Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

...e significance of cattle production losses or the potential implementations of commercial barrier by other countries can possibly reason the placement of governmental veterinary measures in the near future.

...

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...mical strategy for wheat production following cotton. It is concluded that wheat seeded in zero tillage following cotton did not decrease stand or yield compared to conventional tillage and wheat grain yield and N agronomic efficiency increased with application of 150 kg N ha-1 in three equal splits viz. at sowing, first irrigation, and second irrigation.

...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

...l quality, increase crop production and sequester C in agricul- tural systems. Two years field experiments were conducted on corn crop at the research farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2011-2013. Wheat-maize-wheat cropping pattern was followed with the adjustment of legumes in summer gap (land available after wheat harvest till maize sowing). Legumes i.e. mungbean, cowpea and sesbania with a fallow were adjusted in the summer gap with and ...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...ical efficiency of wheat production in district Peshawar of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Data from 100 wheat growers were collected through multistage stratified random sampling technique during 2009-10. Stochastic frontier analysis was employed for the estimation of technical efficiency levels and its determinants. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique was applied to estimate stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

... to allocate and achieve production targets and in longer term planning. A study was conducted during 2009-10 with an objective to estimate the wheat yield response function in two agro-ecological zones in Punjab. The method of ordinary least square was used. Time series data for different explanatory variable (eco- nomic, location and climatic) from 1979-2009 relating to wheat were used for Faisalabad and Ba- hawalpur. The results of analysis showed that the ...

Sajid Ali1, Nouman Badar1, Hina Fatima2

E-mail | sajid_economist@yahoo.com

...udy attempts to forecast production and yield of two main cash crops namely sug- arcane and cotton crops of Pakistan by using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models of forecasting. Using data for 1948 to 2012, productions and yields of both crops were forecasted for 18 years starting from 2013 to 2030. ARMA (1, 4), ARMA (1, 1) and ARMA (0, 1) were found appropriate ...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...gen fertilizer on forage production and quality and economic return of fodder maize cultivar Kissan. The experiment was conducted on silt loam soil at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during 2011. Six nitrogen treatments (80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and 280 kg ha-1) and a control one were studied in this trial. Growth and yield traits and quality such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, chlorophyll...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...lish a good mass-rearing production techniques of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) (a parasitoid of the cotton mealybug) in the Laboratory, it is necessary to know the development capacity of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), on different host plants. Such studies would identify the best host plant for its efficient rearing. The present study investigated some basic life table parameters i....

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

.... Wheat’s domestic production has remained short of its domestic demands. To estimate the wheat varietal effect on wheat production and technical efficiency, a Cobb-Douglas Translog frontier analysis has been done. A primary research is conducted in the area of Rahim Yar Khan. Adoption of Modern wheat varieties is important for more profit as well as for enhancing the wheat productivity. However, modern wheat varieties...

Muhammad Zubair, Sajid Mahmood Sajid

... useful effects on the reproduction of female in terms of reduction in puberty and ovulation induction. The beneficial effects are manifested in male in terms of improvement of semen.

...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

...ity chrysanthemum flower production under the agro climatic conditions of Peshawar, Pakistan.

...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

...ss and gave better yield production. Mean maximum leaf area plant-1 (170.49 cm2), leaf area index (6.77), root length (35.50 cm) and root weight plant-1 (0.98 kg-1) were recorded in sugar beet planted at 2 cm depth. Nitrogen band placement method significantly affected growth and yield related attributes of sugar beet. Mean maximum leaf area plant-1 (173.32 cm2), leaf area index (6.68), root length (36.50 cm), root weight plant-1 (1.03 kg-1) and sugar sucrose ...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...that enhance sustainable production of rice in the study area. Primary data were obtained through the use interview schedule. Eighty copies of structured interview were purposively employed to obtain individual response of the farmers whose plots fall within the demarcated forty-sampled quadrats from both irrigated and non-irrigated farms. Information on socio-economic activities of the rice farmers, level of rice yield, agricultural practices for rice

John G. Bruno

...tes with associated mass production to provide rapid passive immunity for large human populations in the event of a major pandemic or infectious disease doomsday scenario. 

...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

... circumstances decreased production drastically. Moreover, an increase of N from 120 kg ha-1 is not of much value under these circumstances but have the potential to investigate for increasing production of the sunflower crop in the region.  

...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

...ould result higher wheat production from the variety Pak-2013 instead of growth the existing local (Khattakwal). Higher grain yield for future food security with growing population is important to be harvested with replacing the existing low yielding varieties by any of the improved available wheat varieties (e.g. Lalma, Chakwal-50, and Pak.-2013) in Karak area where almost all wheat is planted as rainfed crop.  

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...e small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately affected with its attending impact on poverty in what are already the poorest areas of the globe. PPR is considered to be a transboundary disease of great significance through its effect on the developm...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...quality and enhance crop production in agricultural system. Two years field trials were carried out during 2011-12 at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Thirteen compost treatments including control as main plot treatment and two fert-N levels (0 and 75 kg N ha-1) as subplot treatments were used. Compost materials i.e. farmyard manure (FYM), cereal residue (CR) and legume residue (LR) were composted as sole or in vario...

 Gul Naz and Mohammad Akmal

...r irrigated spring wheat production in the area. Among the available spring wheat varieties, Pirsabak-2005 is relatively the best variety for grain yield in agro-ecological condition of Peshawar that may effectively contribute in food security of the growing population in the region.

...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...-BT cotton and BT cotton production  in  Pakistan.  Those farmers were selected as the  respondents  for the  study  that used to  cultivate Non-BT cotton and BT cotton  varieties. In Pakistan, the NonBT cotton varieties have been promptly substituted with the BT-cotton varieties. This substitution of imported BT-cotton seed is taking into account without considering the local environmental conditions of Pakistan. T...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

... penetrate into cysts. Reproduction rate (Pf/Pi) of L. muscarium treated plants was documented minimum as compared to that of control but slightly higher compared to that of treated with nematicides. More interestingly, plant growth parameters including shoot and root were tremendously improved in L. muscarium treated plants than that of other treatments.

...

Muhammad Aslam

...echnology, enhanced seed production, improved inputs availability and use, improved irrigation, improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality seed ...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...r farm income, more milk production, reared improved cattle breeds, get better access to veterinarian services and used more nutritious fodder (silage), as compared to non-members. The findings of study also provided the evidence that establishment of milk marketing cooperatives foster more economic opportunities to female dairy smallholders and assist them in rural development. Based on study findings certain policy options has also been suggested to extend t...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...s per root system, and reproduction factor. Four initial populations (Pi) (500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 eggs) mixed with antagonistic fungal conidia levels (1×103, 1×104, 1×105, 1×106) were used during the experiments. The roots were stained with Phloxine B, the egg-masses were quantified, the root systems were rated for galling, and the egg masses were measured on a 0 to 5 scale, where 0 = no gall or egg masses, 1 = 1-2, 2 = 3-10, 3 = 11-...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...uveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infestation significantly (P=0.05) in soil compared to the control, but there was no significant difference (P=0.05) among them. Plant growth was significantly (P=0.05) improved in the plants treated with L. muscarium.

...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...non-availability of mass production techniques in Pakistan, the development and application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) depend on the use of host insects for in vivo production. As there is little information regarding relationship between nematode dosage and production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

...ate its association with production performances in two Anhui local chicken breeds. A total of 800 chickens (400 Huangshan black chickens and 400 Huainan partridge chickens) of similar age and weight were evaluated in the present study. We extracted DNA from blood samples and analyzed polymorphisms of HTT gene as wells as possible association with egg production performances including age at first egg (AFE), laying rate (LR)...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...lochistan to investigate production status, chemical composition, and fish species being used for producing fish meal. The overall production of single processing unit ranged from 40 to 500 metric tonns per month. Kampa Industry (Unit 1) was found to be the first largest contributor producing 100 metric tons in 24 h. The second largest producers of fish meal in this region were Abdul Baqi, Ghulam Hussain and Kampa Industry (...

Bibi Tayyaba Batool1, Aemal Tareen1, Shahjahan Shabir Ahmed1, Hira Ejaz1, Mohammad Azam Kakar1, Syed Abdul Rehman2, Mohammed Saeed1, Zafar Ahmad3, Mohammad Masood Tariq3, Mohammad Arif Awan3 and Muhammad Naeem Shahwani1*

... constraint to livestock production in Balochistan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in cattle, goats and sheep in some primary dwelling districts of Balochistan. Our results showed that brucellosis was found 2.2% positive from Quetta district and 0.6% positive from Pishin district and bovine (TB) was found 0.60% positive from Quetta and none from Pishin district of Balochistan.

...

Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed

...vere losses to the fruit production and quality in Pakistan. Its management has largely relied upon the indiscriminate and injudicious use of conventional insecticides resulting in problem of insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, fruit contamination and health hazards. The major goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a bio-insecticide, emamectin benzoate with other conventionally used insecticides against B. zonata. The resul...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...oC. S. feltiae started reproduction at 10oC, while all remaining species reproduced at 15oC or higher temperatures. Maximum numbers of IJs were recovered from H. bacteriophora. Time taken for first emergence of IJs from the host was shortest at 25oC i.e. 7-8 days in case of S. asiaticum and S. feltiae, while 11-13 days for H. bacteriophora and H. indica. Maximum emergence time was taken by S. feltiae at 10oC.

...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

...nt challenges to poultry production worldwide. That is in addition to its ability to induce mortalities and reduce the productivity, it accused to be negatively affecting the avian immune response facilitating the secondary infection. Many reports take into account the genotypic and pathogenic characterization of H9N2 in avian species. However little is known about the impact of different strains on the innate immune response. In the present study, using quant...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

...hich can be used for the production of medicinally important different secondary metabolites and organic acids. 

...

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

...ig rats. The mice with reproduction fast cycle, lower costing, and close to human genes, can be showed about some phenomenon quickly, also more easy to form model of atherosclerosis. Thus, a mouse model of vascular injury is vitally important for researching the pathophysiological mechanisms to restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) as well as translational approaches. In this Experiment, we established a unique murine model of ...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

...els and ASPIC (a surplus production model incorporating covariates) contain Fox and Logistic models. The average annual landings of S. longiceps stocks were 38 353 t while the highest and lowest 65 050 t in 1994 and 26 937 t in 2009 was recorded correspondingly. The MSY was estimated using the initial proportion (IP) value of 1 because the starting catch was approximately 100% of the maximum catch. The estimated values of MSY using CEDA with the Fox model unde...

Fukuan Du1,2, Yan Li2, Zhixin Wen1, Ruguo Chen1 and Pao Xu2*

...s in China. However, the production scale does not meet the market demand. This resulted in excessive fishing, which almost caused extinction of the species in the the Yangtze River. Therefore, it is very urgent to carry out genetic breeding to improve yield. In this study, we developed SSR markers by transcriptome, which could be used to genetic research. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of six libraries from hepatopancreas samples in E. s...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...ddition initiatives from production to marketing.

...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...t and net return of milk production in district Mardan. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting milk production in the study area. A multistage sampling method was used to select a sample of 274 livestock farm households from 6 union councils, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the female respondents through face to face interview. Cobb-Douglas productio...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...e in off-season cucumber production in Punjab, Pakistan. Primary data were collected from 70 off-season cucumber growers by using simple random sampling. Cobb-Douglas was good on the basis of R2 (0.748) and f-statistics (17.505). Production elasticity was positive for education, polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemical, irrigation and labour days. Under utilization of resources was found for polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemi...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...e-1 and harvest index in production of grain yield. Though the rate and distribution of rainfall during the cropping season were the main contributing factors in the varied performance across years, however, the grain yield of synthetic derived wheat lines across different environments was not significantly disturbed within each year and hence, are suitable for areas of prolonged drought. Some lines of synthetic derived wheat especially those carrying blood fr...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

... purpose to increase oil production. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa it was adopted from many years but due to some reasons its production and acreage decreased both in Pakistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. During 1997 area of sunflower was 6763 hectares with decreasing trend it reached at 503 hectares during 2011-12 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This study was conducted to quantify the factors contributing to the non-adoption of sunflower. Data ...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...d cropping pattern, crop production and revenue of mouza Qilla, Tehsil Tangi, district Charsadda in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Secondary data was collected from revenue office Tangi, and was geospatially analyzed in ARC GIS 10.1. Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based set of procedures used to store and analyze geographically-referenced data. Primary data about crop yield and per acre production,...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...lowering and viable fuzz production. New avenues suitable for flowering were explored using 20 genotypes for initiation of breeding program in the country. A site near Bagh district (Arja) Azad Kashmir was found suitable and used for morphological evaluation, phenotypic diversity analysis and their flowering behavior sugarcane under local conditions. Two year data revealed that genotype HSF-242 showed maximum mean values for, internodes length, brix percentage...

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

...ted in increased cost of production and decreased farm productivity of tomato. This further resulted in decreased net income of farmers from tomato crop. The study concludes that poverty in these areas can be alleviated if the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play their role in promoting social cohesion and management of any conflict in future.

...
Muhammad Mohsin Javed*, Muhammad Azhar Nisar, Bushra Muneer and Muhammad Usman Ahmad
...d for the bioelectricity production by using vegetable waste extract as substrate. The power production was analyzed for three days. Maximum power density of 88990mW/m2 with a current density of 314.4mA/m2 was observed on the second day of process with minimum internal resistance comparatively i.e. 123.23Ω. The higher power density shows efficiency of this U-shaped design compare to other d...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...mportant trait for the reproduction of economically domestic animals. Some microsatellites related to the fecundity of domestic animals have been identified. In the current study, we investigated five fecundity related microsatellites, including BM1329, BM143, LSCV043, OarHH35, and OarHH55, which had been identified in sheep. We estimated their diversity and population structure in three high fecundity goats (Jianzhou big ear goat, Jining grey goat, Dazu black...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

... interaction induces the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons. Through Janus kinase/signal transducers and transcription activators pathway, interferon induces the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), responsible for playing an essential and decisive role in the virus pathology. Some studies have already reported the overexpression of these genes against IBDV infection in susceptible cells. The protection ability of ISGs to safeg...
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
...p and causes significant production losses to the wheat crop in Pakistan. So far eight genes from the conventional wheat cultivars that are resistant to the attack of R. padi have been incorporated in the commercial wheat cultivars to help manage R. padi. During this study seven wheat genotypes were evaluated as antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance. These tested genotypes were (Pir Sabaq-2004, Atta-Habib, Saleem-2000, Serin-2010, Khyber-87, Sarh...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
...on flowers. Maximum seed production as well as oil contents was obtained from sunflower plots kept under natural conditions, where bee visitors had access to sunflower blossoms. In contrast, sunflower plots covered with insect-proof bags gave minimum seed production and oil contents, which most probably was because of bee visitors denied to forage on flowers of the crop. Results revealed that sunflower in blooming stage attr...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
...emoglobin, decreased RBC production and anemia. Total 300 individuals were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender i.e ≤13 years females, >13 years females, ≤13 years and >13 years males. Height in centimeter, weight in kilogram was measured to calculate BMIKg/m2. Serum ferritin (ng/mL) and hemoglobin (gm/dl) alongwith hormonal assay of GH (ng/mL), T3 (ng/mL), T4 (µg/dL), TSH (μI...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...vere losses to the fruit production and quality, in Pakistan. In the present experiment the population of B. zonata was monitored using methyl eugenol traps during the year, 2015. Occurrence and population dynamics of the fruit fly were compared with meteorological factors, such as temperature, relative humidity and sunshine. The highest mean population of fruit fly remained at 499 in the month of August. It started to decline afterwards and remained at...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...st machinery for their reproduction. Plants have undergone continuous evolution and have equipped themselves with counter defense and tolerant strategies against viral infections. In the 21st century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in plants against viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in triggering the antiviral resistance in plants. Antiviral RNA silencin...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...ify;">Quail meat and egg production represent a promising source to cover the deficit in animal protein in developing countries including Egypt. However little is known about the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of major bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging a...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
Memoona Akber1, Muhammad Mushtaq1,*, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem1, Amjad Rashid Kayani1 and Noor-un-Nisa2 
...stigate the pattern of reproduction of the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus in urban areas of Rawalpindi city, Pakistan, live trapping of commensal rodents was carried out from May 2011 through April 2012. A total of 100 rats (R. norvegicus = 65, Rattus rattus = 35) were trapped during 720 trap nights @ 0.13 captures per night and the trap success was 13.88%. Maximum captures of the Norway rats were recorded during summer (n = 33), followed b...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...n the commercial poultry production sectors. Due to potential of H9N2 infections in human, LPAI H9N2 poses serious public health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was to develop H9 plasmid-based DNA vaccine against the currently circulating AIV subtype H9N2 targeting HA gene of the virus A/Turkey/Egypt/1341V/2013(H9N2)....
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...parameters and highest reproduction (R=87.27). 
...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
... grown worldwide for the production of edible oils. In order to increase the oil production there is dire need to grow more sunflower by using the economical and environment friendly techniques. Present study was proposed to evaluate theresponse of spring and autumn sunflower to chemical and bio-fertilizers for yield and quality traits during 2014 at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The treatments comprised o...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...lign: justify;">Pastoral production system remained a central component of mountain subsistence economy in the Hindu Kush- Himalayan (HKH) region of Northern Pakistan. However, the growing trends of crops cultivation in the high mountains of HKH region have largely transformed this subsistence livestock production in to commercial agricultural system and shaped an uncertain environment that is not suitable for both landless ...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

... climate change on Maize production. Result professed that average temperature will affect Maize crop negatively bringing about 6% reduction in maize production till the year 2030. Average minimum temperature brought about 9% increases in maize production till 2021. Increase in overall rainfall will also benefits Maize crop production. Maize

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
...for higher female flower production and more number of fruits as well as lower fruit fly incidence. Three sowing dates viz. S =25 November, 2004, S =25 January 2005 and S =25 March, 2005 were selected to evaluate performance of eight genotypes, named as BCSM-1 to BCSM-8. The experimental design was factorial RBD with 3 replications. Observations on days to first male and female flowers, node number of first male and female flowers, total number of fruits and n...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...ajor methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on various cereal grains, agricultural wastes and byproducts. The solid state production is highly labour intensive and fit for cottage industry. These products are used mainly for direct soil application in nurseries/main fields to suppress the soil-borne inoculum. ...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
...ous insect pest limiting production of rape and mustard. Field experiment was carried out with 3 varieties of rape and mustard, 6 dates of sowing and 2 moisture regimes to understand aphid population dynamics during different phases of growth of rainfed vis-à-vis irrigated rape and mustard crops, and work out relationships between aphid population and weather parameters for its forewarning. Results revealed that initial incidence times of aphid varied f...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...ork for sustainable crop production. A considerable number of biocontrol agents have been established successfully for their bioconrol potential including strains belonging to bacterial genera such as Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Bacillus, and fungal genera such as Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Ampelomyces, Candida and Coniothyrium. Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens are the most important and widely used bioconrol agents being used across the...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...a cultivation for papain production is taken up by many progressive farmers in Tamil Nadu and facilitated by Senthil Papain and Food Products Ltd (SPFP), Coimbatore since 2004. The onslaught by the new invasive mealybug (PMB)-Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) in 2006 caused major concern in papain production. The need for repeated application of insecticides and dearth of labour for application of insect...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...s associated with cowpea production in the region. The result showed an increase in the number of taxa encountered on the cowpea field from 21 to 31 orders of insect in the 2010 and 2011 cropping seasons, respectively. Also, no significant difference was established in the forms of destructions recorded at the various growth stages of the cowpea plant in the two seasons. Therefore the advent of increased fauna on cowpea established in this study portrayed a ne...

Anjan Bhattacharyya, Suhrid Ranjan Barik & Pritam Ganguly

New pesticide molecules, formulation technology and uses: Present status and future challenges
...terials for assured food production and protection of environment since long time. There is a sequential rise in the production and consumption of pesticides in India during the last three decades. Researches are going on to develop safer molecules which could undergo photo-degradation, microbial degradation as well as chemical degradation leaving very less amount of residues in the environment. Conventional pesticide formul...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...nd outputs by marketing, production, protection and processing, and other essential information provided through a decision support system (DSS), in an agriinformatics networking such that is not ordinarily available to Indian farmers in general. Due to Precision Farming (PF), production increased by 40 to 60 percent farmers’ margins of the produce and reduction of the commission charged by the middlemen to 7-10 percen...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...ement and autoantibodies production. The pathogenicity and etiology of the disease has yet to be elucidated. It is presently accepted that environmental factors trigger the disease in genetically sensitive individuals. Gluten, a protein fraction commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a number of autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that gluten containing diet would further exacerbate an already undergoing arbitrary immune re...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...matter (DM) intake, milk production and composition, and diet digestibility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Four lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes of 3rd and 4th parity and milk production of 8±2.3 kg/day were selected and offered a basal diet based on sorghum forage and concentrate ration supplemented with fibrolytic enzyme (Fibrozyme™, Alltech Inc. Company, USA) at four levels (T1 = 0, T2 = 10, T3 = ...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...olanum melongena L.) production under the acidic soil condition of Purulia district of West Bengal resulted in 20-30% yield loss every year. The present participatory action research was aimed to study the (i) adeptness of integrated module of prophylactic soil disinfection and bio-control, (ii) only prophylactic soil disinfection, and (iii) only curative soil disinfection over uprooting and destruction of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
...al with silkworm meal on production performance, hematology and carcass traits in broilers at finisher phase. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were uttered with the step-wise i.e. 0% (D1), 25% (D2), 50% (D3), 75% (D4) and 100% (D5) replacement of soybean meal with silkworm meal in commercial broiler rations. A total of 150 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly distributed into fifteen replicate groups (n=10), and consequently reared on...
Wenqiao Hui1, Jishun Tang1, Dejian Zhu1, Qian Ban2* and Sheng Chen1*
...e capability of sexual reproduction. In domestic animals, age at attainment of puberty is an event that contributes significantly to lifetime reproductive efficiency. Anhui white goat is a native Chinese breed, with the characters of early time puberty onset and high fecundity. However, the molecular mechanism of puberty onset has not been well understood. It has been demonstrated leptin act as a critical metabolic cue linking adipose and the onset of puberty....
Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
...henol-A can alter fish reproduction. Vitellogenin (vtg) is the egg yolk precursor and used as a biomarker for estrogenic endocrine disruption. To elucidate the endocrine-disrupting effect of bisphenol-A, juvenile Catla catla was exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol-A (10,100,1000μg/l) for 14 days. BPA exposure strongly elevates vtg mRNA level in fish exposed to 100μg/l but at 1000 μg/l exposure of BPA, vtg level de...
Jianping Gou, Jianli Xiong*, Baoxia Dong, Zhennan Liu and Manman Hou
...nergy requirements for reproduction between males and females. Our findings suggest that female toads invest considerable resources into gamete production compared to males, and greater internal organs in females are a consequences of high energy requirements for reproduction, which favors females to produce more high-energy eggs. 
...

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...glas stochastic frontier production model. After running various econometrics software the output of the Frontier 4.1 was found good fit. The findings of the study showed that technical efficiency ranges from 0.83 to 0.99 with the mean technical efficiency of 0.93. The findings further shows that among the inefficiency factors experience was significantly contributing to the technical efficiency of the farmers. On the basis of this study it is recommended that...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...ers. A Cobb-Douglas type production model is used to estimate tomato yield and identify important factors affecting yield. Ordinary Least Square estimates for the model indicate that machinery, seed quantity, labor, number of irrigation, chemicals spray and fertilizers have positive significant effects on tomato yield. Allocative efficiency analysis reveals that machinery, seed quantity, number of irrigation, fertilizers and chemicals are underutilized, while ...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
... various experiments for production technology and yield trials for its performance. Result showed that 40 kg ha-1 seed rate with 30 cm row spacing, fertilizer dose @ 20:50 kg ha-1 N:P2O5 and inoculation with rhizobium strain Vm M1 were optimal for its maximum yield. Inqalab Mung outclassed among all candidate lines included in National Uniform Yield Trial (NUYT)- 2007 with an average yield of 1092 kg ha-1...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
...and reclamation or plant productions the use of compost may be supportive not only increase moisture holding capacity but also help to sustain soil conditioning. Composting through MSW could be introduced country wise as solid waste management option for the recycling and reuse of the organic remains.
...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...tivation to achieve more production.

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Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
...eight relationship and reproduction. The study was conducted in upper Akcay River between June 2012 and May 2013. Monthly data showed that native fish chub were aboundantly with other native fish (Acanthobrama mirabilis) in upper Akcay River. The age distribution for both females and males of S. cephalus populationwas betweenI-VII, and the second age group was found at maximum rate of 30.60%. Their fork lengths and weights ranged between 6.0-22.8...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...on of recommended citrus production practices and to investigate the factors that can affect the adoption of recommended citrus production practices. A farm level survey was conducted in Sargodha and T.T. Singh districts to gather the information about the awareness and adoption of recommended production practices of citrus. The study sample was consisted of 140 respondents. The binary reg...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...recast major crops area, production, yield and per capita food availability using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops and per capita food availability for 21years from 2014-15 to 2034-2035. Findings of the study pointed out increasing trends; major crops area, production, and yield except the sugarcane c...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...opped and pelleted straw production or into the improvement of handling with this substrate.
...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

...untry which confines its production. Two years field research was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan to assess the impacts of six sowing dates on yield and yield attributing traits of seven cotton varieties during 2015 and 2016. The experiment was laid out in split plot design having three repeats. Sowing dates; March 15, April 01, April 15, May 01, May 15 and June 01 were kept in main plots while sub plot contained seven cotton varieties (...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...ial and backyard poultry production sectors. Owing to public health risk, effective control of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this study was to construct Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based vaccine against a currently circulating avian influenza vi...

Murad Ali1, Farmanullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad2* and Imran Khan1

...for sustainably improved production on eroded soils. 

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Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...h morbidity, drop in egg production and reduced weight gain. Besides economic losses to the poultry industry, these viruses pose a significant threat to public health. Owing to significant involvements of neuraminidase (NA) gene in virus pathobiology by mediating virus entry and release, the present study was conducted to determine the phylogenetic relationship of currently prevailing H9N2 isolates in Pakistan. A sum of ten H9N2 AIVs were isolated from 400 sus...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...utes to improve the rice production. On average technical efficiency of sample rice farmers is 86 percent, which indicates that rice farmers in selected areas can increase the production of rice 14 percent only by managing efficiency level, without increasing input quantities. Hence, it is possible for rice farmers to increase rice output without increasing the level of inputs by using efficient management practices. 

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...o face interview in 2014 production period. The collected data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, descriptive statistics, rank orders and paired t-test. Findings revealed that bee keeping is one of the important economic activities in the area with an average annual income of Rs. 527,275/- per household. Results of paired t-test confirmed that beekeeping has significant effect on household income. On average of 2 family members per household were en...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...acres in all three wheat production zones. Maximum yellow rust impact values (estimated by Field Impact Factor (FIF) of 121, 201 and 328 were recorded in Bannu (Southeren Zone), Nowshara (Central Zone) and Mansehra (Northeren Zone), respectively. Fields with yellow rust incidence of 26% or higher than 26% were found maximum in the northeren zone (30%) which was followed by the central (6%) and southern zone (2%). Frequency of yellow rust severity of 5 (20-29% ...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...dicated that sisal fibre production capacity of this machine was 15.94 kg h-1 (dry fibre). Average yield of dry sisal fibre was 3.2% of green leaf weight and average fibre length was 1348.9 mm per leaf. Average power required to decorticate sisal leaves was 3.1 kW. Operating cost of sisal decorticator together with a combing machine was Rs. 507.9 h-1. The break-even point or payback period of this technology was 233 h. Sisal fibre needs t...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...ent study deals with the production and characterization of recombinant thermostable phytase from Thermotoga naphthophila (PHYTN). This study was an initial step for the fulfilment of domestic industrial requirement of phytase in Pakistan.The PCR resulted in the amplification of 1.8 kb phytase gene. SDS-PAGE confirmed the size of recombinant protein as 70 kDa. The optimization studies demonstrated the maximal p...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

...ase, so as to affect the production of estrogen. In the present study, to detect the effects of letrozole on gonad differentiation, 5dph fry of carp were exposed to different concentrations of LET. At 130 dph, sex ratio was recorded. The results showed that continuous exposure to LET induced the changes of sex ratio. High concentration of LET can promote male-biased sex ratio. In order to reveal the molecular mechanism by which LET caused sex reversal, juvenil...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos1,*, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Elsayeid O. Swilam1 and Mu’ath Q. Al-Ghadi3
...ted that feed intake and production efficiency factor (PEF) did not differ significantly (P>0.05) between Elancoban and natural products. However, treatment had a significant effect on BWG and FCR (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), chicks which had received Elancoban had the highest BWG (327.9 g) and converted the feed to gain with highest efficiency (1.444 g: g). Challenged birds had longer small intestines and heavier liver as compared to unchallen...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...o-β-lactamase (MBL) production by these isolates was confirmed by modified Hodge’s test and disc potentiation method, respectively. The blaNDM-1genewas amplified by PCR and sequenced. MIC of different antibiotics were determined by VITEK 2 system and antibacterial activity, MIC and MBC of manuka honey was performed by agar well diffusion assay and microbroth dilution assay respectively. All isolates (n=5) were carbapenamase and MBL...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...twice a week. Mean daily production of milk among three groups was significantly (p<0.05) different, however highest milk production (4.8±0.74 liter/day) was recorded for group B, followed by Control (3.6±0.51) and group C (2.4±0.71). Cows in group B produced higher (p<0.05) milk fat percent (5.83±0.107) while control and group C produced 4.98±0.78 and 4.51±0.81 (p>0.05) fat...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...major restraint for crop production in arid and semi arid states such as Pakistan. In this study experiments were conducted against the responses of strawberry plant to both pre-harvest application of salicylic acid and drought treatments. The design of the experiment was a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five water regimes (150ml, 175ml, 200ml, 225ml, 250ml) and five levels of SA at (0.0mML-1, 0.5mML-1 1mML-1<...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...enic medium enhanced the production of type II embryogenic calli by 54.90% compared to control treatment. Maximum regeneration (58.33%) was observed when embryogenic calli were placed on N6 medium supplemented with 60 gL-1 sucrose and 1 mgL-1 NAA for one week initially in dark and then three weeks on MS medium augmented with 2 gL-1 myo-inositol and 20 gL-1 sucrose under 16/8 hours light/dark photoperiod. The study confirmed that embryogenic type II calli obtai...

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

...ext-align: justify;">Low production of maize in Pakistan is mainly due to the unavailability of high yielding and early maturing varieties and hybrids. Earliness in maize is highly desirable as it allows plants to escape various biotic and abiotic stresses. It also makes multiple cropping possible as the land becomes available for next crop. Keeping the importance of early maturity of maize crop in view, the present study was conducted to evaluate different ma...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
...sing Zn enhanced cost of production.
...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...fish among carps but its production is less than other species due to its slow growth and high mortality due to unavailability of suitable diet especially at juveniles stage. This study focus on the healthy production with low cost by using sunflower meal to some extent replace fish meal. In this 3× 3 factorial and completely randomized design study 324 fish were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) wher...

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

...ally raise crop and fish production in that same year, it may take up to 2 years to experience a significant output expansion in livestock. Although results suggest that expansion of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund holds substantial positive signals for agricultural growth, especially in the crop and livestock subsector, the somewhat weak effect of the fund on fish production raises some curiosities for policy and ...

Abbas Ullah Jan1, Muhammad Fayaz1*, Yousaf Hayat2, Dawood Jan3 and Ghaffar Ali3 

...preneurs involved in the production and marketing of fruits if they focus on quality enhancement as both the urban and rural households are willing to pay a higher price for higher quality fruits. 

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Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...suming method for growth production. The former two methods were superior in their productivity 30% and 39% over C and D methods, respectively. The tPCR approach could also be utilized for avian mcyoplasmas contamination on cell lines or suspect fertile eggs for virus vaccine production.
...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...hrough parthenogenetic reproduction. Gynopara in October return to the primary host and give birth to wingless oviparae that mate with males and lay winter eggs. The biometrical measurements of Aphis nasturtii help to complete knowledge on external morphology of this species. By knowledge of biology and ecology of Aphis nasturtii a protocol for the prevention and control can be established.
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Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...plant vitality and grain production. Planting resistant/tolerant varieties against pests is the main way to overcome these field losses. Present study is an effort to screen different wheat varieties/lines against aphids under field conditions. Wheat varieties, Galaxy-13, Millat-11, Lasani-08, Faisalabad-08, and two wheat lines NW-1-8183-8 and NW-3-3341-7 were sown at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during the crop season 2015-...
Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz
...technique for oat forage production under salt affected conditions. Two sowing methods i.e. broad cast and drill sowing with 30 cm apart rows and four nitrogen levels (75,100,125 and 150 % of N recommended dose i.e. 150kg ha-) were tested. Recommended dose of PK fertilizer (85-60 PK kg ha-1) was used uniformly with experimental N rates. Data on plant height (132.00 cm), number of plants (91.33 m-2), number of tillers (146.00 m<...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
...t;0.05) low in LAB2. Gas production (GP 72) was significantly (P<0.05) high in LAB3. From the results of the present study, we concluded that addition of glucose and probiotic bacteria improved the chemical composition and ensiling characteristics of mulberry leaf.
...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...edly known to affect the production of mulberry, however, there is no known research data available regarding the effects of popcorn infected leaves on silkworm performance. One group of silkworms was fed infected mulberry leaves and the second silkworms group was given control mulberry leaves that were infection free. Results showed that infected leaves exhibited limited toxicity to the silkworm; however, the cocoons yield found in infected group was deeply a...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...asset base for livestock production, and introducing a number of policy interventions focused on women. 

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Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

... best approaches in crop production to improve soil fertility and productivity. Like jantar and moringa are rich in plant nutrients and becoming popular in farming community as a green manure. An experiment was conducted for evaluating green maunuring of moringa and jantar along with inorganic fertilizers to enhance the yield and quality attributes of autumn maize at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. There were two factors, green ...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...large area and more milk production. Similarly, in developed villages income from off-farm employment was more than undeveloped villages. Because large number of family labors of sample respondents were working on high paid jobs or employed else or self-employed and thus contributed a good amount to their family’s income. The study recommends that unemployment in the agriculture sector is likely to increase with the decrease in the size of holdings. To g...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

...ice, good quality garlic production and free from rust disease it is suggested to plant garlic crop in 20 row spacing. 

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Bibi Haleema1*, Abdur Rab1 and Syed Asghar Hussain2 

...tion on growth and fruit production of tomato was investigated during the year 2013 at ARI Tarnab, Peshawar to optimize calcium, boron and zinc concentration for enhancing the growth and fruit related attributes of tomato. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block (RCB) Design with 3 factors, replicated 3 times. Calcium (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%), Boron (0, 0.25, 0.5%) and Zinc (0, 0.25, 0.5%) were applied as foliar spray three times. Calcium ap...
Muhsan Ali Kalhoro1,2, Danling Tang1,*, Ye Hai Jun1, Morozov Evgeny1, Sufen Wang1 and Muhammad Aslam Buzdar
...ch were based on surplus production models. From CEDA Fox, Schaeder and Pella-Tomlinson were used with initial proportion (IP) 0.9 were used because the starting catch was 90% of the maximum catch the MSY estimated value from Fox with three error assumptions (normal, lognormal and gamma) were 3378 (R2=0.590), 3360 (R2=0.582), 3369 (R2 =0.586), respectively, whereas the obtained values from Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson with thre...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...late the indicators of reproduction were collected from cows inseminated by semen of Black-and-White Holstein-Friesian bulls and giving birth to single calf. The following information was taken from each animal: age at first insemination, age at first calving, number of semen portions attributable to successful insemination, length of pregnancy and periods of: insemination service, postpartum resting period, interpregnancy period and intercalving period. The s...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...imiting factors to maize production throughout the world. As the information regarding its distribution is lacking therefore, its incidence and prevalence was determined in seven major maize growing districts of Punjab during 2016. The maximum overall incidence of maize borer (12%) was recorded in Khanewal district followed by Multan (6%) while it was the minimum (1%) in district Okara. On the other hand, maximum prevalence of maize borer was observed in distr...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...s 1 MBP + 4 CS.The wheat production was significantly affected by deep tillage systems having highest and statistically similar yield under the treatments,i.e. 1 MBP + 8 CS as well as 1 MBP + 4 CS. The regression analysis proved that soil moisture content and bulk density have a great association with tillage systems, whereas, the correlation analysis proved that soil porosity and tillage intensity have a strong and positive correlation with wheat grain yield....
Sidra Iqbal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabbsum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
... pretreatment, cellulase production was conducted in 250ml Erlenmeyer flask at 50 ºC, pH 5 with shaking speed of 120 rpm using 2% pretreated eucalyptus leaves as carbon source and 2% v/v inoculum size in submerged fermentation for 24h. Results showed that among these two treatments, only chemical treated substrates gave better enzyme yield as compared to chemical followed by steam. The highest FPase (2.526 IU/ml/min) activity was found at pretreatment con...

Fatima Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3, Fouzia Tabbsum3, Javed Iqbal Qazi3
 

...lls as substrate for the production of cellulose enzyme using Box-Bhenken design of Response Surface Methodology. The pretreatment of substrate was conducted through Box- Bhenken design of Response Surface Methodology. Three factors with three levels such as H2SO4 conc. (0.6, 0.8, 1%), substrate conc. (5, 10, 15%) and residence time (4, 6, 8h) were employed for pretreatment with and without autoclaving at 121oC for 15 min. The enzyme p...

 Maryum Fakhar, Iqra Jabbar, Anjum Nasim Sabri*

...sized that this osmolyte production ability may help them in nickel resistance under Ni salt stress. This study was centered on assessing the adherence, motility, hydrophobicity, aggregation and biofilm formation of two salt tolerant strains [Bacillus subtilis and Halomonas aquamarina (1)] in the presence of nickel. Two concentrations of nickel were used i.e., 500μg/ml and 1000μg/ml for subsequent tests. The results revealed that at low/ sub-inhibitory c...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...al isolates for vanillin production using waste residues of rice bran oil. After the screening of different bacterial isolates, a novel strain Enterobacter hormaechei showed significant production of vanillin when inoculated in waste residues of rice bran based media. E. hormaechei produced 5.2 g/l of vanillin in culture media containing ferulic acid as a substrate. Optimum pH for E. hormaechei was 7 and the temperature was ...

Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1, Khanum Zahra2, Arooj Zaheer2, Khizar Samiullah3

...ficially to enhance silk production. Silk fiber can be designed after determining type and sequence of constituent amino acid or by inserting silk producing gene in another suitable animal.

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Malak Atiq Ullah Khan* and Fida Mohammad 

...g genotype for yield and production traits. Similarly, G-79 had higher grain yield in all test environments except E-03 i.e. E-01 (4537 kg ha-1); E-02 (4840 kg ha-1); E-04 (5035 kg ha-1); E-05 (4976 kg ha-1); E-06 (4797 kg ha-1); E-07 (5024 kg ha-1); E-08 (4767 kg ha-1); E-09 (4886 kg ha-1) signifying it as high yielding and widely adaptable genotype. However, G-08 with higher grain yield in E-01 (5272 kg ha-1) and E-07 (4840 kg ha-1), G-37 in E-04 (5106 kg ha...

Farah Rauf Shakoori, Momina Shokat, Faiza Saleem and Tanzeela Riaz

...l conditions for maximum production of enzyme from locally isolated bacteria and to optimize the assay conditions under which enzyme possessed maximum activity. Two bacterial isolates XPB-GS02 and XPB-CW01 with maximum activity ratio showed 18.3 and 12.2 U/ml xylanase activity, respectively. Maximum xylanase was produced in medium M1 containing xylan after 48 hours of incubation. Maximum amount of enzyme was produced by XPB-GS02 at 45ᵒC, pH 9 using 1% xy...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...relationship between egg production (EP) and some related traits by decision tree analysis with Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithms. A total of 1912 EP records of layers which hatched at four different periods were collected from a commercial flock in west of Turkey. The analysis performed with cathegorical (cage and line) and continuous (hatch, age at sexual maturity and body weight of s...
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool3, Fatima Ahmed4, Saiqa Tabassum3,6, Syeda Madiha3, Tahira Perveen3 and Saad Bilal Ahmed5
...ultant difficulties in reproduction. The present study was done on 75 rats divided randomly in 5 equal groups fed with rat chow, caged chicken meat, uncaged chicken meat, raw spinach and soybean for a period of six weeks. The levels of plasma cholesterol, progestril, estradiol, and androgens were estimated at the end of the experiment. The ovaries of the rats were collected, weighed and histopathologically evaluated for the development of cysts. It was seen th...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...thogenic effect in the reproduction of respiratory disease if given simultaneously or three days apart.
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Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...st management for cotton production technologies by the registered growers of Hasilpur, Punjab. In order to collect this information an interview schedule was prepared and respondents (150 growers of farmer field school) were interviewed personally by the author. The findings revealed 98.7%, 100% and 98% cotton growers were aware of hoeing, leaf curl virus and biological control of insects-pests. Before integrated pest management all the farmers used pesticide...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

...efficiency of strawberry production at farm level. For this purpose data has been collected from 382 randomly selected strawberry producers of two purposively selected villages of district Charsadda. Out of 382 producers 176 were located in Tebana Dhere and 206 in Sarkai village. It is find out that 47% of land area was under the cultivation of strawberry with average production of 2898 kilogram per acre. The per acre averag...

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

... decrease (p<0.05) in production. Nonetheless, sowing made in August is unable to mature grains properly. The yield losses rate relatively expands from July 15 onwards for maize in Peshawar valley. Sowing maize later from June month in season is superior to opt for hybrid maize variety SB-909 and SB-92K97 in the Peshawar region. 

...
Francisco J. Ayala
...onary process toward the production of specified kinds of organisms. Even if a scientific account of natural history is open to the God question, it will take a theologian to propose an answer. 
...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...tors are essential for reproduction and survival of several plant species. Agricultural productivity depends on population interactions of these pollinators. A field experiment was conducted at PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Research Farm, Koont, Gujar Khan during 2015 to compare the diversity and abundance of different insect pollinators on canola (Brassica napus L. Var. Chakwal Sarsoon) crops along with managed Apis mellifera. Thirty five ins...

Ronaq Zaman*, Shahid Ali and Inam Ullah 

...hastic frontier tans-log production function, maximum likelihood estimation technique was used. To ensure the abnormality of data set Chow test and Dummy variable test was employed for any possible structure break across the broiler farms. Results indicated that there were significant structural breaks across the sampled farms. Based on these findings three different model was estimated for small, medium and large farms, respectively. The mean calculated techn...

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

...o it reduces the cost of production and increases the farmers’ profit. However, concerns about production may hinder widespread adoption of this technology by farmers. The aim of the study is to evaluate economic feasibility of IPM method in Punjab. The study consisted of 326 farmers (161 IPM producer and 165 NON-IPM producers) and compared input and output outcomes of IPM and NON-IPM farms and provided a detailed evid...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...adverse effects on crops production where significant decrease has occurred in wheat, sugarcane and maize production. The most important effect was that vegetables growing were stopped after the floods-2010. The study recommends to address the issues through the involvement of both the agricultural extension and research with major emphasis on cash and off-seasoned crops after resolving land demarcation issue and revival of ...
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
... size, stage of animals, production level and concentrate feeding. Selenium deficiency was also evaluated as a risk factor of mastitis and repeat breeding. About 48.43% cattle and 72.39% buffaloes were found positive in selenium deficiency. Species (cattle and buffaloes) were significantly (χ2=23.042, df=1, p<0.05) associated with selenium deficiency. The highest rates (90.62 %) of selenium deficient animals were observed in village Nathoki o...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...>.
...
Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
...t approach for its hyper production. In this connection, wild bacterial strain Streptococcus equisimilis was mutagenized using ethidium bromide and UV radiation. The colonies (15 each) showing > 1% survival rate at 150 min of UV exposure and 12 % survival at 0.5 mg/ml of ethidium bromide for 120 min were selected. Casein hydrolytic assay identified EB3, EB4, EB6, EB7, EB9, EB11, EB13, UV2, UV4, UV6, UV7, UV9, UV11, UV12 and UV 15 mutants producing ha...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...llonella larvae. The production of infective juveniles (IJ) in G. mellonella was significantly affected by nematode species. Significantly higher numbers of IJ were produced by Heterorhabditid species than Steinernematid species in the cadaver. The production of IJ was the maximum in the case of H. bacteriophora which was not statistically different form H. indica. Minimum IJ were produced by S. f...

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...o aromatase and estrogen production. Danazol is a synthetic androgen whereas Letrozole is aromatase inhibitor. This study was conducted to compare the mean decrease in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score with Danazol versus Letrozole for the pain management of endometriosis in females. A total of 140 females fulfilling inclusion criteria were registered and an non-probability purposive technique of sampling was used. Diagnostic laparoscopy was conducted to ...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...ing in the latest cotton production and protection in the country. Bt cotton can play a significant role to enhance agricultural productivity as the productivity of cotton in Pakistan 0.5 t ha-1, as compared productivity of Bt cotton in China 9 t ha_1, which implies a huge cotton productivity gap. This gap can be narrowed down by the adoption of Bt cotton in Pakistan which will have major impact on food security efforts in the country. The findings of literatu...

Mohammad Aslam*

...The shortage in domestic production is met through imports for which valuable foreign exchange has to be earmarked. On the other hand, Pakistan has been a sizeable net exporter of rice. An effort has been made in the present paper to probe the possibility of attaining food autarky through a partial substitution of wheat with rice in the consumption plan of consumers. The study reveals that rice is a substitute food commodity for wheat and may be promoted as su...

Sidra Majeed, Shahid Ahmad*, Asif Ali Bhatti** and Ghazanfar Abbas***

...fy;"> Organic wheat production was initiated at the National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) during 1998-1999. Data of wheat grown using chemical fertilizers for the same period were obtained for wheat productivity from the Farm Operations and Services (FOS) crop registers. Water productivity of barani organic desi wheat (C591) grown at NARC was computed using the data of last 10 years (1998-08), which revealed variation from 1.98 to 0.29 kgm-3 of sea...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

...uation and compare wheat production practices to identify the major factors of yield decline, a national level field survey was conducted during June 2008 by Social Sciences Division, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council through its satellite institutes in the provinces. Total 238 wheat growers were purposively selected from different cropping zones of the Punjab province as sample of the national survey. The survey results reveal that decline in wheat area,...

 S.A. Khan*, M.M. Rahman Jamro** and M.Y Arain***

...mportant tool for better production of True Potato Seed (TPS). The experiments were conducted to determine the suitable planting geometry for better yield from TPS mini tubers during autumn 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. It was revealed that even small size (5- 20g, 20-30g) tubers planted at closer row and plant spacing (60cm x 15cm,70cm x 15 cm) produced 31.00%, 31.33% and 28.33%, 32.33% medium size tubers (35-55 mm size). Whereas wider spacing (70cm x 20cm, 50cm x...

 Aneela Afzal, Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Humera Amin and Samina Saki*

...e, and vegetables’ production. It is concluded that women’s participation in crop production extracted more vital role than their counterparts in rural areas.

...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

...ck population and fodder production are inversely related. The fodder area per adult animal unit has significantly declined from 0.067 ha to 0.035 ha and production declined from 1.31t to 0.80t from 1986 to 2006. Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in the country. Feed accounts for almost 70% of total cost of productio...

Liaqat Ali Shahid, M. Azhar Saeed and Nadeem Amjad*

...ify;"> The domestic production of edible oils is critically insufficient to meet the demand of growing population. It only meets 27% of the total edible oil consumption in the country. The deficit is met through import of edible oils from other countries on which government is spending billions of rupees in foreign exchange. It is imperative to mention that the efforts made so far at federal and provincial levels to increase the p...

 R. Hussain* and A. N. Naqvi**

...days, respectively. Milk production was 129.6±0.822 liters per lactation and the lactation period was 209.142±1.908 days. The mean dry period in Gojali goat was 153±2.285 days. The mean production of hair and Pashmina was 0.421±0.2 and 0.012 kg per year, respectively. The length of hair and Pashmina averaged 17±0.71 and 2.4±0.6 cm, respectively. The age of first breeding in both sexe...

 Rahmat Ullah Khan, Abdur Rashid*, Mohammad Sohail Khan** and Erdogan Ozturk***

...rces for increasing crop production on sustainable basis has become imperative. Two field experiments were conducted to study the potential of humic acid (HA) as a low-cost natural fertilizer and to determine its effect on the yield of rainfed wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Naseer) at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan during two successive winter seasons, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The treatments consisted of HA alone (3 kg ha...

 Mazher Abbas*, Muhammad Waqas Akram**, Ikram Saeed*** and Arshed Bashir*

...udy revealed that canola production in Central Punjab is profitable enterprise. However, the profitability of canola at small farms was higher as compared to other farm size categories. There is sharp increase in input prices from year to year basis while output prices remained same over the year. The Government should effectively control the input prices to avoid the exploitation of farmers. Extension efforts are required to disseminate suitable canola techno...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...sedentary system of goat production is practiced. The availability of feed varies according to the season. Goats in the region are under nourished and producing less than potential. This study was conducted to find out the feed supplementation practices of goats in the Pothowar region. Data for this study was collected for the complete calendar year 2008. Data sheets were prepared in Urdu and provided to 100 literate female household members belonging to ten v...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...te feasible options e.g. production of oilseeds, which are also being imported in large quantities. Temporal analysis (1950-09) for edible oil consumption, production and imports is made. Projections for edible oil are worked out up to 2030. As there have been large variations in yield of Jatropha reported by various studies conducted in India and other countries, therefore most reliable data have been selected for analysis ...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

... evaluate the growth and production potential of Matricaria recutita. Two crops a year are possible in highlands of Balochistan. The first production cycle starts from late February upto June and second production period is from August to November. Flowers are produced in flushes and picking is possible with 10-15 days interval. In irrigated conditions, maximum fresh and dry flower

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

...al investigation for the production of commercial varieties and exploitation of the plant for economic benefits of the local communities.

...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...sonal rainfall, area and production of major crops were moderately positive and statistically significant (except for wheat crop at Attock). This means that an increase in rainfall contribute positively towards area under major crops and their production and vice-versa. Farmers perceived a major change in climate at Kohat and a minor change at Attock over time. They reported unsustainability in produ...

 Rubina Bano, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif and Waqar Akhtar*

...for 93% of total cost of production. Feed makes the major share and accounts for 49.34%. Broiler production in the study area is profitable with a profitability index of 0.24, capital turnover of 1.32 with a rate of return on fixed cost 424% and on variable cost 135%. The issues and problems in broiler farming are also narrated.

...

 Farhan Ahmed, Hassnain Shah, Irum Raza* and Abdul Saboor**

...his paper forecasts milk production in Pakistan using time series data from 1990 to 2010. ARIMA (p, d, q) model is considered for estimation where ‘p’ is the order of the autoregressive process; ‘d’ is the order of the homegeneity and ‘q’ the order of the moving average process. Presence of trend in data was checked through time series plots and stationarity through auto correlation and partial auto correlation functions. Us...

Anish Shrestha 

...e objective of analyzing production economics, resource use efficiency, technical efficiency and production problem of honey, produced from Apis mellifera. Total of fifty five households were randomly selected as the sample for the study. Farmers were rearing on an average 34.54 hives and average honey productivity was 34.6 Kg/hive. Average production cost was NRs. 7392.52 with the average...
Hina Safdar1,*, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1 and Muhammad Arshad2
Saleem Abid1*, Nasir Jamal2, Muhammad Zubair Anwar3 and Saleem Zahid4 
...was to forecast area and production of potato crop in Pakistan using the best fitted model. Time series data of potato area and production in Pakistan from 1980-81 to 2012-13 (33 years) were used. Five different forecasting models such as Linear trend model, Quadratic trend model, Exponential growth model, S-curve trend model and double exponential smoothing model were used to find the best fitted model for area and

Arshed Bashir *, Shamsheer-Ul-Haq**, Mazher Abbas*, M. Aamir Munir** and Aneela Afzal***

Corresponding author:ssrifaisalabad@gmail.com

IMPACT OF SUGARCANE MILLS DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ON CANE PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB
...r returns from sugarcane production (fresh and ratoon crops) as compared to non-beneficiary farms. Inclusion of small and medium farmers in the sugar mills development activities is recommended to meet the sugar consumption requirements of the country by domestic production and ultimately reduction in sugar import.

...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik**, M. Aslam Gill*** and
Nasir M. Cheema*

Corresponding author: parvezkhaliq786@yahoo.com

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON MAIZE FODDER YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...ly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the overall forage yield as recorded in RF+FYM treatment. The effect of deep tillage on maize fodder yield was non-significant.

...

 Amanullah, Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Saifullah Khan, Munir Ahmed and Jahangir Khan*

 
Corresponding author:aman_azrc@yahoo.com
BIOFERTILIZER- A POSSIBLE SUBSITUTE OF FERTILIZERS IN PRODUCTION OF WHEAT VARIETY ZARDANA IN BALOCHISTAN
...on wheat variety Zardana production at four locations of -1 -1 Balochistan. Biofertilizer (Azospirillum A1-Q + N 45 kg ha , P O 30 kg ha ) was 2 5 used to substitute for half of the Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer -1, application rates as compared to a high fertilizer treatment (N 90 kgha P2 5 O -1 60 kgha ). The high mineral fertilizer and biofertilizer + half mineral fertilizer treatments were compared with a control treatment (no fertilizer). Sig...

 Hidayatullah, T. Mahmood, M. Farooq, M. A. Khokhar and S.I. Hussain*

* Corresponding author: hidayatu2003@yahoo.uk.co.uk

PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AFFECTING SEX EXPRESSION OF BOTTLE GOURD (LAGENARIA SICERARIA MOLINA) PLANTS
...ed the pistillate flower production as compared to control. Moreover, the treatment produced maximum number of fruits -1 -1 (22.24 plant ) and fruit weight (6.31 kg plant ). However, foliar spray with different combinations of ethrel did not improve yield and yield contributing attributes.

...

  Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan and Zaibunnisa Abdullah*

Corresponding author: farhatkhan7@gmail.com (This is part of Ph.D. work of senior author)

IMPACT OFKINNOW (MANDARIN) YIELD LOSSES ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING COMMUNITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ics important for higher production of kinnow. Then ten growers from each union council were chosen randomly. Total 200 respondents were interviewed through interview schedule. Simple percentage and chi-square techniques were used for analysis. According to analysis 91.5% respondents reported that yield losses of kinnow fruits have negative impact on socio-economic conditions of the majority respondents of the project area. Chi-square test also shows negative ...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...io (VCR) of agricultural production. Pakistan faces increase in degraded lands, water shortage, energy crisis, all contributing to poverty. During last two decades, many efforts were made to address the issue through developing and applying the inoculants. Several research institutions including National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan contributed significantly to these efforts. There are many reports on achieving increase in yield of ...

 Mazher Abbas*, Tahir Mehmood**, Arshed Bashir*, Muneeb Zafar*** and Aneela Afzal****

ECONOMICS OF LALLEMANTIA ROYLEANA (TUKHAM-EBALANGOO) PRODUCTION IN THE LOW INTENSITY CROPPING ZONE OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
.... Because of low cost of production the profitability of L. royleana at small farms was higher as compared to other farm size categories.

...

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*

IMPACT OF CULTIVATION SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA) CV. CHANDLER
...etter vegetative growth, production and fruit quality of strawberry. The results of cultivation systems on different vegetative traits i.e., plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights of leaves, crown size , root length and reproductive parameters i.e., number of trusses, number of flowers, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and qualitative measures viz., total soluble solids, total sugars, ascorbic acid were found significantly h...

 Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Mike Copland**

INFLUENCE OF THREE CONSTANT AND TWO RHYTHMICALLY FLUCTUATING TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON THE LIFE-TABLE PARAMETERS OF BROWN LACEWING SYMPHEROBIUS FALLAX
...t describing survival, reproduction and development of S fallax. Survival was positively temperature dependent. Sex ratio was not affected by constant temperatures from 20 to 28°C; however this ratio was affected by rhythmically fluctuating temperatures. The female proportion increased in 24°-32°C regimes. The development could not take place at 16°C and 32°C constant temperatures. But in rhythmically fluctuating temperature regimes develop...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...ected for certified seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joint venture of a study on comparison of seed source(Certified vs. Farmer's seed) contribution towards wheat yield at six sites in the District. All the agronomic practices were the same in both -2 treatments. The number of fertile tillers m were significantly higher in certified seed source than the farmer's own seed that resulted in significant increase in grain yield. Ot...

 Arshad Ali, Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Imdad Ali Mahmood and Badar-uz-Zaman*

RICE PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL HEALTH AS AFFECTED BY WHEAT RESIDUE INCORPORATION ALONG WITH NITROGEN STARTER DOSE UNDER SALT-AFFECTED SOIL
...on rice (Supper basmati) production and soil health at MK Farm, Farooqabad, district Sheikhupura under saline sodic -1 soil (ECe=5.65 dS m , pH=8.57and SAR=19.38) during 2010. Treatments were arranged in RCBD with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity, data on tillering, plant height, spike length, number of grains -1 spike , 1000-grain weight, straw and paddy yields were recorded. Plant samples collected at maturity were analyzed for K, Ca an...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...ontributor to edible oil production in Pakistan. It is harvested in October-November in Pakistan, when the weather is cold, and it is not possible to dry it down to a safe moisture level by sun drying. Therefore, the chance for developing aflatoxins in it is high. To solve this problem of the groundnut growers, a low cost mobile flat-bed dryer designed and developed at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), National Agricultural Research Cen...

 Ayesha Tahir, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal*

AN OVERVIEW OF TOMATO ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
...changes in global tomato production and export trends, market destinations for Pakistani tomato, regional acreage comparison, country's share in tomato export and revealed comparative advantage (RCA) of tomato. Pakistan's share in world tomato exports was negligible in 2000.The results of global and domestic tomato production and export trends depict that the export share in production for...
EVALUATION OF LEGUME HERBS NUTRITIVE VALUE AS A RUMINANT FEED AND NITROGEN SUPPLY ON SOIL IN WEST TIMOR, INDONESIA
...t (P<0.01) to biomass production 90 days after planting. Moreover, dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) in vitro digestibility were statistically different among the species of legume (P<0.01). In DL the DM and OM were highest i.e., 74.84 % and 74.37%. Meanwhile, the biomass digestibility of DM and OM was affected by the -2 treatments (P<0.01), being highest in CT (2511.4 g DMm and 2172.1 g -2 -2 -2 OMm ) followed by DL (2351.8 g DMm and 2044.9 g O...

 Wabekwa, J.W., I.A. Sodagni and F.K. Mohammad*

PHYSIOLOGICAL GROWTH AND YIELD EVALUATION IN PMINERALIZED SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L.) UNDER SUDANOSAHELIAN AGRO-ECOLOGY, NIGERIA

 Ayesha Tahir* and Zafar Altaf**

DETERMINANTS OF INCOME FROM VEGETABLES PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NORMAL AND OFF-SEASON VEGETABLES IN ABBOTTABAD
...sing farmer's income and production diversity concerns, but also for increasing the intake of micronutrients in human diet through increased vegetable consumption. The spectrum of year round availability of vegetables could be further extended. The off-season vegetable production offers a promising opportunity in this direction. The study is based on comparison of income obtained from production

 Shafique Qadir Memon*, Muhamamd Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal** Nadeem Amjad***, Muhammad Azhar Saeed, Shabbir Kalwar, Asif Ali Mirani and Habib Iqbal Javed****

TILLAGE AND NPK EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPRING MAIZE IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...is a very important crop production practice which affect crop performance. An experiment was conducted during the spring crop season 2009 to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes i.e. deep, conventional and zero and four fertilizer levels viz., -1 control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha . The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant ...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad, and Ijaz Ashraf**

ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL CONTACT METHODS IN DISSEMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES
...ng community to increase production of crops and thus improve living standard of the people.

...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-din*, Syed Haider Abbas*, Maqsood Qamar* and Muhammad Noman*

EFFECT OF SPLIT N FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON PHYSIOAGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...in weight and dry matter production. Split N application was also linked with better flag leaf chlorophyll retention and cooler crop canopies during grain filling stages which showed positive association with grain yield.

...

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
... used. Winter strawberry production in a greenhouse using high plant densities and various media may be a viable alternative to openfield production system. Planting density can be increased thrice by using different production systems. Studies were conducted to see the impact of different planting densities and media on growth and yield of strawberry. The treatments were T = Control, with...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF CAMEL PRODUCTS IN SEMIDESERT AND DESERT AREAS OF PAKISTAN
... designed to analyze the production and marketing of camel products in the semi-desert and desert areas of Pakistan. It is based on cross-sectional data collected through simple random sampling technique in April, 2011 from 220 camel farmers and 17 market intermediaries. It is found that both camel farmers and market intermediaries were less educated. It is observed that markets for camel milk, meat, hides and hair are less established in semi desert and deser...

 Hafiz Sultan Mahmood*, Munir Ahmad**, Tanveer Ahmad*, Muhammad Azhar Saeed* and Muhammad Iqbal***

POTENTIALS AND PROSPECTS OF PRECISION AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN - A REVIEW
...ne-tune the agricultural production system by emergence and convergence of several informationbased technologies for enhancing profit and reducing environmental risks. These technologies have demonstrated to provide benefits to farmers as well as reduced environmental stresses in the developed world. Present paper provides an overview of precision agriculture and examines the potentials, prospects, implications, issues and relevance of precision agricultural a...

 Muhammad Shahzad*, Akhter Ali**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi**, Naveed Jehan*, Imran Ullah* and Majid Khan*

ASSESSMENT OF POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF PLUM IN SWAT, PAKISTAN
...ferent levels during its production and consumption. Evaluating post harvest losses in the marketing channel of the plum was necessary for the stake holders to make informed decision about harvest and post harvest practices. This study was conducted in Swat district in 2012 to quantify these losses at different levels using four different questionnaires. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used for the collection of data from different categ...

 Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure-Camphor* and Mohammad Irshad**

SURVEY OF MANAGED F. (APIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) POPULATION IN GALIAT, MURREE AND ISLAMABAD
... useful to upscale honey production by this hill bee but also for pollination purpose. People interviewed were of the opinion that there is still some potential for these bees. Abbottabad area was having comparatively more population of than other areas.

...

Ayesha Tahir* and Sonila Hassan**

ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF SMALL SCALE BUTTON MUSHROOM PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...ll scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net ...

 Rashid Mahmood*, Elizabeth Stephen Wagchoure* and Ghulam Sarwar*

INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTAL DIETS ON APIS MELLIFERA L. COLONIES FOR HONEY PRODUCTION
...fference for royal jelly production.

...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...stem. The goal of a mass production programme is to produce the maximum number of quality insects with minimum labour and cost. The maintenance cost of 100 Chrysoperla carnea adults was Rs. 192.38 per month, which included the labour cost of Rs. 152.38 and diet cost of Rs. 40. Approximately 4000 eggs per month were obtained from the C. carnea adult culture and the cost per egg was Rs. 0.04. This study also revealed that the diet consumption of 100 C. carnea la...

 Nusrat Habib*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar* and Ikram Saeed*

COMPARATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF RECOMMENDED MUNGBEAN VARIETIES AT NARC EXPERIMENTAL STATION, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
... sustain future mungbean production. The scope for increasing production through adopting drought resistance high yielding varieties and improved management practice seems to contribute significantly. The output-input ratios of AZRI-06, NM- -1 -1 06 and NM-98 were 3.05, 2.79 and 2.41 with revenue crop day acre of Rs.451, Rs.368 and Rs.318, respectively. AZRI-06 variety showed higher -1 profitability level with higher output-...

 Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Maqsood Ahmad*, Gulshan Riaz* and Sartaj Khan*

PERFORMANCE OF SUMMER FORAGE LEGUMES AND THEIR RESIDUAL EFFECT ON SUBSEQUENT OAT CROP IN SUBTROPICAL SUBHUMID POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
... the increased livestock production but will also improve the N fertility of the soil. Potentially higher production of the subsequent non-leguminous crops will result as residual effect of this improved N status

...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

ECONOMICS OF COW MILK PRODUCTION IN SINDH AND AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
...benefit analysis of milk production by ecological zones was also conducted. Wide variations in share of feed sources in total feeding cost per annum, milk productivity and profitability of main cow breeds across selected areas have been observed. Concentrate feeding is the main cost item for cow milk production in irrigated areas of Sindh and constitutes more than half (54 %) of the total feeding cost per annum. While, in co...

  Abdul Hassan*, Muhammad Ishaq*, Nisar Ali Shah* and Arshad Farooq*

MILK PRODUCTION POTENTIAL IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...cal farms. The yield and production of milk gap was estimated in three scenarios. The results showed that the present milk production of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is 2.74 mt with 1579 lit of milk per buffalo per year, 663 lit of milk per cow per year, 95 lit milk per goat per year and 64 lit of milk per sheep per year. The data in comparison to the National and World average, is far below from probable prod...

 Shafique Qadir Memon*, Nadeem Amjad**, Muhammad Safar Mirjat***, Abdul Quadir Mughal***, Khalil Ahmad Ibupoto***, Shabbir Ahmad Kalwar****, Asif Ali Mirani**** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed****

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND USE OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE
...age is an important crop production practice which affects crop performance. It was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. An experiment was conducted during the spring and autumn crop seasons 2009-2010.The objective of the trial was to compare the effect of three different tillage regimes namely, deep tillage, conventional tillage and zero tillage, and four fertilizer levels. Results showed that plant height, 1000-grain w...

Tanzila Kazmi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan**

FARMERS BELIEFS ABOUT INDIGENOUS FARMING PRACTICES AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
...rs may also get required production.

...

 Naveed Jehan*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla**, Muhammad Shahzad*, Abid Hussain**, Muhammad Zahoor*, Majid Khan* and Ahmed Bilal*

USE OF MOBILE PHONES BY FARMING COMMUNITY AND ITS IMPACT ON VEGETABLE PRODUCTIVITY
...n improving bitter gourd production and its marketing, respectively.

...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
...ons in conservation crop production.

...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-Din*, Sikandar Khan Tanveer*, Maqsood Qamar* and Syed Haider Abbas*

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE WHEAT LINES FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN RAINFED ENVIRONMENT
...5) regarding grain yield production under both normal and late sowing dates. Under more stressful growing conditions (late planting), minimum grain yield reduction was noticed in line NR-397 (19%) followed by NARC-09 (20%), NR-400 (30%) and NR-379 (35%). Late planting conditions also signi- -2 ficantly reduced days to maturity, spikes m and 1000-grain weight in all genotypes as compared to normal sowing; however, the reduction in these parameters were signific...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...positively influence the production of gram and mung. Technological factors by the time trend had given positive impact on the yield and production. Demand analysis revealed that own price elasticity of demand was inelastic and less than one for both pulses. This implied the supply and demand gap of pulses in the country. Thus decline in pulses consumption could be attributed to disproportionate increase in pulses price that...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Abdul Jabbar** and Sajida Taj*** 

FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY OF WHITE SUGAR PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...alculation of ex-factory production cost of sugar supports the sugarcane support price programme in the country. The present paper aimed at up-dating the financial profitability of white sugar on the basis of recent data in the country. The total cost of white sugar production was Rs. -1 50.11kg in Pakistan. The estimated financial profit of white sugar production -1 was Rs. 2.47 kg in the...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Nouman Badar*

YIELD GAP DETERMINANTS FOR WHEAT PRODUCTION IN MAJOR IRRIGATED CROPPING ZONES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...nd determinants of wheat production in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is based on cross sectional data from 210 farmers for the crop year 2009-10. Results suggest that farm level wheat yields are less than the potential yield level by 33.0%, 43.0% and 50.6% in the mixed-cropping, cotton-wheat and rice-wheat zones of the province, respectively. Ordinary least square regression analysis of wheat production by assuming Cob...

 Maqsood Qamar*, S. Dilanawaz Ahmad Gardazi**, Riaz-ud-Din*, Muhammad Sohail* and Syed Haider Abbas*

PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST AND ITS EFFECT ON SUSTAINABILITY OF WHEAT YIELD
... serious threat to wheat production in cooler areas of Pakistan. The 70% area of wheat in Pakistan is prone to stripe rust disease. It can cause 10-17% yield losses if susceptible cultivars are planted under favorable conditions. Level of partial plant resistance in bread wheat and its impact on sustainable wheat production was studied at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad under natural conditions in the fi...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...r factor limiting cotton production is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant assoc...

 Samiullah*, Mehmood Shah*, Kalim Ullah**, Rehmat Ullah*** and Ibrarullah****

PROFITABILITY OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...16.32. Similarly average production of wheat (output) was estimated to -1 -1 be 1618.40 kg acre . Thus the gross return was Rs. 45315.39 acre , whereas the net return (profit) from wheat production was Rs. 20599.07 -1 acre . It is thus concluded that profit is under the direct positive influence of price and output of wheat grain whereas cost had negatively affected the wheat profitability. 

...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi* and Abdul Jabbar**

SEAFOOD EXPORTS: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
...current stock of seafood production, seafood exports, direction and future prospects of seafood exports from Pakistan. The production of inland and marine fish was 729,000 t in 2012-13. Not only seafood output in the country is low but dwindling to the disastrous level. Export of seafood has increased from 131,620 t (a value of US$ 315.5 million) in 2011-12 to 136,360 t (a value of US$ 333.13 million) in 2012-13, with an ann...

 Farrukh Saleem*, Babar Hilal Ahmad*, Saleem Zahid* and Bilal Kabeer*

COMPARATIVE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF INDIGENOUS NAKED NECK AND NAKED NECK CROSSBRED LAYER CHICKENS
...d consumption, daily egg production, egg weight, egg shell thickness and mortality were recorded. Naked Neck Crossbred (NNC) layers exhibited relatively less body weight (1461g) at 40 weeks of age, better egg -1 -1 production (66.36 %) and feed efficiency (761.32 g feed bird week ) and produced heavier eggs (average weight 60.89g) than those produced by Naked Neck (NN). However, the difference in the feed intake values was f...

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

CLIMATE VARIABILITY IMPACTS ON RICE CROP PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...affected the agriculture production all over the globe. This concern has motivated important changes in the field of research during the last decade. Climate changes are believed to have declining effects towards crop production in Pakistan. This study carries an empirical investigation of the effects of climate change on rice crop of Pakistan by employing Vector Auto Regression (VAR) model. Annual seasonal data of the clima...

 Sajid Ali* and Abdul Jabbar**

GROWTH AND VARIABILITY IN AREA PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF SELECTED FRUIT CROPS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...p;Growth in agricultural production along with low variability is highly desirable. The objective of this study was to investigate growth and variability in area, production and yield of selected fruit crops including apple, peach, pear, and plum in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The study is based on secondary data from 1975-76 to 2011-12 which is further bifurcated into three periods; period-I (from 1975-76 to 1990-91), peri...

 Mazher Abbas*, Irfan Mehmood*, Arshed Bashir*, Muhammad Ather Mehmood* and Sonila Hassan* 

WOMEN COTTON PICKERS PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HEALTH HAZARDS DUE TO PESTICIDE USE IN IRRIGATED PUNJAB
...males and females in the production and value chains. Cotton picking is primarily a female specific activity in all cropping zones of Pakistan. Women cotton pickers mostly belong to poor rural society involved in this labour force to feed their families. Cotton pickers in Pakistan face some serious health related problems due to heavy use of pesticides on cotton crop. The present study was designed to investigate the problem faced by women cotton pickers and t...

 Arshed Bashir*, Fatima Ahmad**, Irfan Mehmood*, Muhammad Qasim*, Mazher Abbas* and Sonila Hassan*

ECONOMICS OF RED MEAT PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB
...eat among different meat production systems namely subsistence rural farms, small sized specialized farm and commercial farms. Four districts of Punjab (Gujranwala and Sialkot from rice-wheat zone and Chiniot and Faisalabad from mixed cropping zone) were selected for data collection and 76 red meat producers were interviewed. The results showed that commercial farms were dominated by cows while the small sized specialized farms were dominated by buffaloes. The...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

INOCULATION AND INTER-CROPPING OF LEGUMES IN ESTABLISHED GRASS FOR INCREASING BIOMASS OF FODDER
...f study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective ...

 Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Arshad Ali**, Tariq Sultan** and Muhammad Munir Ahmed***

CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ROOT SYSTEM OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L) GROWN UNDER SALT AFFECTED AREA OF PAKISTAN
...s and other organic acid production, whereas indirectly support plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. The objective of this study was isolation and characterization of bacterial strains from rhizosphere, endosphere and rhizoplane of sunflower. Thirty six bacterial strains were selected out of 44 from plant root samples along with rhizospheric soil, collected from different salt affected areas of Central Punjab (Pakistan). Selected bacterial strains were...

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

ECONOMICS OF PERI-URBAN RADISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN FAISALABAD
... adoption of recommended production and marketing practices.

...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
...as to examine changes in production or activities of carboxylesterase (CE), total esterases (TE), alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, alkaline phosphatase (AkP), acidic phosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri dishes. The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline and centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

ECONOMICS OF MILK PRODUCTION OF MAJOR DAIRY BUFFALO BREEDS BY AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN PAKISTAN
...re in total cost of milk production. Milk production of buffaloes of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds were 2889 and 2375 liter per annum, respectively. Total costs of milk production of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breeds were Rs.96155 and Rs.90604 per annum, respectively. Net income per liter from milk of NiliRavi and Kundhi breeds was Rs.12 and Rs.11, and benefit-cost ratios were 1.4 and 1.3,...

 Muhammad Asif Jamil*, Nowshad Khan*, FarhatUllah Khan* and Muhammad Zakria*

EFFECTIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION TO THE FARMING COMMUNITY OF DISTRICT BHIMBER, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR
...ndents had increased the production of wheat while 80.67% had increased the production of maize and 68% had increased the production of millet after getting benefits from the extension services provided by the agriculture department. It is recommended that visits of extension field staff should be made regularly. The progressive farmers may be involved in extension activities because they ...

 Ibrar Ali*, Abdul Mateen Khattak*, Muhammad Ali* and Kalim Ullah**

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT TOMATO CULTIVARS UNDER ORGANIC AND INORGANIC REGIMES
...herefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. 

...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Sonila Hassan*, Arshed Bashir*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood** and Irfan Mehmood*

ANALYZING PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF SELECTED FOOD AND LEGUME CROPS FOR FOOD SECURITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... rate in area, yield and production of selected major food commodities and to project these parameters on the basis of estimated growth co-efficient. Time-series data for area, yield and production were collected for wheat, sugarcane, rice, mung and gram since 1980-81. The semi-log trend function was employed to find out the growth rate of selected commodities. The findings of the study showed the positive growth rates of ar...

 Nouman Badar*, Hina Fatima**, Abdul Jabbar*** and Muhammad Asif*

MAJOR FOOD CROPS PRODUCTION AND YIELD FORECAST IN PAKISTAN
...cuses on forecasting the production and yield of food crops in Pakistan. Utilizing the “Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average” (ARIMA) model and data from 1948 to 2011. The data was obtained from Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Islamabad and various Economic Surveys of Pakistan. The result predicts that wheat (production and yield) forecast for 2029-30 to be -1 about 37188 thousand tons and 3454 kg ha , resp...

 Sobia Naheed*, Irum Raza*, M. Zubair Anwar*, Nusrat Habib*, Naheed Zahra* and Sabeen Siddiqui*

FORECASTING AREA AND PRODUCTION OF BARLEY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...estimate barley area and production in Punjab based on time series data from 1976 to 2011. Four models namely quadratic trend, linear trend, exponential growth curve and double exponential smoothing were compared and the best fitting model was chosen by reason of three accuracy measures namely mean absolute deviation (MAD), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and mean squared deviation (MSD). The values of these

measures were lowest for the...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...hat 77% variation in the production frontier was explained by technical inefficiency effect. The inefficiency indices showed that farmers with more schooling years and more number of contacts with extension agents were more efficient. Contrarily, age of the farmer and large farm size have inverse relation to technical efficiency of the farmers. This research study concludes that the use of more labor and application of farm yard manure is contributing signific...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Muhammad Nasrullah* and Noor P. Khan** 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF TOBACCO GROWERS IN DISTRICT MARDAN, PAKISTAN
... the stochastic frontier production of tobacco growers. This parametric approach was encompassed to investigate the technical efficiency of growers. The primary data was gleaned during 2014-15 from sampled population of three villages namely Takkar Kali, Garo Shah and Passand Kali of Takhtbhai Tehsil, Mardan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The multi-stage sampling technique was utilized to obtain the desired sample size of 120 tobacco growers. The maj...

 Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Adnan Shakeel**, Muhammad Abdullah***, Muhammad Islam**, Sadiq Muhammad*, Ghulam Murtaza* and Mushtaq Ahmad**

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND WATER STRESS ON PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
...p> Crop quality and production are affected by various fertilizers and water stress. In present research, the response of cotton variety CIM-496 to water stress and phosphorus fertilizer was investigated. Samples were collected after 90 days of planting. Kjeldahl method and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of total protein and phenolic compounds, respectively. Proteins were greatly affected by fertili...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Khuda Bakhsh**, Sultan Ali Tariq*, Mahmood Nasir***, Rashed Saeed**** and Muhammad Ather Mahmood****

FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT YIELD IN POTHWAR REGION OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... recognised for area and production of groundnut. Results showed that large farmers allocated significantly higher area (34%) to groundnut cultivation compared to other categories of farmers. The gross margins were also significantly higher at large farms. Ploughing frequency, seed rate and labor mandays have positive relationship with groundnut productivity. Therefore, the provision of improved groundnut production technolo...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON
... for highest seed cotton production. In conclusion, cotton growth can be manipulated successfully for better performance by topping provided N dose is monitored.

...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Nawal Zafar* 

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF RABI CEREALS SOWN ALONE AND IN BLENDED POPULATION AT VARIABLE SEED RATIOS
...l far below than optimum production level of the livestock. From this perspective, a field trial was conducted using seeds of three cereal crops wheat, oat and barley sown alone and blended together at different seed proportions (100%: 0%, 75% + 25%, 50% + 50% and 25% + 75%) at the Agronomic Research Area, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 2013-14. The results showed that the crop mixtures and their variable seed ratios show...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Muhammad Sharif**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla*** and Muhammad Azeem Khan*

COMPETITIVENESS OF TOMATO PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... country level of tomato production in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has compe...

 Sidra Majeed*, Mubbashira Nazir*, Sumia Bint Zaman * and Waqas Farooq*

POTENTIAL OF SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW
...o major sources of sugar production in Pakistan. Sugarcane production in the country could meet only 75% demand of existing sugar mills. Present study looks into the prospects of sugar beet production especially in water scarce areas to bridge the demand gap and scrutinize the issues and constraints in commercial production of sugar beet. Trends were ana...

 Dilawar Khan*, Abid Saeed*, Junaid Ahmad*, Imtiaz Qamar**, Fazal Yazdan**, Saleem ud Din** and Muhammad Tariq**

ASSESSMENT OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN DHRABI WATERSHED AND CHAKWAL REGION IN PAKISTAN
...for forage and livestock production. The analysis includes assessment and role of this riparian vegetation which is very helpful for integrated watershed management in different watershed areas. Dhrabi watershed is a catchments area of Dhrabi reservoir and lies in district Chakwal. There were 88 species reported in the study area. The five plant communities recognized in the Dhrabi watershed on the basis of importance value (IV) by using line transect sampling...

 Mubbashira Nazir*, Saira Batool*, Sultan Ali Tariq**, Abid Hussain** and Ya Sakina**

INTERDECADAL GROWTH VARIABILITY AND DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF FRUIT CROPS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...s and variation of area, production and yield of fruit crops in Punjab province from 1971 to 2014. The growth trend of fruits' production in the province showed positive behavior for major fruits (citrus, mango and guava) in almost all the decades, except for mango in 1970s and guava in 2000s. The decline in production of mango in 1970s was due to negative growth in both area and yield. Wh...

 Saleem Abid*, Anum Fatima*, Sobia Naheed*, Asrar Sarwar** and Muhammad Nisar Khan*

DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL FORECASTING MODEL FOR DATES PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...trends of dates area and production in Pakistan by using time series data from 1980- 81 to 2012-13 (32 years).Three accuracy measures were used for the selection of best fitted model. These accuracy measures are mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute deviation (MAD) and mean squared deviation (MSD). Double exponential trend was located to be best fitted model among other five models (linear trend, quadratic trend , exponential growth , s-curve an...

 Hina Fatima** and Bushra Yasmin**

EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN'S FARM SECTOR: A META-ANALYSIS*
...kistan.

...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA
...in order to increase the production and give more financial benefits to the farmers of the area. Advance lines PF-400 & 9375 which performed well in the experiment and bear bright future prospects should be considered in designing future hybridization programs.

...

 Muhammad Bilal*, Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Muhammad Aslam*, Muhammad Ijaz****, Adnan Shakeel***, Mushtaq Ahmad*** and Kashif Bashir*****

RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT COTTON ( L.) GENOTYPES AT VARIOUS SALINITY LEVELS
...stry depends upon cotton production. High salinity levels hamper the boll formation in cotton genotypes as it reduces the yield. To verify this fact, study was carried out under natural conditions as pots experiment in soil at water testing laboratory, D.G. Khan during 2012-13. Six cotton genotypes (FH – 945, FH – 901, NIAB – 111, NIAB – 999, B – 630 and B – 622) were collected from Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biol...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...sification to compensate production risks. The existing extension network can be strengthened through its institutional linkage with metrology department and information communication technologies to further inform and train the farmers about disasters and disaster associated risks.

...

 Nasarullah*, Raiz uddin*, Fakhar Uddin* and Muhammad Jamal*

INTERPRETING WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR GRAIN YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT REGIMES OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
... reasons for lower wheat production in the country. Current experiment was conducted to monitor stability of yield potential of 15 diverse wheat genotypes at Skardu-Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern and mountainous region of Pakistan) and Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, during wheat crop season 2011-2012 using RCB design with three replications. The genetic material was comprised of 9 nationally released cultivars, three advance line from Tajikistan, one from China and...
Muhammad Sharif1*, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2, Muhammad Ansar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Syed Abdul Sadiq5
...yconsiderations for crop production in rainfed areas. The objective of the current study was to explorethe possibility of practicing conservation tillage systems for reducing input cost of small holder farming community of Pothwar, Pakistan. A two-year field study was carried out with a split plot design, having conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), reduced tillage (RT) and zero tillage (ZT) systems in main plots,while residue retained (R+
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
...ors.
...
Selçuk Kaplan1,* and Sertaç Atalay2
... commonly grown for meat production. The objective of the present study was to determine the polymorphism of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and leptin (LEP) genes in Kivircik crossbred ewes. Therefore, IGF1/BfoI and Lep/BcnI polymorphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the regulatory region of the IGF1 gene was detec...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Zafarullah Baloch3 

...l of the respondents for production, processing and marketing of the dates in district Panjgur.
 

...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Muhammad Arshad Hussain3
... cucumber and nematode reproduction. All inoculum densities caused significant reductions in growth and yield of cucumber and were found to be positively correlated with the latter. On the other hand, ages of plants at inoculation had negative correlations with reductions in these parameters at each inoculum density. The production of galls was found to be positively correlated with the inoculum densities and plant ages. How...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Ali Murad Jakhar3, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo3
...tan, techniques for mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are not yet available and the development and use of EPN mainly depends on the use of host insects such as greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) for in vivo production. Since G. mellonella may not always be available, therefore, yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) could be an alternative host. Therefore, in the present studies...
Ali Haider Saleem1,*, Khalid Javed2, Masroor Ellahi Babar3, Tanveer Hussain3, Asad Ali2, Afzal Ali2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Zahid Farooq1 and Muhammad Dawood2
... like growth, puberty, reproduction and milk production in both animals and humans. The sequence variations have been studied, reported and associated with many growth traits like weaning weight, six month body weight and nine-month body weight etc. in cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep worldwide. LEP gene polymorphism and associations have not been extensively reported in Lohi sheep of Pakistan, so this study aimed to find any...
Muhammad Umair Sattar1, Aysha Sameen1,*, Nuzhat Huma1 and Muhammad Shahid2
...i at 45°C) for LFMCs production. LFMCs produced were subjected to analysis for physicochemical parameters, functional attributes, texture (hardness), appearance (L* value) and proteolysis by RP-HPLC. Use of guar gum as fat mimetic and cheese milk homogenization significantly (p<0.01) affected the composition, functionality, texture and appearance of LFMCs. LFMCs functionality and texture also improved during ripening but appearance was negatively...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

... efficiency in sugarcane production in district D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. To realize the objectives of the study, primary data was collected from 76 sugarcane growers through a well-designed interview schedule. Debartin formula was used to calculate net return, while a Cobb-Douglas type production function (double log form) was employed to estimate sugarcane yield and its determinants in study area. The results revealed...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

... efficiency in sugarcane production in district D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. To realize the objectives of the study, primary data was collected from 76 sugarcane growers through a well-designed interview schedule. Debartin formula was used to calculate net return, while a Cobb-Douglas type production function (double log form) was employed to estimate sugarcane yield and its determinants in study area. The results revealed...
Yan Li1, Kai Zhan1,*, Junying Li1, Wei Liu1, Ruiyu Ma1, Shengnan Liu1, Tao Han2, Shaoquan Li2, Shaolin Wang2 and Yang Hu2
...l results suggest that reproduction technique may be an important factor affecting some layer performances, egg quality characteristics and welfare in local poultry breeds. These findings are expected to provide a theoretical guide to choice of breeding methods for poultry enterprises.
...
Sabah Mansoor1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Amna Jawad1, Bushra Munir2, Sehrish Firyal1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Wasim1
...ent study deals with the production, refolding and characterization of recombinant α-amylase (AMYSBS) from Geobacillus SBS-4S. AMYSBS exhibited a highest identity of 99.78% with Geobacillus thermoleovorance GTA. E.coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3) cells were used as host for expression studies of AMYSBS. Recombinant AMYSBS produced as inclusion bodies was transmitted to soluble active form by denat...
Humaira Jabeen and Nazia Jamil*
...ns were screened for the production and accumulation of bio-plastic. Only three strains from urban soil sample were able to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Strain Acinetobacter seohaensis produced 40.6% bio-plastic when supplemented with coconut oil. This percentage is even higher than the glucose, which was 16.6 % after 24 h of incubation. The other competent strains i.e. Exiguobacterium indicum, Bacillus acidiceler were not able to ...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
... productivity. Pectinase production of the thirteen strains was then determined qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Zones of hydrolysis produced by the bacterial strains were ranged from 0.9-2.6 mm2 in diameter. Enzyme production units were 59.0, 57.0, 58.0and 58.0 µg/ml/min by the bacterial isolates designated as BCTL-SL-197, BCTL-FL-24, BCTL-VL-23 and BCTL-FL-27, respectively. Bacterial growth was che...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
... productivity. Pectinase production of the thirteen strains was then determined qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Zones of hydrolysis produced by the bacterial strains were ranged from 0.9-2.6 mm2 in diameter. Enzyme production units were 59.0, 57.0, 58.0and 58.0 µg/ml/min by the bacterial isolates designated as BCTL-SL-197, BCTL-FL-24, BCTL-VL-23 and BCTL-FL-27, respectively. Bacterial growth was che...
María Magdalena Crosby-Galván1, Bernardino Espinoza-Velasco1 and Mónica Ramirez-Mella2,*
...al digestibility and gas production in an in vitro assay. Four treatments were evaluated: a control using a standard diet for ruminants elaborated with corn stover, corn grain and soybean meal, and three experimental diets with 10, 20 and 30% dry residue of chihua pumpkin instead of corn stover. Dry matter digestibility and gas production was determined at 24 h of incubation in ruminal fluid obtained from two Holstein...
Shahzad Mahmood1, Memuna Ghafoor Shahid1, Muhammad Irfan2, Muhammad Nadeem3*, Quratulain Syed3
...gillus niger for the production of α–amylase. The crude enzyme produced was further characterized. The results showed that enzyme had an optimum pH of 6.0 and stable in range of 4.0-6.0. Optimum temperature of enzyme was 40oC and attained 96% activity at 40oC for 70min. Metal profile showed that α-amylase activity was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+, Cs1+, Mn2+ and Co2+

Muhammad Suleman Bacha1*, Mohammad Nafees1 and Syed Adnan2
 

...ulting reduction in crop production. Climatic record in the study area such as increase in mean annual maximum (0.032 °C/year) and minimum temperatures (0.024 °C) and decrease in the mean annual precipitation (-0.73 mm per year) favors the local community perceptions about climate changes. To offset such worsening situation, future planning is vital to keep the natural resources intact while minimizing the risks in the years ahead. 

...
Mei Li1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...s affect the survival, reproduction, and distribution of herbivores. In order to test the effects of plant secondary metabolite on energy metabolism and thermogenesis, changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) and energy intake were measured in Eothenomys miletus fed diets containing 0, 3.3% and 6.6% tannic acid, respectively. The results showed that E. miletus fed the diets with 6.6% tannic acid increased RMR comp...

Hamza Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Ijaz Ahmad*2, Ihsanullah Khan3, Shujaat Hussain1, Bashir Ahmad Khan4 and Muhammad Suhaib5  

...g the indigenous oilseed production through different possible approaches. Development and promotion of local sunflower hybrids can be one of the options. Local sunflower hybrids with higher yield and wider adoptability can make Pakistan self sufficient in edible oil. Therefore a study was carried out at National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad, to evaluate the performance of 12 locally developed sunflower Hybrids. Twelve sunflower hybrids including two...
Ligia Neves Scuarcialupi, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra, Julia Rosas Hochheim, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Fabio Gregori*
...mpact on egg and poultry production. The objective of this work was to detect and characterize Rotavirus F (RVF) and G (RVG) found in Brazilian commercial avian farms. A total of 97 intestinal contents was collected between 2008 and 2015 from 10 Brazilian states, and submitted to two different RT-PCR, targeting a fragment of viral VP6-coding nucleotide sequence of each viral group. Amplicons were further submitted to genetic sequencing and analyzed by phylogen...

Azhar Mehmood1,2,*, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem2, Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3, Tasawer Abbas4, Ali Zohaib2, Hafiz Tassawar Abbas

...the decline of sunflower production. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to examine the combined effect of nitrogen and boron on growth, yield and oil quality of sunflower hybrids during 2009. Two nitrogen levels (0 and 150 kg ha-1) and three boron levels (0, 2 and 3 kg ha-1) were tested against two sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33 and DK-4040). All the growth and yield components like plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, achene and biological yield ...
Noor Fatima1, Muhammad Irfan2,*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
... study, cellulase enzyme production was assessed by pretreating cotton stalk with dilute sulphuric acid which was optimized through response surface methodology. Pretreatment conditions were optimized using three variable with three levels like sulfuric acid concentrations (0.6%, 0.8%, 1% v/v), biomass loading (5%, 10%, 15% w/v), and residence time (4, 6 and 8h). After pretreatment process, cellulase production was achieved ...

Nihal Ahmad Hadi, Shahid Ali* and Umer Wahid

 

...ontier Cobb-Douglas type production function. Results indicated the mean technical efficiency of 0.89 with the range of 0.63 to 0.97. This implies that farmers having average technical efficiency level can increase broiler output by 8% to reach to the frontier output by using best management practices with available farm resources and technology. Results further revealed that day old checks, feed intake and labor have positive and significant effect on broiler...

Shahid Ali1* and Salamat Ali2  

...ence between the cost of production and net revenue of open shed and EC shed farms. Cost of production of open shed was PKR 247.22 per broiler and that of EC shed was PKR 221.61 per broiler. Gross revenue was PKR 257.489 per broiler for open shed and PKR 294.112 per broiler for EC shed. Net revenue was PKR 10.269 per broiler for open shed and PKR 72.502 per broiler for EC shed. It is suggested that open shed broiler farmers ...
Leila A. Kaimbayeva1,*, Elena S. Malysheva2, Rashit Kazikhanov3 and Saule R. Kazikhanova4
..., and utilization in the production of meat products. For these purposes, meat samples were collected from quadriceps of 2.5-4 years old female red deer, immediately processed for isolation of muscular fibers and were evaluated for the pH, water-binding power, activities of tissue enzymes and microstructure changes. The results of chemical analysis revealed the nature of protein substances, altered рН value of the meat and the intensity of glycolys...

Muhammad Waqar Yasin*, Mobushir Riaz Khan and Muhammad Amin 

... Punjab, Pakistan on the production of five major crops viz. wheat (triticum), maize (zea mayes), cotton (gossypium), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and gram (Cicer arietinum). Firstly, changes in mean temperature and rainfall from 1951 to 2015 were assessed at district level. Secondly, the changes in crop performance were computed through remote sensing and crop reporting data obtained from the agriculture department, Government of Punjab, Pakistan. Lastly...

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

...chanisms to enhance crop production and decrease in pesticide use. Nanotechnology also contributes in increasing the crop yield in agriculture. One of the major contribution of nanotechnology in the field of agriculture is the formulation of nano based pesticides and fertilizers for increased crop production. Precise farming techniques can promote crop production without damaging soil and ...

Qasim Iqbal1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Bashir Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Ihsanullah Khan4  

... of bridging gap between production and consumption of edible oil in the country. The experiment was conducted at National Agriculture Research Center (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan, during August to December, 2016, to evaluate different exotic sunflower hybrids for their performance and adaptability in the field area of NARC. Twelve sunflower hybrids including one check i.e. SF-16013, SF-16007, SF-16010, SF-16005, SF-16006, SF-16002, SF-16008, SF-16004, SF-16011,...
Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2, Sarfraz Ahmed Mian2 and Atta Ullah Khan2
...n: justify;">Hydroponics production system is state of the art technology, ensuring round the year high quality vegetables free from any residual effects and multiple time productivity in specially developed glasshouses under controlled weather conditions during summer and winter. Rising population and stagnancy both in yield of vegetables and cultivated area of the country, are negatively affecting food supply in Pakistan. Supply of hydroponics products provi...

Saleem Ashraf1*, Ashiq Hussain Sangi1Zakaria Yousaf Hassan3 and Muhammad Luqman2

...rowth and forecast area, production and average yield in the Punjab Pakistan For this purpose, data collected from government reports for the period of 1990-2017 was criticaly examined. Empirical results indicated that area under cultivation showed negative compound growth rate while production and average yield showed positive compound growth in Pakistan. While, in Punjab, compound growth rate of area under cotton cultivati...
Yakup Erdal Erturk1, Adem Aksoy2 and Mohammad Masood Tariq3,*
...aim in performing animal production), economic factors (dry land, irrigated land, and pasturage land of the farmer) and biological factors (first live weight before fattening, and fattening period of the beef cattle) were found as influential factors on fattening final live weight in the crossbred beef cattle. The achieved results suggested that interaction effects of influential predictors entered into MARS prediction equation could change AFFLW per enterpris...

Fayaz Ahmad1*, Noorullah Khan1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Qamar uz Zaman1, Shamsul Islam1, Muhammad Abbas Khan1 and Sair Sarwar

...ased the foliage biomass production by 47.26% as compared to late pruning (March) and without the application of potash fertilizers. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that deep pruning of tea during the month of December and application of potash @ 150 kg ha-1 resulted in e best recovery and growth of deeply pruned tea bushes under the climatic conditions of Mansehra-Pakistan. 

...
Souheila Slimani1,*, Sonia Hamouda1, Chahrazed Souadi1, Sara Silini2, Cherif Abdennour2 and Leila Delimi3
...ity” on seasonal reproduction of male domestic pigeons Columba livia domestica, subjected to a long photoperiod (19L: 05D). The fungicide was orally administered at 5 and 10 mg/Kg body weight/day for 10 consecutive weeks.Testicular volume and weights were measured weekly, whereas semen quality, and histopathological profile were investigated at week 10.The obtained results reveal that under a long photoperiodthe sexual activity of the control last...
Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq1, Amer Jamal Hashmat1, Ejazul Islam1, Muhammad Afzal1, Abid Mahmood2, Muhammad Ibrahim2,*, Muhammad Nawaz3,*, Shahid Nadeem4 and Qaiser Mahmood Khan1
... textile industry is the production of large volumes of highly colored wastewater. The scope of this new electrochemical treatment is a significant advance to the existing technologies. There were four different treatments employed as; T1: wastewater, T2: wastewater with 0.1% electrolyte, T3: diluted wastewater (50% tap water), and T4: diluted wastewater (50% tap water) with 0.1% electrolyte. The color and COD in the effluent were reduced to 47% and 46% in T1,...
Yakup Erdal Ertürk
...son at performing animal production were recorded on breeders. Also, first fattening weight and fattening period of the beef cattle were recorded. It was determined that predictive models based upon MARS algorithm explained virtually all of variability in the final fattening weight (FFW) for each gender when model assessment criteria (viz. R2, SDRATIO, GCV and Pearson correlation coefficient between real and estimated scores in the...
Sadaf Noveen1*, Shaista Habib Ullah2, Babar Alam3
...f speech while affecting production of phonemes. Description of this relationship is important for etiologic diagnosis and treatment planning among children without any disability or ignored craniofacial deformities. Studies highlighting this relationship are rare to none in Pakistan. Therefore, this study aims to detect the type and extent of relationship between these two factors.
Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted ...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...ns identified in poultry production facilities in Pakistan. This study reveals the presence of two distinct groups of FAdV-4 and FAdV-11 in chickens affected with hydropericardium syndrome and inclusion body hepatitis. To control FAdvs, strict biosecurity protection measures are necessary and we propose the continuous epidemiological surveillance to support the prevention of the viruses spread into non-epidemic areas.
...

Rizwana Qamar1, Maria Ghias1, Fida Hussain1, Sajida Habib1, Muhammad Khuram Razzaq2*, Muhammad Aslam1 and Imran Habib3 

... factor for agricultural production in Pakistan. Sunflower productivity is sturdily delimited by the inaccessibility of water. Developments of sunflower hybrids having greater drought tolerance are the effective and inexpensive approach by plant breeders to manage with drought. A wire house experiment was conducted in Oilseeds Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Faisalabad for the screening of genotypes against drought. Ten hybrids along with their ...
Amna Waseem, Sikander Ali* and Syeda Wajiha Khalid
...cribes the screening and production of extracellular lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) from a Rhizopus oligosporus mutant strain developed by chemical mutagenesis. The wild-type was simultaneously treated with different concentration of EMS and MMS. Among 13 mutant variants, EM-7 showing maximum lipase activity of 71±3.55 U/g, was selected. Resistance in the hyper producing strain was developed by exposing it with low levels of L-cysteine HCl to protect...

Tanzim Ullah Khan1*, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Ahmad Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Muhammad Ishaq2, Khilwat Afridi2, Murad Ali2, Muhammad Adeel Qureshi2, Imtiaz Ahmad3 and Muhammad Saeed2  

Munir Ahmad1, Aisha Hameed2*, Saba Khaliq3, Hamid Saeed Malik4 and Shahida Mohsin5
...ions which result in the production of fusion genes (BCR-ABL, TEL-AML1, and MLL-AF4). These chromosomal rearrangements have great prognostic and therapeutic significance. Amongst these, TEL-AML1 fusion gene represents a subgroup of ALL cases, which are associated with many clinically important parameters of good prognosis. The objective of this study was to detect the frequency of TEL-AML1 fusion oncogene in ALL and its association with already establis...
Irshad Ali1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Abdul Waheed2, Ferhet Abbas Yousafzai1, Farhat Abbas Bokhari1, Majed Rafeeq1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Adnan Attique1, Shahid Amin3 and Tahir Hameed1
...iometric parameters, its production system, and survival in the existing habitat. The data on morphology and performance of 1020 Bhag Nari (BN) cattle were collected from Bhag Nari cattle Farm, Usta Mohammad Baluchistan during 2015-16 and its surrounding areas. Some distinct characteristics have been found exclusively in Bhag Nari breed. These characters are rare in other local breeds of the area such as tick resistance, tolerance against > 50o
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1, Muhammad Shakir Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Imtiaz Ali Shah1,Sheeraz Ghani1, Amjad Ali2, Zubina Hameed1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3 and Tariq Ali1,3,*
...dditionally, the cost of production was Rs.406.68/kg and Rs.591.32/kg for AJC and ABC, respectively. This study concludes that AJC calves performed better on milk replacer than ABC.
...
Mudassar Javed1,Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Sufyan1, Sajjad Ali2 and Muhammad Afzal1
... and Asia. However, okra production is hampered by the incidence of many insect pests. Particularly, okra shoot and fruit borer (Earias vittella) and okra fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera) cause substantial quantitative and qualitative losses to okra crop. In this study, 18 pesticides including conventional and new-chemistry synthetic insecticides and different botanical extracts were screened against these pests on okra variety ‘Pusa S...
Muhammad Sarfraz*, Shahida Hasnain
... for AmpC beta-lactamase production was done by cefoxitin disc followed by inhibitor based confirmatory method. Antibiogram was performed following CLSI guidelines 2013. Of 11,725 clinical specimens, 29 % were culture-positive. 80% K. pneumoniae and 70% E. coli showed resistance to cefotaxime or ceftazidime. Only63% K. pneumoniae and 58% E. coli and were resistant (<18 mm) to FOX. Phenotypic confirmation of pAmpC beta-lact...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...age juveniles, and the reproduction rate were detected at the highest levels in untreated soil, whereas low numbers were encountered in soils initially treated with the fungus, L. muscarium. Meloidogyne incognita and other plant parasitic nematodes multiplied significantly more in untreated soil than in treated soil, which clearly indicated that L. muscarium effectively reduced the nematode infestation level in the soil.
...

 

Syed Aun Muhammad1, Muhammad Soaib Said2, Shams Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Dawood2, Muneer Ahmed Qazi3 and Nighat Fatima2,*
...ealth concern because of production hydrolytic enzyme New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1). The enzyme NDM-1 is responsible for bacterial resistance against almost all the β-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, NDM-1 inhibitors can play an important role against these emerging highly resistant microorganisms. The existing beta lactamase inhibitors are considered ineffective against these superbugs and there is an urgent need for discovery of novel drugs w...

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

... dynamics of agriculture production. Long run equilibrium stability has reaffirmed the short run empirical estimates. Lengthy formal credit procedure, political and bureaucratic influence and misallocation of credit utilization are major constraints in lowering overall agriculture output. Adequate farmer’s friendly policies and proper legislative measures are necessary for the smooth flow of increasing agriculture output and overcoming financial constrai...

Irfan Ali Sabir1, Saeed Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees2, Ahmad Sattar Khan1, Maryam3 and Ishtiaq Ahmad

... a rapid decrease in the production and export of mango in the last few years. Low yield and poor quality are considered the major limiting factors in export. Therefore, some high yielding good quality exotic mango cultivars were acclimatized in the country and a comprehensive research studies were executed to investigate the yield potential, fruit physico-chemical characters and sensorial aspects. Diverse seventeen commercial and noncommercial indigenous and ...

Sadiqa Begum1, Murad Khan2* and Noor Pao Khan

... Per acre yield of wheat production in district Mardan was 1809.032 kgs. while in district Peshawar it was 2143.230 kgs. Total cost of wheat per acre in district Peshawar was more than that of district Mardan. The net revenue from per acre wheat production was high in district Peshawar as compared to district Mardan. The results revealed that all the inputs including seed, irrigation, labor, fertilizer, pesticides and tracto...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Abdul Wasay2, Tariq Ali1,*, Muhammad Iqbal1, Khisrao Kalim1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3, Muhammad Mobashar2, Nazir Ahmad2, Abid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1
...constraints in livestock production system of Pakistan. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of different weaning ages on the growth performance of cattle calves to reduce ECM. Nine calves (Achai crossed Jersey) were randomly distributed into three weaning age groups viz., A = 90, B = 70, and C = 110 days. In group A, calves were fed with whole milk at 10% of live body weight (LBW) for 4-7 days after initial colostrum feeding at ...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Selim Erdoğan3, Ecevit Eyduran3 andMohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...y was to develop a honey production model for 180 beekeeping enterprises at Agri, Kars and Erzurum provinces of Turkey and to identify factors affecting honey production through CART, CHAID and MARS data mining algorithms, which are more flexible compared to classical approaches. Several potential predictors in the survey were age of enterprise, province of enterprise (Agri, Kars and Erzurum), educational level, membership s...
Muhammad Mobashar1, Muhammad Tahir1, Shahbaz Javaid2,*, Muhammad I. Anjum2, Insha Gul3, Nazir Ahmad1 andAbdul Sami1
... oat hay and higher milk production could be attributed to the flowering stage of harvest maturity.
...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...lerotiorum growth by production of toxic metabolites and mycoparasitism. In vitro bioassays were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. hamatum and difenoconazole alone or its combinations against S. sclerotiorum. The results showed that T. hamatum could infect and destroy the mycelia and sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum by mycoparasitism. The cell-free culture supernatant and ethylacetate extracts from T. hamatum inhibit...
Arifa Mehreen1, Iram Liaqat2,Muhammad Arshad3, Muzzamil Waheed4 and Najma Arshad1,*
... genes involved in toxin production and/or host immune evasion. Highest resistance was observed against beta-lactam group followed by cephalosporin, lincosamide, tetracycline, macrolides and aminoglycosides. No resistance was observed against vancomycin and linezolid. Among genes involved in host immune evasion, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) was identified most frequently (81%) and proportions of capsular polysaccharides (CPs8), clumping ...

Ali Sher1*, Khalid Naveed1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Ayub Khan1, Muhammad Saeed1 and Shah Masaud1 

...o plants improve biomass production and also increase the shoot Fe content and accumulation of Zn in wheat plants. Experiments were conducted at the Cereal Crop Research Institute (CCRI) Pirsabak, Noweshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to study the response of wheat to N, Zn and Fe application. Treatments included three levels of N (90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1), three concentrations of Zn and Fe (i.e. 1, 2, 3 kg ha-1) each along with tw...
Shoukat Ara1, Sheikh Adil2,*and Manzoor Ahmad Khan3
...eggs laid, % hen-day-egg production, various external and internal egg parameters under different treatments were statistically non-significant (p>0.05). In conclusion, Azolla is beneficial at lower levels in improving the performance of grower chicken but had no effect on the number of eggs laid. Further, Azolla inclusion in the diet showed an improvement in the shell quality of eggs which could prove beneficial in decreasing the incidence of...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
...se and β-lactamases production were evaluated by Modified Hodge test (MHT) and combined disks diffusion (CDD) method, respectively. The MBL producing clinical isolates were further subjected to PCR for the existence of blaIMP and blaVIM genes. The carbapenem resistant A. baumannii (n=32), P.aeruginosa (n=26), K. pneumoniae (n=19), E. coli (n=16), C. ferundi (n=04), P. vulgaris (...

Saif Ullah and Mohammad Akmal*

...lign: justify;">Oil seed production is important for Pakistan, while Pakistan invests the 2nd highest foreign exchange on the import of edible oil. Sunflower is one of the best options to work due to its better oil quality and fit well in the cropping system of environment. Combined effect of N, P and S on sunflower is essential to review. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer 2016. Nitro...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Saeed Akhtar2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3* and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...eavy metals leads to the production of contaminated food which exerts serious health risks to the humans. In the present study, edible portions of five vegetables viz., okra, tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower, grown with canal, tubewell and sewage irrigation water, were assessed for their proximate (moisture, ash, protein and fiber) and heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe and Cr) contents. Significant differences were found for proximate composition of canal...

Anish Shrestha* and Samata Baral 

...etite and decreased milk production. Vulnerability index of the area found to be 4.29, indicating higher vulnerability of the research area to climate change. Study concluded that impact of climate change in livestock sector is significant and means of dealing with climate change must be identified soon for the betterment of farmers’ economy and insuring food security.

...

Muhammad Abu Sufyan Ali, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Ghaffar Ali and Muhammad Fayaz 

... for crops and livestock production 

...

Qaisar Mehmood1*, Muhammad Riaz2, Maqbol Hussain Sail1 and Muhammad Moeen1 

...e effect to increase the production of wheat. Variety, seed type, date of sowing, sowing mode, Urea fertilizer, DAP fertilizer, irrigation mode, numbers of irrigations and number of weedisides sprays are chosen as input factors. Descriptive statistics, multiple linear regression model and analysis of variance techniques are used which show that variety, sowing mode, nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorous fertilizer have significant effect on the wheat yield. Irri...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

...ce of vegetable oil. Its production is often limited by shortage of water during reproductive stages. Salicylic acid, potassium nitrate and methanol are considered to induce drought tolerance in plants. Field trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar-Pakistan to study the effects of moisture stress and foliar application of chemicals at different growth stages on canola growth and phenology during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experi...

Shamsher Ali1, Zakir Ullah Jan1*, Zahir Shah2, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Farmanullah Khan2, Inayat ur Rahman3 and Shah Fahad3 

...s conducted to study the production competition of hybrid (CS-200, cv) and local variety (Azam cv.) under the same application of fertilizer treatment and dozes during summer 2015. The field experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangements having two maize varieties in main pot and six levels of fertilizer treatments in sub pots repeated four times. Fertilizers treatments were made from the application of Nitrogen (N), P...
Li Lv1, Liuan Li1,*, Ruibo Zhang1, Zhichao Deng1, Tianming Jin1 and Gaimei Du2
... selenium levels and egg production of North China laying hens. Healthy 60-week-old hens (n = 160) were randomly divided into four experimental groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with selenium enriched yeast at differing levels: 0.0 mg/kg (control group), 0.3 mg/kg (low-dose group), 0.6 mg/kg (medium-dose group) and 1.2 mg/kg (high-dose group). Each experimental group had four cohorts and each cohort had 10 hens. Experimental diets were fed for 28...
Ali Murad Rahoo1, Tariq Mukhtar2,*, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...els of infectivity and reproduction within a specific target host may be more effective in controlling a particular insect under field conditions. The production of infective juveniles (IJ) from Galleria mellonella cadavers may differ among different species of EPN and hosts of various sizes. Therefore, the objective of conducting the present study was to compare the productivity of two EPN (Steinernema feltiae

Sajad Ali1*, Syed Asghar Ali Shah2, Jaffar Ali3, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal4, Arshadullah Jadoon5 and Farmanullah

...cted to examine the Peas production as well as their related promoting rehearses, categorize the scenario of socio-economic, methodical and marketing restraints faced by the farmers in augmenting and stimulating export of the country. The pea’s cultivators and also market agents were quizzed by using structured questionnaires in two related districts that is Haripur and Mansehra in the year 2013-14. The data were analyzed by using SPSS Package version 22...
Ammara Afzal1, Tazmeen Fatima1, Maham Tabassum1, Muhammad Nadeem2*, Muhammad Irfan3, Quratulain Syed2
...to compare the efficient production of ethanol in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Fungal strains of Saccharomyces cervisae, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma koninji and Trichoderma harzianum was used for subsequent process using saw dust as substrate. Three major processes convert lignocelluloses to bioethanol i.e. pretreatment of biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis of r...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...major loss to the cotton production ultimately to the economy of the country. Currently the genetic modified cotton cultivation consumed for more than 95% area under cotton cultivation. There are certain pros and cons about the issues being faced by the cotton growing community of the country raising concerns for Bacillus thuringiensis cotton cultivation. Particularly in non-traditional cotton cultivation zones which is facing a limited insect-pest-pressure. M...

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

...eties for forage biomass production. The seed was soaked overnight (14 h) in extracts made from dry powdered leaves of Bakayn (Azadir achtaindica), Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) and water (H2O) and planted in pots on the next morning. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design at the University of Agriculture Peshawar during winter 2013-14. Periodic growth sampling was taken by harvesting three pots of treatments starting in early spring and th...

Abid Hussain1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2, Muhammad Anjum Ali Buttar3, Umar Farooq4, Muhmmad Islam5 and Zahid Ullah Khan1 

...y;">Reduction in cost of production to make agriculture profitable is a major challenge and all out efforts have been made by successive government in Pakistan to pass benefits to the farmers by reducing input prices through reduction in GST, providing cash subsidy and supplying inexpensive feed gas for fertilizer industry. Currently, cash subsidy on urea is costing Rs. 12 billion to national exchequer and total tax relief (all products inclusive) costing arou...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou1, Qi-bin Yang1, Jian-hua Huang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1*
...sub>2-) production, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, as well as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) concentration catalyzed by NOS. Based on biochemical analysis of the above, results showed that O2- production could be induced significantly after cold stress at 15°C and heat stress above 30...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

... the total global cereal production. Eight wheat cultivars including a land race were crossed in 8×8 full diallel fashion during 2014-15 wheat growing season. In the succeeding crop season all the 56 F1 hybrids and their parents were evaluated during 2015-16 to study inheritance pattern of yield and yield related traits at Peshawar-Pakistan. Data were generated on spikelets spike-1, spike length (cm), days to heading and grain yield plant-1. Significant ...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

...n need to reduce cost of production in order to compete in the international market. At national level food group exports decline from 3,439.4 million US$ during 2015 to 3040.7 in 2016. Increase in productivity and efficiency has been the major concern for agricultural researchers and policy makers in Pakistan. In current study allocative efficiency of sugarcane growers in district Charsadda was worked out with frontier model. Randomly 118 sugarcane growers we...

Sabahat Noor*1, Shaukat Ali1, Hafeez-ur-Rahman1, Farhatullah2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali1 

...attention to rectify the production loss. Among various abiotic stresses, drought and soil salinity have the most adversarial effect on wheat production. In this study the T2 transgenic (At-DREB1A) and non-transgenic line of lasani-08 from single transformation event was exposed to 15 days drought and different levels of salt concentrations separately. Four parameters i.e. sugar contents, proline contents, chlorophyll conten...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
...ant effect on lovastatin production. Effect of carbon and nitrogen supplementation was investigated due to their restrictive ingredients role. Best yield (49.3±15 mg/g) was achieved by P. spodoecus using lactose (Carbon source) and NaNO3 (Nitrogen source) under pre-optimize circumstances. Different C/N ratios were used to obtain the optimal ratio. Best statin production was attained at 25:1 C/...

Umair Riaz1*, Muhammad Ali Kharal2, Ghulam Murtaza3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Sana Javaid4, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Humera Aziz3 and Zafar Abbas1 

..., mechanism involves the production of ferulic acid through the methylation of caffeic acid catalyzed by O-methyltransferase. It has been concluded that exogenous application of cafeic acid may be a best option to cope with salinity, ion toxicity, drought and heavy metal stress. 

...
Adem Aksoy1, Yakup Erdal Ertürk2, Ecevit Eyduran3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4,*
...ofitability of lamb meat production in the sheep.
...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
...ysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were employed. Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz., Fox Model (FM), Schaefer Model (SM) and Pella-Tomlinson Model (PTM) were used in CEDA along with three error assumptions (EAs) viz., normal error assumption (NEA), log-normal error assumption (LNEA) and gamma error assumption (GEA). On the other hand, in ASPIC two SPMs viz., Fox...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar*1, Shahid Riaz Malik1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood3, Muhammad Jawad1, Muhammad Asadullah1, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Muhammad Imran1

Nizam Uddin Jamali1, Asmatullah Kaka1,*, Pershotam Khatri1, Moolchand Malhi2, Muhammad Naeem3, Akeel Ahmed Memon1, Rameez Raja Kaleri4, Habibullah Janyaro5 and Dildar Hussain Kalhoro

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
...e demand for citric acid production has been increased due to its application in various advanced medical fields, which can only be fulfilled by biotechnological fermentation using agro-industrial wastes. It is a bidirectional beneficial process for cost effective manufacturing of citric acid and management of agro-industrial waste products. This project was carried out in order to evaluate the enhanced production of citric ...

Nadia Sharif1, *Neelma Munir1 and Shagufta Naz1

MICROBIAL PRODUCTION OF ALGINATE

 Sumera Siddique1,†, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Muhammad Irfan1

Screening of some agri-wastes for economical cultivation of Candida tropicalis SS1
...ingle cell protein (SCP) production employing different fruit’s peels. The C. tropicalis SS1 was cultivated in media containing 2% pulverized peels of apples, mangoes, water melon and bagasse singly as well as in eleven different combinations. The media were inoculated with 1% (w/v) suspension of 24 h old yeast cultured in nutrient broth. The strain grew best in water melon (WM) at pH 7.0 and 37 °C under non agitation conditions. The proximate analys...

Farah Deeba, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir, Muhammad Irfan, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Chitinase production in organisms: a review
...s of naturally chitinase production in organisms was discussed.

...

 Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Zahid Hussain3, Amir Sohail4, Syed Shahid Ali4*

Extracellular lipase production from Bacillus subtilis using agro-industrial waste and fruit peels
...tudy was planned for the production of lipases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes as substrate. A total of 14 bacterial strains were isolated, screened and compared for lipase production. Among the evaluated strains, Bacillus subtilis strain NL-39 was selected on the basis of best lipase production. The maximum enzyme activity (34.93 U/ml) was shown by B. subtil...

 Anam Javed, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Skin health implications of Chemical detergents and importance of biodetergents
...ociated risk. Economical production of biosurface active substances at industrial level through utilization of bio-waste origin feedstocks would also enhance recycling and energy conservation in the environment. Through the application of biosustainable developments in the field of biotechnology, we would be able to get rid of various long lasting after effects of anthropogenic pollutants and synthetic detergents.

...

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
...ore effective in biomass production, nutrient cycling and bioremediation of organic
pollutants, heavy metals and many other contaminants. The biodegradation approach of involving consortium might
attain self-sustaining level and may prove technically cheaper and advance technology. It will finally help in dealing
the dual mission of producing valuable metabolites and pollutants/nutrients removal from wastes/wastewaters.
Agricultural...

 Mohsin Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan*2, Asad-Ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Nadeem3, Zile Huma3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir4, Quratulain Syed3

Optimization of medium and substrate for CMCase production by Bacillus subtilis-BS06 in submerged fermentation and its applications in saccharification
...ellulase
(CMCase) production under static and with agitation speed of 140 rpm. The whole
fermentation experiments were carried out in 250ml Erlenmeyer flask. Different
agricultural wastes such as sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, rice husk, defatted
soybean meal, corn cobs and wheat bran were exploited for CMCase production
using different media (medium 1 (M1), medium II (M-II), medium III (M...

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
...nocellulose for biofuels production is considered as chief renewable biomass
source. Ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is extensively recognized as
an additive or as a substitute to fossil fuel due to its trivial influence on the
environment. Second generation (2G) or cellulosic bio-ethanol is produced from the
biomass in three main steps that are pre-treatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation.
The pre-treatment meth...
Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Tehseen Zamir3, Zahid Hussain1, Syed Shahid Ali4*
.... Best medium for lipase production was olive oil and mustard oil cake and the best carbon sources were fructose and maltose whereas yeast extract was found to be the best nitrogen source, showing 55U/mL enzyme activity. The best inoculum size for the growth of this strain was 4-5%. Optimum pH was 8 and best temperature was 40oC for the reported strain. Addition of divalent Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions resulted in 2-fold increase in enzy...
Muhammad S. Waqas, Ali A.Z. Shoaib, Xinlai Cheng, Qianqian Zhang, Asem S.S. Elabasy and Zu-hua Shi*
...the mated ones. Sexual reproduction with short lived males may imply potential for control practices that target males; for example, application of sex pheromone for trapping and killing male, or spraying of chemicals during the time of male activity, may be an effective practice for the management of this pest.
...

Faheem Ali1*, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1, Abdul Basit2, Muhammad Kashif Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad1 and Muhammad Amir

... would in turn lower the production cost of agricultural products. Also, sensitive equipment would not be encountering voltage fluctuations anymore 

...

Khush Bukhat Zahid1*, Ghaffar Ali2, Samina Sabir1 and Mohammad Fayaz2 

...estimation purposes, the production function technique is used to evaluate the relationship between climate and yield variability. The results show that higher amount of rainfall has a negative and significant impact on the production of all crops including wheat, rice and maize. It may be because unexpected rainfall in Pakistan during monsoon season severely damages crops. This result is consistent with our expectation that...

Neelum Andaleeb1*, Munir Khan1, Syed Attaullah Shah1 and Rahmat Ullah2 

...participate in livestock production and management. Access to credit will empower women in making pertinent livestock management decisions. Success of livestock venture will support rural economy and improve overall well being of everyone involved. 

...

Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1*, Amjad Khan1, Mahmood Alam Khan1, Waqas Ahmad2, Shafiq ur Rehman3, Mohammad Sharif4 and Sajjad Ahmad1 

... impacts on agricultural production and hydropower generation. In this research, the characteristics of hydrological droughts in Indus River basin using stream flow data of major rivers of Pakistan were investigated. Stream flow drought indices (SDI) were used to determine the severity of droughts for the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab and Kabul River at Tarbela, Mangla, Marala and Warsak hydrological stations for the period 1962-2011. A drought spell starting from 199...

Muhammad Salman Wazir and Mohammad Akmal 

...ture scope of wheat crop production under the changing climate to produce higher production per unit area with sustainable soil use under cereal cropping system. Among the tested species sunflower and flax were not suitable choices as IC with wheat. The study concluded with the expected increase in rainfall of the changing climate in KP which is expected at the time of the wheat crop at anthesis, three N splits application i...
Daniel Zaborski,1,* Muhammad Ali,2 Ecevit Eyduran,3 Wilhelm Grzesiak,1 Mohammad Masood Tariq,2 Ferhat Abbas,2 Abdul Waheed4 and Cem Tirink5
...traits. A total of 382 reproduction records including three predictors (month of lambing - MOL, age at first lambing - AFL and lambing weight - LW) and seven dependent (output) variables (services per conception - SPC, service period - SP, lambing interval - LI, twinning rate - TR, gestation length - GL, breeding efficiency - BE and fertility rate - FR) were used. A 10-fold cross-validation was applied to train and evaluate the models. The highest correlation ...

Muhammad Tahir Amin, Khalid Usman*, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik and Nishter Ali

...al which enhances cotton production and lint quality was the basis of this research. A field study was conducted in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during 2016 to assess the impact of irrigation interval and phosphorus rates on cotton grown under reduced tillage system (one tiller followed by one rotavator at 7–10 cm depth). Five irrigation intervals (7th, 10th, 13th, 16th and 19th day) and phosphorus levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg P2O5 ha-1) were kept in...

Ali Bakhsh1*, Mashal Rehman1, Said Salman1 and Rehmat Ullah

...nd water security cotton production is under threat so, it is imperative for plant breeders to develop cotton lines that can grow on minimum water availability. In this study performance of 23 cotton genotypes was compared for seed cotton yield and fiber quality traits under water stress and non-stress conditions. All the genotypes depicted significant differences for days to first square formation, days to first flower formation, plant height, monopodial bran...

Salman Ali*, Inamullah, Muhammad Arif, Mehran Ali, Muhammad Owais Iqbal, Fazal Munsif and Arsalan Khan 

...mmended for higher maize production

...

Raza Ullah1* and Jamal Shah

...nefits from agricultural production. These costs (explicit or implicit) are referred to as the cost of risk management. Previous studies on risk management in agriculture however have ignored such costs. The present study is therefore designed to investigate how adoption of risk coping tools affect farm productivity in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. 330 wheat growers were selected using multistage sampling technique and Analysis of Variance was used ...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...ajor constraint to wheat production across Pakistan, including rusts and powdery mildews. Although significant attention is given to rust diseases, powdery mildew is a less considered diseases so far, mainly due to lack of information on the prevalence across Pakistan. Surveillance for powdery mildew status assessment was conducted across Pakistan during three wheat crop seasons i.e., 2015-2016 to 2017-2018. A total of 437 fields (from 63 districts) were surve...
Muhammad Asad Saleem1,*, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1, Mudssar Ali1, Muhammad Amin2, Muhammad Tayyab1,3 and Sumaira Maqsood4
...se in weight gain, frass production and cumulative gain in size was found when larvae were treated with integrated effect of Bb and Nit. Depending on the lethal of treatment, development duration of RPW was disturbed. Integration of Bb and Nit delays the development and diet uptake in RPW which can be used for agent of control for this cryptic insect.
...
Tamoor Azeem1,*, M. Yasin Tipu1, Asim Aslam1, Sajjad Ahmed2, Salman Ahmed Abid1, Abdullah Iqbal3, Naeem Akhtar4, Muhammad Saleem4, Aamerzish Mushtaq4 and Sajid Umar4
...oparasites disturb camel production in tropical countries. Four major haemoparasites in camels are Trypanosoma, Dipetalonema, Babesia, and Anaplasma. The current study was executed to investigate haematobiochemical alterations in camels during haemoparasitism. Blood samples were collected from 200 camels of either sex and different ages from district Attock. Samples were processed for haematobiochemical analysis and thin smear stain...
Muhammad Huzaifa Mehmood1, Muhammad Ahmad Iqbal2, Muhammad Daood1, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq3*, Khubaib Ali3
...bits are reared for meat production in backyard farming system in rural areas of Pakistan. The quality of meat depends upon the nutritious value, texture profile, taste and flavour. Mostly dieticians recommend rabbit meat due to low in caloric value then other traditional meats. To enhance the quality of rabbit meat oat is used as feed for rabbits, because oat is good source of dietary ingredients. In this study 2-4% oat seeds were used to investigate their di...
Pingping Cang1, Mingming Zhang1, Guo Qiao1,Qirui Sun1, Dehai Xu3, Qiang Li1, Xinghua Yuan4 and Wenbin Liu2,
...ross revenue, break-even production, net present value, payback time, degree of operating leverage, and environmental costs under experimental conditions was conducted. Analysis results revealed that BFT system was more effective than the control system with water exchange in gibel carp culture, suggesting that BFT system could be successfully used in gibel carp aquaculture.
...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

...odiversity, agricultural production can be increased. The results from Exploratory Factor analysis showed that by retaining three factors, the explained variation goes up to 54%. 

...

Muhammad Naveed Afzal1, Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Ahmad1, Khuram Mubeen2, Muhammad Ayaz Khan3, Muhamamd Umer Afzal4 and Shakeel Ahmad

...ortant concern of cotton production. The two years’ field trials were conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan to test the hypothesis whether nitrogen (N) requirement varies with planting density (PD) for dry matter production, partitioning, nutrient use efficiency (NUE), lint yield and associated fiber properties. In this RCBD split plot experiment, two planting densities (8.88 and 4.44 plants m-2) were ...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...factors which affect the production per acre of rice and analyze the problems and constraints faced to rice grower in the study area. The universe of the study was Lower Dir District which consist of seven tehsil while on the basis of more production only two tehsils Balambat and Lalqila were purposively selected The total rice growers number in this district was37557, Balambat 6121 and Lalqila 5167which make total in both t...

Najeeb Ullah1, Niamat Ullah Khan2*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Muhammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Farkhanda Khan3 and Zaki Ullah

...gnificantly effected its production and fibre. Field research was conducted in 2016 and 2017 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan to assess the impacts of six sowing dates on yield and fibre characteristics of two cotton varieties. The experiments were laid out in RCBD with split-plot replicated thrice. Sowing dates i.e. March 15, April 01, April 15, May 01, May 15, and June 01 were kept in main and cotton varieties (CIM-602, CIM-616) in sub-...

Sonia1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai1*, Noor Paio Khan2, Abbas Ullah Jan1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

...e association with wheat production while humidity is positively associated. Overall scenario concludes that not only climatic variable but also major wheat crop’s input are significantly associated to wheat yield in the study area. This research study recommends that government and concerned policy-makers may give due attention to construct the climate change policy for climate change adaptation strategies and provide heat resistant wheat crop varieties...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...ompared for invasion and production of IJ of Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Both the nematodes caused 100% mortality of the test insects within 6 days. The mean numbers of IJ of S. feltiae invading each G. mellonella, T. molitor medium and small were significantly greater (11.2, 15.2 and 11.4 IJ, respectively) than those of H. bacteriophora (2.8 IJ each per G. mellonella and T. molitor...
Dur-E-Shahwar1,2, Riaz Ahmad Sheikh1, Nazia Jamil2*
...sent study is focused on production of biosurfactants from indigenous bacteria, isolated from produced water and produced water contaminated soil samples collected from three selected sites of Eastern Potwar, Punjab, Pakistan. Forty seven bacteria were isolated out of which five (F1, F3, F20, F23 and C16) were selected on the basis of high optical densities of 0.7, 70% oil and grease reduction potential and maximum CFU/ml of ≥3 ×106. The we...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...jor problem to livestock production. Helminths cause multiple infections in animals of significant economic importance. Haemonchus contortus, (helminths worm), is highly infectious parasite of small ruminants, and is a major cause of diseases and significant mortality in various cattle, sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have develo...

Noor ul Ain*, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Haidar Ali* 

...d to increase vegetables production

...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...tance of mungbean by the production of defense associated compounds. All treatments were supportive in suppressing plant infection as compared to infected control, but the most promising outcome of treatments was observed when SA and BTH were applied at the concentration of 5mM and 150mg/L respectively. Three weeks’ analysis of treated mungbean leaves with SA and BTH exhibited peak accumulation of phenols and defense related enzymatic antioxidants. Highe...

Naseer Ahmed Abbasi1, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1*, Bilawal Abbasi2, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1, Najeeb Ahmed Khan Nangraj1, Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahto1 and Sajjad Ahmed Morio1 

...and assessment for wheat production of Tando Allahyar district of Sindh Province. The present study able to provide grade performance suitability of lands for agricultural purposes; it could be more helpful for farmers of the research area. Fuzzy AHP methods could be beneficial for future studies for land suitability. The study finding have capabilities of different methods combined with fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the potential time and cost sa...
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zaheer1, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Shafique1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar1
...f Metallo-beta-lactamase production by Double Disc Diffusion test (DDDT) and Modified Hodge’s test. In 152 specimens, different species identified in order of their frequency were; Klebsiella pneumoniae (59; 38.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (46; 30.3%), Escherichia coli (36; 23.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca (4; 2.6%), Serratia marcescens (3; 2%), Enterobacter agglomerans (2; 1.3%) and Enterobacter cloacae (2; 1.3%...
Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 
 
...ularly, the agricultural production might decrease by an alarming rate up to 5-30% to 2050. The main reason for this is increasing the earth’s temperature. The decrease in crop yield will cause another associated issue of food insecurity in the continent and emerge severe problem for a human to survive. Climatic change is definitely disturbing the farming approaches through an increase in disease spread, and careless usage of natural resources. Due to th...
Sakhra Mahmood1, M. Younus1, A. Aslam1, A.A. Anjum2, S. Umar3, Aamerzish Mushtaq3 and M.L. Sohail4,*
...od crops. To get optimum production performance from livestock and poultry, proper detoxification of AFB1 in feed is mandatory. This study was designed to analyze the biological detoxification potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in experimental quails fed with AFB1 added diets. For this purpose 180 quails, divided in 3 groups were reared and fed with 3 different experimental diets having 0.5 mg/kg of AFB1 contamination and varying levels of SC (0...
Hande Küçükönder1, Pınar Çelebi Demirarslan1,*, Aykut Burgut2 and Mustafa Boğa3
...mate in poultry house on production performance in a commercial poultry enterprise with a hybrid approach. In accordance with this purpose, the hybrid approach has two main objectives: i) Determination of the effective period for which the output factors [(chicken survival rate (%), egg yield (%)] are optimized at the same time and the appropriate value ranges for the input factors [temperature (oC), humidity (%) and feed per hen (g)] that provide e...
Umar Farooq Gohar1, Hamid Mukhtar1,*, Ali Nawaz1, Ikram-ul-Haq1 and Asad Mehmmood2
...rameters for the maximum production of antibiotic (cephalosporin) by isolated fungal strain Acremonium chrysogenum (IIB-10). The strain IIB-10 was cultivated on medium containing (%, w/v): Baker’s flour, 1.5; corn meal, 2; Methyl oleate, 1.6; calcium carbonate, 0.3 and ammonium sulphate, 0.1. The cultural conditions such as incubation temperature (30°C), pH (6.5) and inoculum size and age (2%, w/v, 48 h) were optimized. The maximum cephalospor...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abdual Rauf Shakoori2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub3, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Sehrish Firyal1, Zaheer Hussain4 and Munir Ahmad5
...ent study deals with the production, purification and characterization of recombinant thermostable cellulase from Thermotoga naphthophila. PCR using the genomic DNA of T. naphthophila as template resulted in amplification of 1 kb cellulase gene. The amplified cellulase gene was cloned in pTZ57R/T and sub-cloned in pET28a. The expression of recombinant cellulase was analyzed using BL21 CodonPlus (DE3) cells as expression host. The expression studi...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

...ble of increasing cotton production of Bt farmers while pesticides, irrigation and extension services more significant in increasing the Non-Bt cotton farmers production. Age of farmers, educational status, credit access and agriculture extension services access have significantly and positively impacted while the shortage of irrigation negatively impacts in both districts Non-Bt and Bt cotton farmers technical efficiency. T...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

... of credit in the cotton production of southern Punjab. Simple Random Sampling technique was used in the study for selecting the respondents in both districts of cotton area. Pre-tested questionnaire was developed for the collection of data 320 cotton farmers’ respondents for the year of 2015-16 including 160-credit user and 160 non-credit users. The study employed stochastic production frontiers function for the empir...

Muhamamd Naeem1 and Murad Khan2* 

...r season but revenue and production were higher due to high demand and consumption in winter season than the summer season. The paper also show major factors that affect poultry production. Poultry business should be encouraged through the provision of inputs on subsidised prices. 

...

Saeed Ullah1, Muhammad Israr1*, Shakeel Ahmad2, Nafees Ahmad3 and Asif Yaseen

...izers, loss in livestock production, migration, poverty and economic backwardness. High land degradation was perceived by the farmers and having positive association with the socio-economic influences. There is a need for awareness about the different land management and conservation practices coupled with different socio-economic sector-specific interventions in order to reduce the LD in the area for the future sustainability. 

...

Saqib Bashir* and Bashir Ahmad 

...er and sustainable wheat production

...
Saleha Gul1,2, Muhammad Khisroon2, Ajmal Khan2, Attaullah1, Saira Gul3 and Gul Nabi Khan1,4,*
...d nitrosamines cause the production of DNA adducts and leading to lung cancer. However, the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on other tissues are largely unknown. We explored the genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke on peripheral lymphocytes of active and passive smokers. Blood samples were isolated from 100 males’ including 25 active-, 25 passive- and 50 non-smokers. Alkaline comet assay was done and classes were defined on the basis of comet tail lengt...
Faiza Jabeen1,*, Bushra Muneer2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3
...es to attain their cheap production by utilizing the wastes nutrients. Protein production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-dairy wastes in production medium both with and without nutrients at pH 7.0 for 48 h at their respective suitable temperatures. They yielded enough thermostable protein suggesting their potential in production of various...
Sumreen Hayat1,6, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique2, Bilal Aslam1, Habibullah Nadeem2, Asma Ashraf3, Muhammad Saqalein1, Mohsin Khurshid4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Saima Muzammil1,*
...s were screened for ESBL production using double-disc synergy test (DDST). Molecular detection for the presence of bla-SHV and bla-TEM was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 392 blood and urine samples, 120 were found positive for microbial growth. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of K. pneumoniae isolates illustrated high resistance to ceftazidime (95.6%). Phenotypically,52.17% of K. pneumoniae isolates were found ...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Sheraz Ahmed2*, Sultan Akbar Jadoon2, Imtiaz Ali2 and Ajmalud Din2 

... genetic architecture of production traits is important to devise effective breeding and selection strategies. This investigation was carried out to elucidate relationship between Hayman and Griffing analyses in flue cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco. Plant material comprised of seven tobacco cultivars which were hybridized in full diallel mating system at the Tobacco Research Sub-station, Mansehra, Pakistan during 2007. Thereon, seven parents and their forty-two F...
Aisha Khalid1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Tahir Yaqub2, Ali Raza Awan1, Muhammad Wasim1, Shagufta Saeed1, Sehrish Firyal1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3
...iendly mechanism for the production of thermostable cellulase. Production of cellulase was focused due to its diverse range of application in industry. In the present study, conditions were optimized for the maximal production of recombinant thermostable cellulase from Thermotoga naphthophila using BL21-CodonPlus (DE3) cells as expression host and pET28a as expression vector. Effect...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...es in milk quality, milk production, and economic losses to dairy farmers. It mainly occurs due to non-contagious environmental bacterial species. In Pakistan, it is the major disease of different dairy animals including bovines. However, only a little information is available about bacterial profile of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at K...

Arshad Farooq* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

...ign: justify;">Cane crop production is a complex process dependent upon application and arrangement of various factors such as land, labor, finance and management practices etc. This article assessed the knowledge gap of improved cane management practices in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Sugarcane growers were selected randomly and Data were collected through interview schedule from 285 respondents in D.I. Khan and Mardan districts...

Tariq Shah1*, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad3 

...vice regarding livestock production. Majority of the respondents are quite satisfied regarding the effectiveness of these advices. Results further indicate that farmers visit or contact livestock expert mainly for livestock diseases and artificial insemination. However, some of the respondents report long distance, lack of proper facilities and high charges for not visiting the livestock experts. Majority of the respondents both member and non-member responden...

Muhammad Nasrullah1*, Liu Chang1, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai2, Asaad Osman Khalid1, Rachel Bayisenge1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

... fertilizers used during production. The coefficients of seed are the highest among all variables which can highly affect the productivity of the growers. 

...

Shahid Ali1*, Asim Khan1, Aftab Khan1 and Bakhtawar Riaz

...l inefficiency in tomato production. 90 farmers were selected through multi-stage proportional allocation sampling techniques. Data was collected by using a well-structured interview schedule. Cobb-Douglas production function was employed to assess technical efficiency. Maximum likelihood estimation techniques were employed for estimation. Results showed that all explanatory variables except pesticides have significant effec...

Bina Khanzada1*, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed1 and Nazir Ahmed2 

...occupied 2nd position in production of cacoons. Among flower based diets, coccoon development, exist holes, C. Infuscatellus pupae, C. flavipes larvae, C. Infuscatellus larvae, C. flavipes moths, C. flavipes adults was higher when parasitoid was fed on marigold, Holly hock and sunflower; while in 2014, the coccoon development and exist holes were higher when parasitoid was fed on marigold flower than sunflower and Holly hock; while C. Infuscatellus pupae and m...

Kubra Siddique*, Ghaffar Ali, Irfan Ullah, Atta Ullah Shah and Muhammad Fayaz 

...ting of chicken and fish production in both the rural and urban regions of Pakistan.  

...
Hayat Zada1, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1,*, Ijaz Ali2, Bashir Ahmad1, Abdul Waheed Khan2 and Shabeer Ahmad2
...ant insect pest of apple production in Pakistan. Genomic DNA was extracted from 30 overwintering larvae of each population of Matta, Madyan and Kalam regions. Out of 30 tested primers, 21 amplified 157 polymorphic bands in three populations. The mean gene frequency (f), genetic distance (I) and Shannon’s information index (h) for three populations were 1.336, 0.304 and 0.437, respectively. Nei’s unbiased measures of genetic identity and genetic dis...
Wang Zaigui1,*, Guo Panpan1, Ye Miao1, Sun Linghong1, Zhang Hongfu2 and Liu Chaoliang1,*

Mehboob Arslan* and Xin Yang 

...ic pathways that aid the production of viral particles. Viruses need to breach a complex network of metabolic intrinsic factors and microenvironment established within the host cells. The pressure exerted by invading pathogen disrupts the internal balance and dictate the host-pathogen niches. For absolute survival, proliferation, and propagation inside the host cell, viruses modulate certain metabolic pathways to destabilize the host metabolism. These alterati...
Lichao Feng1,2, Shaoqing Zhang4, Dianyuan Chen2, Sina Adl3 and Donghui Wu1,4*
...ents as a strategy for reproduction. To evaluate their food choices, wireworm were exposed to different types of plants associated with their farmland habitat, as follows: mixed pollen and nectar of flowers (Erigeron annuus, Trifolium repens, Heteropappus hispidus, Potentilla chinensis, Hibiscus trionum), or leaves of grasses (Poa annua, Echinochloa crusgalli), or maize leaves (Songyu 419, a hybrid var...
Jun Yan Bai*, Shuai Yang, You Zhi Pang, Xiao Hong Wu and Guang Lu Li
...f other two species, egg production and laying rate of China yellow quail are significantly higher than those of Korea quail and Beijing white quail (P<0.05). The average egg weight of Korea quail is significantly higher than those of China yellow quail and Beijing white quail (P<0.05). The egg laying capacity of China yellow quail is better compared to other two species.
...

Waqar Akhtar1*, Munir Ahmad2, Nadeem Akmal1, Hassnain Shah1 and Asif Ali Mirani2 

... use efficiency in dates production at three farm size levels by using primary and secondary data for the year 2015-16 by employing Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) methodology. Relevant indicators were employed to gauge and compare resource use efficiency of two dates products (fresh dates and dried dates) produced by farmers. The finding of positive Private Profitability and Private Cost Ratio (PCR) value less than 1 argues farm level competitiveness under small...

Mehran Ahmad, Syed Attaullah Shah and Shahid Ali* 

... 2018. Cobb-Douglas type production function was used to estimate effect of important determinants on tomato yield. Results showed that the estimated coefficient of net farming (dummy) is 0.25; implies that tomato yield with net farming is 25 percent more than traditional production technology. DAP, Nitrate and Urea, labor and FYM had positive significant effects on tomato yield. Estimated allocative efficiencies of DAP, Nit...
Junli Sun1,2,3, Lin Bai1 2, Xiaogan Yang1,2, Yangqing Lu1,2, Shengsheng Lu1,2,* and Kehuan Lu1,2,*
...to artificial assisted reproduction (IVF). The oocytes are inevitably ruptured by the microinjector in the process of microoperatin. To study the effects of mechanical damage from microopetations on embryo development, we analyzed 60 the spent culture media of porcine parthenogenetic embryos experienced different types of microopetation using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that Group II with the puncture of egg zona and plasma membrane had the highest ...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...tic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, 1026 confirmed positive H9N2 cases by RT-PCR out of 23182 different examined samples of different species and sectors in Egypt, with a prevalence rate 4.4% by the year 2015/2016. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive cases were recorded in 26 governorates., the posit...
Fazal Wahab1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Nazir Ahmad1, Urooba Parvez2, Zia ur Rehman3 and Shabana Naz4,*
...tion on feed intake, egg production and egg quality of Rhode Island Red spent layers. A total of 60 spent Rhode Island Red layers were assigned to 4 treatments; FS-0, FS-0.5, FS-0.75, and FS-1 with 3 replicates, each with 5 birds. Birds were kept in cages for 28 days in open sided house. FS-0 was kept as control while treatments FS-0.5, FS-0.75 and FS-1 were provided with fenugreek seed powder in the ration at the rate of 0.5, 0.75 and 1%, respectively. Egg
Ghalia Nawal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Saira Ashfaq3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1    
...ubstrates. Most suitable production plan involves Sub-merged liquid fermentation in fed batch manner using agricultural wastes. Bacterial lipases are preferred due to their extra cellularity, easy step down approach and practicability of increased productions via technological modifications. They have wide- ranging applications in diverse sectors of the food, medical, cosmetic, detergent sectors and in paper industry wh...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

...tic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, a total of 23182 cloacal and tracheal samples were collected from suspected cases between 2015 and 2016 and submitted to the Reference laboratory of veterinary quality control on poultry production (RLQP) from different poultry sectors and bird species which are distributing all over the Egyptian governorate...

Kamran Aziz1*, Aamir Saleem1 and Arshad Mahmood Malik2 

...sition rate, litter fall production and elemental composition of Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the study area Dungagali, Taohidabad, Kuzagali and Khanspur situated around the Ayubia National Park. The research was carried from September, 2016 to August, 2017. Litter bag technique was used to estimate the decomposition rate, elemental composition was carried through chemical analysis in the laboratory and litter fall productio...

Arshad Mahmood Malik1*, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2 and Abdul Saboor3 

...n: justify;">Hydroponics production function provides technically efficient production system in the globe. Technological development is changing the shape of production systems all over the world. A Cobb Douglas type hydroponics production system was developed for estimation of production elasticity of hydroponics in ...

Abdul A. Mirani1,2*, Chee H. Teo2, Adel A. Abul-Soad3, Ghulam S. Markhand1, Tahira Jatt1, Ameer A. Mirbahar1,4, Najamuddin Solangi

...ve vegetative growth, 3) production of deformed offshoots and twisted inflorescence, 4) abnormal frond growth, 5) low levels of fruit setting and 6) inflorescence absent. Among the six different variant phenotypes, complete reversion of phenotypic abnormalities for the phenotypes of inflorescence absent, low level of fruit setting, production of deformed offshoots, and abnormal frond growth were observed in open field trial ...

Amjad Ali1*, Wiqar Ahmad1, Muhammad Zeeshan1, Farmanullah Khan2 and Muhammad Motasim Billah1 

... be used for higher crop production in legume-cereal cropping pattern 

...

Muhammad Affan Khan* and Abdur Rab 

...g on the growth and seed production of okra varieties was studied at the Horticulture Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during spring seasons of the years 2012-13. The research experiment was conducted using RCB Design with 2 factors and 3 replications. Five okra varieties viz. Sabz Pari, Arka Anamika, Pusa Sawani, Punjab Selection and Green Star were grown at three plants spacing i.e. 20, 30 and 40 cm and were evaluated for growth and seed

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...ation and/or drop in egg production during 2015-2018. Out of 588 NDV outbreaks 95 flocks were confirmed positive NDV by rRT-PCR using genotyping primers, with a prevalence rate of 16.2%. NDV outbreaks were recorded in 16 governorates, from total of18 investigated governorates and the recorded geo-prevalence of 89 %. Twenty-five samples were selected for further sequencing for the partial fusion protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 20 samples are genoty...

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3* and Balach Rasheed

...e adversely affected the production, employment, and supply chain of crops. Furthermore, to avoid the adverse effects of climate change in the future, it is suggested to plant more trees and arrange different types of awareness campaign through print media and electronic media. It is also recommended to conserve water through the construction of dams and proper irrigation system may be managed on new footings to irrigate more lands to achieve the ultimate obje...
Jie Zhang1,2,*, Baradi Waryani3,4 and Qihai Zhou2,*
... to maintain stable high production of salangids, fertilized eggs from native or introduced populations of icefish were frequently introduced to various types of water throughout China mainland except for Tibet Plantae. The genetic diversity and molecular invasive mechanism are urgently needed for both native and invasive populations. Present investigation details 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci and 12 to 26 alleles per locus denoted. Whereas, d expected an...
Tariq Mukhtar1,* and Muhammad Arshad Hussain2 
...a serious threat to okra production in Pakistan. The damaging potential of this nematode has not been studied on resistant and susceptible okra cultivars, therefore, in the present study, the effects of six inoculum levels of M. javanica were compared on a highly susceptible cultivar of okra ‘Sharmeeli’ and a moderately resistant one ‘Sanam’. All the inoculum levels of M. javanica resulted in significant reductions in grow...

Muhammad Shafique, Nosheen Noor Elahi*, Muhammad Rashid, Amjad Farooq and Kausar Hussain Shah

...ffect of PGPR on biomass production, nitrogen and proteins percentage of four mung bean varieties under different NaCI levels in sand culture after 5,7 and 9 weeks of sowing. Both inoculated and uninoculated plants were grown on mineral medium that were N-free either without NaCI or with a range of NaCI (20, 50,100, 200 and 300mM). Dry weight of plants was increased at 0-50mM NaCl and decreased at 100-300mM NaCI concentration. Inoculation effectively increased...

Yasir Ali1,2*, Bashir Ahmad1, Naqeebullah Jogezai3 and Adil Hussain

...dustrial strains for the production of thermolabile protease and alkaliphilic lipase 

...

Wesam Mady*, Nahed Yehia, Mohammed Hassan Elhussieny, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Moataz Mohamed El Sayed, Neveen Rabie Bakry, Asmaa Shaaban, Abdel Satar Arafa, Afaf Abdel Baset Mahmoud and Wafaa Mohammed Hassan 

...ial and backyard poultry production sectors. The aim of this work is to study the Situation and molecular characterization of HPAIV (H5N8) in backyard poultry production sector in Egypt. In this study, a total of 7505 samples of tracheal swabs representing 1180 backyard poultry flocks were collected based on the surveillance conducted by the GOVS (General Organization for Veterinary Services), Egypt during the period from Ma...

Munazza Yousra1*, Sair Sarwar1, Muhammad Mahmood Ul Hassan1, Muhammad Zameer khan1, Abdul khaliq2, Shahbaz Ahmad1 and Shamim Ul Sibtain Shah3 

.... The highest dry matter production of 65 and 76 g plant-1 was recorded using Zn treatment @ 8 mg Zn kg-1 by ZnSO4.H2O and Zn-EDTA in both varieties, respectively. Similarly, the Zn uptake was also shown significant increase over control at the Zn rate applied @ 8 mg kg-1 with ZnSO4.H2O (3.97) and Zn-EDTA (5.03 mg plant-1) source in both varieties. The results indicated that Zn-EDTA is the most effective source of Zn as compared to ZnSO4.7H2O to meet plant req...

Ammara Saeed* and Noor-ul-Amin 

...f K @ 40 kg ha-1 enhance production and quality of rose cultivar, especially in Gold Medal and Cardinal cultivars. 

...
Unal Kilic1*, Abdiwali Mohamoud Abdi1 and Deniz Ekinci2
... the in vitro gas production and methane production of some straws. The study involved 8 groups for each forage, 3 different straws (wheat straw, soybean straw, sorghum straw), which comprise of 2 different LiP enzyme treatments (Available –Not Available) and 4 different treatment groups (control, 4% urea, 10% molasses and 14% urea+molasses (4% urea, 10% molasses). Hohenheim gas test was used in in vitro ...

Azeem Haider1, Muhammad Mohsin Alam2*, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3

...nase, CMCase and laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus were optimized in shake flask cultures. The results indicated that the optimum fermentation medium in shake flask studies contained a carbon (glucose 4%), nitrogen (0.5% ammonium chloride), inoculation level (three disks, 0.5 cm in diameter), temperature (30 °C), incubation period (at 7 days) and initial pH 5.0. Under these culture conditions, the maximum level of xylanase activity (9.29 Uml-1), CM...

Rashid Iqbal1,2, Mathias Neumann Andersen1*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza2, Muhammad Adil Rashid1 and Salman Ahmad2 

...itation for agricultural production in many parts of the world. Drought or unavailability of water may seriously limit plant growth as well as yield. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of various irrigation strategies i.e. Full (FI), deficit (DI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD) on physiological, water relations, water use efficiency (WUE), and yield related attributes of wheat. These irrigation treatments were started at anthesis stage...

Muhammad Noman, Yong Tong Mu*, Muhammad Mohsin, Aamir Mahmood Memon and Muhammad Talib Kalhoro

...ysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) are used to analyze the fishery output (FO) and fishery input (FI) data of Scomberomorus spp. to evaluate their fishery stock status in Pakistani marine waters from Balochistan coastline.Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz. Fox (F-M), Schaefer (S-M) and Pella-Tomlinson (PT-M) along with three error assumptions (EAs), log (L-EA), l...
Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed1,2,*
...mals’ health and reproduction through the improvement of physiological parameters and oocyte quality.
...
Muhammad Saeed1,2,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Malik Abdul Rehman3
... semipenetrans) in a production area is required for the assessment of damaging potential of the nematode to citrus, identification of key factors that influence population densities, and to devise effective management strategies. In the present study, seasonal fluctuations in the population densities of T. semipenetrans were studied in two citrus orchards naturally infested with citrus nematode during the year 2014. The effect of soil temperature w...
Qiuxia Lei1, 2, Haixia Han1, 2, Jinbo Gao1, 2, Yan Zhou1, 2, Wei Liu1, 2, Chunlei Wang3, Jie Liu1, 2, Dingguo Cao1, 2, Huimin Li1 , Baohua Huang1,* and Fuwei Li1, 2, *  
...ing the variation of gas production and nitrogen(N), phosphorus (P), potassium(K)in the fermentation process. Poultry litter, sawdust and rice husk were mixed in equal quantities by volume. One was treated with a single strain of Bacillus; another was treated with a consortium of bacteria comprising several species; and the third kept as the control without adding any bacteria. The results showed that decomposition started earlier in the treated batches...

Zara Ahmad1*, Fazli Rabbi2, Muhammad Zamin3, Bushra Kiran2, Tariq Shah2 and Shahzad Kouser4 

...lly quantifies vegetable production (off-season and on-season) in terms of economic returns. The data on bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is considered for analysis. The primary data was collected from a sample of 110 farmers in the district of Faisal Abad, Punjab Pakistan. The data was analysed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. The results show that there is a significant difference between the on-season and off-season application of pesticides t...

Muhammad Waqas, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah and Ghaffar Ali 

...ies of unirrigated wheat production in response to wheat price were 0.447 and - 0.116, respectively and statistically significant. Long and short run elasticities due to chick pea price were - 0.19 and - 0.15, respectively and statistically significant. Long and short run elasticities in response to area under unirrigated wheat were 1.10 and 1.79, respectively and statistically insignificant. Elasticity of unirrigated wheat production<...

 Aftab Khan1, Shahid Ali1, Murtaza1, Sufyan Ullah Khan2 and Syed Attaullah Shah1

...iency of inputs in maize production. This study employed a multistage stage sampling technique for choosing the sample size. The data was collected from 200 respondents using a well–designed interview schedule. Cobb-Douglas type production function was modelled to estimated allocative efficiencies of individual inputs used in maize production. The estimated allocative efficiencies of...

Mehwish Kiran1, Muhammad Saleem Jilani1, Kashif Waseem1*, Muhammad Sohail Khan1, Fazal Haq2, Muhammad Amjad Nadim3, Ghazanfar Ullah3 and Salma Shaheen

...rganic manures on radish production at Agricultural Faculty, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, during 2011-13. Experiments were conducted in pots using completely randomized design, comprising 6 treatments (control, NPK + FYM, NPK + PM, NPK + GM, NPK + PrM and NPK + SS) and 3 replications. Data for leaves’ count plant-1, leaf length (cm), leaves weight (g plant-1), root size (length & diameter), root weight (g plant-1), total biomass (g plant-1), root yiel...
Gul Afshan1,2,*, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Sumaira Mehboob2, Muhammad Tahir Javed Khan1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,*

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Syeeda Areeba Gillani1, Syed Shehzad Hassan1, Muneeb Aamir1, Muhammad Saifullah1, Mubashar Basheer1, Atif Ahmad1, Saif-ul-Rehman2 and Tariq Ali1 

...">Estimation of net crop production before harvest enables agronomists and decision makers to determine the volume of grain precisely. Yield estimation is one of the challenging tasks which is significant to evaluate accurately for farmers. This research was conducted in eastern Punjab Pakistan by incorporating yield/area as reported by Crop Reporting Service Department along with open source satellite datasets. We downloaded three images of each year (2008-20...

Sajjad Ali1, Atta-ur-Rahman1 and Sher Ali2* 

...cultivated area and crop production in the study area. During the study period from 1985-2015, rapid physical expansion is reported in the study area and strong correlation was observed between population growth and environmental built. 

...

Abir Ishtiaq and Muhammad Naeem* 

...nversion ratio (FCR) and production of C. catla were significantly (p< 0.05) affected by different dietary protein levels. However, absolute gain of length and weight, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio were not significantly (p> 0.05) influenced by dietary protein levels. Absolute weight gain (g) amounted to 736.82±51.95, 749.76±71.20, 863.94±61.24 and 854.73±61.02 g, whereas FCR values were found to be 5.3&plu...

Masood Ahmad* and Abdur Rab 

... factors that affect the production and quality of gladiolus florets and spikes as well as corm production. Keeping in view, the significant role of calcium in plants and its potential effects on vegetative attributes and quality production of gladiolus corms, an experiment was conducted during the years 2016-2017. The influence of foliar calcium application was investigated by spraying th...

Muhammad Sharif1*, Sadullah1, Ghulam Rasool2, Muhammad Nasir Khan1, Zubair Rehman1, Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Khalid Hussain4 

...lenges for land and crop production in the upland of Balochistan. It is important to explore an alternative farming system which improves soil properties, environment friendly and provide sufficient crop yield. Conservation tillage system is successfully practiced worldwide as a resource conserving techniques. Therefore, an experiment was conducted under the treatments, i.e. conventional tillage (CT), Zero tillage (ZT) and Chisel plough (CP) during the year 20...
Abdul Waheed1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Junaid Akhtar4, Muhammad Saeed5, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed6 and Shah Jahan7,*
...m beta lactamases (ESBL) production was screened by double disc synergy test (DDST) and combination disc method as per Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines 2015. Presence of “blaSHV” and “blaOXA” genes was tested by PCR technique. Every isolate was ESBL positive and resistant against third generation cephalosporin and Aztreonam. Notably, 15% of ESBL producing strains harbored bl...

Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad2 

... water has been used for production of fodder and forages in many countries. Managing soil and water salinity under prevailing conditions of Pakistan is very important subject. Use of brackish water increased the salt concentration of soil. Resultantly, the growth of plants and yield becomes at threat. The salt stress is translated into decrease in growth rate and resultantly, biomass production decreases significantly. This...
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
...e herds that causes high production losses to the dairy industry of Pakistan. Identification of molecular marker sequences that are directly related to immunity against mastitis might be helpful for animal selection trait and prevention of this disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of polymorphism in bovine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene on immune function and its role in mastitis susceptibility in Pakistani...
Muhammad Suleman1,*, Abu ul Hassan Faiz2, Muhammad Shahbaz2 and Ayesha Riaz3
..., 3.0, and 3.5 %) on the production of xylanase. Submerged fermentation was carried out in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks using vogel’s medium at 35°C for five days. UV irradiated A. niger has significantly increased the xylanase production as compared to parent strains. Twenty minutes exposure of A. niger was considered suitable for the production of xylanase. Wheat bran...
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Shahid Nabeel1 and Abu Saeed Hashmi2
...bolism, lactation, and reproduction. Growth hormone interact with GHRs and influence on metabolism and growth. Changes in GHR concentration affect signalling pathways, binding capacity and alters activity of GH. Therefore, the GH and GHR genes are considered important candidate genes. DNA samples of Marecha camel were collected from the Camel Breeding and Research Station at Rakhmani Bhakar, Pakistan. Two significant polymorphic sites were identified in GH gen...
Ihsanullah*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Sohail Akhtar and Syed Muhammad Suhail
... Significantly high milk production was found in HF 50%. Peak daily milk yield and lactation length were significantly higher in autumn and spring respectively. Animals with highest exotic blood levels showed the trend for prolonged calving interval probably due to reduced resistance to thermal stress. Cows with 50.0% exotic blood and those born in spring showed a slightly shorter age at first calving. The crossbred cows of genetic group HF 62.5% tended to sho...

 Li-na Li1, Sheng Li2, Ping Gui3, Jing-hui Li1, Fen Ai4,* and Li-li Cai1,*

...tion-induced TGF-β1 production and ameliorate collagen deposition by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. Our present study provides new insights into the treatment effect of uMSCs in radiation pulmonary fibrosis.
...
Khalid Khan1*, Hazrat Yousaf1, Noor Mohammad1, Munir Khan1 and Do Thi Thao2
...ouseholds’and food production. The results of the study also revealed that the implication of monetary policy will be a significant instrument to influence poverty, food security, and consumption patterns in China. 
...
Manzoor Hussain*, Marie Maňasová, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...) and rate of nematode reproduction (Pf/Pi) and improving plant growth factors. 
...
Ambreen Leghari1,2, Asghar Ali Kamboh2,*, Shakeel Ahmed Lakho1, Faiz Muhammad Khand1, Kanwar Kumar Malhi2,3, Iqra Bano Chandio4, Seema Baloch5 and Jan Mohammad Shah4
...having 2-4 liters/d milk production than more than 4 liters/d, and in late stage of lactation than early or mid-stage. The prevalence in Tando Allahyar district revealed by culture technique showed a significantly (P< 0.05) higher percentage in >4 parity than 1 parity or 2-4 parity, having 4-8 liters/d milk production than those having 2-4 or >8 liters/d, and in late stage of lactation than early or mid-stage. In br...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Khalid Usman2*, Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil3, Abdul Mateen Khattak4, Muhammad Ehsan Elahi1, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik2 and Amir Hamza2
...ity. Data for fresh date production ranged from 39-59% of the initial value. Minimum (39%) and maximum (59%) fresh date yields were recorded in cv. Gulistan and Shakri, respectively. Similarly, minimum and maximum produce recorded in dry dates were 32 and 50% in Gol Basara and Zahidi, respectively. Maximum and minimum length observed were 5.2 cm and 2.5 cm in Dhakki and Gol Basra, respectively. Economic analysis revealed that processing of fresh dates fetched ...
Shad Mahfuz1,2, Shuyuan Wang1, Mo Chen1, Fei Zao1, Dong Zhen1
Zhongjun Liu4 and Hui Song1,3*
...he purpose of increasing production performance has led to human health hazards. A driving force for the interest of using natural herbs is to eliminate the use of low-dose antibiotics in poultry production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Flammulina velutipes stem waste (FVW) inclusion in laying hens diet on production performance, egg quality a...
Faheem Aslam1*, Aneel Salman1 and Inayatullah Jan2
...div>Forecasting of wheat production is of great importance for farmers and agriculture policy makers to improve production planning decisions. Numerous studies proved that traditional econometric techniques face significant challenges in out of sample predictability tests due to model uncertainty and parameter instability. Recent studies introduce several machine learning algorithms to improve time series prediction acc...

Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Rashid Mahmood2, Ziyad Abdul Qadir2, Muhammad Arshad1 and Mubasshir Sohail3 

...roa mites to improve the production of honey. 

...
Rafiq-ur-Rehman1*, Zahoor Ahmad1, Wiqar Ahmad2, Muhammad Mansoor3 and Shah Masaud1
... sound activity in crops production. Response of mungbean cultivar (Inqalab Mung) inoculated with four strains of rhizobium (TAL-634, TAL-169, NARC-BK and NARC-M) was evaluated during two consecutive years 2015 and 2016 at the Agricultural Research Institute, Rata Kulachi, Dera Ismail Khan (31º 49/ N latitude and 70º 55/ East longitude), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The current experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with ...
Rakhshanda Kousar1, Tahira Sadaf1*, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1 and Raza Ullah1
...competitive advantage in production of top three fruits, namely mango, citrus and dates by using Revealed Comparative Advantage, Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage, Relative Export Advantage Index and Log of Relative Export Advantage Index. For this purpose, time series data has been collected for the period 2001-2018 from Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics, International Trade Centre map, and World Banks’ World Integrated Trade Solution...

Muhammad Khuram Razzaq1,2*, Saeed Rauf1, Mohsin Khurshid3, Shahid Iqbal1,4, Javaid Akhter Bhat2, Ayaz Farzand5, Adeel Riaz1,6, Guangnan Xing2 and Junyi Gai

 

...t for proficient plant reproduction. Abiotic stresses reduce the photosynthates production, thus genotypes also reduce the reserve mobilization for tapetum cells which induce the significant reduction in pollen fertility. Therefore, pollen fertility index can be exploited to discriminate resistant and susceptible genotypes under abiotic stresses. High heritability in the segregating generation warrants good selection respons...
Sajida Sabahat1, Asif Nadeem1,*, Maryam Javed1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor1, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ghulam Yasein2 and Ghulam Abbas1 
... repair, lactation and reproduction. It controls differentiation and maintenance of different function in various and specific tissues. The liver is the primary source of IGF-1 and considered as candidate genes for growth because they play a significant role in development and growth regulation. IGF-1 control protein metabolism and is extremely conserved region amongst species. IGF-1 have not been studied before in camel. The DNA samples of Marecha camel were ...
Memis Ozdemir
...ed in the improvement of production traits in dairy cattle, because prolactin has an important regulatory role in the development of the mammary glands, the secretion of milk and the expression of milk protein genes. It has been seen many studies about Prl/RsaI polymorphism found in the exon 3 or exon 4 region of bovine prolactin gene in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether the DNA sequence of the Prl gene exon 3 or exon...

Muhammad Abdul Rahman1*, Abdul Saboor1, Gulnaz Hameed1, Ghulam Bilal2 and Farooq Tanwir3 

..., threatening health and production of dairy production system in Pakistan under climate change scenario. Expert Judgment approach is employed to identify and then rank most significant CEHFs that are related to emerging security hazards to dairy system. These CEHFs are then stitched with existing body of literature to consolidate our findings. Results comprised key CEHFs affecting occurrence of security hazards to dairy

Wajid Shah Yousafzai1, Irfan Ullah1*, Amjad Ali1, Mahmood Iqbal2 and Salman Khan1 

...tive efficiency of onion production in District swat. Using multistage sampling technique cross sectional data was collected from 105 sample respondents in three villages (Aboha, Manyar and Parrai) of Tehsil Barikot, district Swat. Simple Linear Regression Model was employed to individual input contribution in total output. The concept of Marginal Value Products and Marginal Factor Cost was used to calculate Allocative Efficiency. Ordinary Least Square techniq...

Muhammad Azam Niazi1* and Umar Farooq2 

...hip between Basmati rice production and the regressors used in the study. The Basmati rice production showed a positive association with its own price. The response to fertilizer price was negative as per expectations. Tubewell availability had a positive effect on Basmati production. The Basmati rice had a speed of adjustment of 42 per cent showing that any deviation from the equilibrium ...

Hina Fatima1*, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khurram Nawaz3 

...nvestigate the factor of production that were influencing the technical efficiency of wheat crop in Pakistan. A formal survey of 430 wheat crop farmers was conducted in the district of Rahim Yar Khan in year 2014. In order to estimate the impact of farm inputs on wheat crop production, Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) was used. The major objectives of this survey were to identify factors of variation and effect of planting...

Saad ud Din Khan1, Syed Rashid Ali1 and Sanam Wagma Khattak2*

...y using the Cobb Douglas production function. The data (1973 to 2018) of different variables collected from various sources. Moving Average Standard Deviation is used to measure the Exchange rate volatility and results confirm the long-run effect of exchange rate volatility on cotton production in Pakistan. For checking the stability of the parameters, cusum and cusumq tests are used and found structural break-through interc...

Saifullah* and Ihsan Mabood Qazi 

...-13 could be used in the production of various bakery products especially noodles. 

...

Muhammad Abdul Qayyum1*, Farhat Bashir2, Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool3, Anser Ali3, Saqib Bashir1 and Qaiser Abbas4 

... growth rate and biomass production while the ability of linseed genotypes to accumulate Na+ at root level and to restrict the entry of this ion to upper parts of the plant seemed to be one of the distinct features of salt tolerant genotypes.Salt tolerant genotypes of linseed expressed a genetic vigour to combat salinity stress by restricting Na+ entry at root level and by using this trait through biotechnology, plant breeders can produce salt tolerant crops.&...

Fazle Akbar and Sahib Alam* 

...ON, 3-ac DON, 15-ac DON) production in maize grains. Water activity of the grains was adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and the samples were stored at 25°C for 45 days. The control samples were kept without any aw modification. At 15 days interval, the samples were analyzed for the aforesaid parameters. The data showed that aw and storage time alone and interactively significantly (p<0.05) affected the analyzed parameters. The lowest total fungal count...

Shahid Ali1*, Farhan1, Murtaza1, Neelum Andaleeb2 and Amjad Ali1 

...nts. Stochastic frontier production (SFP) function was used to analyze the technical efficiency of wheat growers. The Maximum Likelihood estimates of the model-1 showed that seed quantity, urea, chemicals (Pesticides and weedicides), labor and tractor hours were statistically significant with the coefficients of -0.027, 0.090, 0.060, 0.223 and 0.056, respectively. The estimated results of SFP model-2 revealed that household’s education level was having n...
Fizza Anwar1, Muddassar Zafar1*, Zahid Anwar1, Raja Tahir Mehmood2
... were tested for the production of antimicrobial agents. The produced antimicrobial metabolites included Aflatrem, Monacolin K, Fusarubin and Tautomycetin. Different fermentation parameters were optimized to produce antimicrobial agents using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and best results were obtained at 45°C temperature, 5.5 pH, 5 mL inoculum concentration, 1.5 mL banana peel as substrate and 20 days incubation time. The antimicrobial...
Tanzeela Riaz, Fiza Sana-Ullah Khan, Farah Rauf Shakoori
...n and optimize mannanase production from Bacillus megaterium from decayed fruits. Microorganisms were isolated from fruits, soil and water samples obtained from different localities of Lahore city, Pakistan. Locally isolated microorganisms were screened for their mannanase producing characteristics on mineral salt agar medium pH 7. Six isolates were found to be mannanase producers by qualitative analysis. Three isolates (MBL-SP02, MBL-CW01 and MBL-GN02)...
Sobia Nazir1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Muhammad Nadeem2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3*, Muhammad Khan3, Shaukat Ali4, Quratulain Syed2
...> was used for cellulase production in solid state fermentation (SSF) using seed pods of Bombyx ceiba as substrate. Three parameters were used such as inoculum size (1, 5.5 and 10%), medium volume (1, 3 and 5ml) and incubation period (3, 4, 5 days) to observed the maximum activity of cellulase using Box-Bhenken design of response surface methodology. Maximum activity of CMCase (0.700 IU/gds/min) and FPase (0.260 IU/gds/min) was observed on 4th
Hafiza Sadaf Zahra1, Asia Iqbal2, Sayyeda Hira Hassan1, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Muhammad Khan1*, Muhammad Irfan3, Chaman Ara1, Shaukat Ali4
...east cancer. It inhibits production of melatonin (MLT) from pineal gland which results in abnormal epigenetic changes that relates with an increased risk of BC. The most important ALAN-mediated epigenetic changes include methylation of DNA and acetylation of histone, which are significant for growth, development and progression of BC. DNA hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands inhibits transcriptional activity by methyltransferase enzyme which results in ina...
Abu ul Hassan Faiz1,*, Fakhar-i-Abbas2, Mehboob ul Hassan3 and Lariab Zahra Faiz1
...ignificant loss of maize production.

 

...

Turab Ali Kaurajo1*, Huma Rizwana1, Gulbahar Khaskheli2, Muhammad Haroon Baloch1, Muhammad Naeem Rajput1, Asad Ali Khaskheli3 and Mohsin Solangi

...bi and Kharif crops. The production systems were 45% of sedentary, 26.6% transhumant, 18.3% nomadic and 10% house hold. The age of 60% camel herders were found between 25 to 50 years, 28.33% between 50 to 60, 8.33% above 60 while 3.33% below 25 years. Incidence of protozoa were more common at study area. The age of puberty and breeding life were 3-5 and 12-22 years respectively in females. Duration of estrus cycle in camel varied from 16-22 days. Average hair ...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,2,*, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Rizwan Shukat4, Shahid Ali Rajput5, 

Shadab Shaukat6, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem2,5,8, Mubashar Hassan2,5, Tabassam Fatima2,5
Fayyaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Usman Saleem7, Fatima Arooj1, Ashar Mehfooz2 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi2
... effect of flushing on reproduction performance (kidding type and fertility percentage) and production performance (birth weight, weaning weight of offspring and health of does). Eighty teddy does were randomly divided into two groups (n=40) viz T1 and T2 as control group and test group, respectively. Flushing ration 250 g and 500 g with crude protein 17.5 % and metabolizable energy 2.9 Mcal/kg w...

Urooba Pervaiz1*, Madeeha Iqbal1 and Dawood Jan2 

...y. It was concluded that production of maize in the study area was increased up to 910 kg/acre after extension recommendations. In case of wheat production was increased from 1177.50 kg/acre after extension recommendations to 1806.25 kg/acre. 

...

Rahat Naz*, Mussawar Shah, Asad Ullah, Intikhab Alam and Younas Khan 

...response to agricultural production was conducted in District Buner-Pakistan. Tehsil Gagra, out of the six tehsils of district Bunir, constituted the universe of the study. A sample size of 370, was randomly selected from the total population of 10142 through proportional allocation method. The conceptual framework comprised of two study variables i.e “agriculture production” and “climate change effects on ...
Nazir Ahmad Khan1,*, Mudassir Alam1, Rafiullah khan1, Kamran Khan2 and Sadeeq ur Rahman3
...igestibility and broiler production efficiency and can be potentially exploited to reduce the dependency on imported protein ingredients and improve farm profitability.
...
Hafrijal Syandri1*, Ainul Mardiah2, Azrita3 and Netti Aryani4

 

...ponds for the commercial production of gurami sago.
...

Muhammad Akbar Ali Shah1, Gamze Özel2, Christophe Chesneau3, Muhammad Mohsin4, Farrukh Jamal5* and Muhammad Faheem Bhatti6 

...determinants of the rice production of Pakistan to improve the production and fulfill the increasing demand. The study conducted in district Lodhran (Punjab province) and 31 villages selected as samples randomly. Time series data collected from Crop Reporting Service (CRS) for the period of last 10 years (2005-2014) containing 516 cases and 14,964 observations. Two different multiple linear regression (MLR) models are applie...

Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz*, Khalil Ahmed, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Faisal Nawaz and Muhammad Sarfraz 

...lve a site-specific crop production technology which not only increases production per unit area but also ensure the quality of daily dietary crops. For this purpose, a series of field experiments were conducted during 2013 to 2015 with objective to optimizing the different levels of nitrogen and the cost-benefit sowing methods for turnip production under moderately salt-affected soils. Th...

Qaisar Mehmood1*, Maqbool Hussain Sial1, Saira Sharif1, Abid Hussain2, Muhammad Riaz3 and Nargis Shaheen4 

...erefore, forecasting the production of fish is important for better production and for planning of fish export. Objective of this research is to propose suitable Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model for forecasting the production of fisheries, using Box-Jenkins’s (1976) methodology. Secondary data, “50 years of Pakistan: volume-iii (1947-1997)” published...

Muhammad Asim1*, Asghari Bano2, Sikander Khan Tanveer3 and Muhammad Umair Aslam

...nment × management production paradigm could lead to sustained improvement in wheat grain yield. 

...

Muhammad Rehan3, Asim Aslam3, Javeria Umber4, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan3, Waqar Azeem3, Hassan Aftab5, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Abid6, Abdul Hameed Khan3, Hafiz Hasnain Ayoub5, Altaf Hussain2 and Muhammad Farooq Khalid1* 

...icrobial peptides (AMPs) production which boost innate immune response. Hypovitaminosis D is a significant risk factor for infectious and non-infectious diseases however its exact mechanism is still unknown, but low levels of vitamin D has been detected in different diseased cases. Recent investigations have reported various cells of body exhibiting vitamin D receptors and CYP27B1 which is capable of converting inactive form vitamin D into biologically active ...
Anam Tariq, Alina Gul, Majida Atta Muhammad, Samia Falak and Naeem Rashid*
...e expression resulted in production of recombinant protein in the cytoplasm which secreted gradually to the extracellular culture medium. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the recombinant protein, in the extracellular medium, revealed that the 19 amino acid signal peptide was cleaved between Ala19 and Gly20. It seems probable that the signal peptide of TK0522 can be used for secretion of other recombinant proteins pro...
Ahsan Anjum1, Asim Aslam1, Raheela Akhtar1, Tahir Yaqub2,  Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Rizwana Sultan3, Saba Usman1Aneela Zameer Durrani4 and Muhammad Usman4*
... factor affecting cattle production and associated economics, warrants the implementation of control measures to mitigate the economic losses associated with the disease.
...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...ociated with significant production losses due to high morbidity, high mortality rate and animal trade restrictions. Though several diagnostics including molecular tools are available, recombinant protein based diagnostic assays namely ELISA is safer and robust to handle large sample size and also to minimize labor/time. However, the genus Capripoxvirus encodes putative 147 proteins in their genome, among which some of them are reported as potential immunogeni...

Ajmalud Din1*, Munir Ahmad2, Fahad Masoud Watto2, Sheraz Ahmed1, Imtiaz Ali1 and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

...at limiting global wheat production. Adaptability of wheat genotypes to drought stress is an important objective in wheat breeding. This study was carried out to understand the effect of drought stress on growth and development, and to identify drought tolerant wheat genotypes. Thirty wheat genotypes of diverse genetic makeup were assessed in transparent polythene bags (6 × 27 inches), and filled them with sterile, homogenized mixture of loam, sand and c...

Kalpana Polisetty1* and Kiran Kumar Paidipati2 

...rates of trends in wheat production because of its high benefits. The main objectives of this study are to examine the change point and trend analysis for wheat production on the basis of time and spatial scale of major wheat producing states of India. This study has considered various prominent non-parametric methods i.e. Pettitt’s, Standard normal homogeneity (SNH) and Buishand’s range tests. The core purpose o...

Muhammad Ramiz Murtaza1, Tahir Mehmood2*, Aziz Ahmad2 and Uzma Arshad Mughal3 

...mes at 4th number in the production of mango and comes at 3rd number in the export of Mango. About 80 percent of Mango exports come from Punjab province. Muzaffar Garh district stands at third position in producing good quality mangoes in Punjab followed by Multan and Rahim Yaar Khan. Present research was done to check the economics of mango production with and without intercropping and determined various factors that affect...

Asif Yaseen1, Muhammad Israr2*, Allah Bux Khan1, Ahsan Javed3, Nafees Ahmad4 and Zia Ullah

...showed the importance of production experience and know-how of quality issues are the significant determinants of farmers’ reliance on high value marketing channels. To this end, policy makers need to give due consideration to certain exogenous factors such as price expectation, delay of payment, trust in buyer, price fluctuation, and provision of farm services. 

...

Saleem Ashraf1, Raheel Saqib2*, Zakaria Yousuf Hassan3, Muhammad Luqman4 and Abdur Rehman5  

...-align: justify;">Citrus production contributes significantly to livelihoods uplift and national economic development. However, the marketing system is criticised for inconsistent supply chain of citrus in Pakistan. This research aimed to bridge the research gap by soliciting intermediaries’ role in the citrus marketing process. Total 120 randomly selected citrus growers were interviewed face to face and collected data were analysed using Statistical Pac...

Rakhshanda Kousar1, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Raza Ullah1, Aqeela Saghir3, Sohaib Usman3* and Tahira Sadaf

Gulfam Hassan1*, Ijaz Ashraf2, Muhammad Qavi Irshad3, Shafiq-ur-Rehman Zia2 and Muhammad Idrees

...getables’ area and production, respectively. Peri-urban vegetable production is gaining importance in all over the world as it helps the farmers to access inputs and market outputs easily. Lack of sufficient training and low technical efficiency are some common barriers in low productivity of vegetables in Pakistan. This study assesses strengths and weaknesses of trainings conducted by public sector extension in peri-u...

Nosheen Noor Elahi1, Muhammad Shafique1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Umer Farooq3* and Muhammad Rashid1 

...300mM NaCl). The biomass production of the varieties CM91 and CM98 increased at 20-100mM NaCl concentrations but drastically decreased at higher levels. While in varieties CM44 and CM2000 a gradual decrease of biomass with increasing salinity levels were observed. Number of pods, flowers and fresh weight of pods were not affected at salinity levels of 0-50mM and decreased at 100 mM NaCI in all the four varieties. In varieties CM91 and CM2000 nodules were forme...
Bhandari Jyoti1,2, Yasen Shali3, Zhang Zehua4, Yao Xiaoho5, Deng Jiang3, Zhang Yaling5, Wang Cuiling5, Li Yang5, Lei Xueping5, Wang Wenfeng5, Mohammad Farooque Hassan6 and Li Can1,*
...s 4.52 m-2. Reproduction takes place during summer (June/July), generating two incomplete generations a year in meadow and one generation a year in farmland. The Iwao’s M*-m regression analysis, Taylor’s power law and aggregation cause analysis showed an aggregated distribution pattern for L. m. tibetensis Chen. It is concluded that insect behavior and environmental conditions co-influence the population density and spatial distri...
Nafeesa Batool1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi1, Nida Aziz1, Ali Hussain2 and Syed Zawwar Hussain Shah3
...gate biochemical methane production potential (BMP) of the most abundant feed-stocks i.e., dairy manure (DM) and food wastes (FW) in agrarian countries by anaerobic digestion (AD) and co-digestion (Co-AD) under mesophilic (35 ± 2 ﹎) settings at substrate to microorganism (S / M) ratio of 1.0 based on volatile solids (VS) for 30 days. Solids [Total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), fixed solids (FS) and their ratios as (VS / TS)] determinations were a...

Dilawar Khan1*, Arif Ullah2, Zainab Bibi1, Ihsan Ullah1, Muhammad Zulfiqar4 and Zafir Ullah Khan

...forecasts guava area and production in Pakistan using time series data over the period 1997-98 to 2014-15. The study used the Box Jenkins approach and forecast was made up to the period 2029-30. The order of ARIMA model was identified using autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF). Suitable model for area and production of guava are ARIMA (0,0,0) and ARIMA (1,1,0) respectively. The projected...

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Farhana Khaliq1, Amar Razzaq3, Mudassar Yasin4, Ghulam Mustafa5, Allah Bakhsh6 and Raheel Saqib7 

...sources which is used in production of a commodity. Nominal protection coefficient (NPC) is projected for the time period of 2003 to 2016 for using as a dependent variable in the current study. To estimate the impact of different macroeconomic variables on basmati export competitiveness panel data set is used following Park’s Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS). According to the results of the study about the impact of macroeconomic variable on basm...
Hong-mei Gao, Wen-long Su, Gui-bin Tao, Han-yang Li, Wen-zheng Cao and Zhi-dong Qiu*
... determined the red cell production. We know there are other regulatory factors, including molecules interact with cells, chemical, irradiation, it’s in the bone marrow (BM).Most chemotherapy drugs are toxic to cancer cells and normal healthy hematopoietic cells. Hemoglobin and red blood cell levels drop in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Geniposide can reduce the adverse radiation damage of bloosd tissue after high dose irradiation.We found t...
Abdüssamet Aydın1 and Ş. Canan Bölükbaşı2*
... conversion rate and egg production. Also, egg weights of groups fed on diets including 65 and 130 mg/kg of pennyroyal extract increased in present study. It was found that supplementation of 130 mg/kg pennyroyal extract significantly improved shell strength. TBARS was reduced in eggs stored during 42 days (P<0.05). In conclusion, pennyroyal extract ameliorated performance and lipid oxidation of eggs.
...

Mudassar Rashid1, Zuhair Husnain2, Usman Shakoor1* and Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain

...gative effects on cotton production. Furthermore, both fertilizer and area have positive impact on cotton production. long run cointegrating relationship holds among climate change variables and cotton productivity. mitigating negative impressions of climate change requires strategies focusing on the adaptation of climate resistant cultivars. 

...

Haidar Ali1*, Malik Muhammad Shafi1, Himayatullah Khan1 and Hamra Haidar

...large area and more milk production. Similarly, in developed villages income from off-farm employment was more than underdeveloped villages. Because large number of family labors of small farmers were working on high paid jobs or employed else or self-employed and thus contributed a good amount to their family’s income. Firstly, for removing the barriers to the entry of the small farmers into the rural off-farm sector efforts should be made. It demands b...

Stanley Uchenna Onwudike* and Vivian Chizoba Edoziem 

...l factors affecting crop production in Southern part of Nigeria and understanding its distributions in rhizosphere soils will help in its management. This investigation examined some variations in soil properties and inorganic phosphorus forms within the rhizosphere of three annual crops, viz groundnut (Arachis hypogea), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) on a loamy sand, typic haplustult soil. The work was sited at the research farm o...
Abdul Kabir¹, Amjad Hussian Mirani¹, Jam Kashif1, Shumaila Manzoor2, Abdullah Iqbal3*, Ihsan Ullah Khan4 and Muhammad Abubakar2
...ence of PPR in different production systems of sheep and goat in district Nowshera, KPK. A total of 246 serum samples were randomly collected from three age groups (<1 year, 1-2 year and >2 years) of sheep and goats. Competitive ELISA was performed to evaluate sero-prevalence of PPR in goats and sheep. The swab and tissue samples were collected from the surrounding areas from suspected sheep and goats to confirm the PPRV. Out of total 246 sera, 144 (58.5...
Jun Yan Bai*, Hong Deng Fan, Shuai Yang, Xue Yan Fu, Heng Cao, Xiao Hong Wu, You Zhi Pang and Kun Peng Shi
...big egg output and short production period. To recognize molecular markers of egg quality of quail, SNP in control regions of cytogenin gene (MyoG) 5’ in China yellow quail, Beijing white quail, Korean quail detected by PCR-SSCP method in this study. Moreover, correlations of control regions of MyoG 5’ with egg quality of quail were analyzed. Results demonstrated that: In egg quail group, six genotypes were detected in Locus A in the control region...
Amna Shoaib*, Zoia Arshad Awan and Naureen Akhtar
...latoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) production by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). A polyphasic strategy as adopted for the current study is a reliable and reproducible means to differentiate A. minisclerotigenes from A. flavus, indeed essential in interpretations of taxonomic and nomenclature of A. flavus group that may allow prior diagnosis and selection of effectual antifungal agents.
...
Asim Faraz1,*, Abdul Waheed1, Riaz Hussain Mirza1, Muhammad Shahid Nabeel2 and Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1
...ducted to check its milk production and composition in Thal desert. With an average milk yield of 7.38 liter under traditional management, Barela camel appears as a camel breed with a good dairy potential. Moreover, according to its gross composition (fat, protein, lactose, SNF and total solids percentages being 4.26, 3.62, 4.84, 9.02 and 13.28, respectively), Barela milk appears particularly rich compared to literature data. A long term monitoring, notably th...
Tasbihullah1, Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*, Tariq Ali3 , Umer Saddique1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Shafiq4, Sultan Ayaz2, Hamayun Khan1, Ijaz Ahmad1 Asadullah2, Raheela Taj5, Hafiz Nidaullah6 and Alamgir Khan7
...s in the existing animal production system in Pakistan, the issue has not yet judiciously been highlighted. This study was conducted to determine incidence of extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli in table eggs and human with history of close association with table eggs. For this purpose, a total of 200 table eggs and 50 stool samples from human were analyzed. Results showed that out of 80 E. coli isolates recover...
Babar Khan1,2 *, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Nasir Ahmed Rajput1, Muhammad Atiq1, Abdul Jabbar1, Abdul Rehman3, Anam Moosa1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1*
...insect’s larvae. Reproduction rate of S. kraussei was highest at concentration of 500 IJs as compared to 50, 100 and 200 IJs. Similarly, the effect of different temperatures was also studied to evaluate the efficacy of S. kraussei on insect larvae. At 25°C, S. kraussei showed significantly higher larval mortality of insect larvae followed by 15°C and 10°C. Effect of storage time of EPN culture was studied on insect’...
Jiao Qin,Qian-Qian Su and Quan-Sheng Liu* 
...al social behavior and reproduction physiology in adult female lesser rice-field rats, Rattus losea. Results showed that the ovary weight of female rats treated with cabergoline significantly increased at day 24, but there were no notable changes in the uteri regardless dosage and time. PRL in female rats treated by 50 µg/kg cabergoline significantly was decreased by 56% at day 7 compared with the control. However, estradiol (E2)in rats...

Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu*, James Jingmang Kopmut, Chrysantus Achi Lagi and Kelly Nkem Okoh 

...ege of animal health and production and livestock in the College Farm. 160 nasal swab samples taken from 130 students from three schools of the college and 30 livestock comprising sheep, goats, and cows between October 2017 and April 2018. Samples were enriched in peptone water broth, incubated at 37oC for 24 hours, and sub-cultured onto Mannitol Salt Agar and thereafter standard bacterial procedure continued. A total of 83 (51.9%) S aureus isolates were ident...
Meriem Msaad Guerfali1,*, Heitham Hamden1, Salma Fadhl1, Wafa Djobbi1, Lotfi Sillini1, Wafa Marzouki1 and Mohammed Ammar2
... major problem for fruit production in Tunisia. Ceratitis was for long time treated with malathion as main conventional control method. Malathion upon repeated and prolonged use may cause resistance. In an attempt to reduce the insecticide residues in fruit, the government is trying to introduce the application of spinosad that was also reported to cause resistance un...
Housh Muhammad Solangi1, Javaid Ali Gadahi1*, Mansoor Tariq2, Bachal Bhutto1Zubair Ahmed Laghari1, Jamila Soomro3, Taufeeq Ahhmed Khosa1 and Abdullah G Arijo1
...FECRT) revealed that egg production was significantly reduced as 75.06%, 76.36% and 57.01 % respectively in vaccinated group as compared to positive control at 3rd, 4th and 5th week of immunization. Impact of the HcCP on haemoglobin level was also evaluated. After second week of infection significant difference (P<0.05) was found between the negative and positive control. However no significant difference (P>0.05) we...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 52, Iss. 3, Pages 825-1224

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