Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

... through a comprehensive questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions. Data regarding key factors such as age and ethnicity, communal domain, education level, employment status and demographic factors (drug route, drug dose) have bearing upon heroin addiction was collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Early age of addiction onset, low literacy rate, peer pressure, occupation type, and stress are among risk...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...s, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the female respondents through face to face interview. Cobb-Douglas production function and cost benefit analysis were used to arrive at the main conclusion. Results show that feed cost was the major component of total cost followed by labor cost. Average milk produced by buffalo and cow was 180 and 135 liters per month, respectively. Average total costs of milk production of buffalo and cow ...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...ected with the help of a questionnaire survey. A total of 50 household were surveyed which make 45 percent of the total (114 households). The analysis of acquired data reveals that in 2008-09 tube well irrigated land account for 81.67 acre which decreased to 37.46 acre in 2013-14, after the dam construction. The number of parcels irrigated by tube well decreased from 158 to 75 in 2013-14. Today canal irrigation is the largest source of irrigation in the Mouza,...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...ried out using in-person questionnaire evaluation along with microscopic assessment of water samples for Cyclops species. Based on previous clinical records of dracunculiasis, five villages of Dera Ismail Khan including Kath Garh, Wanda Dost Ali, Chah Mundar Wala, Ketch and Gara Baloch were surveyed for a total of 206 randomly selected households, where the household heads (106 males and 100 females) were interviewed for any previous dracunculiasis lesi...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...e of AEOs by mailing the questionnaires. The results showed that overwhelming majority of the respondents i.e., 88% were M.Sc degree holders. They have had an average work experience of 16 years. Significant differences were observed among the competencies of AEOs with their participation in training programs and their higher educational qualification. The differences were considered as training needs and the AEOs need in-service training to enhance their abil...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

...s, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from female respondents through face to face interviews. A composite index was constructed to measure the extent of women’s participation, and a linear regression model was used to determine factors affecting women’s involvement in livestock farming. Results reveal that women were mostly involved in almost all farming activities. The average composite index value is 4.81 which indicate...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

... through a well designed questionnaire from a sample of 115 tomato growers. A Cobb-Douglas type production model is used to estimate tomato yield and identify important factors affecting yield. Ordinary Least Square estimates for the model indicate that machinery, seed quantity, labor, number of irrigation, chemicals spray and fertilizers have positive significant effects on tomato yield. Allocative efficiency analysis reveals that machinery, seed quantity, nu...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...eepers using a pretested questionnaire by face to face interview in 2014 production period. The collected data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, descriptive statistics, rank orders and paired t-test. Findings revealed that bee keeping is one of the important economic activities in the area with an average annual income of Rs. 527,275/- per household. Results of paired t-test confirmed that beekeeping has significant effect on household income. On a...

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...udy area. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data from farming households’ heads. Credit fungibility ratio and ANOVA were used to explore the credit fungibility and credit margin of investment among the groups of farmers. Results showed that a considerable proportion of loan was used in non-agricultural activities by all farmers in general and small farmers in particular. The findings of the study suggest that a strong monitoring of farmers...

 Maleeha Manzoor1*, Madiha Manzoor2, Qurat-ul-ain Ahmed3, Sobia Ahmed4, Shazia Manzoor5

...terviewing and filling a questionnaire especially designed to record various socio-demographic characters of patients and their dietary history. Prevalence rate of anemia in the present study was found to be 78% (9.57±1.07), between age 19-40 years and it’s higher in 3rd trimester of their pregnancies. Additionally low educational status and poor dietary habits showed high risks of anemia among the pregnant women.

...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...dy is primarily based on questionnaire survey and focus group discussion. A total of fifteen villages out of total 173 were selected for study, 75 farmers were interviewed, 05 from each of the 15 selected villages. A total of 15 focus group discussions were organised, one is each selected village. The key parameters addressed during survey were cropping pattern, sowing, harvesting date and yield per acre of different crops, pests and crops diseases, flowering ...

Muhammad Luqman1,3, Raheel Saqib2*, Xu Shiwei3 and Yu Wen3 

...). A designed structured questionnaire was prepared for the data collection as the research instrument. The data thus collected were coded on SPSS for analysis and interpretation. Results showed that there is significant difference in age and educational status of male heads and their spouses. Majority of the farm families (39.3%) earn income for their livelihoods both from farming and non-farming sources. Intensity of participation of female respondents in di...

Arooj Fatima1* and Ashfaq Ahmed

...shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire. The p-values were found to be significant for VAS (0.001) and for DASH (0.000). The paired sample t-test was applied in two sub groups of group A and similarly in group-B. The values were statistically significant i.e., 0.001 for VAS, 0.000 for DASH. P-values obtained for VAS (0.001) and DASH (0.000) when repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied comparing four sub groups. Eccentric exercises give better ...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...t various antibiotics. A questionnaire was filled for estimation of association of assumed risk factors with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied to check significance of results. The study noted overall 33.98% (123/362) of MDR S. aureus from subclinical mastitis milk samples while 123 of 192 S. aureus isolates (64.06%) were confirmed MDR. Non-significantly higher prevalence of MDR was noted in Cholistan area (38.38%) th...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

...ted through a structured questionnaire and exposure was assessed through 6-items Version of U.S. Household Food Security Survey and cohort was followed until delivery, and birth weight was recorded. Follow up could be completed for 50 women only and response rate was 49%. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and relative risk and multinomial logistic Regression were applied using SPSS version 22. Mean maternal age was 28.100+4.824 years, mean education was ...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...lected on a pre-designed questionnaire. A total of 3855 deliveries during study period in which 1318 were primigravida. Mean age in study group was 15 to 24 years. We observed mild anemia in 46% of woman, moderate anemia in 41% and severe anemia in 13% in young primigravida. Preterm delivery was noted in 25% of the females and low birth weight babies were noted by 33% in teenage and young primigravida. Statistically significant relationship was found between m...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

...g a structured pretested questionnaire. The main influencing factor in keeping bucks was goat breed improvement. All the sample respondents were convinced of the benefits of crosses with Beetal buck and reported that the offsprings Beetal were of higher body weight (40% higher), good looking and well built. Regarding the suitability of Beetal with fodder and forage in the area, majority of the farmers (73%) considered it more suitable. There was a price differ...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...g a set of well-designed questionnaires from each site. Results showed that over last three decades, number of small and tenant farmers increased in the semi-arid zones of Pakistan due to environmental harshness in general and law of inheritance in particular. Due to increase in mean annual temperatures and irregular rain patterns, area under major crops at Kohat and productivity of major crop at Attock decreased. Bivariate correlations between mean seasonal r...

Sana Qanber Abbasi1*, Ejaz Ahmed2 and Rabia Sattar1 

...sure was documented on a questionnaire. The results were analyzed using SPSS 21. One way ANOVA and Independent sample T test were applied to compare the proBNP levels. A P-value of < 0.05 was taken as significant. Serum pro BNP levels were raised in migraine patients and also in hypertensive patients with migraine (p-value 0.00). Serum pro BNP levels were found to be raised in both migraineurs and hypertensive migraineurs but the increase was not equal.&nbs...

 Sonila Hassan, Abid Hussain*, Muhammad Azeem Khan** and Irfan Mahmood*

RURAL-URBAN RETAIL PRICES AND MARKETING MARGINS OF FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN PAKISTAN
...cklist and an open-ended questionnaire were developed and used to interview a total of 200 retailers (rural and urban), 100 producers, 30 commission agents and 10 transporters in July 2010. Price data were collected from rural and urban retailers in Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Peshawar, Muzaffarabad and Quetta. It was observed that the retail prices of fresh fruits and vegetables were higher in rural markets as compared to urban markets and differences were even hi...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...tailed and comprehensive questionnaire was used for measuring the effectiveness of extension activities performed by public and private sector extension field staff. The results revealed that a number of farmers received visits from private extension field staff on a fortnightly, monthly and quarterly basis, but not from public extension staff during these periods. When public field staff did visit, the favored method of extension was by exhibition and seminar...

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Akhter Ali**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi**, Naveed Jehan*, Imran Ullah* and Majid Khan*

ASSESSMENT OF POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF PLUM IN SWAT, PAKISTAN
...els using four different questionnaires. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used for the collection of data from different categories of respondents and tehsils. Post harvest losses were estimated through percentage method. The most important reasons were poor harvesting methods, over maturity, insufficient cold storage facility, poor grading, low-quality packaging materials and poor infrastructure. Total post harvest losses in the marketin...

 Naveed Jehan*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla**, Muhammad Shahzad*, Abid Hussain**, Muhammad Zahoor*, Majid Khan* and Ahmed Bilal*

USE OF MOBILE PHONES BY FARMING COMMUNITY AND ITS IMPACT ON VEGETABLE PRODUCTIVITY
... through well structured questionnaire by interviewing 60 farmers from district Charsadda. The data was analyzed through simple averages, correlation analysis and paired t-test. Average yield of bitter -1 gourd crop was 23569 kg acre with cell phone use of 8h per season. It is perceived that low communication cost and availability of information about wholesale market prices through SMS service and low cost calling packages will help farmers and market agents ...

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Ayesha Tahir**, Naveed Jehan*** and Muhammad Luqman*

IMPACT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES ON POSTHARVEST LOSSES OF STONE FRUITS IN SWAT PAKISTAN
...ected through pre tested questionnaires by proportionate random sampling procedure. Quantitative losses were estimated through percentage method while partial losses were estimated at the wholesale and retail level by price differential method. Multiple regression analysis was employed to find relation between post-harvest losses and different factors at three different stages. Findings of the study revealed the channel of cardboard box technology accounted fo...

 Anwar Hussain* and Muhammad Rahman**

ROLE OF TRAININGS ON FARMERS' PROFITABILITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA
...ted through a structured questionnaire. The respondents were given training under Swiss Development Cooperation Project at the time of collection, harvesting, cleaning, drying, packing and marketing of MAPs. The overall findings revealed that the training had positive impact on farmers' revenue. If standardized, the MAPs collected, they can get fair prices for their products. The study recommends that the government and non-governmental organization should arr...

 Hafiz Saqib Habib*, Arshad Mahmood Malik*, Abid Ali** and Muhammad Aamir Khan***

SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD FOOD EXPENDITURES IN RAWALPINDI
...a were collected through questionnaire. A multiple double log regression model was used because it has an advantage that estimated parameter can easily be explained as expendi-tures elasticity. This model is used to give details of responses in socioeconomic factors to monthly household food expenditures. Regression analysis showed that 23 % of the changes in the food expenditures were due to explanatory variables. Household incomes, marital status of househol...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Khuda Bakhsh**, Sultan Ali Tariq*, Mahmood Nasir***, Rashed Saeed**** and Muhammad Ather Mahmood****

FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT YIELD IN POTHWAR REGION OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...sing the well-structured questionnaire from two important districts recognised for area and production of groundnut. Results showed that large farmers allocated significantly higher area (34%) to groundnut cultivation compared to other categories of farmers. The gross margins were also significantly higher at large farms. Ploughing frequency, seed rate and labor mandays have positive relationship with groundnut productivity. Therefore, the provision of improve...

  Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saqib Shakeel Abbasi and Abid Hussain*

FARMERS PERCEPTION TOWARDS THE APPLICATION OF BIOZOTE IN SELECTED DEMONSTRATED RICE FIELDS AT HAFIZABAD AND SHEIKHUPURA DISTRICTS
...ded through a structured questionnaire and face to face interviews at their fields. Majority of the host farmers found that plots with biozote had better germination and also found it a good technology for improving rice yield. Non-availability of biozote at local level, less farmers' awareness and low education level of farmers were identified as major issues in adoption of this technology in the study areas.

...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
...erviews and administer a questionnaire. The results showed that farmers milking average three goats constituted the highest (47%) share, and the majority (46%) of them had a daily yield of 1-2 L/day followed by those yielding <1L/day (40%). A significantly (P<0.05) high (62%) proportion of farmers adopted a 3-4 months lactation period while longer lactation periods (>4 months) were the least adopted at 4%. A significantly (P<0.05) high proportion (...

Anza Zahid*, Muhammad Ali Ayub, Mujtaba Saeed, Nasir Pasha, Abdul Jabbar Dar, Huzaifa Javed, Aimen Shakeel, Amna Nasir, Ana Akbar, Zainab Tarrar and Ayesha Humayun 

...nstructed and structured questionnaire. Out of 177 participants, 55.36% were females and 51.41% participants were in the range of 52-75 years of age. Among 79 males, majority (45.6%) were employees, whereas 91.8% were housewives among females’ participants,. Out of 177 diabetic patients, 42 patients (23.7%) were non-compliant and 135 patients (62.5%) were found to be compliant. The normal glucose level was observed in 120/177 (67.8%) of participants. Int...

Mohammad Nazeer* and Safdar Hussain Shah 

...m locations. A pretested questionnaire was used to record the morphological parameters of each individual. The results showed differences in morphological traits of different goat breeds. The facial appearance of Surguli and Damani was predominantly convex, whereas straight shape facial outline was observed in most of Gaddi and Kaghani goat individuals. The ears of Damani and Surguli goat were mostly straight, whereas Kaghani and Gaddi had rounded edge ears in...

Muhammad Suleman Bacha1*, Mohammad Nafees1 and Syed Adnan2
 

...p discussions. Total 177 questionnaires administered to sample households and 9 FGDs (Focus Group Discussions) in selected villages with the aim to understand local perceptions about changing climate, its vulnerabilities and farmers adaptive measures toward climate change in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Additionally, vulnerability matrix was used to identify livelihood resources that are vulnerable to climate change induced hazards. Results ...

Murad Khan1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

... collected on structured questionnaire. The sample farms were categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, profit function and multiple regression model, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t test were used. The average profit of large size farm was Rs. 85228 followed by medium and small farm that were Rs. 58049 and Rs. 36090 respectively. The results of independent sample t-test indicated that there is no signif...

Samiullah*, Mohammad Aslam Khan and Atta-ur-Rahman  

...ve study. In addition to questionnaire survey, detailed focused group discussion was also arranged with the key stakeholders. The analysis reveals that rapid urban expansion has resulted in reduction of farmland and sub-division of landholdings into smaller land fragments. Beside urbanization, a major contributor to fragmentation is the law of inheritance, which divides the land among successors. In the absence of specific policies on land consolidation or dev...
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
...mation collected through questionnaire survey. Results confirmed the occurrence of leopard at six out of twelve sampling sites surveyed, in the form of evidences including pug marks, cave/ den, and dead bodies (two carcasses and one skin) of the animal. Moreover, three kill records of the animal in a short duration of six months are indicative of its illegal hunting for its skin or in self-defense. Therefore, immediate conservation measures are needed to prote...
Naveed Akhtar1, Humaira Zareen2* and Rubina Sarmad3
... were assessed through a questionnaire. Hemoglobin levels were measured by Sysmex while mid upper arm circumference and (MUAC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured with the help of measuring tape and weighing machine, respectively. 
Results: Mean age of the students was 19.5 ± 2.1. All the participants were unmarried, 108 (94.7%) liked traditional food, and 84 (73.3%) had a habit of daily breakfast intake. Most of the students...
Fouzia Hadi Ali1, Farhat Naz2, Aban Abid Qazi3
 
... the study. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1100 doctors with a response rate of 83%. The sequential model was tested by applying Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling 3.2.
Results: The sequential model proved significant with a partial mediation of work life balance and vitality at work between the relationship of positive psychological capital and work performance.
Conclusion: The...
Shumaila Irum1, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal*2 and Fatima Naumeri3
...d Methods: The DREEM questionnaire was conducted on undergraduate medical students (n=300) of Sheikh Zayed Medical College, Rahim Yar Khan, during the month of June 2015. 
Results: Two eighty-six (n=286) of the 300 students (95.33%) completed the questionnaire. Analysis of these subjected indicated a total mean score of 113.68. Mean for students’ perception of learning was 26.65±10.23...
Naveed Rashid*1, Muhammad Aamer2, Uzma Malik3, Nimra Arif4, Muhammad Waqar Akram5 and Ayesha Irshad6
...Each patient was given a questionnaire comprising of 21 questions during his/her routine dialysis. Knowledge of ESRD patients was categorized into poor (<50%), average (50-70%) and good (> 70%). 
Results: Out of 138 patients, 94% had good knowledge about AVF self-care and 99% had good attitude about AVF access care. However a few practices like daily AVF thrill checkup, pre-hemodialysis AVF site washing and pre and post hemodialys...
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*
...filled forms and through questionnaire. Total 1332 blood samples were collected from 3 tehsils of District Mansehra. Out of which, 725 were found positive for dengue fever infection. Out of 725 positive cases, 410 (56.5%) were males and 315 (43%) were female’s patients. The high rate of DENV infection was found in the age group of 10-20 years that was 133(57.3%) followed by age group of 31-40 years that was 129 (57%) and 41-50 years that was 96 (57%). Th...

Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde, Adeyemi Esther Omoniwa and Miriam Ukemenam 

...ata were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed using the Gini-coefficient and the Ordinary Least Square method. The result showed an overall gini-coefficient for gender inequality in schooling of 0.35, with the value for boys and girls at 0.35 and 0.49 respectively. Mother’s education, age of the household heads, marital status, dependency ratio, farm size and the average time spent by the children on the farm were found to significantly influe...

Sadiqa Begum1, Murad Khan2* and Noor Pao Khan

...ad of district Mardan. A questionnaire was used to collect data proportionately from 93 sample respondents. Budget allocation technique is used for calculation of cost, revenue and profit and dummy approach is used for comparative analysis while multiple regression model is used to estimate the relationship between inputs and output of wheat. Per acre yield of wheat production in district Mardan was 1809.032 kgs. while in district Peshawar it was 2143.230 kgs....

Sajad Ali1*, Syed Asghar Ali Shah2, Jaffar Ali3, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal4, Arshadullah Jadoon5 and Farmanullah

...zzed by using structured questionnaires in two related districts that is Haripur and Mansehra in the year 2013-14. The data were analyzed by using SPSS Package version 22 for calculating marketing marginal analysis and cross-tabulation were also been employed. The studied statistics of the land size of chosen pea’s farmers fluctuated amongst 0.878 to 31.26 acres having mean of 4.524 acres. Moreover, maximum merchants and Beoparis credited the output of p...
Saima Shahzad Mirza1,*, Hafiz Muhammad Qamer2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3,*, Rana Shoaib Akram4
...ed, obtained by means of questionnaire. Initiation of weaning process at proper time is found to be somewhat finance limited factor. Total 17 and 1 out of 34 cases were sufficiently and well literate, respectively and aware about weaning process. In our study 47, 39 and 14 % mothers belonging to lower middle, middle and higher middle class background, respectively and 9, 34, 21, 19 and 17 % infants started weaning at age of 4, 6, 8, 9 and 12 months, respective...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...hered through a pre-form questionnaire. Results revealed that prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was 5.88%. Statistical analysis revealed significant association of age (OR= 3.267; CI = 1.686-6.331) and herd size (OR = 2.600; CI = 1.421-4.760) with CCIT positivity. Similarly, induction of new animals into the herd (OR= 2.661; CI = 1.758-4.028) and sheltering the animals at night (OR= 2.448; CI = 1.568-3.882) also showed association with a positive skin test. Th...

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 

...rvey method by filling a questionnaire. Farmer’s perceptions on agriculture LD were measured through the extent of severity scale in terms of LD dimensions and indicators resulted from water, tillage, soil, salinization, and overgrazing. Moderate (0.49) index of water degradation and the changing climatological index were light but the reduction of drainage density of water runoff and slope gradient reduction of soil index was severe. The tillage degrada...

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

...uja, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demography and risk factors. The sera were obtained from samples were analyzed for IgG and IgM antibodies of human parvovirus B19 using SERION ELISA Classic Parvovirus B19 IgG/IgM kits. A total of 171 (52.5%) of women had IgG antibody to Parvovirus B19 while 31 (9.5%) were positive for IgM antibody. Demographics including age group, educational status, occupation, type of marriage, number ...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor Paio Khan1, Naveed Afsar2 and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah3

...e-tested semi-structured questionnaire through face to face interview. The collected data were subjected to analysis using descriptive statistics, frequencies, percentages, and rank orders. The results revealed that women were involved in buffalo, cattle, goats and sheep rearing with higher possession of small ruminants (goats and sheep), while men were found dominant in large ruminants’ possession (buffalo and cattle). Women’s higher time allocati...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
...aphylococci (CNS). A questionnaire was used to record risk factors associated with occurrence of SCM and results were analyzed using non-probability statistical analysis. Results indicated that an overall 63.28% (243/384) of goats were found positive for SCM, of which 58.85% (143/243) revealed Staphylococcal growth among them 69.93% (100/143) were CPS, while 30.07% (43/143) were found as CNS. Drug susceptibility against penicillins, cephalosporins, ...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Memoona Chaudhary2, Riaz Hussain3, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Madiha Khan6, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Mehtab Ahmad7, Muhammad Sajid Hasni2Imran Qaiser8, Ghazanfar Rashid1, Ikramul Haq1 and Ikramullah Khan8
... test (CMT). A preformed questionnaire was used to obtain data for the potential risk factors. Results showed an overall prevalence of 47.14% for subclinical mastitis. Statistical analysis revealed non-significant (P>0.05) difference between Cholistan desert and Suleiman mountain range (48.18% and 46.09%, respectively). S. aureus was isolated from 53.03% of the milk samples, with significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence in Cho...
Syeda Beenish Bukhari1, Sidra Khalid1*, Shahid Bashir1, Riffat Mehboob2, Humaira Waseem2
...ected through pre-tested questionnaire. Data were tabulated and analyzed with the help of SPSS version 21.0. Results of current study showed that barriers to complete vaccination course were lack of information, myths, un-availability, non-affordability, fear of side effects and fear of lack of safety of vaccination procedure/ dirty needles. Analysis revealed a significant association between maternal education and barriers to complete vaccination course.

Shumaila Nazeer1, Iqbal Javed1*, Allah Bakhsh2, Mudassar Yasin2, Haroon Javaid3 and Kaniz Fatima1 

...lected through pretested questionnaire from 30 kinnow exporters out of total 40 exporters. Personal interviews were conducted by selecting convenient sampling technique. Along with export margin analysis of both markets, an effort is made to quantify impact of the major determinants on export of mandarin (Kinnow) to UAE and USA. According to data properties and suitability, multiple regression analysis technique is used for UAE and binary logistic regression t...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...milarly, semi structured questionnaire was used for data collection while descriptive statistics and Cob Douglass Production Function were used for data analysis. The results indicate that all rice grower were literate while the secondary level was more than the other level, followed by intermediate level. Similarly, in category of family size the number in above 15 category was found more than the other categories followed by 8-15 category. The Cob Douglass P...
Khalid Khan1, Saima Liaqat2*, Somaiya Rasheed1 and Ihsanullah Kakar3
...posed via well-regulated questionnaires from one hundred livestock farmers of diverse Tehsil/Union Council of District Lasbela. The findings of the study exhibited that trivial farm holders widely used livestock for income generation. Furthermore, livestock have a predominant role to accomplish the rudimentary needs of the households. Moreover, livestock offer opportunities of income generation and to spend it on education, health and housing, which eventually...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

... cotton area. Pre-tested questionnaire was developed for the collection of data 320 cotton farmers’ respondents for the year of 2015-16 including 160-credit user and 160 non-credit users. The study employed stochastic production frontiers function for the empirical estimates of credit on cotton production. Empirical estimates of study have denoted, significant and positive coefficient of credit has positive impact on the production of cotton in both dist...

Saeed Ullah1, Muhammad Israr1*, Shakeel Ahmad2, Nafees Ahmad3 and Asif Yaseen

...ected through structured questionnaire from the heads of the farming households (HH) and analysed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. It was found that majority (62%) of the farmers were in the age groups of 41-60. HH size of the farmers was 6-9 members per HH. Farming experience of the HH heads was 21-31 and above years as reported by 63.33% of the respondents. Chi-square P-values pointed that age, HH size and farming experience have positive relat...

Anum Khursheed1, Malik Muhammad Shafi2 and Haidar Ali2* 

...ected through pre-tested questionnaire. Three villages namely; Kundipiran, Kariandarar and Kulpana from union council Kahori were purposively selected. The study indicated that the majority of the sampled respondents were female. To compare the size of livestock holding paired t-test was used. Productivity of livestock kept by sampled respondents has increased significantly. About (100%) of the sampled respondents stated that there is increase in livestock pro...
Asghar Khan1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Arfan Yousaf2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Mamoona Chaudhry1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Habibunnabi4 and Amjad Khan5
...ar region of Pakistan. A questionnaire based cross-sectional based survey was conducted in 30 commercial and subsistent farms in Pothohar region of Rawalpindi district, Punjab. Where randomly 196 lactating buffaloes were sampled. Data on several health, management and bio-security variables was collected in face to face interviews from farmers, managers and owners. Milk samples collected were subjected to California Mastitis Test.Data entry and validation was ...
Muhammad Saleem Hanif1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1,*, Arshad Javid3, Noor Khan2, Irfan4, Hamid Majeed5, Muhammad Altaf3
...en through well prepared questionnaire. It was observed fishermen in both study sites were of 20 -55 year of age having maximum family size of 7-10 individuals. Illiterate fishermen were recorded to be 50 and 40 % at head Punjnad and Taunsa, respectively. Fishermen maximum yearly income at both study sites were in the range of 70,000 - 80,000 PKR (Pakistan rupees). The study had confirmed most of the fishermen were living in poor conditions which accounts 60 a...

Turab Ali Kaurajo1*, Huma Rizwana1, Gulbahar Khaskheli2, Muhammad Haroon Baloch1, Muhammad Naeem Rajput1, Asad Ali Khaskheli3 and Mohsin Solangi

Shazia Akhtar1, Abdul Samad1*, Afshan Gohar1, Muhammad Munir Shahid2, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, Arslan Sarwer1, Adnan Khan1 and Karam Ahad1 

...istan, a semi-structured questionnaire survey consisting of 40 sub questions was evaluated by interviewing the peach growers in Swat, Malakand. The current survey described the knowledge, behavior, agricultural practices and pesticides toxicity symptoms among the field workers. Over all 72 orchards from 26 Union Councils were covered. Data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 and sample collection points were presented on map by using software Arc GIS. The response o...

Farheen Shafique1, Shaukat Ali2,*, Saiqa Andleeb1, Abdul Rauf1,3, Syed Ayaz Kazmi1,3, Sadia Idrees4, Faisal Farooq1,3, Faiq Nawaz Khan3,4, Muhammad Saad-ul-Hassan1,3, Raja Awais Mumtaz1,3, Saba Khalid1, Zaheem Ashraf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2 and Fazal-ur-Rehman5

...were interviewed through questionnaire method. After taking written consent from each participant or guardian, 5 ml of blood was collected from each participant and brought to the working laboratory for HBV and HCV screening through ICT kit method. All ICT positive samples were further confirmed through ELISA. Individuals 25(8.2%) were found positive for both hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Anti hepatitis C antibody (Anti-HCV antibody) after initial sc...

Shahzad Khan1*, Inayatullah Jan1 and Syed Fahad Shah2 

...the help of a pre-tested questionnaire. The findings of the study reveal that skillful and experienced tenants were given preference by the landlord. But due to non-availability of extension department and its trainings, illiterate and untrained tenants are involved in agricultural practices. The physical inputs and investment efforts lead to long term duration for the tenants which usually make interest of the landlord to offer the land on fixed tenancy contr...

Majid Khan, Naveed Jehan*, Muhammad Zahoor and Nadia Naz 

...ected through structured questionnaire from 159 farmers. Monthly farmers’ income was calculated from the total crop and non-crop income. The results revealed that the poverty ratio and Poverty Gap index were 8.3 percent and 0.016 percent for the Virginia tobacco growers and 42.52 percent and 0.076 percent for the non-tobacco growers, respectively. This shows that the Virginia Tobacco growers poverty status was better. Therefore, tobacco is recommended as...

Saba1, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Waqar Khalid2* and Saifullah Khan

...a, and a well-structured questionnaire was designed to accumulate the primary dataset from rural women through face to face interviews. A women’s participation index was designed to compute the degree of women’s involvement, and a multiple linear regression model was proposed to measure factors influencing women’s participation in livestock management practices. The computed value of the mean composite index was 4.81 which showed that women f...

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...ution were selected. The questionnaire was developed for survey of Camel farmers and information regarding the age of respondent, experience, type of community, feeding/watering pattern of camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic losses were collected. A total of one thousand and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents from three groups viz settled, tr...

Amjad Ali1*, Lal Almas2, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Hina Fatima3 and Asim Khan1  

...P). Through a structured questionnaire, key questions were asked to gather data with respect to inputs utilization and socio-economic characteristics of selected sample of sugarcane growers. Using Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), mean technical efficiency of sugarcane crop in KP was around 70 percent ranging from minimum 53 to maximum possible efficient level of 98 percent. Results of study indicate that on average with same technology and resource base, yi...

Muhammad Shakeel1,2*, Salik Nawaz2, Yasar Saleem3, Shazia Shafique2, Ateeq Tahir2 and Muhammad Riaz2

...bution of the structured questionnaire. Information was collected from Punjab, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa (KPK) provinces, Kashmir and Islamabad. A total of 167 farmers and amateurs growers, engaged in the cultivation of high value or medicinal crops were contacted. Out of these, 68 found as broccoli growers and most probably due to shyness only 37 contributed in data collection process. In the perspectives of health-promoting properties of broccoli 62% ...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Riyasat Sultan 

...i. The study is based on questionnaire survey. In Utla only 40 households practice transhumance, and the present study covers all the households who practice transhumance. Land use data were collected from revenue office Topi. Patterns of transhumance in Utla reflected the distinctive environmental and socio-economic conditions. The system and schedule devised by the local population is based on indigenous knowledge and is for the better management of forests,...

Cornelius Arome Omatola*, Samson Daniel Iyeh, Shedrach James Abuh, Charles Kehinde Mofolorunsho, Martin-Luther Oseni Okolo and Phoebe Queen Akoh 

...btained using structured questionnaires. Sixty-four (25.6%) out of 250 women had at least one STI. The overall prevalence of syphilis, HIV, HBV, HCV and HSV-2 were 28(11.2%), 21(8.4%), 10(4.0%), 5(2.0%) and 0% respectively. Women who were married, unemployed, aged 15-35 years and of low-income earners had a higher prevalence of STIs. Factors such as a history of STIs in women and husbands, blood transfusions, genital ulcers and trimesters were significantly re...

Fazal Haq*, Asia Parveen, Safdar Hussain and Arshad Hussain 

...ct the sample. Self made questionnaires, filled through interviewed process from the random selected farmers were used as a tool for collecting primary data. The raw data is tabulated and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The analyzed data is used to develop the mathematical model. Simplex method is applied to find the optimal solution of the model, which showed 10.18% increase in the net revenue per year.  

...

Khalid Khan1, Marguerite Wotto2, Saima Liaqat3, Gulawar Khan1, Balach Rasheed1, Sara Rafiq4 and Guo Xiangyu5* 

...nants. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from one hundred tomato growers. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used for selection of the farmers. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to estimate the technical efficiency and performance of the farmers. The study results disclosed that all explanatory variables have a positive impact on the farmers’ technical efficiency apart from pesticides. Additionally, the average t...

Rashid Nawaz*1, Iftikhar Hussain1, Sikandar Bilal Khattak1 

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS IDENTIFICATION AND PRIORITIZATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS
...he data gathered through questionnaire distributed among 213 respondents representing
24 cement plants were analyzed using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The proposed KPIs are supposed to
assist the decision makers in achieving environmental sustainability. Among the 11 KPIs identified, the KPI “Total
amount of Emissions in Metric tons of CO2 equivalent per year” was identified as having the highest impact on
enviro...

Waqas Anwar, Iftikhar Hussain 

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY
... through a comprehensive questionnaire containing twenty-six questions. Comparing circumstances and outcome of construction projects with remaining part of the country, the study finds that the cost of work in FATA / PATA and restive regions of Baluchistan is substantially high due to multiple factors and therefore recommendations a construction model for creating ideal circumstances for expediting pace of development and assuring timely completion of projects...

Waqas Anwar, Iftikhar Hussain 

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY
... through a comprehensive questionnaire containing twenty-six questions. Comparing circumstances and outcome of construction projects with remaining part of the country, the study finds that the cost of work in FATA / PATA and restive regions of Baluchistan is substantially high due to multiple factors and therefore recommendations a construction model for creating ideal circumstances for expediting pace of development and assuring timely completion of projects...

Muhammad Naveed Anjum1, Abdur Rehman1*, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan1, Raheel Saqib2, Mohammad Fayaz3 and Iqbal Javed4

Impact of Microfinance on Socioeconomic Status of Farmers in District Dera Ismail Khan
...well-designed structured questionnaire. The descriptive, inferential statistics, chi square statistics and simple linear regression models were used. The results of the study highlighted that 72.2% of the farmer’s incomes increases due to microcredit’s facility and due to increase in income, the farmers are able to get more access to the health facilities than before. 82.2% farmer’s response indicated that the microfinance have a positive and...

Waqas Anwar1*, Iftikhar Hussain1

COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGEMENT BETWEEN RESTIVE REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND REMAINING PART OF COUNTRY
...omprehensive
questionnaire containing twenty-six questions. Comparing circumstances and outcome of construction projects with
remaining part of the country, the study finds that the cost of work in FATA / PATA and restive regions of Baluchistan
is substantially high due to multiple factors and therefore recommendations a construction model for creating ideal
circumstances for expediting pace of development and as...

Fazli Rabbi1*, Muhammad Idrees2, Shahid Ali1, Muhammad Zamin3 and Hazrat Bilal4

Farmers Perceptions and Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Production and Marketing
... using a well-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and χ2 tests were used for data analysis. The results showed a greater awareness level among the peach (P. persica L.) growers about ICTs. Moreover, the analysis indicated that more than 75 % of farmers are in use of a single or multiple type of ICTs. Among the sampled farmers, 70% of the farmers perceived ICTs as useful for farming activities. The analysis also revealed that 58.5% of the farme...

Asadullah Saleem* and Nadeem Ehsan*

STATUS OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS IN INFRASTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION FIRMS OF PAKISTAN
Amjad Hussain1, Ata Ur Rehman2, Zia Ur Rehman Tahir3, Aftab Ahmad1, Fahad Noor3, Qasar Wasique Ahmad1
INVESTIGATION OF EMPLOYEES’ PERCEPTION ABOUT LEAN IMPLEMENTATION
...been collected through a questionnaire (α=0.85) from four textile organizations (N=339; white collars and blue collars employees working at the shop floor); level and maturity of lean implementation in each organization was done before conducting the study. It has been concluded that white collar work group perceptions about Kaizen implementation are more positive than blue collar employees. Moreover, employees with the lowest positive perception are lik...

Behram Khan1, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Said Qasim3, Atta-ur Rahman4

ANALYSIS OF HUMAN PERCEPTIONS AND ADAPTATIONS TO FLASH FLOODS IN KHYBER AGENCY, FATA
...observations, structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussions supported by secondary data sources. Three hundred adult residents in five sample villages along Chora River and its tributaries were interviewed by using a structured questionnaire which covered approximately 20% of the total households. Respondents’ perceptions were investigated about the occurrence of flash floods, flood damages, nature of aff...

 Sikandar Bilal Khattak, Iftikhar Hussain, Rashid Nawaz

EVALUATING THE SOCIAL ASPECT OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION FOR PAKISTAN VIA ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS
... are carried out through questionnaire or interviews. Similarly, this papers also uses the questionnaire for data collection. The collected data is analyzed with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The pair wise comparison (From-To) charts are generated for all central tendency measures. These measures are used as input for AHP independently. The factors are ranked on the basis of their Eigen values obtai...

Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta1,2*, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar3*, Muhammad Shoaib4, Wangyuan Yao3, Muhammad Asif5, Shah Nawaz6, Moazam Ali7 and Ayesha Kanwal8

Exploratory Study on the Psychological Impact of COVD-19 on Students
...hrough a semi structured questionnaire. Recruitment of participants was done from different universities of Pakistan. The results showed that the students are more concerned about their family members (p=0.00). Under this influence they have increased the frequency of handwashing and use masks when they have to go outside. More than half of the students (53.09%) were afraid of the COVID-19 and similar pattern was noted about depression (54.86%). About 57.5% st...
Dibyendu Biswas1*, Shib Shankar Saha2, Shankar Biswas3 and Md. Abu Sayeed4
Outbreak of Lumpy Skin Disease of Cattle in South-West Part of Bangladesh and its Clinical Management
...Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was developed and data were collected from the two upazila (Monirampur and Abhaynagar) at Jessore district. A total of 52 small house-holds and 183 cattle were observed the study period from 15 June to 15 August 2019. LSD was diagnosed on the basis of present clinical signs guided by the OIE manual. All data were analyzed by Epi Info 7 and SPSS statistical software. Analyzed data revealed that young female cattle were mos...

Hina Imtiaz1*, Salma Khalid2, Kashaf Riaz1, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3 and Zubair Rehman

...hrough self-administered questionnaires. In order to observe coagulant effect according to Pakistan National Environmental Quality (Standards (Pak-NEQS), the collected samples were treated in the laboratory for identification and recommending suitable coagulant. Three different treatments were practiced i.e. Alum, Lime and Alum+ Lime. For alum, lime and alum + lime the settling time interval was 40, 35 and 20 minutes respectively. Results revealed that the com...
Shagufta Parveen1*, Kousar Perveen1, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Amir Gilani2, Muhammad Musadaq3
...fant and recorded in the questionnaire. Weight and height of each infant was measured in kilograms and cm, respectively, and recorded. Data was entered in SPSS version 26 and analyzed for results. A total of 200 infants were included in the study, of which 94 (47%) of infants were less than 6 months old, and 106 (53%) were 6-12 months old. 102 infants (51%) were male and 98 (49%) were female. 113 (56.5%) infants under study were started weaning at less than 6 ...

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Syed Amir Zia Abid1, Muhammad Luqman1, Syed Wasim Hasan2, Muhammad Aqeel Pitafi3, Muhammad Tariq Chaudhry4 and Muhammad Ameen5

Training Needs Assessment of Training Professionals Working in Agricultural Training Institutes in Punjab, Pakistan
...h the help of structured questionnaire. Different questions related to demographic attributes, training needs and constraints faced by professionals affecting their performances. Collected data were analyzed with the help for SPSS, results revealed that majority of the were included training professionals did not get any training at national/ international level. Moreover, they were facing many constraints, which affect their performance like limited of financ...

Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi1*, Ayoola Olugbenga Oladele2 and Ibrahim Maharazu3

Profitability Analysis and Marketing Efficiency of Soyabean (Glycine max) Value Chain among Actors in Abuja, Nigeria
...tructured, well-designed questionnaire. Data obtained were coded, analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, financial analysis, marketing margin, marketing efficiency, Probit model analysis, five point Likert scale and principal component analysis. The results revealed that most (86.33%) of the soyabean marketers were between the ages of 31-60 years, about 83.33% of soyabean marketers had less than 5 years marketing experiences. Cost of tra...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria

Hosts and Viruses

June

Vol. 7, Iss. 3, Pages 39-58

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