genotypes. The linear component of GE in...

 Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Muhammad Amjad*, Nazakat Nawaz*, Malik Shah Nawaz* and Doulat Baig*

ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN GERMPLASM OF LINSEED ( L.)
...for these traits. Dendrogram based on Euclidean distance coefficient using 10 quantitative traits, grouped all the linseed accessions into 13 clusters. Cluster II was the biggest and had 33 accessions followed by Cluster I having 11 accessions. For the development of high yielding varieties, best performing accessions of Clusters I and II could be used in hybridization programme by crossing with accessions of Clusters VII, V...

 Rashid Mahmood*, Elizabeth Stephen Wagchoure* and Ghulam Sarwar*

INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETS ON APIS MELLIFERA L. COLONIES FOR HONEY PRODUCTION
...th respect to number of frames and bees present in them. Honey bee colonies were divided into four groups of four colonies each. The honey extracted from the T (soybean diet), T (gram 1 2 diet), T (maize diet) and T (sugar only) was 21.3 kg ± 0.22, 24.4 kg ± 0.29, 3 4 19.3 kg ± 0.11 and 16 kg ± 0.11 respectively. The honey produced after the treatment of pollen with gram

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...of a mass production programme is to produce the maximum number of quality insects with minimum labour and cost. The maintenance cost of 100 Chrysoperla carnea adults was Rs. 192.38 per month, which included the labour cost of Rs. 152.38 and diet cost of Rs. 40. Approximately 4000 eggs per month were obtained from the C. carnea adult culture and the cost per egg was Rs. 0.04. This study also revealed that the diet consumption of 100 C. carnea larvae was 3.617g...

 Naheed Akhtar*, Awais Iqbal**, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Javed Khan*, Muhammad Riaz*, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Tariq Mahmood*, Awais Rasool* and Tahira Yasmin*

EVALUATION OF RECOMMENDED WHEAT VARIETIES FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (RONDANI) (APHIDIDAE: HOMOPTERA) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
...st greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). NARC-09, Momal-2002, TD-1 and Zarlasta-99 were found resistant in seedling bulk test. Momal-2002 was the least preferred in antixenosis mechanism of resistance NARC-2009, Momal-2002 and Sulaman-96 were the least fecund in antibiosis mechanism of resistance and TD-1, NARC-2009 and Sussui were highly tolerant in tolerance mechanism of resistance. Out of 50 varieties under trial three varieties namely NARC-09, Momal-200...

 Javed Khan*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Tariq Mahmood*,
Awais Rasool*, Naheed Akhtar and Saleem Abid**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
...;Studies on biological parameters of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) aphid were carried out in Insecatry- Bio control Laboratories, Insect Pest Management Programme, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results indicate that incubation period was 3.8±0.08 days with 87.0% hatch...

 Said Salman*, Shah Jehan Khan*, Javed Khan**, Rehmat Ullah Khan*** and Imran Khan****

GENETIC VARIABILITY STUDIES IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) ACCESSIONS
...ed for all the studied parameters except chlorophyll concentration index and number of spikelet per spike indicating considerable amount of variation among the accessions for each trait. The genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation estimates were higher for all the traits except chlorophyll concentration index and days to physiological maturity. Highest heritability estimates and expected genetic advance were found for all the traits except chlorophyl...

 Nusrat Habib*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar* and Ikram Saeed*

COMPARATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF RECOMMENDED MUNGBEAN VARIETIES AT NARC EXPERIMENTAL STATION, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
... collected by Pulses Programme, NARC, Islamabad. Pulses Programme, NARC, cultivated different mungbean varieties for experimental purpose to find out the comparatively best variety in terms of economic benefit. The results of the study were anticipated to provide basis for devising strategy to improve and sustain future mungbean production. The scope for increasing production through adopting drought resistance high yielding...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-Din*, Sikandar Khan Tanveer*, Maqsood Qamar* and Syed Haider Abbas*

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE WHEAT LINES FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN RAINFED ENVIRONMENT
...the reduction in these parameters were significantly less (P<0.05) in wheat lines NR-397 and NARC-09 as compared to other two genotypes. Results showed that comparatively higher grain yields of lines NR-397 and NARC-09 were correlated to their better leaf chlorophyll retention and maintenance of low canopy temperature during grain filling periods particularly under late planting conditions. Findings of this study have indications that wheat sowing up to Nov...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
...1 and 2, respectively. Parameters measured include plant height, tillage number, dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro digestibility and nutrient contents. Plant height and tillage number were monitored at week 4, 6 and 8 then harvested at week 8. Results revealed that the Brachiaria mutica (8 weeks old) had highest plant height (207 cm), but lowest tillage number (64), crude protein (CP) content (8.64%), in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility (47.36%) On the ot...

 Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*, Asghar Ali* and Shahid Riaz Malik*

IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANCE IN MUNGBEAN AND MASHBEAN GERMPLASM AGAINST MUNGBEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS
...included in breeding programme to develop MYMV-resistant varieties in the country.

...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...n in the country namely gram (chickpea) and mung (mungbean). Using Nerlove's adjustment lag model as the basic framework supply and demand aspect has been studied at the national level, based on the time series data from 1974-75 to 2010-11. Acreage response results revealed that farm harvest prices, lagged area and good moisture availability at sowing time positively influence the area allocation decision of the farmers. But...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Abdul Jabbar** and Sajida Taj*** 

FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY OF WHITE SUGAR PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...arcane support price programme in the country. The present paper aimed at up-dating the financial profitability of white sugar on the basis of recent data in the country. The total cost of white sugar production was Rs. -1 50.11kg in Pakistan. The estimated financial profit of white sugar production -1 was Rs. 2.47 kg in the country in 2012-13. The estimated supply and demand of white sugar was worked out as 6.62 and 5.01 m t, respectively during the same -1 -...

 Maqsood Qamar*, S. Dilanawaz Ahmad Gardazi**, Riaz-ud-Din*, Muhammad Sohail* and Syed Haider Abbas*

PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST AND ITS EFFECT ON SUSTAINABILITY OF WHEAT YIELD
...nes in hybridization programme or their cultivation can considerably reduce yield losses incurred by stripe rust.

...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...xploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber related trait, staple length. Earliness related traits, like st st days taken to 1 square and days taken to 1 flower had positive correlation with each other and both these traits also showed their positive association with ginning out turn. The negative significant correlation of CLCuD was obtained with monopodial branches, sympodial bra...

 Muhammad Ali*, Ghulam Mustafa Sajid**, M. Faisal Anwar Malik*** and Kalimullah****

ESTABLISHMENT OF IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPES
...ion and initial growth parameters. Accession No. 020017 (Dakh-1) exhibited highest viability (100%), shoot length (4.12 cm) -1 and nodes plant (3.8). Moreover, it was found that response of cultures to different treatments was dependent both on accession and treatment duration. In conclusion, this protocol proved to be useful in optimizing the dose and duration of the treatment of grape explants with the surface disinfectant.

...

 Aniqa Iram*, Javed Khan**, Nadeem Aslam**, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Habib Iqbal Javed**, Muhammad Irfan*, Awais Rasool*, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi** and Sumera Aslam* 

EFFICACY OF PLANT DERIVED OILS AND EXTRACTS AGAINST WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI (GENNADIUS) ON SESAME CROP
...il (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population was significantly suppressed by both the botanical oils and extracts as compared to the control treatment but in general botanical oils showed significant results as compared to plant extracts. Soybean oil was quite e...

 Farrukh Saleem*, Babar Hilal Ahmad*, Saleem Zahid* and Bilal Kabeer*

COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF INDIGENOUS NAKED NECK AND NAKED NECK CROSSBRED LAYER CHICKENS
...Poultry and Wildlife Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. A total of 72 birds (16 weeks of age) comprising 30 females and 6 males of each breed were divided into six experimental units / replicates (10 females and 2 male / replicate). Separate breeding pen were allotted to each replicate. The birds were fed ad-libitum. The data on body weight, feed consumption, daily egg production, egg weight, egg shell thickness and m...

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL
... improved the chemical parameters of soil. All levels of gypsum (100%, 75% and 50% G.R) proved effective in lowering pH, EC, SAR and ESP of saline sodic soil. Similar trend was observed with the use of all levels of potassium -1 silicate (225, 150 and 75mg kg soil) of soil. Combinations of gypsum and potassium silicate also remained better in this regard. The most effective treatment was application of the full required rate of gypsum.

...

 Muhammad Aamir Khan*, Abdul Saboor*, Rauf-i-Azam**, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin* and Fayyaz-ul-Hassan***

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN
...Analysis Project (GTAP) framework. The newly developed MyGTAP program was used to modify the Pakistan’s data in the Global GTAP Database and Standard GTAP model to include multiple households and labor types. This disaggregation allows to analyze distributional impacts and to implement policy scenarios that target particular households. The economy wise results showed that agricultural trade liberalization increases in...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...analyzed for proximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil 25%, DM range was 65-70%, for grass 50% + Ipil ipil 50%, it ...

 Muhammad Akhter*, Muhammad Azhar Ali**, Zulqarnain Haider* and Shahzad Muzammil***

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHANGES IN GRAINS OF SOME ADVANCE LINES/ VARIETIES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AFTER PARBOILING
...or nutritional quality parameters such as ash, dry matter, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, vitamin B6; milling quality parameters such as total milling recovery, head rice recovery, ratio of broken grains and cooking quality parameters such as curling, bursting and cooked grain length. The study showed significant variation in efficacy of parboiling to different varieties/lines. The...

 Kalim Ullah*, Zahid Usman*,Niamatullah Khan*, Rehmat Ullah**, Fazal Yazdan Saleem***, Shahid Iqbal Khattak**** and Muhammad Ali*****

GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS IN UPLAND COTTON GENOTYPES
...s for the investigated parameters. The genotype DNH-105 was the -1 -1 highest yielding genotype with seed yield of 2610.75 kg ha , 42.3 bolls plant , 3.57 g boll weight and 144.5 cm height in comparison to other eight genotypes. The cultivar Gomal-93 and SLH-373 also showed comparable yield and contributing parameters. The genetic variances of the studied parameters were higher in comparis...

 Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Arshad Ali**, Tariq Sultan** and Muhammad Munir Ahmed***

CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ROOT SYSTEM OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L) GROWN UNDER SALT AFFECTED AREA OF PAKISTAN
...er and all of them were gram -ve. During biochemical characterization of bacterial isolates KS 15 and KS 8 produced the highest indole acetic acid whereas KS 15 and KS 17 indicated maximum phosphate solubilization (PS) among all isolated strains. The bacterial strains KS 10 and KS 44 showed maximum bio-control activity (fungal growth inhibition) than other isolated strains.

...

 Israr Ali*, Naushad Ali*, Riffat Tahira**, Sardar Ali*, Izhar Hussain* and Sher Aslam Khan*

GENETIC DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN BRASSICA GERMPLASM BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES
...in Brassica breeding programmes as a good source of genetic variation. 

...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Sonila Hassan*, Arshed Bashir*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood** and Irfan Mehmood*

ANALYZING PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF SELECTED FOOD AND LEGUME CROPS FOR FOOD SECURITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...s and to project these parameters on the basis of estimated growth co-efficient. Time-series data for area, yield and production were collected for wheat, sugarcane, rice, mung and gram since 1980-81. The semi-log trend function was employed to find out the growth rate of selected commodities. The findings of the study showed the positive growth rates of area, production and yield of all selected food grain and legume crops....

 Sameera Arshad*, Iftikhar Hussain*, Maqsood Anwar* and Sarwat Naz Mirza*

HABITAT SURVEY FOR RECOGNIZING BIRD ATTRACTANTS AROUND BENAZIR BHUTTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...ield bird management programme for monitoring bird activity and land use practices around the airfield.

...

 Amjad Pervez*, Syed Muzaffar Ahmed*, Akhlaq Ahmad** and Qazi Mehmood Ali**

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FOOD GRAINS AS BAITS FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYSTRIX INDICA
...eat, rice, maize, black gram, sorghum and millet were offered in whole/crack form. Under no choice and choice tests, rice was the most preferred food, followed by wheat, maize and others. The present study suggested that rice in whole or cracked form alone or in combination with wheat can be applied as very palatable (32% and 27%, respectively) and cost effective grain as bait base for effective management of Indian porcupine, Hystrix indica, being an economic...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...e exists. The variance parameter lambda (λ) and gamma (Γ) both were significant indicating the good fitness of model and inefficiency impact, respectively. The estimated value for Γ was 0.77 underscores that 77% variation in the production frontier was explained by technical inefficiency effect. The inefficiency indices showed that farmers with more schooling years and more number of contacts with extension agents were more efficient. Contra...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Muhammad Nasrullah* and Noor P. Khan** 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF TOBACCO GROWERS IN DISTRICT MARDAN, PAKISTAN
... tobacco growers. This parametric approach was encompassed to investigate the technical efficiency of growers. The primary data was gleaned during 2014-15 from sampled population of three villages namely Takkar Kali, Garo Shah and Passand Kali of Takhtbhai Tehsil, Mardan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The multi-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain the desired sample size of 120 tobacco growers. The major findings of stochastic production f...

 Ali Raza Shah**, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat**, Abdul Quadir Mughal***, Inayatullah Rajper** and Asif Ali Mirani****

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS IN A CLAY LOAM SOIL*
... were observed for all parameters in 2012 and 2013. The results suggested that the control traffic system was more efficient tillage system in terms of soil pulverization, operating speed, travel reduction and over all field capacity. While, zero tillage had minimum fuel consumption and conventional tillage had higher working depth hence, more soil volume was disturbed under this treatment. 

...

 Raja Zoq-ul-Arfeen*, Aamir Saleem*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Muhammad Akmal**, Hafiz Muhammad Tayyab* and Obaid Afzal***

BIODIVERSITY AND PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM RIPARIAN AREAS OF PAKISTAN: SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TAUNSA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY AND KETI SHAH FORESTS
...rent phytosociological parameters indicate Tamarix dioca, Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Imperata cylindrica, Fimbristylis hispidula, Acacia nilotica, Phragmites karka, Tamarix sp. and Saccharum bengalense as dominant species. The biodiversity in upstream and downstream areas were rich in pre-monsoon season in comparison to post-monsoon season in surveyed areas. This study is useful for management of the area in the future as conservation strategies...

 Saima Kanwal*, Saeeda Raza*, Khalid Naseem*, Muhammad Amjad*, Naseem Bibi* and Musarrat Gillani*

DEVELOPMENT, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BISCUITS SUPPLEMENTED WITH PUMPKIN SEEDS TO COMBAT CHILDHOOD MALNUTRITION IN PAKISTAN
...g trend in all sensory parameters. Results showed acceptability at all levels but treatment T with 15 % pumpkin 4 seed flour scored highest (8.0) for maximum overall acceptability. It was concluded that pumpkin seed flour can be supplemented successfully to partially replace wheat flour to prepare highly nutritious biscuits without affecting its overall acceptability.

...

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...tional Rural Support Programme (NRSP), On-Farm Water Management (OFWM), Water Management (WM), Potohar Organization for Development Advocacy (PODA), Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU) and Environmental Sciences actively participated in the professional training. The post-training assessment showed that it had positive impact on the awareness of professionals. Majority of the participants were strongly and merely agreed upon the training practicality, technologies a...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Muhammad Arshad*, Maryam Kamal**, Doulat Baig *, M. Tariq*, Talat Gilani* and Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR SEED YIELD TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER
...ent through breeding programme. The cross of CMS-303 x RHA-271 expressed the highest specific combining ability (SCA) value for yield while CMS 303 x RHA-854 hybrid exhibited the highest SCA estimates for harvest index. CMS-53 x RHA-854 and CMS-64 x SF-187 crosses exhibited the highest SCA estimates for head diameter and 1000-seed weight, respectively. The SCA variances were higher than GCA for seed yield and related traits revealing the involvement of non-add...

  Sohaib Arshad*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar** and Maqbool Shahbaz**

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC RHODES GRASS ACCESSIONS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
... for quality and yield parameters. Three varieties were imported from Australia and Zimbabwe namely Sabre, Tolgar (Australian) and Katambora (Zimbabwean). Dry matter yield and crude protein content of these grass varieties were analysed at three growth stages namely vegetative, flow-ering and maturity. These grasses have shown significant differences in fresh and dry matter -1 yield. Fresh matter yield ranged from 6.17 to 6.68t ha at pre- -1 -1 flowering, 9.67...

 Hafiz Saqib Habib*, Arshad Mahmood Malik*, Abid Ali** and Muhammad Aamir Khan***

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURES IN RAWALPINDI
...as been devoted to the parameters of household food expenditures. Present study aimed to analyze the socioeconomic factors effecting total food expenditures of households in rural area of Rawalpindi tehsil. Respondents were selected randomly and data were collected through questionnaire. A multiple double log regression model was used because it has an advantage that estimated parameter can easily be explained as expendi-tur...

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION
...ve of these training programmes was to impart training based skills on water conservation technologies. To help in improving the effectiveness, the socioeconomic backup for assessment of these trainings was included as part of the activity. The information for paper is collected from opinions of the participants before and after the training. Descriptive analysis alongwith paired 't' test was used to measure the effectiveness of training. Results indicated hig...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON
...hese earliness related parameters. Number of sympodial branches was significantly affected by topping only; with maximum values recorded in no topping closely followed by topping at 150 cm height. Values showed that 90 cm tall plants -1 produced maximum seed cotton yield when supplied with 150 kg N ha ; 120 cm tall -1 plants gave maximum seed cotton with 200 kg N ha while 150 cm tall cotton plants -1 needed 250 kg N ha for highest seed cotton production. In co...

 Muhammad Mansoor*, Noman Latif*, Zafar Islam**, Sher Muhammad**, Amanullah* and Muhammad Umair***

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AMENDMENTS ON SOIL CAPPING IN MUNGBEAN PRODUCTION USING CENTRAL PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN CLAYEY SOILS
... results depicted that parameters such as number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of grains per pod, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield were significantly affected by different soil amendments at P>0.05, except for number of clusters per plant. -1 -1 Maximum of 6.2 branches plant , 62.6 pods plant , 8.3cm pod length, 8.9 grains -1 pod , and 43.3 g of 1000-grain were recorded in treatment where sand and FYM -1 was applied t...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Muhammad Sharif**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla*** and Muhammad Azeem Khan*

COMPETITIVENESS OF TOMATO PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...y Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competi...

 Nisar Ahmed Soomro*, Abdul Fatah Soomro**, Hamz Ali Samo* and
Muhammad Siddique Depar***

GROWTH AND YIELD COMPARISONS OF FOUR COMMERCIAL WHEAT VARIETIES TO IRRIGATION FREQUENCIES
...est values for all the parameters. In varieties, Imdad-2005 maximizes its performance with 90.81% germination, 88.33 cm plant height, 10.29 tillers plant , 273.10 tillers m , 54.99 grains spike , 58.40 g 1000-seed weight and 5804.66 kg grain yield ha . However, varieties TJ-83, Kiran and T.D-1 ranked 2 , 3 and 4 in all the growth traits examined in this study. It was concluded that the differences in grain yield between the crop receiving five and four irrigat...

 Shahid Iqbal Khattak*, Muhammad Amjad Nadim**, Mohammad Safdar Baloch**, Kashif Waseem** and Muhammad Sohail***

IMPACT OF VARIABLE SEEDING DATES ON CEREALS' PERFORMANCE UNDER AGRO-ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...formance in almost all parameters. However, the highest grain yield (3104 kg ha ) was produced by October 15 sowing while the results of November 15 and thereafter sowing were nonsignificant with each other. Data on lodging of these cereal crops was also observed during the study. Barley was the crop showing maximum lodging (35.83 %) which led the same to lowest grain yield. The minimum lodging (8.33 %) was noted in oat crop. It was also observed that earlier ...

 Hina Fatima** and Bushra Yasmin**

EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN'S FARM SECTOR: A META-ANALYSIS*
...Scores (MTES), such as parametric, non-parametric techniques, functional forms, data types, production technology dummies and variable size parameter. The analysis revealed the overall technical efficiency of Pakistan's farm sector as 73%. The results from meta-analysis clearly indicated that farm sector in Pakistan is way behind its optimum potential level. Hence there is sufficient room ...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA
...ed on different growth parameters. Significant differences were observed for all the agronomic traits studied. Root rot attack was observed during the growth period. Pea variety 'Meteor' was found susceptible against this disease followed by 'Sarsabz 9800-1' as moderately susceptible and 9375 as resistant. The other varieties/lines Pea-09, Climax, Local and PF-400 were found tolerant against this disease. Green pod yield per hectare data revealed that pea vari...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...n also improve their programs to guide the farmers in a better way and target farmers who need risk management information the most. At policy level, emphasis may be given to formal training and awareness of the farmers for diversification to compensate production risks. The existing extension network can be strengthened through its institutional linkage with metrology department and information communication technologies to further inform and train the farmer...

 Sadaf Javaria*, Muhammad Qasim Khan*, Kashif Waseem*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Habib ur Rahman*, Muhammad Sohail Khan* and Muhammad Sohail**

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON IMPACT OF BIO AND ORGANOMINERAL FERTILIZES ON COMPOSITION AND SHELF LIFE OF TOMATO ( ) FRUIT.
...cted different quality parameters including; physicochemical (vitamin C, lycopene, total soluble solids and pericarp thickness); sensory (fruit color, fruit flavor and fruit firmness) and shelf life. It was concluded that bio-fertilizer integrated with Farmyard Manure emerged as better nutrient source over other treatments. Benefits of bio fertilizer application were more in the presence of Farmyard Manure on quality of tomato in comparison with NPK. No work h...

Muhammad Nawaz*, Anwar Javaid Wahla*, Muhammad Saleem Kashif*, Masood Qadir Waqar**, Muhammad Anjum Ali*** and Asim Raza Chadhar****

EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS NITROGEN LEVELS ON THE YIELD OF RICE GRAIN IN SHEIKHUPURA, PAKISTAN
... effect on all studied parameters of both rice cultivars during all the years of experimentation. Both cultivars also differed significantly from each other in number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and paddy yield during all the years of experimentation. Application of nitrogen at 255 kg ha was the most suitable level of nitrogen for both the cultivars. The performance of KSK-133 was better than KS-282 at all levels of N during all the years. In conclu...
Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1,2,, Shan Liang1, Muhammad Saleem Kalhoro2, Shoaib Ahmed Pirzado2, Nasir Rajput2, Muhammad Naeem2, Fahmida Parveen2 andYongjie Liu1*
...emagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes showed 93 to 99% similarity between each other. The CIV isolates shared high similarity (above 98%) to the H3N2 viruses from dogs in China. On the comparison of gene sequence four unique mutations were found in the amino acid of HA (A144T, R158K, D291N, L383F) and NA (T19A, V33L, V82A, S336N). The HA and NA genetic evolution analysis revealed that one isolate was most similar to the newly isolated H3N2 viruses fro...
Yanling Xia1,2, Heping Li2, Yuntao Liang2, Jichen Zhao2, Binshan Lu2 and Di Liu1,*
...ontains an open reading frame of 984bp encoding a polypeptide with 327 amino acids. The deduced molecular mass and isoelectric point of Vps26A protein were 38.2 kDa and 6.13, respectively. Glutamic acid had the largest proportion (10.4%) in the primary structure. Homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that theVps26A protein of sika deer was highly similar to that of Bos taurus. Expression analysis by real-time quantitativ...

Mohammad Nazeer* and Safdar Hussain Shah 

...cord the morphological parameters of each individual. The results showed differences in morphological traits of different goat breeds. The facial appearance of Surguli and Damani was predominantly convex, whereas straight shape facial outline was observed in most of Gaddi and Kaghani goat individuals. The ears of Damani and Surguli goat were mostly straight, whereas Kaghani and Gaddi had rounded edge ears in most cases. Horn color was predominantly black, with...
Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2 and Saleh S. Alhewairini1,*
...est Management (IPM) program as an acaricide agent.
...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Muhammad Arshad Hussain3
...th reductions in these parameters at each inoculum density. The production of galls was found to be positively correlated with the inoculum densities and plant ages. However, rate of nematode build up decreased with an increase in inoculum density and appeared to be negatively correlated with inoculum densities and, on the contrary, was found to be positively correlated with plant ages. The results demonstrated that M. incognita has the potential to sev...
Fatmagün Aydin1,* and Fatma Burcu Harmantepe2
...growth, haematological parameters were evaluated on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). For this experiment, 360 fish (11.81± 0.02 g) were used. Fish were divided into four equal groups in three replicates and were fed with diets containing 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 % of sage oil for 30 days. The results showed that the haematological parameters (total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corp...
Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska1,*, Magdalena Skibicka1, Barbara Cioch-Szklarz1, Jolanta Karakulska2, Karol Fijałkowski2 and Sonia Hiller3
... the basis of selected parameters of growth in different housing systems with regard to the assessment of microbial flora taken from the nasal cavity of animals. The study was performed on 28 calves of Polish Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White variety (PHF HO). The average weight of calves at the age of three months differed depending on the housing system. Individuals in igloo type booths were heavier as compared to the traditionally reared calves. The differe...
Ali Haider Saleem1,*, Khalid Javed2, Masroor Ellahi Babar3, Tanveer Hussain3, Asad Ali2, Afzal Ali2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Zahid Farooq1 and Muhammad Dawood2
... for future breeding programs and marker assisted selection.
...
Muhammad Umair Sattar1, Aysha Sameen1,*, Nuzhat Huma1 and Muhammad Shahid2
...is for physicochemical parameters, functional attributes, texture (hardness), appearance (L* value) and proteolysis by RP-HPLC. Use of guar gum as fat mimetic and cheese milk homogenization significantly (p<0.01) affected the composition, functionality, texture and appearance of LFMCs. LFMCs functionality and texture also improved during ripening but appearance was negatively affected. Reverse phase HPLC results indicated that level of intact casein ...
Nasir Abbas1, Muhammad Suleman1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,*, Ijaz Ali3, Mubashir Rauf1,5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman4,*
...fective surveillance programme.
...
Shireen Ihsan Izzaddeen1 and Ali Kaygısız2,*
... performance and blood parameters of Holstein calves. The study was started with total of 24 calves, randomly categorized into two groups of 12 (6 males and 6 females) however, it was completed with 23 calves because of dying a female at the 8th week of the trial. Addition of Laurel essential oil into whole milk did not cause any significant change in weekly live weight gain (kg), total weaning live weight gain (kg), weekly chest girth measurements ...

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

... and the water quality parameters and to find the effect of small dams on recharge of ground water aquifer. Water table depths data from the ground surface, discharge of the wells, water quality parameters such as Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and Electrical Conductivity (ECw) were determined. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation purposes was evaluated following various classification schemes. The results show that in m...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khuram Sharjeel1, Raheel Babar2, Muhammad Junaid1, Qamar Iqbal3, Rabia Rasheed1 and Nosheen Fatima1 

...t training and visit program and demonstration methods were dominant approaches used in technology transfer. The mean of the results showed that low allocation of budget, massive operational area to give satisfactory coverage, less use of multimedia, unavailability of training facilities to EFS, manifold duties assigned to extension officers and top-down dimension of planning of implementation of extension approaches were main weaknesses. The steps like effect...

Ikramullah Khan1,2*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Sohail Akhtar2, Ijaz Ali3 and Ghufran Ullah4 

...ely. The physiological parameters recorded were rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR) and pulse rate (PR) whereas biochemical parameters determined from blood serum were glucose, cortisol and Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70). Thermal stress increased all physiological parameterssignificantly (P < 0.001). Holstein Frisian manifested maximumincrease in RT, RR and PR (3.33, 209.50 a...
Senol Celik1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Adile Tatliyer3, Koksal Karadas4, Mehmet Kazim Kara2 and Abdul Waheed5
...0.124). Growth related parameters (A, B, k, and d) of the Janoscheck non-linear model were estimated as 43.000, 0.905, 0.124 and 0.950, respectively. To conclude, it could be suggested that the Janoscheck non-linear model might help breeders who aim to make precise decisions on optimum slaughtering time and to ensure suitable managerial conditions in DDP goat.
...
Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar*1, Amir Shakeel1, Muhammad Amir Maqbool1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar2, Sumaira Zareen2, Syeda Sana Aamir4 and Muhammad Asadullah4
...aits and fiber quality parameters. Six lines, viz., VH-259, IUB-222, CRS-456, AA-703, KZ-191, PB-39 and four testers PB-39, CIM-608, BH-163 and PB-900 were crossed in line × tester crossing fashion to develop 20 F1 hybrids. Analysis of variance displayed significant differences among parents and hybrids indicating the presence of genetic variability except fiber fineness. δ2GCA/δ2SCA ratio depicted the predomi...
Olaniyi Alaba Olopade1,*, Henry Eyina Dienye1, Bosede Jimba1, Nathanael Akinsafe Bamidele2, Iyabo Olusola Taiwo2
... the length and weight parameters indicated that the total length ranged from 12.4 cm to 29.8 cm with a mean value of 17.84±0.40 and the weight varied between 41g to 640g in subject collected from New Calabar River population. In Buguma Creek, the total length ranged from 10.9 cm to 23.5 cm with a mean value of 14.99 ± 0.26 and the weight was from 21g to 520g. The b value varied between 2.96, which were recorded for New Calabar River populat...

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

...a type of cell death program that could be inappropriately activated during drought, was also delayed in the supplemented seedlings as highlighted by a high RWC and expression of the Lhcb2 gene. 

...
Jun-Ying Liu, He-He Liu*, Jie Kou, Yang-Mei Zhao, Ji-Wen Wang, Liang Li and Xiao-Hui Du
..., the main component of gram-negative bacteria. To investigate how TLR4 responds to LPS, the TLR4 transcription levels in duck liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were examined after a model for immune stress was implemented through LPS injection in Peking ducks. The results from this assay suggested that LPS injection significantly increased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in bursa of Fabricius (P<0.05), alon...
Syeda Madiha, Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Tahira Perveen and Saida Haider*

 

...erent motor behavioral parameters (pole test, Kondziela’s inverted screen test, inclined plane test, open field test, beam walking test and footprint test). Biochemical and neurochemical alterations were also monitored. Pre-treatment with curcumin reversed the motor impairments, biochemical and neurochemical alterations which were produced by rotenone. Furthermore, curcumin treatment restored the dopaminergic and cholinergic functions. We conclude that c...

Hamza Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Ijaz Ahmad*2, Ihsanullah Khan3, Shujaat Hussain1, Bashir Ahmad Khan4 and Muhammad Suhaib5  

...ta regarding Agronomic parameters was collected on days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, plant height, head diameter, days to maturity, 100 seed weight, number of seeds per head and seed yield per hectare. Quality parameters were consisted upon oil content (%), protein content (%) and Fatty acid profile. Results showed that SMH-1001 and SMH-1215 hybrids performed bes...

Muhammad Suhaib1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Masooma Munir3, Muhammad Bilal Iqbal4 , Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Safdar Ali6 

...rove all the mentioned parameters significantly. The treatment effect of 0.25 mM salicylic acid was more effective under both levels of salt stress as compared to 50 mM salicylic acid treatment. Genotypic differences were non-significant but cumulatively Punjab-2011 showed better performance as compared to Faisalabad-2008. 

...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
...h the mass awareness programs on electronic and print media could be effective conservation strategies during the period of their stay in Pakistan.
...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
...w/w) of extract per kilogram of fish respectively. Observation for mortality and larval emergence was made every 3 days and cumulative taking at the end of 28 days. Mortality of adult D. maculatus was higher in 8, 12 and 15% (w/w) of P. guineense and 15% (w/w) of C. annum than control. Both extracts significantly enhanced D. maculatus larval and adult mortality (p < 0.05). Larval emergence in 8, 12 and 15% (w/w) of P. guineens...

Nadia Faqir1, Aish Muhammad2*, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Armghan Shehzad2, Hafeez Ur Rahman3, Farhatullah4 and Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder

...hological traits, five parameter of proximate composition of date fruit and sequence analysis of two genes (maturase k and geranyl geranyl biphosphate reductase) from chloroplast region. Analysis of variance has revealed significant variation among the studied date palm samples pertaining to the studied physical traits and chemical composition of fruit. Sequences of the maturase k gene has complete identity to the reference genome of ‘Khalas’ culti...
Leila A. Kaimbayeva1,*, Elena S. Malysheva2, Rashit Kazikhanov3 and Saule R. Kazikhanova4
... glycolysis. All these parameters were indicative of autolysis process in the meat. The levels of water-binding capacity and structural-mechanical properties of red deer meat that occurred during the course of autolysis were further confirmed by the histological changes in the meat. Specifically, it was observed that post-mortem changes were characterized by multiple destruction and disintegration of fibers in the muscular tissue, and lysing of cores and their...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...ine AIV surveillance programs and improved vaccination strategies are highly desirable.
...

Muhammad Waqar Yasin*, Mobushir Riaz Khan and Muhammad Amin 

...charum officinarum) and gram (Cicer arietinum). Firstly, changes in mean temperature and rainfall from 1951 to 2015 were assessed at district level. Secondly, the changes in crop performance were computed through remote sensing and crop reporting data obtained from the agriculture department, Government of Punjab, Pakistan. Lastly, changes in crop performance (what does performance mean here!!) were compared with changes in studied climate variables (temperatu...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

...uture wheat breeding program 

...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

... recorded on agronomic parameters and rice shoots and roots tissue analysis for various nutrients uptake/concentration. The data revealed that all strains of cyanobacteria had significantly (p < 0.05) improved the nutrients up-take/concentration and agronomic traits of rice crop as compared to control. Among the strains, the Gloeobacter strain (MMF-4) surpassed by augmenting all agronomic parameters of rice crop like plan...

Imran Khan1, Zahir Shah2, Wiqar Ahmad3*, Farmanullah Khan2 and Muhammad Sharif

...g with improving these parameters, also increased the yield significantly over the FP. Amongst all treatments, the 5 t ha-1 FYM and 75% NPK of the RD (INM5:75) stood superior with respect to yield as well as soil fertility status. However, efficacy was negative under deep tillage compared to shallow tillage for all treatments since yield as well as harvest Index (HI), mineral nutrients and OM content in soil were significantly lower and pH and EC higher under ...
Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1,*, Hummaira Iqbal1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Haseena Ghulam Muhammad1 and Muhammad Irfan1
...not suitable for IPM program in the study area.
...

Muhammad Suhaib1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Masooma Munir3, Badar-Uz-Zaman1, Bushra Atta4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...iology and biochemical parameters of crop plants however lower level of salicylic acid 0.25 mM was found more efficient then the higher level of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid induced improvement is significant regardless of stress environment or normal growth conditions.
 

...

Qasim Iqbal1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Bashir Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Ihsanullah Khan4  

... August. The following parameters were studied in the experiment i.e. days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, plant height, days to maturity, stem diameter, head diameter, number of leaves, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per hectare. Quality parameters were consisted upon oil content (%), protein content (%), and fatty acid profile. The results showed that significantly highest seed yield (2187.3) kg ha-1 was ...
Yakup Erdal Erturk1, Adem Aksoy2 and Mohammad Masood Tariq3,*
... Splines (MARS), a-non parametric regression technique, was used to develop a respectable prediction equation that can denote interaction effects of influential predictors in the definition of the influential factors on AFFLW as an output variable for male and female crossbred cattle. Several predictors in the current survey were province (Erzurum, Igdir, Kars and Agri), farmer age, educational level (illiterate, primary school, secondary school, high school, ...
Pasqua Rotondi1, Maria Antonietta Colonna1, Giuseppe Marsico1, Francesco Giannico1, Marco Ragni1 and Anna Maria Facciolongo2,*
...y acid composition of intramuscular lipids. Twenty-one three-week-old kids were divided into three homogeneous groups (n = 7), according to age and body weight, and assigned to one of the following feeding treatments: C) control: commercial pelleted feed; L) pelleted feed containing 3% extruded linseed; LO) pelleted feed containing 3% extruded linseed and 0.6% dried oregano inflorescences. Kids were slaughtered at 60 days of age. Diet did not affect in vivo...
Aqeela Ashraf1,2,*, Muhammad Imran1 and Yung-Fu Chang2
...hem was resistant to chloramphenicol. These E. coli isolates carried one or more antimicrobial resistance genes. Genes present with highest frequency were tetA (42%), tetB (28%) and ampC (26%). Fewer E. coli isolates carried tetD (10%), tetE (8%) and tetG (8%) genes. None of the isolates was positive for bla2 resistance genes. PCR results of virulence genes confirmed that 66% of strains were carryi...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Sidra Naz3, Sidra Abbas2, Wardah Hassan2, Shakeela Perveen2, Moazama Batool1, Laiba Shafique2
...vioral and biochemical parameters can be used as a valuable bio-marker to identify the toxic effects of pollutants in aquatic systems. 
...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...s for the transmission parameters were different from those reported elsewhere in the world 

...
Mehmet Aydın*

 

...d 2016 by SCUBA, trawl, trammel net, and dredges at six locations (Kastamonu, Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, and Trabzon). Total carapace length (CL) and weight (W) of each individual were recorded with an accuracy of 0.01 cm and 0.01 g, respectively. During the sampling period, a total of 5932 crab individuals belonging to five species were collected and measured. The minimum and the maximum“b” values of the length-weight relationship among th...
Muhammad Waheed Mushtaq1,*, Jamil Anwar2, Omara Naeem3,Farah Kanwal1 and Waheed-uz-Zaman1
...re counted after proper Gram staining. It was found that more than 90% bacteria were separated along with freezing front and were concentrated in the centre in the case of radial freezing and at the bottom in case of vertical freezing.
...
Muhammad Nazar Aftab1, Ahmed Ali1, Muhammad Asad1, Sadia Fatima2 and Furhan Iqbal2,*
...05) any of the studied parameters of complete blood count. On the other hand, serological parameters like triglycerides (P = 0.0075 ), total proteins (P = 0.042) and creatinine (P = 0.0038)were significantly higher in treated male mice when compared with their untreated control group indicating the hazardous effects of AlCl3 on blood chemistry of adult male albino mice.
...
Fazul Nabi1,2, Hui Zhang1, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal1 , Mujeeb ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahzad3, Khalid Mehmood1,3 and Jiakui Li1,* 
...hree groups: Control, Thiram (50 mg/kg/d) and SM (10 mg/kg/d) treated. Results showed that thiram caused lameness, decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum along with decrease in level of antioxidant enzymes and significantly increase in the MDA contents in TD afflicted chickens compared to control group. The SM...

Muhammad Ismaeel1,2*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Aziz Ur Rahman1 and Mian Ahmad Raza

... for yield and related parameters at The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan, during 2011. Thirty rice genotypes including 14 parents and 16 F1 hybrids were replicated twice in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Rice genotypes reflected significant differences (P≤0.01) for all the traits. Among the rice parents, Bas-6129 and Bas-370 showed the highest values for grains panicle-1 (214.0) while IR-8 displayed maximum values for spikelets panic...
Tariq Mukhtar
...um reductions in these parameters at two highest doses of 8×103 and 1×104 cfu/g of soil. The increases or reductions were slightly greater with T. harzianum than those with T. viride. It is, therefore, concluded from the present evaluation that the indigenous isolates of T. harzianum and T. viride have the potential to control M. incognita.
...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Shafqat Rasool1, Faraz Akrim1, Shaista Andleeb1, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2 and Fiaz Nadeem3
...potted Owlet (Athene brama), Little owlet (Athene noctua) and the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) were recorded from the park at five different sampling sites, at elevations ranging from 615 m to 655 m above sea level. Only one of the three species Tawny owl  was previously known from the park while the other two species have been recorded for the first time from the MHNP. On the contrary, three other owl species that were previously k...
Souheila Slimani1,*, Sonia Hamouda1, Chahrazed Souadi1, Sara Silini2, Cherif Abdennour2 and Leila Delimi3
...ithiocarbamate “thiram 80% purity” on seasonal reproduction of male domestic pigeons Columba livia domestica, subjected to a long photoperiod (19L: 05D). The fungicide was orally administered at 5 and 10 mg/Kg body weight/day for 10 consecutive weeks.Testicular volume and weights were measured weekly, whereas semen quality, and histopathological profile were investigated at week 10.The obtained results reveal that under a long photoperiodthe...
Musrrat Fatima, Muhammad Saad Khan, Hamid Rashid, Asim Mehmood, Sumaira Kanwal, Muhammad Asif Rasheed and Farrukh Jamil*
...lished drug likeliness parameters such as rule of five and nontoxic nature. These 14 compounds are used for pharmacophore modeling, and Zinc natural compounds database (ZND) is screened against the developed pharmacophore. The compounds with the highest pharmacophore fit scores are screened and docked on the identified allosteric site of NS2B-NS3. Analysis of the data showed two compounds (ZINC00845171, ZINC08782519)as potential inhibitors for NS2B-NS3 of ZIKV...
Yakup Erdal Ertürk
...plines (MARS) as a non-parametric analysis technique was preferred in the description of the influential factors and their interaction effects for each gender. Some probable factors such as age, province, education level, experience, social security, lands, and the reason at performing animal production were recorded on breeders. Also, first fattening weight and fattening period of the beef cattle were recorded. It was determined that predictive models based u...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1Arshad Javid2, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain3, Nosheen Aslam4, Qasim Ali5, Majid Hussain6Muhammad Masoom ul Hassan Rehan7, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,8Anam Khalid1 and Danish Riaz1
...nutrient digestibility parameters. The maximum weight gain (304%) and minimum FCR (1.33) values were noted at 10% replacing level for above mentioned diet showed that fish was in more healthy condition as compared to control (0% MOLM) and other test diets. Digestibility coefficients for MOLM based diet at 10% replacement level of fish meal, increased 13.98%, 14.29% and 10.52% for crude fat, crude protein and supposed gross energy when compared to control diet,...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Nosheen Aslam2, Arshad Javid3, Shehzadi Liaquat1,Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1, 4, Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Adnan Khalid1
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...ough colony characters, Gram staining and biochemical tests. The identified isolates were quantified on blood agar and confirmed through PCR. Toxins were extracted, quantified, formalized and adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide gel. Safety, sterility and stability of the toxoid were ascertained. Bacterin toxoid of C. perfringens type D was procured from Veterinary Research Institute Peshawar. The immunogenicity of toxoid vaccines and bacterin toxoid vac...
Muhammad Shahid Saeed1, Adeela Shahid2, Samia Jawed3, Muhammad Akram4, Irshad Hussain Qureshi5 
... was conducted and all parameters were recorded. Modified Borg scale was used to determine the grade of dyspnea from 0-10. A total of 2ml of venous blood was taken to determine the serum magnesium levels. All patients were given Salbutamol inhalation and intravenous (I/V) Hydrocortisone. The study group was given 2gm of MgS04 intravenously in 20 minutes in a burette and Placebo group was given placebo (0.9% normal saline). Salbutamol inhalation...

Abdul Basit1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,4*, Sohail Ahmed2, Gohar Ali2 and Muhammad Javaid

...n angles on any of the parameters measured. Moreover, maximum and minimum CBR were found for spinosad formulation (1:4.9) and yellow color refractive sheet treatments (1:1.8), respectively. It is concluded that, in combination with biorational insecticides such as spinosad, installation of different colored refractive sheets, except yellow, at 30° or 60° angles would be more effective and economical to control fruit fly incidence on different vegetable...
Ayesha Iftikhar1,*, Muhammad Asif Aziz1, Muhammad Naeem1, Munir Ahmad1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...ong population dynamic parameters, net reproductive rate (R0) was 216.52, 105.99 and 27.07 off-springs per individual, intrinsic rate of increase (r) was 0.1543, 0.1600 and 0.1518 off-springs per female per day at 27 ± 0.5, 24 ± 0.5, and 32 ± 4.0 °C, respectively. Survival rate (sxj) and age-stage specific fecundity (fx7) were greater at 24 ± 0.5 °C. Among immature...

Muhammad Fiaz1*, Muhammad Afzal1 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2 

...ield efficacy of spirotetramat and Isaria fumosorosea formulations was assessed in spring 2016 and 2017 against Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, one of the economic insect pests of citrus plants and a putative vector of Huanglongbing worldwide. Treatments were comprised of label-recommended (FD) and its half (HD) dose rates of spirotetramat and I. fumosorosea formulations. Both treatments were applied either alone or i...
Masood Nizam Tabassum1*, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Saira Afzal3, Amir Gilani4, Abdul Wahab Gureja5, ShafaqTabassum6
...ermine the demographic parameters of patients of Tuberculosis at public sector health facilities Lahore, Pakistan.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in outpatient Department of chest Medicine in Public sector health facilities Lahore, Pakistan from 1st January 2017 to 30th June 2017 after informed consent from Tuberculosis patients. After simple random sampling 1120 patients coming from different parts of t...
Doğan Türkyılmaz1,*, Selçuk Özyürek2,Nurinisa Esenbuğa1 and Mustafa Yaprak1
... milk components in Morkaraman, Tuj and Awassi sheep. Milk components are investigated in order to determination of milk quality. The main components of milk are fat, solid non-fat, density, protein, lactose and ash. Density of the milk is expressed in kg/m3 and the other components are in percent. Fat, solid non-fat, density, protein, lactose and ash percentages of the milk in this study were respectively 7.19%, 9.67%, 1030.78 kg/m3, 3.1...

Imadud Din1*, Fazal Munsif1, Irfan Ahmad Shah3, Hamayoon Khan1, Fahad Ullah Khan1, Ibrarullah2, Shahab Uddin4 and Tauqir Islam1 

...y in future breeding programmes for enhancing wheat cultivars.
 

...

Muhammad Shoaib Saleem*, Muhammad Faheem Akbar, Amjad Sultan and Saqib Ali 

...ommended doses of Nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (combination of Nitenpyram+Chlorfenapyr) and Buprofezin were applied when population of insect pests reached at economic threshold level (ETL). Pre-treatment data were taken before 24 hours and post-treatment data were recorded after 24, 72, 168 and 336 hours of each spray. In this manner the data of three sprays were collected. Amongst neonicotinoids Clothianidin was foun...
Sahar Naz1, Farhan Rasheed2, Muhammad Saeed3*, Shagufta Iram4 and Ambereen Anwar Imran5
...ndard guidelines. Every gram-negative isolate was further processed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by modified Kirby Baur disc diffusion method. Zone sizes were interpreted according to CLSI 2016 guidelines. Next day every carbapenem-resistant isolate were further processed for MβL detection by EDTA method, zone size of Carbapenem disc only and Carbapenem disc impregnated with EDTA was compared ( >7 mm increase MβL positive, 0-5 mm incre...
Munir Ahmad1, Aisha Hameed2*, Saba Khaliq3, Hamid Saeed Malik4 and Shahida Mohsin5
...y clinically important parameters of good prognosis. The objective of this study was to detect the frequency of TEL-AML1 fusion oncogene in ALL and its association with already established prognostic factors such as age, WBC count and FAB subtype.
Materials and Methods: Sixty-six patients with newly diagnosed ALL were studied and patients on chemotherapy and T-ALL were excluded. The data was analyzed by SPSS20 for prognostically important pa...
Muhammad Anwar Iqbal1, Habib Rehman2, Ali Hussain3,*, Faiza Jabeen4, Ijaz Ahmad2, Kamran Ashraf5, Muhammad Irshad Arshad6 and Omaima Khan7
...ation on zoo-technical parameters, visceral organ weights, serum mineral levels and caecal concentrations of E. coli and Clostridium spp. in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Japanese quail (one-day old; n = 1320) were taken and randomly separated into four groups (n = 320), having 8 replicates (n = 40) in each group. Corn-based poultry feed (basal diet) was given to control group birds (Group A) and the same feed mixed with thr...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
...nce and immunization program optimization of serotype O of FMD through ELISA and IHA in pigs in Zhejiang. A total of 368 serum samples were collected from June to July in 2016. Out of these samples, 23 (6.79%, 95% CI 4.4-9.9) pigs were found positive for FMD antibodies with the further distribution of 9.09% (95% CI 4.6–15.7), 6.90% (95% CI 2.6–14.4), 5.49%, (95% CI 1.8-12.4) and 4.35% (95% CI 0.9-12.2) from Wenzhou, Lishui, Jinhua and Ningbo counti...
Irshad Ali1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Abdul Waheed2, Ferhet Abbas Yousafzai1, Farhat Abbas Bokhari1, Majed Rafeeq1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Adnan Attique1, Shahid Amin3 and Tahir Hameed1
...rphological, biometric parameters, its production system, and survival in the existing habitat. The data on morphology and performance of 1020 Bhag Nari (BN) cattle were collected from Bhag Nari cattle Farm, Usta Mohammad Baluchistan during 2015-16 and its surrounding areas. Some distinct characteristics have been found exclusively in Bhag Nari breed. These characters are rare in other local breeds of the area such as tick resistance, tolerance against &g...

Kashif Akbar* and Muhammad Ayub 

... other physicochemical parameters showed decreasing trend like ash (0.80-0.73%), fat 24.23-23.94%), protein (8.20-7.68%), fiber (6.47-6.38%) while NFE increased slowly (57.86-58.60%). The color of the cookies ranged from F0-F6 (6.88-6.93), taste ranged F0-F6 (6.82-6.04) and texture ranged F0-F6 (6.91-6.15). Maximum overall acceptability was recorded in F2 (7.32) proceeded by F0 (6.99) whereas minimum mean score was recorded in F6 (6.37) proceeded by F5 (6.47)....
Mudassar Javed1,Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Sufyan1, Sajjad Ali2 and Muhammad Afzal1
...n in biorational IPM programmes against lepidopterous borers of okra and other vegetables.
...
Riaz Aziz Minhas1,*, Muhammad Nasim Khan1, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Basharat Ahmad1, Syda Shaista Bibi1, Mohsin Hanif1 and Afsar Mian2
...high. UPGMA based dendrogram identified five distinct geographic groups, and Mantel tests (Rxy=-0.008, P>0.05) suggested a non-significant relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance. Phist PT) value suggested a significance difference in within population and between populations (PT=0.042; p=0.006) variances, suggesting that within populations variation was higher (96%) than variation betwe...
Muhammad Sarfraz*, Shahida Hasnain
...irmatory method. Antibiogram was performed following CLSI guidelines 2013. Of 11,725 clinical specimens, 29 % were culture-positive. 80% K. pneumoniae and 70% E. coli showed resistance to cefotaxime or ceftazidime. Only63% K. pneumoniae and 58% E. coli and were resistant (<18 mm) to FOX. Phenotypic confirmation of pAmpC beta-lactamases was done using inhibitory based method and confirmed 46% K. pneumoniae and 8% ...

Fiaz Ahmad1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...hysiological and yield parameters showed gradual reduction with increasing concentration of lead and water stress. Uptake of Na+, K and P was reduced significantly in all treatments but lead accumulation in shoot was increased in single lead treatment (80 mg Pb2+ 100% FC) as compared to combined lead and water stress treatment. Combined lead and water stress treatment (80 mg Pb2+ 50% FC) showed adverse effects on plant growth and development as compared to oth...
Md. Abu Affan1,*, Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani1, Adnan Jaman Turki2 and Mohammed S.B. Hariri3
...hemical and biological parameters, and postmortem, especially the gills and gut content of dead fishes were studied. The dead Tilapia tilapia (Tilapia), Chanos chano (Milkfish) and Parapriacanthus ransonneti (Glassfish) were found with wide mouth opened, skin with huge mucous and a bent back head, flared gills lesion and reddish sanguinary. The water temperature (°C), DO, salinity and pH varied from 24.8 to 26.2 (°C), 0.10 to 0.35 ...
Wei Meng1,3, Tianyan Yang2,*, Yunguo Liu1, Mahmut Halik1 and Tianxiang Gao2
...h other in branching diagram. The primitive group and the specialized group + the highly specialized group constituted a sister relationship with strong supports.
...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Ibrahim A. Alhidary1, Gamaleldin M. Suliman1,2, Abdullah H. Alyemni3, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady3, Faisal A. Alshamiry1,Mohsen M. Alobre1 and Riyadh S. Aljumaah1
...er and body components parameters, except empty stomach (TMR2) and chill shrink (TMR1). Furthermore, the meat color (L*, a* and b*) values of lambs fed TMR2 were numerically higher compared with other groups with variable significant differences. A significantly lower values for the omental and mesentery fat were reported for lambs fed BA (0.55 and 0.67 kg, respectively), while the kidney knob and channel fat (KKCF) was significantly lower for lambs fed TMR2. ...

 

Syed Aun Muhammad1, Muhammad Soaib Said2, Shams Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Dawood2, Muneer Ahmed Qazi3 and Nighat Fatima2,*
...ous diseases.
...

Mohammed Zaki Fathy* 

...amine on hematological parameters and cardiopulmonary parameters in xylazine pre-medicated Baladi Egyptian donkeys. Eighteen apparently healthy donkeys were divided into two equal groups. All animals were injected with xylazine HCl 2% (1.0mg/Kg) as pre-medication drug intravenously. Then in the first group (G1), was injected by the propofol (2mg/Kg intravenously) while in the second group (G2), was injected with ketamine HCl...

Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde, Adeyemi Esther Omoniwa and Miriam Ukemenam 

... several investments programmes by the Nigerian Government and development institutions over the years to bridge the gender gap in schooling among children and increase enrolment in schools, most children are still found outside the walls of the classroom especially in rural areas. This research assessed how inequality in gender as it regards schooling among children affects the income as an indicator of livelihood of farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria...

Muhammad Siddiq1*, Sahib Alam2, Hamid Ullah Shah2, Zafar Iqbal2, Kalsoom Siddiq3 and Taufeq Ahmad4 

...for the aforementioned parameters were recorded with 60:40% blend. The frying frequency of the oil blends also significantly (p<0.05) affected the sensory attributes of potato chips. Generally, the sensory quality of the product was enhanced with consecutive use of the same oils for up to three sessions. However, it is recommended that further studies on the repeated frying practice on the same oil sample beyond three sessions should be undertaken to draw m...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, clarithromycin, cefepime, cefixime, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin), Lactobacillus strains and metal nanoparticles (copper, ferric and zinc). P. aeruginosa isolates showed in vitro resistance against 11 of 14 antibodies tested. The isolates were highly susceptible to meropenem, piperacillin, and amoxicillin. It was also observed that the growth of these resistant P. aeruginos...
Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad1,*, Hamad Bin Rashid1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Asim Khalid Mahmood1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Muhammad Rafi Ullah2 and Usman Ghani1
... various physiological parameters before and after anesthesia. The birds of K+X group were given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) and xylazine (5 mg/kg), while K+X+D group were given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg), xylazine (2.5 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5mg/kg) cocktail, respectively. The birds were monitored for 130 min post administration for various physiological parameters like; body temperature, heart rate and respira...

Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahito1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1 and Inayatullah Rajper2  

...nure treatment and Spintoram in IPM treatment, lowered the population of sucking pests. Considering the results, further studies should be conducted with broader aspects and covering more green manure crops to evaluate their role in the pest management and fertility of the soil. 

...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

... in further breeding program

...

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Muhammad Zeshan1,2, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahmed1 and Sabir Hussain Shah3 

...e collected for growth parameters and yield contributing traits. It was observed that source of nitrogen has no significant difference on growth or yield while the N placement timing significantly affects these traits. Results showed that most efficient N placement timing is split dose of fertilizer at T3 (½ at 1st irrigation and ½ at flowering) for either urea or CAN fertilizer. 

...

Ali Sher1*, Khalid Naveed1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Ayub Khan1, Muhammad Saeed1 and Shah Masaud1 

... and Zn while the same parameters except days to anthesis, days to physiological maturity were also significantly enhanced by using Fe. Result revealed that higher leaf area tiller-1 (113 cm2), leaf area index (2.3), plant height (100 cm), biological yield (11431 kg ha-1) by 150 kg N ha-1 , 3 kg Zn ha-1 and 1 kg Fe ha-1 of wheat as compared to the control-I. In conclusion, 16 % increases in biomass production was observed with Zn and Fe at the rate of 3 and 1 ...
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
... of global irradiation parameters (Hd: average daily sum of global irradiation per square meter and Hm: average annually sum of global irradiation per square meter), several predictors viz. ESTLOSTEMP (estimated losses due to temperature and low irradiance), ESTLOSANGREF (estimated loss due to angular reflectance effect), and COMPVLOSS (Combined Photo Voltaic system losses) were calculated. Estimation of global irradiation param...
Shoukat Ara1, Sheikh Adil2,*and Manzoor Ahmad Khan3
...ernal and internal egg parameters under different treatments were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). In conclusion, Azolla is beneficial at lower levels in improving the performance of grower chicken but had no effect on the number of eggs laid. Further, Azolla inclusion in the diet showed an improvement in the shell quality of eggs which could prove beneficial in decreasing the incidence of egg breakage and thereby maximizing profits. Th...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
...s infections.
...

Ashraf Khan1*, Suliman Shah2, Maid Zaman3 and Komal Habib2

...th combination of Nitenpyram + Chlorfenapyr (99.20 and 99.89 %) followed by Flubendiamide (89.83 and 99.39 %) and Imidacloprid (89.31 and 98.77 %) after spray 1 and 2, respectively. Least effective insecticide was proved to be Melathion with 39.79 and 65.43 percent reduction in citrus psyllidspopulation except untreated plants with 9.27 and 15.94 percent decrease after first and second spray, respectively. Decline in overall population recorded from 91.73 to 1...

Muhammad Faheem Jan1*, Asad Ali Khan1, Waqas Liaqat1, Haseeb Ahmad1, Muhammad Dawood Ahmadzai1 and Wazir Rehan

...ue for all the studied parameters as compared to others hybrids. Similarly, in K ratios higher values for the studied traits were recorded in plots which were treated with K 40% from organic (poultry manure) and 60% from inorganic (sulphate of potash) sources. It can be concluded that application of K at the rate of 80 kg ha-1 from both organic and inorganic sources at the ratio of 40% organic + 60% inorganic respectively to hybrid DK-Garanon resulted in highe...

Madiha Naz1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1*, M. Jamil Khan1, Obaid Ullah Sayal2, Asim Afridi3 and Aziz Ullah Sayal3 

...luence the qualitative parameter of tomato as total soluble solids, while the water content and fruit pH were non significantly changed. Soil properties including soil pH, bulk density, soil organic matter, total nitrogen and extractable phosphorus was significantly altered amongst the treatments. Tomato showed positive response to the organic fertilizers applied along the foliar nutrients in terms of growth, yield and quality. It may be concluded that poultry...

Safina Naz1, Khushbo Hussain1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2* and Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3
 

... physical and chemical parameters gave significant response. NAA promotes vine length upto 12.66 feet while chlorophyll content was 72.50 SPAD Value, while fresh weight of leaves is 5.1g, dry weight is 0.41g, while fresh weight of fruit is 121.66 g and fruit length is 14.11 cm. Salicylic acid promoted vine length upto 11.33 feet while chlorophyll contents were calculated as 71.09 (SPAD Value), while fresh weight of leaves was 4.9g, dry weight was 0.38g while f...

Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali, Liaquat Ali Jamali, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro*, Shakeel Hussain Chattha, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto, Naseer Ahmed Abbasi and Noor Mehdi Qumi  

...fy;">Losses of quality parameters during sugar recovery process are of severe problems which are caused by delayed transportation with unfavorable storage conditions. Keeping the fact in view a study observing post-harvest losses of sugarcane was carried out at the Department of Farm Structures, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. Freshly harvested SPF-234 sugarcane variety was collected and stored for 10 days under two different methods i.e. one kept open...
S. Jalbani1, P. Khan2 and N.T.Narejo2,*and Y.M. Jalbnai3
...d its effect on growth parameters of R. rita reared in cemented cisterns during June to August 2016. Three stocking densities with 10, 20 and 30 fish/1.25m2 cemented cisterns were maintained and growth of fish was observed. Significantly highest growth in terms of weight gain was recorded with density of 20 fish /cistern (26.4 g) as compared with cistern containing 10 fish (11.7 g) or 30 fish/cistern (8.8 g). The survival and specific growth ...
Shafaq Fatima*, Sumrin Sahar and Khalid Lone
...ighest values of these parameters were observed at different stages of gonadal development. T and 11-KT played key role in progress of testicular development and final maturation in June however, spawning in captivity was not observed. Role of P and 17α-HP was identified more as substrate of sex steroids. Higher levels of sex steroids suppressed the synthesis of cortisol presumably interfering with pituitary-inter-renal axis.
...
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
...l tests and PCR. Antibiograms and lab animal trials were also carried out on local isolates of C. perfringens type D. Out of 204 analyzed samples, 89.18 % were found positive while 10.82 % were negative for C. perfringens type D. The division wise distribution showed that Quetta, Zhob, Sibi and Kalat were more effected zones of the Balochistan province. Sheep were more effected (54.78 %) than goats (34.4 %). C. perfringens was identified t...
Rahim Dad Brohi1,*, Amir Bukhsh Kalhoro1, Allah Bux Kachiwal1, Illahi Bux Kalhoro1, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1, Sarfaraz Ahmed2, Farhan Anwar Khan3, Hira Sajjad Talpur1, Zia-ur-Rehman1 and Dinesh Bhattaria4
... Based on the measured parameters it also concludes that propofol is preferably recommended as safe therapy than thiopentone sodium for the surgical operations. Moreover, anesthetic regimens can safely be used in sheep in field as well as hospital conditions.
...

Yasir Ali1*, Muhammad Aslam Khan1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Muhammad Hussain2

...est. f. sp. tritici, P. graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici and the importance of race specific and non-specific rust resistance genes in in global wheat varieties. This knowledge will help as basis for plant pathologist, plant breeders and genetics to develop non-specific rust resistant wheat varieties through gene pyramiding or marker assisted breeding 

...
Li Lv1, Liuan Li1,*, Ruibo Zhang1, Zhichao Deng1, Tianming Jin1 and Gaimei Du2
...ed. In contrast, these parameters initially increased and subsequently decreased for the high-dose group. Increasing levels of selenium supplementation proportionately increased egg white, egg yolk and total egg selenium levels, as well as egg production (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with selenium enriched yeast increases the egg white, egg yolk and total egg selenium levels, as well as egg production of North China hens (P < 0.05). T...

Raza Ullah Khan*, Ahmad Khan, Mohammad Zameer Khan, Fayyaz Hussain and Sonia Saba 

.... Data on plant growth parameters (plant height, biomass and grain yield) was collected at the end of the experiment taking as an average of the three replications. Nutrients such as K, P and selected micronutrients concentration in shoot and root were determined once after harvest of crop and shown as mean of three replications. Results showed that different combination of P yielded significant response in plant growth param
Merica Slišković1, Meta Povž2, Marina Piria3,*, Goran Jakšić4, Ana Gracanin5 andGorana Jelić Mrčelić1
...ribution, we observed a dramatically declining trend. Therefore, further research and targeted protection of the sichel in the middle Danube River tributaries are urgently required.
...
Moorthy S. Muthuswamy
...ine a novel theoretical framework for conceptualizing Salafi radicalism in terms of an underlying theme and its enablers. This proposal further divides radicalization processes into primary and secondary ones; the former are identified with the onset of radicalization in a community, and the latter develop in communities with longstanding exposure to the phenomenon. A new analysis of a 2013 Pew Research Center report suggests that sharia’s popularity in ...

Inzimamul Haq1*, Shahid Sattar1, Bashir Ahmed1, Qamar Zeb2 and Amjad Usman

...ith a view to use Trichogramma chilonis as parasitoid in the integrated pest management of Chilo partellus in maize field, basic studies on the efficacy of some insecticides against Chilo partellus in Jalal variety of maize and selectivity for the bio-control agent, T. chilonis were carried out under field conditions at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab Peshawar during 2016. Treatments viz Proclaim (Emamectin benzoate® 1.9 EC) + T. chilonis, Confidor...

Monsif Ur Rehman1*, Hidayat-ur-Rahman1, Muhammad Iqbal2, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1 and Zahir Shah3 

...ed in maize breeding programs for developing high yielding maize hybrids accompanied with other desirable attributes 

...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

...nt for all the studied parameters. In diallel analysis highly significant dominant (b) and additive (a) genetic effects were detected for all the parameters except spikelets spike-1. Scaling test for the adequacy of the model was complete to partially adequate for the studied parameters. Similarly, both dominant (H) and additive (D) genetic components were observed significant for the stud...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

... used. Coefficients of parameters were calculated by maximum likelihood estimation techniques. Per acre total yield, land rent and per acre inputs cost (labor hired, seed, tractor hours, irrigation, Urea, DAP, FYM and pesticides) were considered determinants for cost function. Respondent age, farming experience, education, family size, off-farm income, farm to home distance, tenancy and extension contacts are determinants in allocative inefficiency model. Resu...

Ambrin Rajput* 

...ckpea growth and yield parameters. The maximum plant height (85.00 cm), pods plant-1 (43.8), seed index (455 g per 1000 grains), seed yield (1896.0 kg ha-1), total biomass (5205 kg ha-1), straw yield (31050 kg ha-1), protein (15.77%), shoot N, P and K (2.1, 0.3 and 1.3 %) concencentration and N, P and K uptake (95.3, 16.4 and 49.9 kg ha-1) were recorded by combined application of N, P and K fertilizer application. However, the minimum values were obtained from...

Mushtaq Hussain Lashari1*, Fozia Afzal1 and Umer Farooq

...lysis of hematological parameters blood samples were collected. The mean values for hemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cells Count (RBC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), White Blood Cells count (WBC), Heterophils (%), Eosinophils (%), Basophils(%), Monocytes(%), and Lymphocytes(%) values of negative chickens were 9.43±0.49 g/dl,, 25.81±1.34%, 1.8...

Sabahat Noor*1, Shaukat Ali1, Hafeez-ur-Rahman1, Farhatullah2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali1 

...tions separately. Four parameters i.e. sugar contents, proline contents, chlorophyll contents and relative water contents were recorded and compared in transformed and non-transformed plants. It was observed that under drought and salt stresses, proline contents, sugar contents, chlorophyll contents and relative water contents (RWC) were significantly higher in transgenic plants as compared to non-transgenic plants. From obtained results it is concluded that, ...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
....4 mg/g. Four physical parameters including temperature, pH, inoculums size and fermentation time (each at five levels) were optimized using central composite design (CCD) design in 30 triplicate experimental runs. The maximum statin formation (19 mg/g) was achieved at 25oC, pH 5.5, inoculums size 3.5 mL and fermentation time 144 h on wheat straw as a growth substrate. The growth medium has an important effect on lovastatin production. Effect of car...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

...atilization, and other parameters like oxidation and UV rays. This limits the commercial application of these oils. To overcome such problems encapsulation could be a gentle approach. Prior to encapsulation, oil extraction was done by using five different solvents including ethyl acetate, n-hexane, methanol, diethyl ether and chloroform in which ethyl acetate yielded 53% oil. Pumpkin seed oil was encapsulated using gel entrapment i.e. extrusion method and indi...

Shoaib Nawaz1, Muhammad Razaq1, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sajjad1*, Syeda Aneeza Ubaid1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2 and Usman Haider

...insecticide, like nitenpyram was used on calendar basis and ETL basis. Data was recorded on weekly basis. In first week jassid population in control and ETL treatments was equal with non-significant difference between them while in calendar treatment population was significantly low. ETL and calendar base treatments give maximum yield because numbers of pest in both treated plots remain control. 

...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Ecevit Eyduran3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...ucted on indigenous Morkaraman breed and Romanov × Morkaraman F1 Crossbreed sheep reared under semi-intensive conditions in order to determine the influence of dam age, genotype, birth weight, year, sex and birth type at lambing, weaning weight, weaning age, grazing period and weight at the end of the grazing period on pasture revenue, which is defined as the obtained revenue per lamb from weaning period to the end of ...

Muhammad Latif2, Muneer Abbas1*, Faisal Hafeez2 and Dilbar Hussain2 

...insecticides viz. spinetoram 120 SC, spinosad 240 SC, bifenthrin 10 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC, chlorantraniliprol 20 SC and flubendiamide 480 SC were applied on brinjal and okra against these pests with five replications. Data was recorded after 24 hrs. 72 hrs. 7 and 10 days after spray application. Results indicated that all the insecticides gave significant control of both pests up to 72 hrs. of spray application. After this pest population was started to incre...
Tevfik Ceyhan1,*, Osman Samsun2 and Okan Akyol1
...tio was 0.3:1. The LWR parameters (a, b, r2) were computed as 0.0009 ± 0.50, 3.040 ± 0.32 and 0.902 ±0.40, respectively. The age of garfish was between 1 and 4 years. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters with standard errors were L= 55.74 ±26.75 cm, K= 0.28 ±0.42, and t0=-1.68 ±2.02. Natural, fishing and total mortality of the...
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
...nus carpio; giant gourami Osphronemus goramy; blue line shark Pangasianodon hypophthalmus and silver shark Balanitiocheilos melanopterus. The health status of these fishes ranged from being healthy, moribund and infected. The parasites observed from these fish were: seven protozoans species (Chilodonella sp, Trichodina sp; Ichthyobodo sp. Epistylis sp. Tetrahymena s...

Muhammad Kashif Asghar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Shahid Riaz Malik2, Waqas Ahmad3, Sumaira Zareen4, Safdar Ali5 and Abid Ali6 

...FH-331 for all studied parameters except for oil contents. However, the interaction between sunflower hybrids and seed priming treatments was non-significant for most of the traits. 

...

*Nageen Fatima1, Sadia Murawwat1 and Syeda Ameena Rizvi1

EVALUATION OF IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF TRUE COMPRESSION ON 2-D IMAGE
...) ratio as performance parameters. Image compression by Huffman encoding, Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW) and Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPINT) technique is performed. The result showed that lossy techniques are reliable to save hardware memory consumption but having low CR ratio. In lossless techniques, CR ratio is higher and it uses more space to store compressed image. Proposed comparison between lossy and lossless techniques is supportive in ...

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
...ction via fermentation parameters was optimized. The results showed significant (P≤ 0.05) difference among LSF and SSF and between different substrates in LSF and SSF. Wheat bran showed significantly increased (P≤ 0.05) production of citric acid (P= 0.001) compared to other carrier substrates used through SSF. It was observed that 4.5 pH, 60 % moisture content, 5ml/5g inoculum size and 30oC temperature, are the initial requirements for maximum production...

 Sadia Murawwat1, *Nageen Fatima1, Qandeel Iqbal1, Syeda Ameena Rizvi1 and Mehak Fatima1

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING BEYOND CLASSROOM: CHALLENGES AND ANTICIPATED RESOLUTIONS
...is work has presented a framework for the improvement in EE as, modified curriculum, e-learning environment, conduction of internships and synchronization of institutes and industries. Moreover, new trends and pedagogical techniques to improve the status of techno-oriented Pakistan are also inspected.

...

M. Tariq Javed1, Nazir Ahmad2, Gulbeen Saleem3, Haleema Sadia4, Farkhanda Manzoor5 and Ghulam Hussain Dilbar

EFFECT OF AGE AND SEASON ON SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF BUFFALO BULL - A REVIEW
...rious aspects of semen parameters in buffalo bull at different age and in different seasons has been published with conflicting reports. An effort is made to review the literature gathered from different sources on semen characteristics in buffalo bulls which will be helpful to researchers and allied professionals in future research or policy planning. The review is bifurcated in different sections for easy understanding of the facts. The review suggests and e...

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
...spp. Effect of various parameters such as temperature and pH on growth of pathogens were also studied. Antibiogram and resistogram analysis were carried out through agar disc and agar well diffusion methods. Optimum temperature for growth of all bacterial strains was 37oC and pH 7 except Salmonella which had pH 6. Among all the antibiotics Oxacillin was less potent as three bacterial strai...

Muhammad Babar Khawar, Nadeem Sheikh*

Effect of paper industry leachate on various serological indices and serum proteins of wistar rats
...in various serological parameters and also interfere with the expression of proteins.

...

Riffat Mehboob1*, Sami Ullah Mumtaz2, Zoya Manzoor3, Sajid Abaidullah2, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad1

Deranged biochemical and hematological profile of septicemia patients in Mayo hospital, Lahore
...atients. Hematological parameters such as WBCs were high in 84.16%, hemoglobin was low in 78.12% and platelets were normal. The most common causes were urinary tract infection (31.68%), bed sores (17.82%), chest infection (12.87%) and wound infection (7.92%). According to this study, diabetes (45.56%) was the main comorbidity of septicemia. Most of the patients were between 51-70 years while septicemia occurred equally in both genders. Major predictors for dia...

Durr-e- Samin Tahir*, Waqar Nasir, Sarah Bushra, Fatima Batool

Height trends in the population of Rabwah, district Chiniot, Pakistan and comparison with WHO standards
...her analysis. The R- Programming and
smoothing spline technique were applied to analyze the height trends of the collected data. The average height of
male adults is found to be 172cm (67.71" ± 3.98) and for females it is159 cm (62.55" ± 3.06).Comparison of male and
female height trend indicates that growth rate is almost the same up to 13 years, but it is higher for males after 13
years age. The female heigh...

 Haji Muhammad1, Zafar Iqbal1, Tanveer Akhlaq2

Length-weight, length-length relationships and condition factor of fishes of family cyprindae from the Indus River, Pakistan
...akistan. The values of parameter b for LWRs ranged from 2.16 – 4.10 suggesting the isometric and allometric
growth pattern in fishes of family cyprinidae. The results of K factors ranged from 0.645 – 1.836 also determine both
negative growth tendency in some fish species and positive growth tendency in other fish species. This study aimed
to incorporate some more information in the aquaculture sector of the country to depict th...

 Saima Naz*, Adil Ali Rajpar, Abdul Hameed Chandio

New Records of some Phthiraptera (chewing lice) of birds from urban areas of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan
...us (Neumann, 1912), M. stramineus (Nitzsch, 1818) and Menopon
gallinae (Linnaeus, 1758) on domestic fowls; Brueelia saliemi (Ansari, 1957), Colpocephalum fregili (Denny, 1842)
and Myrsidea splendenticola (Klockenhoff, 1973) on house crow; Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763) from wild
goose; Brueelia nebulosa (Burmeister, 1838) and M. eurysternus (Burmeister, 1838) from common myna and bank
myna; Neopsittaconirmus lybartota (Ansar...

Madeeha Arshad, Asmatullah, Chaman Ara

Embryotoxic effects of sodium arsenate in Mus musculus
...mong groups in certain parameters (body weights, crown rump length, head and
eye circumferences) against control. Microcephaly, hygroma, skin hemorrhages,
scoliosis and appendage deformities among arsenic treated groups were observed.
Histological studies revealed abnormalities like spina bifida, cardiac malformations,
miss-happened cochlea and oropharynx. It is concluded that sodium arsenate
causes teratogenicity in developi...

Hafiz Muhammad Umer Qaisar1, Tanveer Ahmad2, Muhammad Rizwan3*, Muhammad Saqib1

Antimicrobial efficacy of combination of lincomycin and spiramycin (Lispiracin™) as systemic dry cow therapy for controlling bovine mastitis
...ion of lincomycin and spiramycin
(Lispiracin™) for controlling bovine mastitis through systemic dry period therapy,
present study was designed. A total of 20 dry pregnant cows were selected
randomly at the end of lactation and divided into two equal G1 and G2 groups.
Group G1 was treated with lincomycin@ 5mg/kg (IM) and spiramycin@ 10 mg/kg
(IM) (Inj. lispiracin®) at end of lactat...

 Anber Naqvi1*#, Abdul Qadir1, Adeel Mahmood2, Mehvish Mumtaz3, Iqra Aslam1, Gan Zhang4

Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in maternal blood serum from selected districts of Punjab, Pakistan
...cio-demographic
parameters reflected significant results for milk intake. The study findings
suggested a need for regulating the continuous intentional or unintentional
releases of PCB into the environment to prevent human exposure.

...

 Siddra Tayyab Akhtar, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Twitching, swimming, swarming in biofilm forming strains in response to chemical and physical factors
...ong chemical factors, tobramycin
was proven to have excellent efficiency to reduce bacterial motilites whereas
proteinase K enzyme showed weak antimotility effect against all tested bacterial
strains. From this study we proposed that instead of biofilm detachment by
expensive commercial detergents, we could change the physical environment of
sewage systems as well as flooding some specific chemicals, which disrupt
bact...

 Zafar Iqbal

A review of fisheries education in University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
...fered in all degrees programs.
The research on freshwater cultivable and ornamental fishes is carried out in the
department. Recently twelve PhD scholars completed their projects on different
topics in fisheries. Fish Disease and health Management laboratory (FDHM) was
established in 2004 and it is providing research facilities in Fish Parasitology, Fish
Mycology and Fish Bacteriology to researchers. Over 60 students have com...

Masab Umair Khan, Syed Mehar Ali Shah, Hidayat-ur-Rahman, Arshad Iqbal* and Ezaz Aslam 

...on in maize breeding programs. 

...
Muhammad S. Waqas, Ali A.Z. Shoaib, Xinlai Cheng, Qianqian Zhang, Asem S.S. Elabasy and Zu-hua Shi*
...effective management program. In this study, the reproductive mode, male’s mating capacity, influence of female’s age and density on male’s mating capacity, as well as the influence of copulation on female’s longevity were investigated under the laboratory condition. Our results demonstrated that P. solenopsis reproduce sexually. Males mated 1-2 times in one day and 3-6 times in their lifetime, and did not show mating preference ...
Hina Abrar1,2, S.N.H. Naqvi1,*, Muhammad Rashid Ahmed3, Asma Basharat Ali3 and Hina Yasin1,2
...l, whereas the hepatic parameters were significantly reduced in CBZ plus propranolol group. The histopathological examination reveals various features of hepatic architecture damage in CBZ treated group but the hepatic damage induced by CBZ was successfully ameliorated by propranolol. To conclude propranolol is effective in reducing the hepatoxic effects of CBZ probably by affecting hepatic blood flow.
...

Muhammad Shahzad Akbar, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed* and Muhammad Afzal 

...On the contrary, spirotetramat, pymetrozine and spinosad were least effective against O. obesus termites. Conclusively, based on the results of this study, chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, pyriproxyfen, triflumuron and indoxacarb are recommended to be incorporated in future integrated pest management programs against subterranean termites. 

...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Arif1, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi3, Muhammad Munir4 and Imran Khan

... variations in all the parameters except moisture content that was found to be non-significant in 2013. The comparative assessment of the exotic germplasms investigated in this study displayed better performance over the local check in both the study years. The maximum germination (84.1 % and 85.4 %), number of fruits (25.4 and 23.9), fruit length (52.8 and 51.5 cm), fruit width (16.7 and 17.1 cm), fruit weight (1283.8 and 1330.2 g), yield (48.1 and 50.1 tons ...

Abid Muhammad Shah1, Safdar Ali1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Gulzada Wazir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Bashir Ahmad Khan3 and Sumaira Zareen4 

...e. Most of the studied parameters showed significant results (P≤0.05) for yield and weed indices. The results showed that highest weed control efficiency (41.86%) was recorded for hand weeding followed by Ally Max (30.8%) which were significantly different from each other; while, in case of sowing methods, weed control efficiency was maximum (24.08%) for ridge sowing method. Similarly, grain yield was maximum (3.09 t ha-1) under the plot where hand weeding ...
Muhammad Ijaz1, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Rahmatullah2, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Sadaqat Ali3,*, Awais Ghaffar1, Ahmad Ali1 and Sehrish Saleem1
...ious serum biochemical parameters (serum electrolytes, trace and ultra-trace elements) in foals. A total of 105 diarrheic foals (n = 35 horse foals, n = 35 donkey foals, and n = 35 mule foals) were selected regardless of their etiologies. Additionally, 12 healthy foals (n = 4 horse foals, n = 4 donkey foals, and n = 4 mule foals) as control animals were selected for this study. Packed cell volume (PCV) and serum electrolytes, trace and ultra-trace elements wer...

Imran Khan1*, Muhammad Iqbal1 and Malik Muhammad Hashim2 

...the treatments for all parameters during both years of study. Among the treatments I3 (15 days’’ interval) improved almost all the studied characters. However, increasing interval improves the sucrose% and TSS% during both years. Hence I3 (15 days’’ interval) is the best for obtaining highest beet yield and quality under Dera Ismail Khan Conditions. 

...

Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Nazakat Nawaz, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Tahira, Doulat Baig, Ihsan Ullah Khan and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah 

...of Oilseeds Research Program, Crop Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were recorded on days to flower initiation, days to flower completion, reproductive period, days to maturity, pod filling period, plant height (cm), number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, seed yield (kg/ha). Seed yield ranged from 352 to 878 kg/ha with a mean value of 521 kg/ha. A total of forty genotypes produced more seed y...
Fatih Korkmaz1, Veysel Parlak2, Özgür Kaynar3, Arzu Ucar2, Gonca Alak1,* and Muhammed Atamanalp2
...Generally all the test parameters, such as microbiological, physicochemical as well as the lowest mean values were identified in the coatings of the fillets with turmeric and cardamom (p<0.05). Control and quinoa groups resulted in increased number of bacteria and chemical values compared to other treatment groups (p<0.05). The turmeric coating also results in increased protein concentration compared to other coatings and control group (p<0.05).
...
Yan-Guo Han1, Xiao-Li Peng1, Kai Li1, Yu-He-Tian Zhao1, Xun-Ping Jiang2, Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Jun-Hua Ye3, Li Xu3, Qin-Tao Zhao3 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...NA vaccine and growth of ram lambs. In this study, we constructed the ptS/2SS-asd plasmid, pCpG plasmid and the CpG-SS fusion type recombinant plasmid named ptCS/2SS-asd. Twelve ram lambs were randomly divided into three groups, namely, the treatment (Group T1, ptCS/2SS-asd; Group T2, pCpG + ptS/2SS-asd) groups and the control (Group C, pVAX-asd). The vaccine (1 mg/ram) was injected into t...
Daniel Zaborski,1,* Muhammad Ali,2 Ecevit Eyduran,3 Wilhelm Grzesiak,1 Mohammad Masood Tariq,2 Ferhat Abbas,2 Abdul Waheed4 and Cem Tirink5
... selected reproductive parameters in Harnai sheep using different data mining algorithms (artificial neural networks - ANN, classification and regression trees - CART, chi-square automatic interaction detector - CHAID and multivariate adaptive regression splines - MARS) and indicating the most influential predictors of these traits. A total of 382 reproduction records including three predictors (month of lambing - MOL, age at first lambing - AFL and lambing we...
Farhat Iqbal1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Ecevit Eyduran3, Zil-e-Huma4, Abdul Waheed5, Farhat Abbas2, Muhammad Ali2, Nadeem Rashid2, Majed Rafeeq2, Asadullah2 and Zahid Mustafa2
...chistan, Pakistan. The parameters mature weight, integration constant, maturity rate and their credible intervals of four widely-used nonlinear sigmoidal growth models were estimated through Bayesian inference. Gompertz, Logistic, Brody and Von Bertalanffy models were fitted to average monthly body weight data of (n = 412) Mengali sheep from birth to 24 months of age for both sexes (male and female) and type of births (single and twin). The overall goodness of...
Xiao-Ying Ren1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...ngular process ascending ramus and condylar process on the mandible. The genus Eothenomys could be classified into two subgenera. Moreover, it was inferred that the varieties of skulls characteristics in E. miletus, E. eleusis, E. cachinus and E. melanogaster were main influenced by temperature and humidity; E. olitor, E. custos and E. chinensis were main influenced by diet. Thus, the environmental factor...
Gangchun Xu1,2, Fukuan Du2, Yuyu Wang2, Yan Li2, Zhijuan Nie2 and Pao Xu1,2,*
...a 1,167-bp Open Reading Frame that encoded a protein of 388 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions were 269 bp and 139 bp, respectively. The full length ortholog PTGES2b was 1,457 bp and contained a 729-bp ORF that encoded a protein of 242 amino acids. The 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions were 402 bp and 326 bp, respectively. One polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) was present 14 nucleotides upstream of the poly(A) tail in bot...

Muhammad Tahir Amin, Khalid Usman*, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik and Nishter Ali

...antly affected all the parameters such as plant height, sympodial branches, seed cotton yield, and quality-related traits such as fiber length, fiber strength, micronaire, and fiber uniformity. Frequent irrigation interval (7th day) produced taller plants (139 cm) and more sympodial branches (18.3) compared to less frequent irrigations (10-19th day). However, 19th day irrigation interval significantly improved seed cotton yield and fiber quality traits (fiber ...

Muhamad Jawad*, Shahid Riaz Malik, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar, Muhammad Asadullah, Israr Hussain and Rabia Khalid 

...he ideotype breeding program to enhance the desirable variation.  

...
Asim Faraz1,*, Muhammad Younas2, Abdul Waheed1, Muhammad Yaqoob2 and Kashif Ishaq3

 

...d plus crop residues of gram (Cicer arientinum) ad lib while in second group, calves were reared under SIMS, sent for grazing 8 hours daily plus gram crop residues ad lib. Twice watering was done in both the groups. At end of trial mean body weight and ADG of male and female calves was significantly increased (P<0.05) in IMS (80.83+2.7, 77.83+2.7 kg and 0.674+0.02, 0.649+0.02 kg/d) than SIMS (50.33+2....
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Memoona Chaudhary2, Riaz Hussain3, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Madiha Khan6, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Mehtab Ahmad7, Muhammad Sajid Hasni2Imran Qaiser8, Ghazanfar Rashid1, Ikramul Haq1 and Ikramullah Khan8
... respectively. The non-parametric statistical analysis showed significant association (P<0.05) of thin body condition, older age, lack of teat dipping and higher parity number with S. aureus subclinical mastitis. This study highlights the effect of agro-climatic conditions on S. aureus subclinical mastitis which is instrumental when devising strategies for effective disease control according to the climatic conditions of the area.
...
Menderes Cenet
...al honey samples from Kahramanmaraş region were analyzed and seven samples were the unifloral and the one was the multifloral origin. The microscopical analyses indicated that 61 taxa (41 at the genus level and 20 at the species level) belonging to 34 families were identified. Astragalus sp., Trifolium sp., Myrtus communis and Castanea sativa were the predominant taxa in the unifloral honey samples. Antimicrobial effects of eight h...

Mudassar Javed, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed*, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Afzal 

...gical (parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis egg cards) and cultural techniques against okra lepidopterous borers. According to results, maximum shoot and fruit infestations (i.e. 19.86 and 15.63%, respectively) by okra borers were recorded in control (unsprayed) module, while minimum (i.e. 6.76 and 2.89%, respectively) were found in IPM module. Mean shoot and fruit infestations in farmers’ routine module were 13.91 and 10.83%, respectively during 2016. Simil...

Muhammad Ilyas*, Sardar Ali Khan, Shahid Iqbal Awan and Shafiq-Ur-Rehman 

...as lower for remaining parameters under both the environmental conditions which clearly specified that non-additive gene action was present. Results indicated that the said breeding material might be better suited for heterosis breeding under drought prone semi-arid areas. 

...

Zakiullah1, Muhammad Farid Khan1*, Muhammad Mohibullah3, Muhammad Iqbal2, Irfanullah3, Faheemullah3, Madiha Urooj1 and Uzma Arif1 

...r all the experimental parameters except grain yield and biological yield. Highly significant specific combining ability for direct and reciprocal crosses shows highly significant differences for all the studied parameters. PSEV-3 proved best combiner for days to germination and grains moisture % at harvest while Azam for grain yield and biological yield. Sarhad White was the best combiner for grain yield. Reciprocal effects...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...re wheat improvement programmes must be encouraged to consider resistance to powdery mildew, particularly for lines to be cultivated in the Himalayan region of Pakistan. 

...
Syeda Beenish Bukhari1, Sidra Khalid1*, Shahid Bashir1, Riffat Mehboob2, Humaira Waseem2
Muhammad Asad Saleem1,*, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1, Mudssar Ali1, Muhammad Amin2, Muhammad Tayyab1,3 and Sumaira Maqsood4
...onal insecticide (Nitenpyram). Sugarcane sets as alternate to date palm stem were successfully used as diet for rearing RPW. Combination of entomopathogenic fungus (Bb) and Nitenpyram (Nit) were found more lethal to survival of RPW. A reduction in pupation and adult emergence was recorded in the combined treatments. Moreover, decrease in weight gain, frass production and cumulative gain in size was found when larvae were tre...
Muhammad Shabir Shaheen1, Shahid Mehmood1, Athar Mahmud1, Jibran Hussain1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi2, Muhammad Yaqoob3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Arshad Javid4,*
...ofit margin. All these parameters were significantly (P<0.05) lowest on gas brooder in comparison of brooding systems.
...
Mujahid Niaz Akhtar* and Amjad Farooq
...n biological control programPredators are exploited to manage pest population. The objective of present study was to find relationships between predator’s Coccinellid septempunctata, Lynx spider and preys Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Earias vitella populations found on cultivated cotton crops (government approved varieties) in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Data was collected after ten days of interval during cr...

Shamsher Ali1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Zahir Shah2, Naveedullah3 and Abdul Jalal1 

...war. The analyzed data parameters were percent emergence, plant height, number of leaves, shoots and roots weight. The results revealed that all data parameters except number of leaves were affected significantly (p < 0.05) by different levels of salinity. Irrespective of maize varieties, the percent emergence, plant height, number of leaves, shoots and roots weight of Maize were reduced with linear increasing levels of s...

Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik1, Khalid Usman1*, Tahir Amin1, Muhammad Riaz2, Zafar Iqbal3 and Fiaz Hussain

...ts showed that all the parameters under study had a significant response to the treatments irrigation intervals. Irrigation intervals of 10 days produced more sympodial branches (14) and higher plant height (131cm) as compared to other irrigation intervals. Higher bolls (19 / plant), boll weight (2.9 g), seed cotton (2424 kg ha-1), ginning out turn (GOT, 37%), fiber length (28.1mm), fiber strength (29.5 g per tex) and micronaire value (3.5 µg per inch) w...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...cation and awareness programs; Expensive Agriculture Inputs; Tenancy and Land rent problems; Farm to market roads and small plots hurdles in production of rice etc in the study area. On the basis of problems and constraints, policy recommendation for control measures are given as:- Credit should be provided without interest rate in time according to requirement to farmers by bank; Agriculture extension programs should be lau...
Mehwish Akram1,2,* and Naeem Rashid1
...i neurons to undergo programmed cell death in the absence of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. Hence, IRK1, though poorly expressed in the Drosophila central nervous system, plays an important role in the normal functioning of PDF expressing neurons. Further studies are needed to elaborate the physiological roles of Drosophila potassium channels which may lead to a better understanding of human Kir channels related to pathological condition...

Ali Awais, Charassri Nualsri and Watcharin Soonsuwon* 

...of the above mentioned parameters after the EMS treatment. Furthermore, the EMS response in M1 generation was also observed in the field condition by various quantitative measurements. The traits, especially plant height, panicle length, number of filled grains, number of grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight and yield per plant showed a clear fall off when compared to control while the panicle length in both mutants were higher than that of control. Several m...

Naseer Ahmed Abbasi1, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1*, Bilawal Abbasi2, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1, Najeeb Ahmed Khan Nangraj1, Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahto1 and Sajjad Ahmed Morio1 

... the efficiency of the parametric and fuzzy set methods in the land assessment for wheat production of Tando Allahyar district of Sindh Province. The present study able to provide grade performance suitability of lands for agricultural purposes; it could be more helpful for farmers of the research area. Fuzzy AHP methods could be beneficial for future studies for land suitability. The study finding have capabilities of different methods combined with fuzzy ana...
Juan Augusto Hernández-Rivera1, Jaime Molina-Ochoa2,*, Luis Jorge García-Márquez1, Omar Francisco Prado-Rebolledo1, Rafael Julio Macedo-Barragán1, Arturo César García-Casillas1 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah3
...ion in crossbreeding programs has gained interest in dairy cattlemen concerned by the global warming and greenhouse effect in the environment. This review shows and update of the crossbreeding in dairy cattle in both hemispheres. Here, is reviewed the effect of heat stress on dairy cattle; the mechanism of autoregulation; the benefits of the heterosis in crossbreeding cattle by hybridization; the body condition score in crossbred dairy cattle; the yields in cr...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...that designated pigeon paramyxovirus 1 (PPMV1) commonly isolated from pigeons (family Columbidae). PPMV1 not only represent a potential threat to pigeon but also it can infect chickens and its virulence enhanced upon passaging in chickens causing clinical signs and deaths. In the present study brain samples were collected from twelve pigeon flocks exhibiting signs of nervousness and diarrhea in a live bird market (LVM) in Egypt. All collected samples were posi...
Fariha Latif* and Muhammad Javed
...along with antioxidant parameters has gained considerable attention due to their use as biomarkers to assess contaminants impact on fish at earlier level of exposure. Fish from different species has diverse ecological needs and respond differently to the environmental stress conditions. Thus, the sensitivity, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacities of three major carps Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala towards metals mixtur...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...ed after 73 h. Kinetic parameters derived from double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot showed Km values 8.49×10-3 M-1 and 4.75×10-3 M-1 of sonication and Emulsiflex prepared oxyrase membrane fragments, respectively for lactate as substrate.
...
Abdul Wahaab1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Umair Iqbal2, Abdul Tawaab1 and Iahtasham Khan3
...ffect on various blood parameters (WBC, RBC, Hb, HCT and MCHC). For this purpose, 40 infected animals were selected. After dividing them randomly in four groups of 10 animals each, drug was administered to first three groups whereas last one was kept under positive control for comparison. Study revealed that Triclabendazole was most effective drug of all three in both cattle and buffaloes with efficacy of 97.92% and 100%, respectively; Oxyclozanide was 2n...
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zaheer1, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Shafique1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar1
...ases (MBLs) among major Gram negative pathogens is an emerging threat and a matter of great concern worldwide. Especially increasing resistance to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporin and carbapenems is an issue of high importance. Present study was aimed to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MBL producing carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (GNRs) isolated from cli...
Shahid Yousaf1*, Salman Khurshid1, Saqib Arif1, Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Qurrat ul Ain Akbar1, Najmus Sahar1 and Ghulam Rasul2
...ning important quality parameters. The study therefore has been designed to evaluate the efficiency of NIR in comparison with standard techniques. Thirty samples of wheat (including 11 varieties and 19 composite samples) were analyzed. Samples were widely varied in test weight (72.4-79.9 kg/hL) and wet gluten contents (15.4-31.5%) but showed narrow ranged moisture contents (10.8-13.3%). The NIR values were significantly related to the referenced values for tes...
Sakhra Mahmood1, M. Younus1, A. Aslam1, A.A. Anjum2, S. Umar3, Aamerzish Mushtaq3 and M.L. Sohail4,*
...oxifying agent. Growth parameters (body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio), hematology (hemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and total leukocyte count) and immune response were recorded and analyzed by duncan test for 6 weeks. Results showed significant reduction in the deleterious effects of AFB1 in each of the tested parameters during the course of the study. During 5th week...
Umar Farooq Gohar1, Hamid Mukhtar1,*, Ali Nawaz1, Ikram-ul-Haq1 and Asad Mehmmood2
...d to optimize physical parameters for the maximum production of antibiotic (cephalosporin) by isolated fungal strain Acremonium chrysogenum (IIB-10). The strain IIB-10 was cultivated on medium containing (%, w/v): Baker’s flour, 1.5; corn meal, 2; Methyl oleate, 1.6; calcium carbonate, 0.3 and ammonium sulphate, 0.1. The cultural conditions such as incubation temperature (30°C), pH (6.5) and inoculum size and age (2%, w/v, 48 h) were optimized...
Iqra Bano1,*, Moolchand Malhi2, Pershotam Khatri3, Saeed Ahmed Soomro2, Hira Sajjad4, Ambreen Leghari5, Muhammad Awais2, Safia Kandhro6 and Shakeel Ahmed Lakho5 and Munaza Soomro7
...on gross morphological parameters of testis by increasing its weight, thickness, and circumference. Besides this, the SY also improved the height of germinal epithelium of Seminiferous tubule and improved antioxidant status by enhancing the activities of GPx and T-SOD in both serum and testicular tissues.
...

Mohammad Wasiullah Khan1*, Abdur Rab1, Roshan Ali2, Muhammad Sajid1, Faiza Aman1, Imran Khan3, Iqbal Hussain3 and Akhtar Ali3 

...were used. The various parameters studied during experiment were tuber yield (ton ha-1), total soluble solids (TTS), specific gravity and starch content. Potassium and zinc application at various levels were significant for all parameters. Potassium applied at the rate of 120 kg ha-1 increased tuber yield (27.9 ton ha-1), TSS (5.099 °Brix), specific gravity (1.083) and starch content (14.83 %). Yield pa
Brian Yazzie Burkhart
...y tries to articulate a framework for understanding well-being that is both rooted in the land and in reciprocal kinship relationship with it. This essay examines Diné, Lakota, and Jalagi stories and language concepts for their rootedness in land in more than a material sense in order to provide a framework for a theory of well-being that sees land and human being as intertwining with the being of...
Tahira Moeen Khan* and Amat ul Mateen
...bacterial strains three gram negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella) and one gram positive (Clostridium tetani). The minimum concentration of leaf extracts needed against these bacterial strains were also calculated. The present study indicated that Melia azedarach and Morus nigra leaf extracts can be used successfully for nanoparticles synthesis and CuO as significantly active ...
Naveed Ahmad1,*, P.J.A. Siddiqui1, Amjad Ali1, Khan Mir Khan2, Rafaqat Masroor3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Amin5 and Mohammad Attaullah6
...500 (P45) and 550 (P50) grams of protein kg-1 of dry matter. Thirty healthy fish (20.94±0.81g initial weight) were stocked in each floating net cage (1.5m x 1.5m x 1.5m), with three replicates of each treatment. The diets were fed to visual apparent satiation two times a day for a period of eight weeks. At the end of the trial, P40 appeared to have significant (P<0.05) influence on the growth performance. The percent weight g...
Luo Lei1, Xingxing Deng1, Dengyue Yuan2, Zonglin Zheng1, Chengke Zhu1, Hui Luo1, Baohai Li3, Hua Ye1,* and Chaowei Zhou1,3,*
.../i> has an Open Reading Frame (ORF) containing 291 bp. Moreover, the expression of npy was detected in all tested tissues, with the hypothalamus showing the highest expression in gibel carp. The npy mRNA expression in the hypothalamus significantly decreased 1 and 3 h after feeding (P < 0.01). Furthermore, its expression in the hypothalamus was significantly increased after fasting for 7 days and declined 2 days after refeeding (at 11-d...
Kathryn Phillips and Katherine L. Schaefer
...t in applying an ethics framework that remains neutral about the existence of souls, or the effects of acts on those souls. We conclude that no account of well-being is complete without an account of its fundamental metaphysical commitments.

...
Ai Yuan
...f living a good life is dramatically different from the purposeful pursuit of well-being through action. Instead, to live a good life, the Zhuangzi requires one to uphold a form of courage (yong 澹) which requires one to willingly accept what is beyond human control without regret, anger, and useless struggle. Through this courage, one can participate in one’s life without avoiding its challenges. By demonstrating how and why one’s c...

 Jennifer Mei Sze Ang

...ectification. From this framework, it examines and reflects on both the empirical models of well-being focused on desire/satisfaction/positive emotions and the eudaimonic strands of well-being studies emphasizing autonomy. It shows that the strand of well-being which places good mood and satisfaction as central goals of a happy life are projects of bad faith, and that authenticity promotes a more fundamental notion of freedom than the conceptualization of a me...

 Adile Tatliyer1,*, Sinan Bas1 and Serdar Yagci2

 

... measured from Savak Akkaraman lambs at three different periods (average 11 days after birth, weaning and at the beginning of grazing) using factor scores in multiple linear regressions to remove multicollinearity problem. Morphological data obtained from 159 lambs were subjected to Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s Sphericity tests to ascertain the suitability of factor score analysis. A result showed that implementation of factor analysis ...

Shafique Ahmed Memon1,6, Arif Ali1*, Mehar-un-Nisa Narejo2, Ghulam Khaliq3, Imran Ali Rajput4, Muhammad Adeel1, Khalil Ahmed Memon5, Dzolkhifli Omar6, Muhammad Rashid7 and Abdul Rasool

...ipponensis, Plesiochrysa ramburi and Apertochrysa sp. were provided with three different prey species, Aphis craccivora, Rhopalosiphum maidis and Corcyra cephalonica under the laboratory conditions (25±2 °C). The results indicated that a significantly increased pre-imaginal (19.93±0.24) and mean average days (70.33±0.55) of C. nipponensis on R. Maidis and also a significantly increased pre-imaginal (20.84±0.49), (21.22±0....

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...forming units (cfu) per gram of soil and seed were determined and capability of previously characterized M. phaseolina isolates to cause the disease was tested on HO-1 variety. Additionally, most virulent isolate was characterized through sequence and phylogenetic analysis. There was significant variation (Df= 54, F=7.4, P=0.0000) among cfu per gram of M. phaseolina in soil samples collected during field survey at different ...

Salman Anwar1, 2*, Farhan Anwar Khan3 and Atta-ur-Rahman4 

...yses the impact of Karakoram Highway (KKH) on land use and agricultural development of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Pakistan is gifted with a lot of natural resources in the shape of fertile agricultural lands, water resources and minerals. Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. About 70% of its population is directly or indirectly associated with this sector. Gilgit-Baltistan is a vast mountainous and remote area in the extreme north of Pakis...

 Muqader Shah1,*, Hafsa Zaneb2, Saima Masood2, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Salahud Din1, Shakirullah3, Imad Khan2, Ambrina Tariq4 and Habib ur Rehman5

... HS. However, the bone parameters were not greatly affected by HS and the supplements.

...
Shehzad Ghayyur1,3, Sadia Tabassum1, Munawar Saleem Ahmad2Naveed Akhtar1 and Muhammad Fiaz Khan1,*
... the seral biochemical parameters, the level of blood glucose, cortisol and cholesterol were significantly increased (p < 0.05), which is an adaptive response to the stressor agent, while total plasma proteins and triglyceride level were significantly decreased (p < 0.05).

...

 Abdul Khaliq1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Akhlaq Ahmad2 and Yasir Iftikhar3

...by effect of Datura stramonium (L.) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnh) with respect to control. Similar response was noted at 10% concentrations of all plants but E. Camaldulensis (5%) was least effective against all insects after control. Resurgence response in F1 generation in each experiment showed high multiplication rate at low concentrations and vice-versa also suppressed against N. tabacum and C. procera. ...
Jie Yang
...and PGLYRP-3:4 for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria require Zn2+. In addition, for killing of Gram-negative bacteria, Zn2+ cannot be replaced by other cations, but for killing of Gram-positive bacteria, Zn2+ can be partially replaced by Ca2+, which have been proved. Then, the effect of human PGLYRP...
Iram Maqsood1,2,3 and Ke Rong *1,2
... habitat restoration program committed to improving the quality and habitat area. The reintroduction project illustrated that A. Sinensis bred in captivity well adapted to wild habitat and successfully reproducing their offspring’s. Only healthy crocodiles were selected for release into the wild to renew natural populations. Chinese alligator currently under strict regulation over its commercial use and illegal hunting. All of these strategies giv...
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
... most of the control programs rely on serological screening of brucellosis rather than molecular assay which could confirm the particular species circulating in ruminants. In this study 960 and 471 serum samples of goats and sheep were collected, respectively. After screening with Rose Bengal test (RBT), all seropositive samples were subjected to real-time PCR assay. RBT confirmed the seroprevalences of 19.32% ± 0.289 and 12.29% ± 0.0105 brucello...

Ihsan Ullah Khan*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Muhammad Ashraf, Ashiq Saleem, Sundas Awan, Samra Azam and Shamim Ul Sibtain Shah 

...rporated in breeding programs. 

...
Muhammad Shahid Nadeem*, Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi and Jalaluddin Azam Khan
...nzyme exists as a homotetramer. Molecular docking studies have revealed that Gly199, Lys300, Arg198, Arg197, Tyr201, Tyr323 are putative active site residues interacting the substrate. Anti-proliferative effect of purified enzyme was determined quantitatively using non-cancerous human fibroblast cells (FB) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). A dose of 5U/ml of enzyme has shown an anti-proliferative effect up to 65 percent on HepG2 cells.
...
Faiza Jabeen1,*, Bushra Muneer2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3
...ere rod-shaped, stained Gram positive and formed endospores. The isolates were able to utilize sugars like fructose, Maltose, mannose, xylose, sacchorose, sorbitol, mannitol, Arabinose and polysaccharides like gelatin and starch. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that both isolates belong to the same specie Anoxybacillus rupiensis with 99% similarity under Accession number KF254911 (JF82) and KC849452 (JF83). The DNA G + C ...
Sumreen Hayat1,6, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique2, Bilal Aslam1, Habibullah Nadeem2, Asma Ashraf3, Muhammad Saqalein1, Mohsin Khurshid4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Saima Muzammil1,*
...; 20E kit. Antibiogram was determined by disc diffusion method and isolates were screened for ESBL production using double-disc synergy test (DDST). Molecular detection for the presence of bla-SHV and bla-TEM was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 392 blood and urine samples, 120 were found positive for microbial growth. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of K. pneumoniae isolates illustrated high resistance to ceftazi...
Muhammad Nasir1,*, Ata-ul-Mohsan2, Munir Ahmad2, Shafqat Saeed3, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Muhammad Imran4 and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh4
... 30 ºC. Different parameters in the initial stage of colony growth like pre-oviposition period and emergence timing of the first worker were observed best at 28 and 30 ºC. Number of workers produced in the first brood and in the total lifespan of the colony was also observed higher at 28 ºC. Higher number of progeny queens was produced at temperature treatment of 30 ºC. Therefore, 28-30 ºC temperature exposure to the post-hibernated qu...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...ntensive vaccination programs in many countries, including Egypt, Newcastle disease still being a significant threat to the poultry industry. Bad management for poultry byproducts (e.g. manure) might be a reason for environmental pollution which contaminate the environment either chemically through haphazard usage of medications and or biologically through massive use of homologous/heterologous vaccines especially the live ones. The aim of the curren...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...n this, contribution of Gram-negative bacteria was 68% and that of Gram-positive bacteria was 32%. Among 30 positive samples, percentage prevalence of different bacterial species was: E.coli (37%), S. aureus (23%), Pseudomonas (20%), Streptococcus (10%), Proteus (7%) and Salmonella (3%). The study reported high percentage of E. coli in cases of subclinical mastitis. It may be due to transfer of pathogen from cow to buffaloes...
Zahra Nazir1, Saba Ijaz1, Roquyya Gul2 and Mahjabeen Saleem1,*
...of juice clarification parameters, response plots based on surface response methodology were developed that showed significant impact of independent variables like enzyme concentration, temperature and incubation time on the dependent variables and improved the overall quality of apple juice. Hence, acidic plant polygalacturonase isolated in this study would be useful as a potential candidate for its biotechnological applications in fruit juice clarification.<...

Anum Khursheed1, Malik Muhammad Shafi2 and Haidar Ali2* 

...ashmir Rural Support Program (AJKRSP) in NRM (Natural Resource Management) particularly in Livestock in union council Kahori, District Muzaffarabad. From 111 sampled respondents primary data were collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Three villages namely; Kundipiran, Kariandarar and Kulpana from union council Kahori were purposively selected. The study indicated that the majority of the sampled respondents were female. To compare the size of livestock h...

Arshad Farooq* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

...aining and awareness programs through various types of mass media should be launched for reducing the knowledge gap and to equip the cane farmers with latest technology. 

...

Hafiz Umar Farid1, Muhammad Zubair2, Zahid Mahmood Khan1, Aamir Shakoor1*, Behzad Mustafa1, Aftab Ahmad Khan3, Muhamad Naveed Anjum4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Mubeen

...e and evaluate certain parameters which keep systems functional as well as ensure adoptability of these systems at farmer’s fields. A total of 30 sites were selected randomly in Punjab province of Pakistan where HEIS were installed. Twelve parameters were selected based on the survey conducted that influenced the HEIS functionality as well as adoptability. The selected parameters wer...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

... (ND), caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) is an important disease of avian species and continuously cause outbreaks in commercial poultry throughout the world. Despite intensive vaccination, ND is endemic in Pakistan and locally known as Ranikhet. Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and some common resident or migratory wild birds are associated with outbreaks of ND in commercial poultry in Pakistan. Continuous i...

Tariq Shah1*, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad3 

...livestock or related program. Few of the respondents have participated in field days, workshop and seminars regarding livestock program. Moreover, results reveal that cows’ milk yield per day of the member respondents are significantly higher than milk yield of the non-member respondents of the model farm services center. The facilitation of farmers through these centers in term of involving private livestock doctors a...
Farhat Iqbal1, Abdul Waheed2,*, Zil-e-Huma3 and Asim Faraz2
...ach for estimating the parameters of nonlinear growth functions used for modelling the body weight of farm animals. Gompertz, Brody, Von Bertalanffy and Logistic growth models were employed on the basis of nonlinear least squares and Bayesian methods. Using the monthly body weight data of 2070 weight records of Thalli sheep from birth to 24 months of age for both sexes (male and female) and type of births(single and twin), the estimates of pa

Fraza Ijaz1*, Umair Riaz2, Shazia Iqbal3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Muhammad Furqan Ijaz5, Hina Javed1, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi1, Zuhra Mazhar3, Ahmad Hassan Khan6, Hassan Mehmood7 and Ijaz Ahmad8 

...ne on growth and yield parameters of Berseem. Total of eight treatments was planned to conduct an experiment. Results revealed that the nodule mass (0.523 g plant-1), highest plant height (103.45 cm), number of seeds per head, thousand seeds weight were recorded with Co-inoculation + Tryptamine @ 10-5 M (T8). Nutritious Parameters crude protein (30.23%), neutral detergent fiber (33.45%) and acid detergent fiber (26.56%) gave...
Shengjie Zhou1,2, Pengfei Wang1,2, Chao Zhao1,2, Mingjun Fu3, Jian G. Qin4, Lihua Qiu1, Zhenhua Ma1, 4,* and Maoshang Lin1
... bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 281 bp. L-FABP encoding a polypeptide of 126 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 14.06 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.73. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the highest tissue expression of L-FABP gene was observed in fish liver on 18 DPH. Along with the ontogeny of fish larvae, the expression of L-FABP gene was low at hatching, and quickly increased with the increase of fish age f...
Sheng Niu1, Ali-Raza Jahejo1, Fa-jie Jia1, Xin Li1, Guan-bao Ning1, Ding Zhang1, Hai-li Ma1, Wei-fang Hao2, Wen-wei Gao1, Yu-jun Zhao1, Shi-min Gao1, Jian-hui Li1, Gui-lan Li1, Fang Yan1, Rong-kun Gao1, Huan-chun Chen1,3 and Wen-xia Tian1,*
...unity. In this study, thiram has been used to induce tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and the chickens were injected with different doses of recombinant glutathione-S-transferase A3 (rGSTA3) proteins. We explored the responses of HDPs in erythrocytes to thiram-induced TD and rGSTA3 protein by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed many HDPs expressions were suppressed by thiram
Muhammad Ahmad, Zohaib Noor*, Karim Johar Khan, Waqar Younas and Ajmal Hussain
...alues of water quality parameters were conducive however temperature fluctuated between 26°C-29°C. Significantly higher values of (P<0.05) crude protein, fats, carbohydrates, Mg (%) and K (%) was recorded in the H. molitrix than C. catla. The results of the study showed that H. molitrix probably consumed all the phytoplankton density by filtering the water continuously resulting in the reduction of growth in other fish species i...
Nursinatrio and Rudy Agung Nugroho*
... After 84 days, growth parameters such as body weight gain (BWG), average weekly gain (AWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), survival rate (SR) and carcass proximate of red tilapia were measured. The results showed that HCFM up to 12% could be used as supplementation and showed positive effects on all growth parameters. Su...
Yuyu Wang, Gangchun Xu*, Zhijuan Nie, Quanjie Li, Nailin Shao and Pao Xu*
...nce, serum biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes activity and antioxidant status of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) reared in an in-pond raceway system (IPRS). Fish (initial average body weight: 35.68±2.12g) were randomly allotted to in-pond raceways (26.2m×5m×2.5m) stocked at two stocking densities (68 and 114 fish/m3, respectively). Fish were fed twice daily (08:00 and 17:00), and the daily ration feed was 4% ...

Khan Sher1*, Muhammad Nisar2 and Muhammad Subhan1 

...e Two Way Cluster dendrogram was conducted for 12 polymorphic SSR markers, which disseminated all common bean lines into two major linkages. Lineage I split at 50% similarity index into 5 clusters and sub clusters. On the same way lineage II split into two clusters at 19 % similarity index. The Genetic similarity (GS) based on SSR markers between pair of common bean lines showed high degree of dissimilarity in the genetic makeup ranging from 0.91 to 0.11. All ...

Aliya Ayaz, Gohar Ayub, Maqsood Khan* and Syed Aizaz Ali Shah 

...nt for all the studied parameters except days to emergence, germination percentage and survival percentage. Seeds dipped in gibberellic acid at a level of 60 mgL-1 for 18 hours significantly reduced days to emergence, while increased germination percentage and survival percentage. From results it is concluded that seeds dipped for 18 hours in 60 mgL-1 of gibberellic acid concentrations showed best results on growth and yield of bitter gourd under the agro-clim...

Iftikhar Ud Din* and Qamruz Zaman 

...lusters, the number of parameters to be estimated, and the information whether the design is balance or unbalance play a significant role and discussed in the present study. 

...

Abid Ali1*, Hidayat ur Rahman1, Farhatullah1 and Zahir Shah

...ign: justify;">Genetic parameters particularly gene action help plant breeders in developing breeding strategies. The experimental material comprised three white maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines which were developed at Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI), Pirsabak, Nowshera-Pakistan. Parental inbred lines were crossed with each other to get six F1s during kharif 2015 which were selfed to develop F2s and backcrossed with their parents to obtain backcrosses B...
Hayat Zada1, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1,*, Ijaz Ali2, Bashir Ahmad1, Abdul Waheed Khan2 and Shabeer Ahmad2
...ion and pest control programs.
...
Wang Zaigui1,*, Guo Panpan1, Ye Miao1, Sun Linghong1, Zhang Hongfu2 and Liu Chaoliang1,*
...tion. Different growth parameters and cocoon parameters were measured at each stage of silkworm. With the aim to investigate the supplemental effects of B.subtilis on growth performances, cocoon quality and amylase activity of silkworm, Bombyx L, we got the following results: (1) In the larval duration of 3rd instar silkworm, average weight gain (AWG) and feed conversion ratio (RFC) were not significantly aff...
Iram Gull*, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam, Imran Tipu, Roohi Mushtaq and Muhammad Amin Athar
...ptimization of various parameters of overlap extension PCR. The fusion of IFNα2b gene to the gene of human latency associated protein with insertion of HCV NS3 protease cleavage site at splicing junction is reported.
...
Asma Yousafzai1,*, Muhammad Luqman2, Nisar Ahmed1, Muneeza Arbab1,Muhammad Murad1, Naheed Sajjad3, Sara Naudhani1, Shakeela Daud1, Abdul Hameed Baloch4, Khushnaseeb5, Sana Zahoor6, Zahid Rauf7, Muhammad Mohsin Javed6 and Jamil Ahmad1
...u and p.Ser1613Gly) two frameshift (p.Ser423fs and p.Gly1770fs) and nonsense mutation (p.Glu1250X) was identified. In case of gene BRCA2, all the four variants were missense substitutions (p.Glu58Lys, p.Asp99Asn, p.Asp104Asn and p.Pro999Gln). The data reported here will be valuable addition for the future genetic screening of the breast cancer patients of Balochistan. 
...
Wali Khan1,*, Mudassar Iqbal2 and Israr Khan2
...y once a time. Eggs per gram of faeces were counted in each group before and after treatment. The % efficacy of albendazole (bendazol) and albendazole (zentel) against ancylostomiasis, ascariasis, taeniasis and amoebiasis were reported 92 and 83, 83 and 96, 74 and 81 and 84 and 74%, respectively. EPG counts amongst children in both the groups before and after treatment was not significant (P>0.05). Present study was concluded that albendazole (bendazol) was...
Shamsudin Bojang1, Idris Abd Ghani2, Jugah Kadir1, Adamu Saidu Paiko1, Yasir Iftikhar3 and Muhammad Kamran3,4,*
...ematode, Meloidogyne graminis infections on the turf grasses. Samples were collected based on the sparsely growth and chlorotic appearance of the greens. A total of 36 soils and roots sample were collected. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to identify the parasitic nematode. Both the field symptoms and SEM micrographs confirmed that the nematode isolate was M. graminis. Since this nematode has been k...
Iqra Jaffar, Zainab Sehzadi, Muhammad Adeel, Khalid P. Lone and Mehwish Faheem*
Muhammad Shoaib Saleem* and Muhammad Faheem Akbar
... effectiveness of nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (Mixture of Nitenpyram and Chlorfenapyr) and Buprofezin against brinjal whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). The crop was grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates each having five treatments with control. Pre-treatment data were collected before 24 h and Post treatment data were collected after 24, 72, 168 and 336 h of each spray. In this...
Abdur Rauf Nizami*
...cies are comprised of: foraminifers, gastropods, pelecypods, bryozoans, echinoids, sponges, brachiopods, and corals.
...
Bo Zhang1, Changbo Zhu1, Zihao Meng1,4, Baosuo Liu1, Lian Zhong3, Guiju Huang1, Jiaqi Su1, Sigang Fan1 and Dahui Yu1,2,*
...oid content) and color parameters. The percentage of total carotenoids in the adductor, gill, mantle, and visceral mass was 6.50%, 10.79%, 15.11% and 67.61%, respectively. Generally, the tissue-specific carotenoid distribution is ranked in the order being adductor < mantle < gill < visceral mass. Significant correlations were found between TCC and the color parameters, with the highest fit (r = 0.908) in the Pearson...
Muhammad Afzal1, Nighat Sultana1, Ali Hassan1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2,*, Mahroze Fatima3, Syed Makhdoom Hussain4, Muhammad Bilal5 and Majid Hussain2
...mportant water quality parameters such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored and maintained within acceptable limits for fish during entire experiment. The findings of the experiment showed improved weight gain%, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), muscle composition and digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein and crude fat in Labeo rohita juveniles when fed CA supplemented diet. Similar observations were also...
Junli Sun1,2,3, Lin Bai1 2, Xiaogan Yang1,2, Yangqing Lu1,2, Shengsheng Lu1,2,* and Kehuan Lu1,2,*

Hafiz Abdul Ghafoor*, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed 

...ere sulfoxaflor, spirotetramat, thiamethoxam and pyriproxyfen with mean mortality and LT50 values of 64.00±3.50% and 31.67 h, 62.67±2.64% and 34.42 h, 53.01±4.10% and 45.84 h, and 51.00±3.97% and 48.10 h, respectively. Based on these results, the above mentioned novel chemistry insecticides are recommended to be incorporated in future pest management programs against D. mangiferae mealybugs. ...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...emagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) of circulating Egyptian viruses are belonging to the Middle East G1- like viruses in group B that were closely r