Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...ortant RVA VP7- and VP4- protein encoding genes are important for vaccine development or judging the efficacy of existing RVA vaccines, they do not always provide conclusive information on the overall and complex genetic makeup of RVAs, as the remaining 9 RVA gene segments are also susceptible to the forces governing RVA genetic diversity. Whole genomic analysis of RVAs has revolutionized the study of RVA genomics, providing a plethora of conclusive and vital ...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...n the hemagglutinin (HA) protein which improved the binding affinity to human receptors but simultaneously retained its specificity for avian-receptors. Vaccines were applied nationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic drift and the establishment of infections in vaccinated poultry. The Egyptian H5N1 viruses remain susceptible to oseltamivir, but ...

Kathryne E. Taylor1 and Karen L. Mossman1,2*

...ature regarding the ICP0 protein from herpes simplex virus is complex and frequently contradictory, meaning that although this protein has been implicated in a wide variety of diverse functions, the mechanisms through which it produces these effects continue to be elusive. Recent investigations into the ability of ICP0 to block the activation of antiviral signaling have revealed a potential explanation for some of this confu...

Qin Zhao1,2, Yani Sun1,2, Gaiping Zhang1,3, Frederik Widen4, En-Min Zhou1,2,*

zhouem@nwsuaf.edu.cn

....

...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...e non-structural 1 (NS1) protein plays a crucial role in moderating the virulence of influenza virus by multiple mechanisms. Due to C-terminal ‘tail’ (CTT) truncation of NS1, there are length variation types of NS1 in different subtype influenza viruses. CTT functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune responses. Here, we discuss those different effects of CTT truncation or elongation of NS1 protein...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...ce analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, the PPRV has been classified into four lineages. Serological investigations in Tanzania indicate that peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was introduced in 2004 in Ngorongoro district bordering Ken- ya before official confirmation of the disease in most districts of Northern Tanzania in 2008. In 2011, the presence of PPRV in goats of southern Tanzania district of Tandahimba bordering Mozambique was reported. The aim of t...

Qingzhong Yu

 

...ting a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene upstream from the GE sequences of the viral genes and subsequent quantitative measurements of the GFP fluorescence intensity, we have concluded that the P and M junction region is the optimal insertion site for a high level of foreign gene expression by a NDV vector.

...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

... dry matter yield, crude protein, crude fiber and ash percentage were significantly increased with increase nitrogen levels (200, 240, and 280 kg N ha-1). However, highest benefit-cost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was found best compromise between forage yield and quality for maize cultivar Kissan under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The study also indicates that crude protein

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

... against FMDV structural proteins.

...

 Shubhada K Chothe, Bhushan M Jayarao and Suresh V Kuchipudi

...hich can escape the anti-protein environment in the virus infected cells and are likely to be conserved across the species. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about the role of lncRNAs in influenza virus infection and the exciting prospect of exploiting lncRNAs as targets to develop novel anti-viral therapies.

...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

...ents, the value of crude protein (CP) digestibility coefficient was high (P<0.05) in treatment MLM4 as compared to MLM1. Similar trend was also observed in case NDF among treatments. Daily milk yield and 4 % FCM has increased (P<0.05) in buffaloes fed treatment MLM3 and MLM4 as compared to other treatments. While there was no significant (P>0.05) difference of percentage of fat, protein, lactose, ash, total solids a...

Kang-Seuk Choi

...rising only viral capsid proteins mimic the naive configuration of authentic IBD virus particles. The VLPs show intrinsic immunogenicity and a high safety profile.  Thus, VLPs are considered one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specific app...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

... for studying virus-host protein-protein interactions. BDV P (phosphoprotein) and N (nucleoprotein) have previously been reported to interact with several host proteins, thereby interfering with various signaling pathways. In this study, we focused on some of these interactions (BDV P-HMGB1, BDV N/P-Cdc2). First, we us...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...ently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.

...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...e site of the fusion (F) protein indicated the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of the F and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes indicated that the isolate clustered with the PPMV-1 strains recently reported from Israel within subgenotype VIb. Our findings report the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egyptian pigeons and the potential role these wild birds can play in the transmission and evolution dynamics of PPMV-1.

...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

... technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous systems across the globe for development of vaccines and/or diagnostic antigens. The recombinant viral proteins, virus like particle based vaccines, bivalent/multivalent vaccines, recombinant viral vectored vaccines, RNA interference as a therapy, suicidal DNAs, synthetic epitopes and peptides, reverse genetics, anti i...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...he partial sequence of N protein.The recent Bangladeshi isolates are somewhat divergent from the earlier Bangladeshi isolate, indicating that the PPRV strains in Bangladesh are continuously changing their genetic character.

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Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...bstitutions in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. Genetic variations within NP gene, and possibly in other proteins which are essentially mediating protective immunity, may explain the extreme infectious nature of the virus and its host-specific pathogenesis. Moreover, understanding the nature of such circulating field viruses is essential to underpin the endemic potential of PPRV and its possible spread to the susceptible wild or...

 Ishfaq Ahmed, Ihsan Mabood Qazi and Suraiya Jamal

...t was found that percent protein (8.93–12.25%), ash (0.52–1.01%) and moisture contents (4.47–7.09%) showed significant (P < 0.05) increase, while fat content (1.41-1.17%) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease by blending WF with BRF. Similarly, water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI) and swelling power (SP) showed significant (P < 0.05) decrease as the concentration of wheat flour in the blends increases. The valu...

 Zafar Khan, Asad Sultan, Rajwali Khan, Sarzamin Khan, Imranullah and Kamran Farid

 
...e of the main sources of protein but if contaminated by toxic heavy metals will cause a harmful effect on human health. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn and Zn) present in poultry egg and meat were determined in the following three districts; Peshawar, Dir Lower and Malakand of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In all the three districts the egg albumen was found to contain significantly higher levels of Pb, ...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

... that the aptamers bound proteins of the correct molecular weights for intact outer membrane proteins (OMPs), intimins and SLT-2. Some bands on the aptamer Western blots were shared between the “Big 6” non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), E. coli O157 and related Gram negative bacteria. However, unrelated Gram positive bacteria exhibited very few, if any, bands in common with those identified on the E. ...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...creased the moisture and protein content. The addition of gums further augmented the moisture level owing to owing to their water retention properties. The melt-ability, flow-ability and yield of cheese decreased significantly (p < 0.05) on reducing the fat level, as anticipated. However, the addition of gums gradually improved these aspects with higher values for cheese containing guar gum as compared to xanthan gum. The full fat cheese showed the minimum ...

 Shaoling Lin and Jiamiao Hu

...ify;"> The tegument protein pUL23 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays an important in the virus pathobiology, however, its role in viral assembly and replication is poorly defined. In this study we demonstrated that HCMV pUL23 interacts with an essential component of capsid, the minor capsid protein (mCP, pUL85). Interaction was determined and confirmed with yeast two-hybrid, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation a...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

...ncrease in mitochondrial protein contents and COX activity both in liver and brown adipose tissue, suggesting that A. chevrieri was more sensitive to cold than that of photoperiod. Together, these data suggested that A. chevrieri mainly depend on increasing thermogenic capacity to cope with cold or winter condition.

...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

...5 bp and comprises of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and two control regions CR and CCR, which was first reported in the order Coraciiformes. The overall A+T content for the mitogenome is 52%, and the GC and AT skews are -0.400 and 0.108. Unlike to many other birds, no extra base is inserted at certain position relative to ND3. Interestingly, a 484bp repeated sequence appears in both CR and CCR. Genetic distance shows that the differenc...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...hydrogenase (LDH), total protein, total bilirubin, hepatic glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxides (LP) levels were estimated. Moreover these biochemical parameters were confirmed by histopathological examination using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Mason trichrome stains (MTC). Immunohistochemical investigations for the expression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax) and the ex...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

...a concatenated set of 12 protein-coding genes, and adding 16 other species of gobies (Gobiidae). The mitogenome sequences of O. lacepedii, O. rebecca

Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

...t was found that soluble proteins, glucose contents and free amino acids increased, whereas glycogen and lipid contents were reduced in all deltamethrin-resistant populations as compared to deltamethrin-susceptible population. Soluble Proteins were significantly elevated (79, 100 and 37%) in 4th and 6th instar larvae and adult beetles of Gujranwala, (14, 24 and 14%) in Okara and (14, 13 and 2%) in D.G Khan populations, respe...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...ify;">The signaling of G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) is a key regulator of secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), whereas GnRH is a crucial neurohormone regulating the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) at puberty. The deficiency in release or action of GnRH leads to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) characterized by low FSH, LH and testosterone (T) and absent or impaired sexual development at pub...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

.... This SS cDNA encodes a protein with 114 amino acids that contains the SS14 sequence at its C-terminus. This putative peptide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus SS1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which demonstrated high expression level in the brain. During embryogenesis, SS1 mRNA was detected during early-stage embryonic development, decreased during subsequent...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

...pm) is the most abundant protein in the nucleus of oocytes which can promote in vitro nucleosome formation. In this study, to improve the efficiency of SCNT in Banna Mini-pig Inbred Line (BMI), we obtained the recombinant nucleoplasmin (Npm) by using a prokaryotic expression system and compared the difference on the developmental effects between exogenous Npm and its structural analog, polyglutamic acid (PGA). We chose the pMD18-T vector for Npm expression and...

Giselle R.R. Ayres* and Brandão P.E

... code for non-structural proteins (nsps) that are enrolled in viral transcription, replication and pathogenesis. The last 3’ one-third of the genome codes the four structural and accessory proteins. Nsps act in a complex replication process, made possible by the special characteristics of AvCoV genome. This manuscript aims to present an overview of the main aspects of the current knowledge on the main AvCoV replicase g...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...ferent units showed that protein contents were 50.51% – 61.26% and energy was determined as 4042.0 cal/g – 4558.0 cal/g. Dry mater was calculated as 87.43% – 93.13% and fat was noted as 15.29% – 26.23%. Ash was found to be 12.32%–18.32% and fiber remained as 7.52% – 13.12%. Phosphorus was found as 0.21%–1.8%. In fish meal preparation, 24 species belonging to different families were noted in which the most abundantly us...

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

... fed on 40%, 35% and 30% protein diet @5% of their live body weight. In 40% protein diet treatment, male fish was injected 1st dose with ovaprim + HCG (0.3+0.3ml) and female fish was given 2nd dose after 24 hrs of intervals with ovaprim (0.2ml), while 1st dose ovaprim (0.7ml)+HCG (1.0ml) and 2nd dose ovaprim (0.7ml) was given to the females. The treatment which was given 35% protein diet r...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...female. High density lipoprotein (HDL), both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol level and serum insulin were significantly higher (p< 0.05) in proliferative group of diabetic retinopathy, while triglyceride level, HbA1c (%), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were non-significantly higher (p> 0.05) in diabetic retinopathy groups. To conclude high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was observed among newl...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...ficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the addition of the 4TX in the diets. Among different dietary groups of the fish, % survival was not affected significantly (p<0.05). T1 showed maximum NWG (45.49±3.85), FER (0.739±0.02) and PER (36.36±1.83) when compared to other dietary treatment groups. The addition of 4TX clay in the diets at both 2 and 4 ppm AFB1 concentrations have almost the same effect on the ...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...s carrying a fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter gene regulated by the 2.2-kb human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (hGFAP-DsRed). This study characterized transgene expression in such transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs and their offspring. Our findings indicate that the hGFAP promoter contains matching regulatory elements for directing specific expression in porcine astrocytes. However, the practical application of...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...with diet comprising 40% protein and 20% lipid for 75 days. Higher percent weight gain (% WG), best feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were recorded at ration level from 2.5 to 4.5% BW d−1 and feeding frequency of three to four times daily. The moisture, protein and ash contents of whole body of the fish were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by feeding frequency. The highest lipid contents...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...ber, vitamin C and crude proteins were also increased in spinach with pressmud + EM application. It was concluded that EM-inoculated pressmud has higher potential to increases soil fertility as well as stimulate spinach growth and quality. Therefore, warrants further testing under field conditions.

...
Sidra Ilyas1, Abdul Rehman1* and Qasim Ilyas2
...r treatment, whereas non-protein thiol levels were higher after Cd and As treatment followed by those of Pb, Cr and Cu treatment. Candida sp. PS33 was able to remove 78% (Cd), 70% (As), 82% (Cu), 65% (Cr) and 87% (Pb) from the medium after 8 days of incubation. This multi-resistant yeast can be used efficiently for the removal of toxic metals from the wastewater.
...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...ed with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in three equal meals. On the other hand, control ponds remained without additives. During the whole study period, water quality parameters of the experimental ponds remained as salinity (15‰ -20‰), dissolved oxygen (5.6 to 7.5ml/l), temperature (25°C to 28°C). pH (7.6-7.8), ammonia (NH4-N) and `nitrites (NO2-N) ...
Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
...mal saline. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Ldh-c in plateau pika skeletal muscles were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. The LDH activities, lactate contents and ATP levels in skeletal muscle were compared between the experimental group and the control group. The results showed that 1) the expression levels of Ldh-c mRNA and protein were 0.804±0.059 and 0.979±0.176, respecti...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...ture acclimation-related protein, and it plays an important role in adapting temperature shock. But the research about Wap65 in crucian carp is very limited. In this study, the CDS of Wap65 was firstly cloned and characterized from crucian carp (Carassius carassius). This sequence is 1338bp that encodes a polypeptide of 445 amino acids. The calculated molecular weight of crucian carp Wap65 protein (CcWap65) is ...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
... receptor class B type I protein (SCARB1) plays an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis. The effect of the polymorphisms in the gene have varying influences on lipid levels and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in different populations. In this study, we investigated the association of rs5888 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and CVD risk in an Indian population. A total of 412 samples which included 148 myocardial infarction survivors...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...low leaf curl virus-coat protein (TYLCV-CP) and African cassava mosaic virus-coat protein (ACMV-CP) were used. However, immunocapture of ToLCNDV could only be achieved by using the TYLCV-CP antisera followed by PCR detection by using specific and degenerate primers. ToLCNDV is geographically wide spread Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae), considered as a close relative of TYLCV, and cause severe losses for many economical im...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...er the deficit in animal protein in developing countries including Egypt. However little is known about the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of major bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health....

 Abdul Wajid Khalil and Zafar Iqbal

...1.22±0.05%) while protein (37.46±0.02%) and organic matter (21.25±0.03%) was recorded higher in roots than the aerial parts of B. procumbens. Calcium (309.73±0.06mg/100g), potassium (274.59±0.08mg/100g) and iron (32.58±0.05mg/100g) were found in highest amounts in aerial parts as compared to the roots. The Cadmium metal was not detected while lead was found in permissible limits in both the aerial parts and roots of B....
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...pellets having 35% crude protein at 2% body weight twice a day for 60 days and eggs were collected weekly. Results showed that fertilized eggs were found to be greater in number at low salinity level as compared to higher salinity level. Survival of fry ranged from 1058 to 1100 at salinity level of 0‰ – 20‰ with 5% increment, after which fry number decreased significantly (P<0.05). The fertilized eggs did not differ for the fish at salin...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...ms of nutrient elements, proteins and factors such as ADF, Ash, CF, NDF.

...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

... (HEK) cell line. The HA protein was analyzed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The pCAGG-optiH9 vaccine efficacy was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of SPF chickens with different concentrations of plasmid DNA and the sera were collected weekly post vaccination for antibody detection by HI test. All immunized chickens shown high HI antibody titers (9Log2) two weeks post-booster dose. The chickens were then challeng...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
...on coefficients of crude protein and digestible crude protein. Ruminal pH values and ammonia nitrogen concentrations did not show any significant differences among groups.No significant differences were observed in meat chemical analysis of slaughtered animals among different groups. Animals fed BBP recorded insignificant increase in growth rate by 9 g daily with improvement in feeding cost by 10%.Bakery waste can replace co...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...yield, harvest index and protein content were recorded where seed inoculation with PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and full dose of recommended chemical was applied during both the growing seasons. Overall the performance of sunflower was better in spring as compared to autumn season. However, it was also noted that the combination of PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and half recommended doses of chemical fertilizer gave results as full recommended dose of chemical fertilizer alone. Therefore...
Neenish Rana, Nosheen Ehsan, Awais Ihsan and Farrukh Jamil*
...rved that their putative protein products will be thermodynamically stable. The sequence-based predictions suggested that the pseudogenes-derived proteins may involve in different biological functions like translation, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and transport and binding.
...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...n and cultured in liquid protein supplemented broth medium and culture filtrates (CF) were prepared. In in-vitro test single eggmasses of uniform size were kept in 5ml CF in 5cm diameter Petri plates. Antifungal activity was tested by dual culture of wilt fungus with antagonist fungus and bacteria isolates in PDA media plates. In in-vivo test soil was amended with antagonist and wilt fungal and bacterial isolates 2 x 106 CFU/ml and 2 x 108 CFU/ml respectively ...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...s. The Albumin and total protein values were significantly low (P<0.05) in infected groups A and B as compared to control groups C and D on 5th and 7th day. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly (P<0.05) high in infected groups A and B. On 3rd, 5th and 9th day five birds from each group were slaughtered and histopathological lesions observed in bur...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...e individuals. Gluten, a protein fraction commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a number of autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that gluten containing diet would further exacerbate an already undergoing arbitrary immune reaction in SLE patients. Pristane was injected in female BALB/c mice to induce the disease. After five months, mice in various groups were treated with prednisone and fed with gluten containing and standar...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
..., a multifunctional glycoprotein, occurring as awhey constitute in milk secretions of animals and humandisplays a variety of antimicrobial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory as well as a number of other biological functions. Its potential can be exploited in several food applications. Keeping in view the increased demand of natural antimicrobial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...opped. The yield of milk protein, fat, solids not fat and lactose were not affected (P>0.05). Milk fat, solids not fat and lactose concentrations differed (P<0.001) among the treatments but did not show (P>0.05) any linear or quadratic trends with increasing level of enzyme in the diet. Milk protein concentration linearly (P<0.001) increased with increasing level of enzyme in the diets. It is concluded that fibro...
Ayesha Zahid,Ammara Muazzam, Sidra Mustafa, Saba Irshad*,Malik Siddique Mahmood and Rehman Shahzad

 

...onal analysis of mutated protein was anticipated by bioinformatics tools, which manifest mild changes in overall charge but altered post translational modifications in a way which might have a deleterious effect on ion channels anatomy and on the whole, pave ways to the genesis of cataract.
...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...tities of carbohydrates, proteins and secondary metabolites in methanol compared to other extracting solvents. Moreover, only ethanol (5 and 10%) and petroleum ether (5%) demonstrated significant hair growth promoting effects (p < 0.05) compared to standard, i.e., 5% minoxidil and extracts in other solvents. Likewise, ethanol (5% and 10 %) and petroleum ether (5%) extract had significant impact (p < 0.05) on hair length in comparison to minoxidil,...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of two LSDV isolates from Ixodid (hard) ticks (Amblyomma hebraeum) in Egypt. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that both isolates had nine nucleotide mutations in comparison with the local reference strain, LSDV-Egypt/89 Ismalia. Compared with the GPCR sequences of SPV and GPV strains, 21 nucleotide insertion and 12 nucleotides deletions were identified in the GPCR ...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
...ly be used as a low-cost protein constituent in the broiler finisher ration.
...
Viram Kumar1,*, Moolchand Malhi1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi2, Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani3 and Khushal Das Malhi1
....05) and the serum total protein and Mg concentrations were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in male compared to female peafowl. In conclusion, the present study provides base-line values for hematology and serum biochemistry of apparently healthy Indian adult blue peafowl of Thar and can be used as reference values to evaluate the health or diseased conditions in the same species.
...
Muzammil Sattar
...ing amounts of different proteins in the diet of adult Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). Results show that proteins play a vital role in the fecundity, fertility and all the biological parameters of F1 for mass rearing. The tested proteins were: Casein, Protein hydrolysate, Torula yeast and Nu lure. Al these protei...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...ggs. Identification of H protein was undertaken through hem agglutination Inhibition (HI) test while N typing was done using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure. Out of 600 examined locations twenty two (22) H9N2 subtypes isolates were recorded. The total prevalence recorded was 3.66%and out of 498 broiler operations yielded 17 (3.4%) positive isolates and 44 golden type native chicken farms yielded 05 (11.3...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

.... However, maximum grain protein content was recorded in soil applied method in comparison to foliar N application. In conclusion, higher results for all the quantitative parameters were observed at 120 kg N ha-1.

...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...e, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, NFE and fiber content changed significantly (p<0.05). Gross energy level in cake which is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was dark colored, low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatment (T3) containing 5.6g grapefruit albedo powder shows significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory scores in term of color (8.02±0.50), flavor (8.04±0.29), taste (8.18±0.37), mouth...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...C), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride level. Group I comprised control group of induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on purified diet AIN-93 G. Group II comprised induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on WBF. Group III comprised induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on MBF, Group IV comprised hypercholestero...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

.... The confirmation of H5 protein expression was performed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. The humoral immune response was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens with two different concentrations of Egy-H5 plasmid DNA 15µg and 60 µg. Results demonstrate that chickens developed detectable HI antibody titers up to 6log2 within two weeks post-booster vaccination. The c...
Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...etween speculated fusion proteins. Under bioinformatics analysis, the T2R1 gene without introns was consistent with the structural domains characteristics of this family genes. The translation protein of T2R1 gene displayed with corresponding signal loci and functional domains of this gene family, and the result showed that the taste receptor translated by T2R1 gene belongs to G ...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...70% and 12.70% for crude protein, crude fat and apparent gross energy as compared to the reference diet, respectively at 1000 FTU kg-1 level. It was concluded that the phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based diet at 1000 FTU kg-1 level is optimum to release adequate chelated nutrients for maximum growth performance of C. mrigala fingerlings. Our results also suggested that phytase supplementation to sunflower meal based die...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...arious regions of the NA protein were determined with unknown functions and consequences. These findings warrant future studies for analysis of whole genome sequencing of prevailing H9N2 viruses in Pakistan which may further contribute towards the better understanding of the genetic nature and evolutionary behavior of these viruses in the country.

...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
...kg, made up of 30% crude protein, 7% crude lipid, 6% crude fiber, 12% ash, and 12% moisture as a percentage of fish body weight, with three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed three times per day at 09:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The experiment was carried out for 120 days. Each month, 30 fish were removed from each of the floating net cages to be measured and weighed. The biomass of fish was calculated, and the amount of feed was adjusted. The feeding rate sign...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...ts of the outer membrane protein 10 (Omp10) on bacterial survival, virulence, phagosome-lysosome fusion, and apoptosis induction, as assessed in appropriate in vitro (cell culture) and animal models. Results showed the omp10 mutant was dramatically attenuated for survival in macrophages and mice than the parent strain 2308. With decrease in the spleen/body weight ratios of mice infected with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosom...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...5 in the season. Grains protein was observed high for sowing made on November 15-25 for wheat varieties Dharabi, Shahkar-2013, Pakhtunkhuwa-2015 and Ghanemat-2015 as un-irrigated crop for the area. The study suggests that none of the existing wheat variety has potential to sustain grain yield of wheat if planted on December 5 or thereafter. However, Ghanemat-2015 is relatively better option over the other varieties for Peshawar.

...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
...mes rich in high quality protein and oil. Its cultivation in Pakistan is restricted to few areas due to poor germination and low seed viability. The optimum yield and quality of this oil seed crop is noticeably affected by its lower germination rate. To address the problem of poor germination and low seed viability, a field study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, during spring 2011. The experiment was composed of t...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
... the size of recombinant protein as 70 kDa. The optimization studies demonstrated the maximal production of recombinant phytase, when the recombinant cells were induced with 1.4 mM IPTG with the post induction time of 6 hours. PHYTN showed maximal activity at 80°C in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 6. Presence of Fe3+ or Cu2+ showed an enhancing effect on the PHYTN activity. Thermostability studies demonstrated th...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...nt (p>0.05) effect on protein, SNF and Lactose contents of the milk. These results concluded that milk yield and milk fat were increased by supplementation of MSC in the dairy cattle ration. The proportion of MSC up to 12% in the ration has shown the best efficiency of production as compare to other rations. 

...
Aqsa Qayyum1*, Masooma Munir1, Saeeda Raza1, Mussarat Gillani1, Saima Kanwal1, Nouman Rashid1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Zarmina Gillani2
...y while ash, fat, fiber, protein, iron, zinc, magnesium and manganese contents increased significantly (p < 0.01). There was a non-significant (p > 0.05) effect on the color, flavor, taste and texture of biscuits. So, it is concluded that replacement of wheat flour with pea flour up to a level of 20% improved the nutritional potential of biscuits without affecting the consumer acceptability score.
...
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...good source of fiber and protein but they provide appreciable amount of minerals and phenolic compounds. Swollen basil seeds were used to prepare beverage at three supplementation levels i.e. 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%. Sensory evaluation of basil seed drink revealed that 0.3% basil seeds supplemented drink was liked most in term of taste, texture and over all acceptability whereas 0.4% basil seeds supplemented drink were least liked as compared to other treatments. It...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...ts and control for crude protein while rest of the parameters remained same. Apparent digestibility of crude protein and fat was found non-significantly different among treatments. It is concluded that addition of fenugreek in fish feed can improve growth performance and also protein content of the fish meat as well.
...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...ial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficient strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis. Several anti-VEGF drugs have been developed over the last two decades and some are still at different development s...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...ment in body dry matter, protein, fat, energy and ash contents of L. rohita. Acidification and phytase supplementation showed significant (P < 0.05) interaction on body composition and mineral utilization in rohu. Citric acid and phytase supplementation improves the diet by increasing the availability of minerals and quality of fish by positively affecting the body composition of fish. 3% citric acid and 1000FTU phytase proves to be interacted positi...
Talat Bilal Yasoob and Nasir Ali Tauqir* 
....363%, respectively. The protein and energy level were 18% and 2800 kcal/kg, respectively. One eighty day-old broiler chicks were distributed in 18 units having 10 chicks each according to completely randomized design. Feed consumption, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (P<0.05) improved in broilers fed all the experimental diets as compared to control during starter and finisher phases. A quadratic response was also obse...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
...TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and increasing the concentration of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C).
...
Xue-yang Wang1, Shang-zhi Zhang1, Ming-hui Liu2, Dong Yu1, Yan Ma1, Dong-qiong Fei1, Hai-zhong Yu1 and Jia-ping Xu1,*
...v>Armadillo (ARM)-repeat protein is involved in many biological processes, including cell–cell adhesion and the Wnt signaling pathway. However, the function of ARM-repeat protein in Bombyx mori has not been completely clarified. In this study, a gene encoding ARM-repeat protein was identified, which has an open reading fragment of 1923 bp, encoding a predicted 641 amino...
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...E3) as a ~24 kDa soluble protein and showed to be catalyticly active towards the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The results of the present study provide new information into camelid evolution and give further insights into the diversity and complex enzymatic functions of GST superfamily.
...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
... KIT gene and its protein ingoats of different fur colors. The effect of KIT mutations on KIT protein expression was examined in white cashmere and black cashmere goats. A single A→G missense mutation in exon 13 differentiated cashmere goats with different colors. Only a histidine (H)→arginine (R) amino acid (AA) change was detected at KIT exon 13 in both the white cashmere goat and the ...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...raction of extracellular proteins at pH 9.5 using Tris-Glycine buffer. Placental lactogen was purified by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex-G100 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE- Sepharose, employing a linear salt gradient. SDS-PAGE was used to monitor the purification steps, and protein band was located by immunoblotting technique. Bubaline placental lactogen was purified to homogeneity and showed a molecu...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...div>BPI is a pluripotent protein located in neutrophils and tissue that likely plays a vital role in host defense against GNB (gram-negative bacteria) and their endotoxin by means of its antibiotic and endotoxin neutralizing and disposing functions. BPI has several biological functions in mammals such as human, bovine, pig and rabbit, it also has major influence in the natural defense of the animal body. In this paper, by comparative study on BPI gene expressi...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...e differential expressed proteins. Almost 78 patho-stress responsive proteins which expression level more than 1.5-fold were identified, where 50 proteins were up-regulated and 28 proteins were down-regulated; The identified proteins were categorized into 16 classes, which are mainly including energy metabolism, gene e...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

...ndex (34.22 %) and grain protein content (8.56%) was obtained with (moringa green manuring).While Among fertilizer levels (100% of RDF) produced maximum plant height (189.02 cm) cob length (18.21 cm), number of grains per cob (438.7), 1000-grain weight (216.57 g), biological yield (17.79 t ha-1) grain yield (6.99 t ha-1) harvest index (39.37%) and grain protein content (8.78%). It can be concluded from above results that alo...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...) and outer membrane protein (ompA). Moreover O-antigen serotype was tested by slide agglutination test and a mouse model was built to assess the lethality of the E.coli isolates through subcutaneous-infection. Out of 81 E.coli isolates, the most prevalent gene detected was ompA (90.12%), followed by ETT2 (69.14%), irp2 (54.32%), EAST1 (46.91%), CS31A (41.98%), estB (19.75%), eaeA (14.81...
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
...ce as source of low-cost protein in Lower Mekong Region. The present study applied multivariate morphometric technique to identify fishery management units of C. apogon from six populations of three different river drainages: Pong, Chi, and Mun Rivers. Thirty-two truss measures and standard length were obtained using digital calliper from 291 fish individuals, and raw measured data were then subjected to allometric equation to remove size-dependent vari...
Aqsa Imtiaz and Abdul Rehman*
...d copper ions. A 130-kDa protein was detected from feather-treated bacterial cells, suggesting its role in degrading feather. B. subtilis BML5 can be used to overcome the poultry wastes based environmental pollution and keratinase could be used to improve feather meal digestibility in animal feed as an additive.
...
Muhammad Saqlain1, Humaira Kalsoom1, Muhammad Fiaz1,2, Abid Mahmood1, Rizwan Aziz Qazi4 ,Waseem Safdar5, Pakeeza Arzoo Shaiq1,Bernard M.Y. Cheung3 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1,*
...tinal fatty acid binding protein in the pathogenesis of MetS.
...
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...rease in live weight and protein efficiency rates when were directly compared with mock-treated fish control. However, there was no statistically supported level of significance was observed for growth rates and feed conversion rates among groups. Improved live weight and protein efficiency rates reflected positively on the survival rate in MOS-fed fish. Interestingly, the whole body and fillet fatty acid composition shown n...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...addition, genes mRNA and protein levels were detected after bull testicular Sertoli cells were transfected with miR-122 and miR-449a. Meanwhile, DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B overexpression experiments were conducted. Eventually, MTT assay was performed to observe the cells proliferation. The results showed that miR-122 and miR-449a were highly-expressed in testis tissues (p<0.01). The expression levels of miR-122 and miR-449a in the 24-month-...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*
...ibution of intracellular proteins in the oviduct of the hen, which provides an important basis for the regulation of the physiological activities of poultry oviduct and the molecular mechanism of sperm storage.
...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...hydroxylase) and soluble protein contents of a wheat grain pest, Trogoderma granarium collected from godowns of Punjab, Pakistan. Six populations of khpara beetle with different levels of susceptibility to phosphine were used in this study. Based on LC50, five populations (previously exposed to phosphine for 15 years)viz., Mandi Bahauddin-I (MBDIN-I), Mandi Bahauddin-II (MBDIN-II), Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sargodha were labeled as phosph...

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...±0.58 g/dL, total protein 5.35±0.55 g/L, urea 26.95±0.65 mg/dL, creatinine 0.83±0.01 µmol/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 35.56±1.16iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 44.16±1.83 iu/L were recorded for adult birds while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were significantly (P<0.05) higher 104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical parameters of M...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...ial pattern of bacterial proteins in tellurite stress was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Both bacterial strains can be utilized to convert toxic tellurite into its elemental form from the contaminated sites.

...

Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Khanum Zahra2, Arooj Zaheer2, Khizar Samiullah3

...s categorized as fibrous protein. Spiders produce several types of silk. Spider silk is important because of its maximum mechanical strength, biocompatibility and biodegradability, pore filling ability and very low immunogenicity. In this review structure and types of silk producing gland, spinning process, chemistry of spider silk fiber, mechanical properties and applications of silk in health, military industry and many other fields is discussed. Its antifun...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...ial floating pellet (35% protein) at 3% body weight per day for 40 days. Results showed that fish growth was significantly (P<0.05) higher in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, mean daily WG, SGR, feed conversion and survival rate from 15‰ to 30‰ salinity than those reared in 35‰ and 40‰ salinity. Condition factor was found to be significantly higher on 40‰ salinity than 15‰ to 35‰ salinity. Feed co...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
..., 784 and 602 amino acid protein, respectively. Chromosome synteny analyses revealed that CcSox5 and CcSox13 weretightly linked with the etnk gene, which was conserved in all species; however, there were no conserved regions flanking CcSox6. Numerous essential transcription factor binding sites (TFs) were predicted within the 2000 bp upstream of the 5’ end of these genes. These TFs include BSX, BRN4 and NGN–NEUROD, which have b...
Yunjun Yan, Zhenming Lü, Tianming Wang, Yongjiu Chen, Jingwen Yang, Baoying Guo, Lihua Jiang, Changwen Wu and Liqin Liu*
...ide pairs and encodes 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a major long noncoding region (LNCR) of the mitochondrion’s own protein synthesizing system. Seven of thirteen proteins, eight tRNAs are encoded by the plus strand, while the other proteins and tRNAs, as well as two rRNAs are encoded by the minus strand. Two (...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4, Lorenzo Gallus4 and Syed Sajjad A. Shah2,3
...d constituting 35% crude protein with 2% body weight twice a day. Eggs were collected on weekly basis by cultch removal method. Results showed that the highest fecundity, fertility, hatchability and survival of fry were obtained on salinity of 0%-15% and significantly decreased on 20‰ and 25‰. The eggs per gram body weight were also recorded in all treatments and highest eggs were obtained i.e. 4.0-4.3 per female on 0‰-15‰. W...
Jo Ik-Hwan1, Choi Kwang-Won1 and Muhammad Fiaz2,*
...reased (P<0.05) crude protein (CP) yield and carrying capacity for Hanwoo heifers than that of rye monoculture. DM and TDN yield under 100 kg manure was higher (P<0.05) than control and 50 kg N/ha levels but not different (P>0.05) with that of 150 kg N/ha. Manure levels did not affect (P>0.05) protein yield. The carrying capacity for Hanwoo heifers was not different among zero, 50 and 100 kg manure levels, wherea...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
...ial floating pellet (35% protein) with 3% of total biomass day-1 for 50 days. Results showed that the growth increment reared on 10‰ - 20‰ salinity were significantly highest in term of weight gain, WG % of initial weight, daily weight gain, specific growth rate, condition factor and survival rate than those reared on 25‰ and 30‰. Feed conversion ratio was found similar in all levels which is not significantly different (...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

...ect of different dietary protein levels on the growth and chemical conformation of broodfish and its eggs. There were three treatments (T1, T2 and T3) and a control with three replicates in each group. Control group was exclusively fed on natural food composed of tilapia fry while fish in T1 was fed on 30%, T2 on 35% and T3 on 40% protein diet, respectively. A...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...(5.40 t ha-1) protein contents (12.52%), nitrogen (28.22kg kg-1), phosphorus (34.85 kg kg-1) and potassium (47.40 kg kg-1) use efficiency were obtained with the treatment F2 (100% recommended dose of NPK).While in seed inoculants, maximum values of yield and yield contributing parameters were obtained in I1 (Inoculation with Azospirillum). However despite the better performance of F2...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
...t IL-18Rα mRNA and proteins are expressed in the IMG, which provides molecular evidence for the study of immune and neuro-modulation in the female reproductive system.
...

Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Khalid Naseem, Muhammad Amjad, Amer Mumtaz and Saeeda Raza*

...d grains, moisture, ash, protein (N x 5.7), wet and dry gluten, falling number, and minerals (copper, manganese, iron, zinc). It was observed that wheat samples varied considerably within each region and also between regions. Attock region samples had highest test weight (80.50 kg hl -1), protein (11.80 %) and lowest nonedible foreign matter (0.45%) and broken/shrunken grains (0.88 %). Highest wet and dry gluten (27.44 % and...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...r percentage of fats and protein content in VW+VC when compared with those grown with chemical fertilizers by 23.86% and 19.86%, respectively. The combination treatment [VW+VC] also have a significant influence on the biochemical characteristics of the soil with marked improvement in soil micronutrients. The combination treatment [VW+VC] was found better suggesting qualitative improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil, which is substantia...

 Shazia Erum, Rashid Anwar and Shahid Masood*

...e analysis of total seed proteins of Kasuri methi (GI of Kasur, Pakistan) was evaluated with other Trigonella genotypes by SDS-PAGE. Results showed that at protein level Kasuri methi acquired a unique status as a G.I of Kasur. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) of 28 genotypes including both methi and methray from various agro ecological zones of Pakistan were interlinked to some extent however Kasuri methi make their identity by stan...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

... the basis of total seed protein and phenotypic characters, except Siam Queen and Lime basil stand alone, respectively. Euclidian distance for morphological traits ranged from 3.60 to 7.26. Conversely on the basis of total seed proteins genetic distances ranged from 0.11 to 1.00. Due to greater genetic diversity in Ocimum germplasm and its suitability for commercial cultivation even in the area under small holdings, the inve...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...d (N) and non-structural protein 3b genes. Out of the samples collected, 40.17% were positive for CCoV; 57.45% of CCoV-infected animals showed enteritis and most of these (76%) were younger than 3 months and unvaccinated. Distance genealogy using CCoV sequences from GenBank for M gene showed that eight strains were CCoV-II twenty-six were CCoV-I. These findings show some genetic features of CCoV in Brazil and may require future studies to elucidate full genome...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
...n;0.36 g). The 40% crude protein diet was prepared by adding feed ingredients along with 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, 0.00 g kg-1 of α-amylase as T1, T2, T3 and T4 (control). At the end of feeding trial, 100% survival rate was recorded. Growth rate was significantly increased in fish fed with enzyme supplemented diets in comparison with control group. The maximum increase in growth rate was recorded in treatment # 2. Highest prot...
Saba Rafique1,2,*, Khalid Naeem1, Naila Siddique1, Muhammad Athar Abbas1, Aamer Ali Shah2, Akbar Ali1, Abdul Rahim1 and Farooq Rashid1
...to 974 base pairs. The S protein sequence was submitted to the GenBank with accession number KU145467. Phylogenetic grouping and maximum nucleotide sequence identity values were used to identify the isolate that looked to be derived from recombination. It showed maximum nucleotide homology 99.5% with ck/CH/LHB/121010 (KP036503), India/IBV572 (KF809797) and Japan/JP/Wakayama-2/2004 (AB363951.2) and 99.3% with 4/91 vaccine (KF377577), Iran/491/08 (HQ842715) and ...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

...>T. castaneum enzyme protein. Computational studies inidicate that A. mellifera enzyme had a little binding affinity for saponin as compared to T. castaneum AChE. The amino acid residues of T. castaneum AChE identified at positions 259(SER), 176(SER), 173(GLY), and 502 (HIS) are involved in binding with saponin molecule to form four hydrogen bonds. Whereas in A. mellifera hydrogen bonds are formed at two positions by SER 171 and...

 Saima Rani and Irum Raza*

COMPARISON OF TREND ANALYSIS AND DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING METHODS FOR PRICE ESTIMATION OF MAJOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...xpensive livestock-based protein-rich food will be badly affected.

...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...roundnut contains 25-32% protein and 42-52% oil, therefore, it has the potential to become a significant contributor to edible oil production in Pakistan. It is harvested in October-November in Pakistan, when the weather is cold, and it is not possible to dry it down to a safe moisture level by sun drying. Therefore, the chance for developing aflatoxins in it is high. To solve this problem of the groundnut growers, a low cost mobile flat-bed dryer designed and...

 Nasia Batool*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar**, Imdad Hussain Mirza** and Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan**

MIXING LESS PALATABLE GRASSES WITH UREA, MOLASSES AND EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS AND ITS EFFECT ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...s was carried out. Crude protein content of mixtures improved as compared with sole grasses. Digestibility of HC supplemented with urea, molasses and EM in various combinations was also studied in growing goats. The highest digestibility of DM in goats was recorded in HC + 4% urea + 4% molasses treatment (85.51%) followed by HC + 4% urea (78.57%) and HC + 4% urea + 4% molasses + 1:100 EM (78.00%).

...

 Khalid Naseem*, Naseem Bibi**, Saeeda Raza*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui*, Amina Bibi*** and Muhammad Ahsan Khan****

DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF HIGH ENERGY BISCUITS FOR COMBATING MALNOURISHMENT AMONG CHILDREN IN PAKISTAN
...t the highest values for protein, zinc and iron. Results of all treatments were in acceptable range regarding sensory evaluation. These results indicate that biscuits can be successfully supplemented with chickpea and oat. According to sensory evaluation, biscuits containing 20% chickpea and 15% oat were found to be the best among all treatments and could be a potential composition for preparing high energy biscuits for malnourished areas of Pakistan.

...

Ayesha Tahir* and Sonila Hassan**

ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF SMALL SCALE BUTTON MUSHROOM PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...s widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross...

 Adnan Umair*, Safdar Ali**, Muhammad Sarwar***, Kashif Bashir**, Muhammad Javed Tareen**** and Muhammad Asghar Malik*****

ASSESSMENT OF SOME PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) : A GREEN HOUSE STUDY
...riming also improved the protein concentration at the early stage of seedlings. Phosphorous application through priming significantly improved germination up to 95%, seedling -1 vigour index up to 23.05 and protein content up to 2.17 (g FW).

...

 Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Maqsood Ahmad*, Gulshan Riaz* and Sartaj Khan*

PERFORMANCE OF SUMMER FORAGE LEGUMES AND THEIR RESIDUAL EFFECT ON SUBSEQUENT OAT CROP IN SUBTROPICAL SUBHUMID POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...an had the highest crude protein content (23.2 %) followed by cowpea (22.6 %), lablab bean (21.6 %), rice bean (20.1 %) and sesbania (19.1 %). Millet had the lowest crude protein content of 6.2%. Dry matter yield of oats owing to the previous crops was least after millet (7.5 -1 -1 tha ) and ranged from 8.5 to 8.9 tha after sesbania, cluster bean and cowpeas. Differences in crude protein c...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
...llage number (64), crude protein (CP) content (8.64%), in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility (47.36%) On the other hand, B. mulato had highest tillage number (117) and DM yield (0.79 kg -2 DMm ). Legume herb species affected significantly (P<0.05) plant height, yield, in vitro digestibility. At 8 weeks of age Dolichos lablab showed the -2 highest plant height (189 cm), DM yield (0.45 kg DM m ) and in vitro OM digestibility (71.12%). The nutrient conten...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...lation in fulfilling the protein demand. Hence there is need to increase production through improving management practices and dissemination of improved technologies.

...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Mehwish Ishaque**, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Saleem-ud-din* and Syeda Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SEED PROTEINS, OIL CONTENT AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
...alues for seed 1 1 total proteins, oil content and fatty acids composition. Among parental lines, CMS-64, CMS-53, CMS-H55-2-2-1 and CMS-53 were the best general combiners for seed total proteins, oil content, oleic and linoleic acid, respectively. Among males, C-206-R, SF-187R, RHA-295 and RHA-854 were the potential parents exhibiting desirable GCA for seed total proteins, oil content, ole...

 ZafarUllah*, Muhammad Azim Malik*, Muhammad Ansar*, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz* and Muhammad Rasheed*

WINTER FORAGE QUALITY OF OATS (AVENA SATIVA), BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE) AND VETCH (VICIA SATIVA) IN PURE STAND AND CEREAL LEGUME MIXTURE
...e higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg , -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg -1 and 341 g kg , respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg , respectively.

...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...ximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil 25%, DM range was 65-70%, for grass 50% + Ipil ipil 50%, it was 60-65% and f...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...% dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) consumption among all the treatments. The digestibility percentage of dry matter intake (DMI) varied among the treatments ranging from 68.25% to 41.66%. Mixtures of low palatable grass and Ipil ipil were in general more digestible with more than 65% dry matter digestibility. The lowest digestibility of dry matter (41.66%) was observed in HC 100%. A similar trend was noted for CP digestibility. However,...

 Muhammad Ayub*, Rizwan Maqbool*, Muhammad Tahir*, Zoaib Aslam*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem* and Muhammad Ibrahim**

IMPROVED GROWTH, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) THROUGH SOIL APPLIED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...arvest index by 162% and protein content by 6%. However, fertilizer NP -1 (90:45 kg ha ) decreased oil content by 26%. Therefore, addition of NP fertilizer had the potential to increase fennel seed yield, but reduce oil content, under Faisalabad conditions.

...

 Muhammad Akhter*, Muhammad Azhar Ali**, Zulqarnain Haider* and Shahzad Muzammil***

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHANGES IN GRAINS OF SOME ADVANCE LINES/ VARIETIES OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) AFTER PARBOILING
...matter, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, vitamin B6; milling quality parameters such as total milling recovery, head rice recovery, ratio of broken grains and cooking quality parameters such as curling, bursting and cooked grain length. The study showed significant variation in efficacy of parboiling to different varieties/lines. The results clearly showed average increase in mineral contents in terms of ash% increase, dry matter, longer cooked grain len...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
...phosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri dishes. The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline and centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses. Results showed differences in the activities of enzymes and quantities of total protein,...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

IMPROVING FODDER QUALITY OF PANICUM GRASS THROUGH INTERCROPPING OF LEGUMES AND THEIR INOCULATION
...n. The 6-7% higher crude protein (CP) of mixed fodder was recorded from 67% intercropping in comparison to grass alone while inoculation increased it by further 1-2%. Results also suggested that total digestible nutrients (TDN) were increased by 2-4% as compared to other treatments.

...

 Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Adnan Shakeel**, Muhammad Abdullah***, Muhammad Islam**, Sadiq Muhammad*, Ghulam Murtaza* and Mushtaq Ahmad**

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND WATER STRESS ON PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
...tative analysis of total protein and phenolic compounds, respectively. Proteins were greatly affected by fertilizer treatment and water stress, but phenolic compounds remained unchanged upon fertilizer treatment. However, they were greatly affected by irrigation and water -1 stress. Crop treated with 100 kg ha P O under water stress maintained high 2 5 protein content as compared to unfert...

 Saima Kanwal*, Saeeda Raza*, Khalid Naseem*, Muhammad Amjad*, Naseem Bibi* and Musarrat Gillani*

DEVELOPMENT, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BISCUITS SUPPLEMENTED WITH PUMPKIN SEEDS TO COMBAT CHILDHOOD MALNUTRITION IN PAKISTAN
...our (20%) 5 with maximum protein (12.30%), fat (28.29%), ash (4.13%), iron (2.28%) and zinc (3.11%). Sensory results also revealed increasing trend in all sensory parameters. Results showed acceptability at all levels but treatment T with 15 % pumpkin 4 seed flour scored highest (8.0) for maximum overall acceptability. It was concluded that pumpkin seed flour can be supplemented successfully to partially replace wheat flour to prepare highly nutritious biscuit...

 Doulat Baig*, Fida Mohammad Abbasi*, Habib Ahmed*, Maqsood Qamar** and Muhammad Ayub Khan**

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
...d yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available in soil for the plant use. A two year study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. The experiment was aimed to –1 –1 evaluate the effect of different nitrogen (N) levels (N = 0 kgha , N = 60 kgha , N = 0 1 2 –1 –1 –1 –1 80 kgha , N3 = 120 kgha , N4 = 180 kgha a...

  Sohaib Arshad*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar** and Maqbool Shahbaz**

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC RHODES GRASS ACCESSIONS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...e energy, carbohydrates, proteins and other important minerals. As global warming is increasing, overall water scarcity is resulting in deterioration of natural resources, and it is need of the hour to find fodder crop resources which are more accustomed to change climatic conditions. Hence, different exotic and indigenous varieties of Rhodes grass were tested for quality and yield parameters. Three varieties were imported from Australia and Zimbabwe namely Sa...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Nawal Zafar* 

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF RABI CEREALS SOWN ALONE AND IN BLENDED POPULATION AT VARIABLE SEED RATIOS
...00% seed ratio and crude protein percentage was highest when oat was blended together with barley at 75% + 25% seed ratios.

...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Neelam Yasin*

EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF MAIZE
...ld, harvest index, grain protein and grain oil contents. However, micronutrients application at stem elongation stage showed non-significant effect on plant papulation and number of cobs plant . Therefore, for attaining maximum yield of maize, it is suggested that 250 ml ha at stem elongation stage of maize should be used.

...

 Tassadduq Rasool*, Ali Zohaib*, Ehsanullah*, Riaz Ahmad*, Tasawer Abbas*, Tahira Tabassum*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem*, Mahmood-ul-Hassan*

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY IN PEARL MILLET-SESBANIA INTERCROPPING SYSTEM UNDER VARIOUS GEOMETRICAL PATTERNS
... to sole-cropping. Crude protein (84%) was improved most by cross planting over sole pearl millet, while, crude fiber (36%) and ash contents (20%) were improved by blended seed sowing, as compared to sole cropping of sesbania. Potential benefits of forage pearl millet can be acquired by intercropping with sesbania and following the planting geometry of sesbania intercropped in 45 cm apart two-row strips of pearl millet.

...
Yanling Xia1,2, Heping Li2, Yuntao Liang2, Jichen Zhao2, Binshan Lu2 and Di Liu1,*
...transport of the recycle proteins from the endosome to Golgi, and Vps26A protein is an important component of the retromer complex. In the present study cDNA sequence of the full coding region of the Vps26A gene was successfully cloned from antler tip of the Sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum). The Vps26A cDNA contains an open reading frame of 984bp encoding a polypeptide with 327 amino acids. The deduced mole...
Rabia Faiz and Dilara A. Bukhari*
...usion bodies Cry and Cyt proteins. The present study focuses on determining the insecticidal activity of cyt positive B.t. strains against 3rd instar larvae of mosquito. Larval mortality was noted after 24 h and GCU B.t. 4 (400± 1.15) was found to be the most toxic against 3rd instar larvae of mosquitoes. Spores LC50 values of other isolates were 451± 0.90 (GCU B.t. 1), 511± 0.85...
Xiaopeng Tang1,3, Rong Xiang1, Sijia Chen1,3, Shufen Yang1,3, Hu Liu1,3, Rejun Fang1,3,* and Aike Li2,
...cottonseed meal on crude protein (CP), water-soluble protein (WSP), amino acid (AA) and peptide fractions, and the AA digestibility and metabolic energy of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) and enzymatic hydrolyzed cotton seed meal (EHCSM) in white leghorn roosters. Firstly, CSM were fermented with Aspergillus niger, or hydrolyzed with alcalase and flavourzyme. Secondly, a total of 32 white leghorn roosters with simila...
Zhiping Hu, Hussain Ahmad, Jingfei Zhang, Lili Zhang and Tian Wang*
... content (21d) and total protein content (42d) were lower in T2 group than that of CON group. Serum total antioxidant capacity was higher and malondialdehyde content was lower in T1 group than that of CON group at 21d. Serum glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity was significantly increased in T1 group compared to CON group at 42d. Malondialdehyde content of liver in T1 group was lower than that of CON group. These results suggested that dietary supplementatio...
Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Mushtaq A. Saleem2,Javed Iqbal Wattoo2, Mohd Mokhtar Arshad1 and Maizan Mohamed1
...acid residues of S1 glycoprotein) were amplified by overlap PCR, cloned into prokaryotic expression vector resulting pET-Sf200 and confirmed the construct by sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was identified by restriction enzyme and sequencing analysis. The in vitro expression of the truncated protein was analyzed in E. coli with a molecular weight of 38kDa determined through SDS-PAGE and confirmed...
Saba Parveen Samo1, Moolchand Malhi1,*, Javed Gadahi2, Yan Lei3, Allah Bux Kaciwal1 and Saeed Ahmed Soomro1
...f dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) increased (P < 0.05) by 13.71, 12.02 and 4.78% at week 3 and by 11.11, 11.8 and 3.46 % at week 6 in B compared to A. Among carcass characteristics the carcass dressing % (52.99 ± 0.77 vs 49.41 ± 0.6 ) and leg weight (kg) (1.28 ± 0.06 vs 1.05 ± 0.04) increased (P < 0.05) in B compared to A. The physico-chemical properties of meat were not significantly different between...
Wei Dang1, Ning Xu1, Wen Zhang1, Jing Gao2, Handong Fan1 and Hongliang Lu 1,*
... adaptations. Heat shock proteins and other molecular chaperones play specific physiological roles in such thermal adaptation. Here, we analyzed heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in six lizard species to investigate the variation in Hsp70 response contributing to thermal adaptation. At first, we collected three lizard species of the genus Takydromus from different geographical locations. We found that either th...
Sabah Mansoor1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Amna Jawad1, Bushra Munir2, Sehrish Firyal1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Wasim1
...denaturing the insoluble protein using 8M urea followed by refolding through gradual dialysis. The refolded enzyme exhibited optimum activity at 55 °C between pH 8-9. The effect of metal ions on the activity of AMYSBS showed that Co2+ remarkably enhanced the enzyme activity and 500µM was recorded as optimal Co2+ concentration for the maximal activity of AMYSBS. Presence of ionic (SDS) and nonionic (Tween-20...

Ikramullah Khan1,2*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Sohail Akhtar2, Ijaz Ali3 and Ghufran Ullah4 

... cortisol and Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70). Thermal stress increased all physiological parameterssignificantly (P < 0.001). Holstein Frisian manifested maximumincrease in RT, RR and PR (3.33, 209.50 and 59.41%) than crossbred (0.59, 40.22 and 22.0%), Sahiwal (0.78, 42.54 and 34.31%) and Achai (0.78, 39.22 and 33.85%) respectively (P < 0.001).Thermal stress increased biochemical changes significantly (P < 0.001). The increase in serum glucose, cortis...
Ambreen Asghar, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*
... the variations in serum protein level induced by fat rich diet. For this purpose, two groups of Wister rats were fed with diets carrying difference in percentage of fats. Protein profiling of treated groups indicated a marked increase in serum protein (related to iron metabolism and immune response) level compared to low fat-fed rats. Additionally, a decreased level of serum

Hamza Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Ijaz Ahmad*2, Ihsanullah Khan3, Shujaat Hussain1, Bashir Ahmad Khan4 and Muhammad Suhaib5  

...ed upon oil content (%), protein content (%) and Fatty acid profile. Results showed that SMH-1001 and SMH-1215 hybrids performed best for yield and quality parameters, whereas, SMH-1006 and SMH-0909 were considered best for early maturing traits.  

...

Azhar Mehmood1,2,*, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem2, Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3, Tasawer Abbas4, Ali Zohaib2, Hafiz Tassawar Abbas

...lower plant. The oil and protein contents of sunflower were significantly affected by varying levels of both nitrogen and boron and maximum oil contents were observed when boron was applied @ 2 kg ha-1 with 0 kg ha-1 of nitrogen whereas maximum protein contents were recorded when 2 kg ha-1 boron was applied in combination with 150 kg ha-1 of nitrogen of both hybrids (H1=Hysun-33 and H2=DK-4040). The combined application of n...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Abdul Wahab1, Navaid Kazi2, Younas Muhammad1,Summaya Kazi3, Salman Kazi4, Azmatullah Khan1, Ikramullah Khan5 and Shakoor Ahmad1
... includes glucose, total protein, albumin, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The current study demonstrated the ascertained value in amniotic fluid for glucose, total protein and albumin at day 18, 25 and 28 was 42.9±0.80, 37.4±0.90, 36.5±0.88mg/dl; 17.9±0.30, 16.1±0.22, 13.9±0.34g/l; 13.9±1.6,11....
Leila A. Kaimbayeva1,*, Elena S. Malysheva2, Rashit Kazikhanov3 and Saule R. Kazikhanova4
...s revealed the nature of protein substances, altered рН value of the meat and the intensity of glycolysis. All these parameters were indicative of autolysis process in the meat. The levels of water-binding capacity and structural-mechanical properties of red deer meat that occurred during the course of autolysis were further confirmed by the histological changes in the meat. Specifically, it was observed that post-mortem changes were characterized ...

Qasim Iqbal1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Bashir Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Ihsanullah Khan4  

...ed upon oil content (%), protein content (%), and fatty acid profile. The results showed that significantly highest seed yield (2187.3) kg ha-1 was produced by SF 16003 followed by SF16010 and SF 16002 having (2016.2) kg ha-1 and (1888.2) kg ha-1 seed yield respectively. The Cluster analysis also determined SF 16003 as best hybrid which was at a very close distance from the group of SF16010 and SF 16002. 

...

Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

March

Vol. 31, Iss. 1, Pages 1-105

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