James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

... revealed dengue IgG seroprevalence of 73% and malaria prevalence of 80% in some areas of the country. The diagnosis of the disease is further complicated by the fact that, dengue fever mimics malaria fever and the prevalence of dengue-malaria co-infection is high. Differential diagnosis of fever is therefore necessary to initiate the appropriate clinical care. Despite the endemicity of de...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...ontracting HCV, and high prevalence rates have been found in hemodialysis units around the world. HCV induces chronic liver disease, which is characterized by a persistent hepatic parenchyma inflammatory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patients with viral hepatitis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocarcin...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...t to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Ogbomoso. The blood sample of consented two hundred and seventy five (275) subjects were obtained and their sera were screened for antibodies to HEV using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Samples were collected over a period of 4 months (September – December, 2014). The mean age and mean CD4+ count of the subjects were 40.14±0.47 years and...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...%, as well as an overall prevalence of 80.8 %. The within flock seropositivity percentages ranged between 0% and 100.0%. Flocks with the highest seropositivity were found in low altitude regions close to the coast. Risk and protective factors determined in the present study were not in accordance with this insect borne disease. The results of this study indicate that BTV is endemic in sheep herds from Costa Rica, and animals seem not show clinical signs. We re...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...2.21-2.72%). The rate of prevalence of these species was bi-phasic and higher from April to June, and October to November 2009. Interestingly, the infectivity rate of BTV was also higher during these periods indicating that high risk of infection is directly proportional to that of transmission vectors. Moreover, results demonstrate that the life stage “bumper” of the female imicola is the indicator of the infecting activity of ...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...d ungulates. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic losses to livestock farming and industry has increased global concern for the disease. Currently, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, the rapid spread of SAT2 and other exotic FMDV lineages in L...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...sent study describes the prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus antibodies in sheep, goats and camels at Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples (n=400), collected during 2012–2013 from sick and clinically healthy herds, were subjected to antibodies detection using c-ELISA. Out of examined animals, 83 (62.9%) goats and 70 (33.2%) sheep were detected positive against PPRV antibodies, whereas camels appeared to be serone...

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...screen out. Overall sero-prevalence in cattle was 15.36% on SPAT, 14.39% by i-ELISA and 14.14% through PCR. Higher prevalence was recorded in abattoir shops (31.01%) followed by private farms (11%) and animal selling points (9.25%). Significant difference was recorded in different breeds i.e. achai, local non-descript and crossbred (non-descript x jersey) cattle. Higher prevalence in femal...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

... conducted to assess the prevalence of tick in goat’s population of three different areas (Kaptai, Kattoli and Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 60 goats were examined for tick infestation in three places using random positive sampling technique. Among the breed, Black Bengal goats were highly affected (53.33%) followed by Jamuna pari (33.33%) and cross breed (13.33%) (P=0.00). Black coat coloured...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...c patients to assess the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and to evaluate its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes on their first visit to a local hospital. Among the newly diagnosed diabetic subjects 33% (n=66) were with retinopathy. Out of which 30% (n=18) were male and 70% (n=48) were female. High density lipoprotein (HDL), both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol level and serum insulin were significantly higher (p< 0.05...

Bibi Tayyaba Batool1, Aemal Tareen1, Shahjahan Shabir Ahmed1, Hira Ejaz1, Mohammad Azam Kakar1, Syed Abdul Rehman2, Mohammed Saeed1, Zafar Ahmad3, Mohammad Masood Tariq3, Mohammad Arif Awan3 and Muhammad Naeem Shahwani1*

...udy was to determine the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in cattle, goats and sheep in some primary dwelling districts of Balochistan. Our results showed that brucellosis was found 2.2% positive from Quetta district and 0.6% positive from Pishin district and bovine (TB) was found 0.60% positive from Quetta and none from Pishin district of Balochistan.

...

Abdul Sattar Baloch1*, Abdul Rasheed1,2, Rahmatullah Rind1, Jam Kashif Sahito1, Rehana Buriro1, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1 and Parkash Dewani1

...g tests, and overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be as 21%, 21% and 13% by RBPT, SAT and c-ELISA tests, respectively. Seroprevalence was higher in females (26%) than in males (16%) by RBPT and SAT tests, and also in camels less than 9 years of age (13.33%). Milk samples were collected to detect the antibodies against the disease, however, none of the sample was found to be positive for brucellosis. It was conc...

Rongrong Li1, Kun Li2, Xiaoqiang Wang2, Houqiang Luo2, Gang Qiu2, Hui zhang2, Yanfang Lan2 and Jiakui Li2,3*

...s to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. A total 454 serum samples were collected from Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi in 2014 and 2015. Each sample was assayed for T. gondii antibodies by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and an indirect hemagglutination test. The results showed that seroprevalence in Tibetan pigs were 25.6% by ELISA. On gender basis, the

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...dy aimed to find out the prevalence of Brucella and active brucellosis in the human population of district Swat. Total 300 individuals (both female and male of all ages, meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria) with informed consent were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and brucellosis was detected by Standard Plate Agglutination Test (SPAT) and Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and later on confirmed by PCR. Disease was detected in 3.66...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...CD4 count showed highest prevalence (27.27%) among the age ranging from 41 to 50 years with the CD4+ count of 350- 500cells/µl. The result from this study highlight that EBV IgM is prevalent among individuals infected with HIV in Nigeria and may warrant future investigations to ascertain the impact of co-infection on public health.

...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during 13 January to 15 March 2015. A total of 131 cattle was investigated and 16.8% cattle cattle were recorded as FMD. The proportionate prevalence of FMD in dif...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...erological survey on the prevalence of antibodies to PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to December 2015 with no history of vaccination. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed using PPRV antigen to determine antibody titres level. The overall pre...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...itive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegative. The prevalence of PPR was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 to 77.3% in 2016. Seropositivity was higher in wet seasons (60.9 to 61.4%) to 56.7% in dry hot season. Species, year and location appeared to be having signif...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...s with 74.5% (47/63) prevalence, following which were Streptococcus species (17.45%, 11/63), E. coli (3.17%, 2/63), and Bacillus cereus (4.76%, 3/63). Coagulase positive Staph. aureus (41 out of 47), and hemolysin producing Staph. aureus (39 out of 47) primed among Staph. aureus isolates indicating very pathogenic nature of infection in the area. Risk factors determinants were found significantly (P<0.05) associ...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...;40 years (14%). Overall prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG was seen in 12%, with significantly more in women with age more than 30 years as compared to those with age less than 30 years (19% vs 8%; p=0.038). The percentage of IgG seroprevalence was higher in women who ever got pregnant as compared to those who were never pregnant (13% vs 5%). The percentage was also higher in women with direct contact to soil...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...ittle is known about the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of major bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health. A total one hundred swabs and 500 organ samples were collected from apparently hea...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...hree LBM with an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Of the 84 samples collected, 17 contained Salmonella. With regard to the matrices, there was no difference in Salmonella prevalence among the four matrices considered. Four different serotypes were identified with Salmonella Llandoff having the highest isolation rate in all the matrices sampled (58.8%), followed by, S. Kentucky (17.7%), S. Schwarzengrund and S. Havana had the low...
Wali Khan*, Ghazal Mumtaz, Saima Bibi and Salma Afzal
...s aimed to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection in vegetables collected from the vegetable markets in Lower and Upper Dir districts. A total of 520 vegetable samples were collected during April to October 2016. These vegetable samples were screened for parasitic contamination. The results showed that 10.7% of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with one or more than one species of parasites. Intestinal parasites Ascaris lumbricoides 26.7%, ...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...e male. Overall weighted prevalence of PCR positivity was 38% (268). Of the total 268 PCR positive subjects, 0.74%, 56.71%, 15.67% were positive for serotype 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Only 72 suspected patients had concurrent infection with serotype 2 and 3. Higher incidence of RNA positivity by PCR was found in males (71%) as compared to the females (29%). The higher incidence of PCR positivity was found in age group of 16-25 rather than teenage (≤16) and o...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
...nducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus in cattle and buffaloes in the districts of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A total of 120 serum samples were randomly collected from buffaloes and cattle (60 per species) at Civil Veterinary Hospitals, animal markets and peri-urban livestock holdings in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). RBPT positive samples were subjected to ...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...robial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol, this study was designed to isolate lactoferrin from milk of camel. Cation exchange resin (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isolation of lactoferrin using the fast protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Disc diff...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...sults yielded an overall prevalence of 11.11%, with significant difference (P<0.05) among different study areas. Prevalence was highest in district Bannu (11.66%), followed by district Lakki Marwat and Kohat with 10% in each district. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference (P<0.05) among children of different age groups with highest disease prevalence in children of les...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...were recorded. The total prevalence recorded was 3.66%and out of 498 broiler operations yielded 17 (3.4%) positive isolates and 44 golden type native chicken farms yielded 05 (11.36%) isolates of AIV H9N2 and 58 captive pheasant’s samples were negative. It was observed that frequency of H9N2 prevalence in poultry population was directly proportional to temperature, season and...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
... taking into account the prevalence and severity of footpad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. The study included 300 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers. One group of broilers was reared on chopped wheat straw (the particle length of straw ≥ 10 cm). The second group was kept on newly formulated pelleted wheat straw. The duration of the trial was 42 days. Moisture content in litter materials and FPD occurrence and severity were assessed weekly. First signs of ...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...beings. In this project, prevalence and distribution of soil borne Brucella species in nine districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sargodha, D.G. Khan, Chakwal, Sahiwal, Gujranwala and Attock were determined. By using grid based sampling strategy, soil samples (n= 1280) were collected from villages (n=256, 5 samples/village) of the nine districts. Brucella genus specific DNA (bcsp31) was detected using Real Time PCR...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence calculated was 5% and 4.4%, respectively, in these areas. Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) was frequently isolated (78%) from roots as well as in soil samples (81.7%) collected from infected fields. Amo...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...ext-align: justify;">The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis is rapidly increasing among high risk groups (HRGs) in Pakistan leading it away from achieving the 6th millennium development goal of halting and reversing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Syphilis increases the risk of HIV transmission by two to five times, and this co-infection is common among HRGs. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HI...
Shazia Rasheed1,* and Javed Mustaquim2
...vestigation. Octolasmids prevalence was significantly higher in female P. pelagicus (81.2%) than that of male (18.8%) while in case of P. sanguinolentus the prevalence was significantly higher in male (60.5%) rather than female (39.5%).
...
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...testinal parasites, with prevalence rate 6.98 %. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection during the period of study was as follows; Ascaris lumbricoides (n= 205, 1.8%), Giardia lamblia (n= 178, 1.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (n= 174, 1.57%), Trichuris trichiura (n= 118, 1.06%), Hymenolepis nana (n= 51, 0.46 %), Enterobius vermicularis (n= 28, 0.25%) and Taenia saginata ...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...p-value 0.0002). The prevalence of C allele was 13.5% in disease, 5.83% in controls and found significant with p-value 0.007. These findings suggest that c.G745C in COMT gene has a significant association and a possible role in the OCD development in Pakistani patients.
...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...> Amblyomma with the prevalence of 78.50%, 10.33%, 10.08%, 0.67% and 0.42%, respectively. On species basis, R. (Boophilus) annulatus, R. (Boophilus) microplus, Heamaphysalis aciculifer, R. appendiculatus, and R. decoloratus were noted 41.67, 18.42, 9.83, 8.25, and 6.83% respectively, whereas least prevalence was noted as 0.42% in case of A. pomposum and D. circumguttatus; 0.25% e...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...ertaken to determine the prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from piglets having white score diarrhea as a result of outbreak occurred in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau in 2015. A total of 81 E.coli were isolated from 83 fecal samples. The organisms were inoculated on MacConkey agar and EMB agar and identified via biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect representative virulence factors or ge...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...aimed to investigate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic intestinal protozoan parasitic infection in farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. One hundred and fifteen (11.04%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal protozoans. Forty one (35.6%) of the participant...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...efore, its incidence and prevalence was determined in seven major maize growing districts of Punjab during 2016. The maximum overall incidence of maize borer (12%) was recorded in Khanewal district followed by Multan (6%) while it was the minimum (1%) in district Okara. On the other hand, maximum prevalence of maize borer was observed in district Vehari (100%) followed by districts of Khanewal and Multan (73%) while minimum ...

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...ychosis with a worldwide prevalence of 1%. It is diagnosed on the basis of psychiatricsymptoms and till now no biochemical test is available for its diagnosis. It is considered one of the most costlydisease in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Its heritability content is considered to be up to 80% but still it isunknown whether it’s a pure genetic disease. It is considered a polygenic multifactorial condition where both genes and environment have roles i...

 Maleeha Manzoor1*, Madiha Manzoor2, Qurat-ul-ain Ahmed3, Sobia Ahmed4, Shazia Manzoor5

...n order to determine the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women attending Government Mian Munshi Teaching Hospital, Lahore. For this, one hundred pregnant females were selected randomly; relevant data was collected by interviewing and filling a questionnaire especially designed to record various socio-demographic characters of patients and their dietary history. Prevalence rate of anemia in the present study was found to ...
Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
...or bacteria. The overall prevalence of diarrhea was 72.56% with bacteria in 65.77% of diarrheic cases. The prevalence of different bacterial species shows that E. coli was the most prevalent bacteria with 48.77% as compared to Clostridium perfringens (18.56%) and Salmonella (17.9%). It was concluded that bacteria were the major cause of foal diarrhea in Punjab, Pakistan. 
...
Zahid Farooq1, Sufi Muhammad Akram2, Muhammad Saleem Khan3,* and Muhammad Wajid4
...; N = 39) were higher in prevalence. Northern wolf snake (Lycodon striatus striatus), Sind long-nose sand snake (Lytorhynchus paradoxus)and Afghan awl-head snake(L. ridgewayi)(0.38%; N = 2) were the least abundant. Snakes were more frequent in croplands and least frequent in barren areas.
...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...ted to determine the seroprevalence, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/696), for H7N7 6.03...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...ssumed risk factors with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied to check significance of results. The study noted overall 33.98% (123/362) of MDR S. aureus from subclinical mastitis milk samples while 123 of 192 S. aureus isolates (64.06%) were confirmed MDR. Non-significantly higher prevalence of MDR was noted in Cholistan area (38.38%) than to that of Sulaiman Range (29.98%) on subclin...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
... was aimed to assess the prevalence of Taenia saginata and Hymenolepis nana (tapeworms) infections among farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. Two hundred and twenty one (21.2%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal tapeworms. Seventy seven (7.39%) of the participants ...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
...-1 (1.111) evidenced the prevalence of non additive gene action controlling these traits. The present results, therefore, revealed that selection for these traits in early generation may not be useful and it has to be delayed till segregating generations.
...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...have shown an increasing prevalence and importance of CCoV around the world. Fatal CCoV infections have been described, however, there is limited information on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this study, canine fecal samples from diverse States of Brazil were screened by PCRs for CCoV and positive samples were subjected to partial sequencing for the membrane (M), spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein 3b genes. O...

 Nazir Ahmad*, Sultan Ayaz*, Sumaira Shams**, Karimullah*** and Riaz Ahmad****

PREVALENCE AND MORPHOLOGY OF HELMINTH PARASITES OF FISH FROM RIVER SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...opic techniques. Overall prevalence of the fish parasites was 58% (145/250). Among these Schizothorax plageostomus fish 93.04% (107/115), Schizothorax labiatus 61.11% (33/54), Salmo trutta fario 17.85% (05/28), Gara gotyla 0% (0/09), Rita rita 0% (0/25) and Oncorhynchus mykiss were 0% ( 0/19). The intensity of the parasite varied from 1% to 9.2%. Among them high intensity was noted in Rhabdochona schizothoracis (9.2%) and Schizothorax labiatus.

...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...detect and determine the prevalence, incidence and distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the preval...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...based estimation of true prevalence is time occurring in different livestock species and requires to develop prevention and control strategy, that hasn't been done in Pakistan. Active disease surveillance at door steps was conducted to collect blood samples from small and large ruminants of subtropical rural communities in the province of Punjab during January-March, 2015. Total 59665 sera samples from apparently healthy animals were collected and screened by ...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...a (KPK) to determine the prevalence and risk factors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampling from apparently healthy lambs and were examined using the modified Ziehl Neelsen acid fast staining. Prevalence was calculated along with different risk factors associated wit...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...ere examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. Indoor biting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected by standard procedures within the study duration. Meteorological data on relative humidity and temperature was obtained from Centre for Basic Space Science, Nsukka, Enugu State. Overall recorded malaria prevalence at the hospitals from January to July was 72.8%. Malaria <...
Nasir Abbas1, Muhammad Suleman1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,*, Ijaz Ali3, Mubashir Rauf1,5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman4,*
...programme.
...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
... had the highest (76.4%) prevalence of infection; A. degneri had the least (37.5%). A total of 1 563 helminthes belonging to three species Cosmocercoides sp., Capillaria sp. and Philonema sp. were recovered. Mean intensity of Capillaria in A. achatina was 8.33 (5.00 – 12.00 [95% CI]) while Cosmocercoides sp. intensity in L. gracilis was 7.67 (6.00 – 11.00 [95% CI]). Diversity of parasite speci...
Abid Hussain1,*, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad2, Muhammad Hussan Mushtaq2, Mamoona Chaudhry2, Muhammad Sarwar Khan2, Michael Reichel3, Tanveer Hussain4, Amjad Khan2, MuhammadNisar2 and Imtiaz Ahmad Khan5
...d out to investigate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy buffaloes. The present study was conducted in two districts Lahore and Bhimber Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Total sample size for this survey was consisted of 1,036 lactating buffaloes. The screening of lactating buffaloes was performed with the California Mastitis Test. The overall prevalence of mastitis was recorded at 49%. Among mastitis cases the...
Ahmad Farooq1, Usman Waheed2,3, Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3, Abdul Rauf4, Abida Arshad5, and Muhammad Arshad1,*
...udy was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among thalassaemia major patients. The study was conducted from June – December 2016, at the Thalassaemia Centre, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad and the Pakistan Thalassaemia Centre, Pakistan Baitul Mal, Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were obtained by clinical testing of 1,440 ß thalassaemia major patients visiting for blood transfusions at regular intervals. The co...
Tariq Mukhtar,1,* Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Humayun Javed2
...e 1.2% while the overall prevalence was 27%. As regards districts, the maximum incidence was recorded in district Bhakkar followed by Khushab. Similarly, the maximum prevalence was observed in district Bhakkar followed by Sargodha while it was the minimum in district Khushab. The incidence of the nematode was found to be variable on different wheat cultivars. The maximum incidence was recorded on cultivar Chakwal-50 followed...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah*, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Abdulrahman Jarelnabi, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman and Mansour F. Hussein
...div>...
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
... designed to inspect the prevalence and its correlation with various risk factors and host biomarkers concerned with the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep. Total 600 blood samples were taken each 200 from districts Bannu, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and screened through blood microscopy. The current study revealed an overall prevalence of ovine theileriosis as 27.5%, 13% and 19.5% in d...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...o ascertain the hospital prevalence of buffalo diseases and to determine the temporal distribution of important infectious diseases of buffalo like as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) at Upazila veterinary hospitals of Jaintapur, Gowainghat and Kanaighat upazilas of Sylhet district. From October, 2015 to September, 2017 a total of 1057 cases of buffalo diseases were recorded in the hospital record books. Among all diseases, the ov...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...ortant to understand the prevalence, transmission, persistence and evolution of the virus, and to monitor the circulating AIV strains and emergence of new AIV subtypes in Egypt. The wide circulation of the 2.2.1.2 subclade, carrying triple mutations (120, 129∆, I151T) associated with increased binding affinity to human receptors, is an alarming finding with public health importance.
...
Muzafar Shah1,*, Mazhar Ali2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Khushi Muhammad3, Israr Alam1, Kausar Saeed1
...30 blood samples and low prevalence in U.C Ghalaigai with 42 positive (13.12%) out of 320 samples. Gender wise prevalence of malaria disease shows male 106 (27.53%) out of 385 whereas female 98 (16.01%) out of 612. 
...
Jehangir Khan1,*, Rasheedullah1, Bakht Tarin Khan2, Ayaz Ahmad3, Muhammad Salman4 and Khalid Khan5
...study reports an overall prevalence of HCV among 131 (14.55%), 103 (11.44%), and 94 (10.4%) by ICT, ELISA, and RT-PCR techniques in individuals belonging to 5 different age groups. The RT-PCR based results showed 53% HCV infection rate in samples from Tehsil Puran, 23% in Alpuri and 18% in Besham. The gender wise result (non-significant) showed 10% and 10.7% active HCV infection rates in males and females respectively. The RT-PCR based result observed maximum ...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...udy was to determine the prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes (AIV H9, AIV H7 and AIV H5) in non-vaccinated wild and domesticated bird species across Pakistan. During January-December 2013, in total 700 samples were collected from different species of non-vaccinated birds inhabiting diverse ecological zones of Pakistan. Altogether, 507 tissue and swab samples were screened for the presence of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain re...
Niamatullah Kakar, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Shafee and Tauseef Asmat*
...tudy was to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis along with associated risk factors in Quetta Jail, Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, 186 sputum samples were collected randomly from jail inmates. Sputum was processed for smear microscopy and culture inoculation for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Moreover, the suspected samples were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three samples were found ...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...nducted to determine the prevalence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the population of its vector, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), and determine the transmission properties of the prevalent isolate of the virus in the major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). For this purpose, surveys were conducted in the hilly areas of Mohmand Agency and Malakand Agency and plains of Shabqadar, Charsadda and Peshawar during 2011, 2012 and 2013, to deter...
Jia-kui Li1,2,*, Kun Li2, Zhao-qing Han2, Hui Zhang2, Xiao-qiang Wang2, Hou-qiang Luo2, Yan-fang Lan2 and Gang Qiu1,2
... (ELISA) kit to test the prevalence of BVDV(Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus) in yaks in Hongyuan, Sichuan province, a cold climate and high altitude area of China. Totally, 516 yak serum samples were randomly got during 2012 to 2014. BVDV was found highly prevalent among the adult yaks (51.1%; 95% CI: 46.5-55.6) and calves (60.5%; 95% CI: 43.4-76.0), respectively. The prevalence of BVDV infection in 2012 to 2014 was 45.3% (95% C...
Muhammad Asim Khan1,*, Shahid Niaz Khan1, Sanaullah Khan2, Abdul Jabbar Khan3, Muhammad Adnan4, Nawab Ali5 and Ijaz Ali6
...tember, while the lowest prevalence of malaria infection was found in the months of December (7.93%) and in February (12.62%).
...
Abdul Samad1, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Olena Pokryrshko2 and Tauseef M Asmat1,*
...conducted to examine the prevalence of deadly food contaminants like Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and E. coli (O157:H7) in various types of food items consumed locally. Total of 800 most common food samples such as chicken, beef meat, raw milk, vegetables and salad samples were collected from retail market, the overall contamination of food samples with infectious agents was 48.37%. Campylobacter jejuni<...
Hasina Baloch1, Rahmatullah Rind2,*, Muhammad Rafique Rind3, Viram Kumar4, Nazia Baloch5 and Rajesh K. Oad6
...es. Significantly higher prevalence (49. 07%) of clinical mastitis was observed in buffaloes with average age of 6 to 9 years whereas those of > 9 years of age showed higher (33.33%) but non-significant prevalence of subclinical mastitis. However, significant impact of the number of parity on the prevalence of clinical mastitis was observed in animals. Higher
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
...antibodies. Highest sero-prevalence of Avian Influenza (H5) was recorded in district Abbottabad 36.15% (47/130) followed by Dera Ismail Khan 33.08% (43/130), Tank 26.92% (35/130), Peshawar 21.54% (28/130) and Mansehra 16.92% (22/130). Statistical analysis confirmed a significant (P<0.05) difference of sero-prevalence between the districts. There was a significant (P<0.05) association of occurrence of the ...
Riffat Mehboob1*, Shahida Perveen2, Naseer Ahmed3
...Lahore to understand the prevalence of inflammatory lesions, benign neoplasms and their age-wise comparison.
Methodology: The study was carried out at Pathology Department, King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Data of 368 cases of BBD during a time span of 3 years (2011-2014) was obtained retrospectively. 
Results: There were 190 patients of fibroadenoma (FA), 81 of fibrocystic disease (FCD), 64 of breast abscess (...
Rana Khurram Aftab1*, Farhat Ijaz2, Samia Jawed3
...re of normal weight. The prevalence of overweight in male and females was 17(17.5%) and 22(19.0%), prevalence in obese I in male and female was 20(20.6%) and 23(19.8%), and obese II was 3(3.1%) and 11(9.5%) respectively. Frequency of obesity was found to be more in females than in males according to BMI and WHR. Hypertension was present in 12(30.8%) normal weight students, 6(15.4%) overweight, 14(35.9%) obese I and 7(...
Muhammad Younus1*, Sabah Usman2 and Samia Jawed3
...l health problem and its prevalence is increasing continuously. It is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with decreased lung functions.
Objective: This study was designed to compare the pulmonary functions in obese and non-obese subjects. Additionally, we aimed to correlate the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with pulmonary function tests (PFT’s).
Material ...
Mumtaz Akhtar, Iffat Naheed, Khadija Waheed* and Amna Khanum
...or margin was 5% and the prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage was 16.5%. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 17. In this study, the mean age of study participants was found to be 29.89±5.89 years while the mean gestational age was 38.86±1.38 weeks. Postpartum haemorrhage was observed in 35.45% cases. Blood loss was recorded in patients with a mean of 374±134.91 mL. Statistically, a highly significant difference was observed between ...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
... to investigate the sero-prevalence and immunization program optimization of serotype O of FMD through ELISA and IHA in pigs in Zhejiang. A total of 368 serum samples were collected from June to July in 2016. Out of these samples, 23 (6.79%, 95% CI 4.4-9.9) pigs were found positive for FMD antibodies with the further distribution of 9.09% (95% CI 4.6–15.7), 6.90% (95% CI 2.6–14.4), 5.49%, (95% CI 1.8-12.4) and 4.35% (95% CI 0.9-12.2) from Wenzhou, ...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
... investigate the overall prevalence of members of MM cluster in suspected cases of CCPP in small ruminants.
...
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*
...of 2015 to determine the prevalence of Dengue fever virus in district Mansehra, Pakistan. Patients were selected with the convenience sampling which were admitted in Al-Khidmat foundation and King Abdullah hospitals in Mansehra, Pakistan, where patients were screened for dengue virus non-structural protein using Rapid Diagnostic kit for Dengue virus (DENV) i.e. SD BIOLINE Dengue IgG/IgM. Data was obtained from patient’s record, filled forms and th...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
Haroon Rashid1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Tasleem Ghori2, Mamoona Chaudhry3, Hamad Bin Rashid2, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir1, Muhammad Hamid Chaudhary4, Muhammad Asad Ali1, Mian Muhammad Khubaib Sattar5, Javed Muhammad1 and Bhushan Jayarao6
...s conducted to study the prevalence and distribution of soil-borne B. anthracis in Punjab Province, Pakistan and to ascertain its public health significance. Using a grid-based sampling strategy, soil samples (n=1985) were collected from villages (n = 397, 5 samples/village) and examined for Bacillus anthracis, using real time PCR assays. Soil samples were found positive for plasmid DNA of Bacillus anthracis (CapB) in 3 villages (n= 3/1985...
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
... province to explore the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens type D in small ruminants. A total of 204 fecal samples were collected from sheep and goats suffering from seasonal diarrhea. C. perfringens type D was identified through different biochemical tests and PCR. Antibiograms and lab animal trials were also carried out on local isolates of C. perfringens type D. Out of 204 analyzed samples, 89.18 % were found positive while 10.82 % ...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...nducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) among large ruminants of the five districts (Peshawar, Nowshera, Charsadda, Mardan and Swabi) located in the central zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A total of 2400 large ruminants were sampled by convenience sampling approach and tested by comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT) for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Data re...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
... to investigate the sero-prevalence of Coxiellosis and its relationship with some important risk factors in small ruminants kept at nine government livestock farms of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1000 blood samples (500 each from goats and sheep) were collected from animals kept at the respective livestock farms. An indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA) was used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in the serum. Serological analysis revea...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1*, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Dakwang Nalong1, Rengkat Jonah1 and Olabode Mayowa

...ied out to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pigs, sheep and goats at slaughter in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. Five hundred (500) serum samples comprising of 300 pigs, 100 each of sheep and goats were collected and analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) using latex agglutination test (LAT). Serum samples with LAT titer >10 IU/ml were considered positive. The study showed that 176 of the 500 samples analyzed were positive f...
Neelima Gupta

 

...i> Channa punctatus (prevalence 24%, intensity 2 to 18 per fish). Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were conducted to demonstrate the surface anatomy of the worm. The worm is slender, elongated and cylindrical. The mouth is slit-like, surrounded by two lateral rows of somatic papillae, cephalic end was conical with 12 labial papillae arranged in two circles of 6 papillae each. Scanning electron microscopy on attachment structures revealed that t...

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

...out to determine the seroprevalence of Human Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies and to determine the risk factors associated with acquisition of the virus. A total of 326 blood samples were collected from consenting pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinic in Abuja, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demography and risk factors. The sera were obtained from samples were analyzed for IgG and IgM antibodies of human pa...

Mushtaq Hussain Lashari1*, Fozia Afzal1 and Umer Farooq

...was to determine the seroprevalence and hematological changes in free-range chicken (Gallus domesticus) naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Blood samples of chicken (n=71), were collected from Cholistan areas of Bahawalpur (Punjab), Pakistan. Serum samples were tested for toxoplasmosis with a commercial latex agglutination kit (Antec Diagnostic products, UK). The overall prevalence was 26.76%. The signific...
Shagufta Naz*, Saima Sharif, Hafsa Badar, Syeda Fareeha Tauheed
...was directed to find the prevalence of Macular corneal dystrophy in the families of Lahore. The techniques used for the diagnosis of MCD were visual Acuity test by Snellen chart, phoropter, slit lamp biomicroscopy, topography, keratometer and pachymetry. In this study, 50 patients of MCD were identified among which 40 were males and 10 were females, including 9 cases with family history. Main complaint was drop in visual acuity and loss of vision in all patien...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

... through RT-PCR. Overall prevalence of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) in indigenous breeds of bovine was 63.33%, lower, than exotic breeds 64.66% which were found to be more prone to disease. In the case of buffalo breeds, prevalence was more in Nili Ravi buffalo, i.e. 36.6% than Kundi breed, i.e. 33.3%. Prevalence of disease was found maximum in humid and plain area of Lahore,...

Hafiz Muhammad Umer Qaisar1, Tanveer Ahmad2, Muhammad Rizwan3*, Muhammad Saqib1

Antimicrobial efficacy of combination of lincomycin and spiramycin (Lispiracin™) as systemic dry cow therapy for controlling bovine mastitis
...etermined through
prevalence of mastitis (sub-clinical and clinical) before and after parturition and
bacteriological cure rate. Quarter and animal wise prevalence of both clinical and
sub-clinical mastitis after systemic dry cow therapy with lispiracin™ group (G1) was
lower than control group (G2). This was evaluated through Surf Field Mastitis Test,
Somatic cell count, isolation, id...

 Anber Naqvi1*#, Abdul Qadir1, Adeel Mahmood2, Mehvish Mumtaz3, Iqra Aslam1, Gan Zhang4

Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in maternal blood serum from selected districts of Punjab, Pakistan
...lected
the higher prevalence of lower chlorinated PCBs in urban population descending
towards rural population. The mean TEQ concentration of eight dioxins like PCBs
was recorded as 0.03 ng/g l.w. Analysis of Σ34PCBs and socio-demographic
parameters reflected significant results for milk intake. The study findings
suggested a need for regulating the continuous intentional or unintentional
releases of PCB into the...
Ajmal Khan* and Rehan Ullah
...lyzed to investigate the prevalence of malaria and its specific aetiologic agents in suspected patients reported to various laboratories of Agency Head Quarter Hospital Khar, Bajaur Agency. In this study, a total number of 9720 suspected individuals were examined; among which 1273 (13.1%) were found to be positive for malaria infection with different Plasmodium species in their blood smears. Male population accounts for higher p...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Memoona Chaudhary2, Riaz Hussain3, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Madiha Khan6, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Mehtab Ahmad7, Muhammad Sajid Hasni2Imran Qaiser8, Ghazanfar Rashid1, Ikramul Haq1 and Ikramullah Khan8
...esults showed an overall prevalence of 47.14% for subclinical mastitis. Statistical analysis revealed non-significant (P>0.05) difference between Cholistan desert and Suleiman mountain range (48.18% and 46.09%, respectively). S. aureus was isolated from 53.03% of the milk samples, with significantly higher (P<0.05) prevalence in Cholistan desert (66.10%) as compared to Suleiman range (57.98%...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...ck of information on the prevalence across Pakistan. Surveillance for powdery mildew status assessment was conducted across Pakistan during three wheat crop seasons i.e., 2015-2016 to 2017-2018. A total of 437 fields (from 63 districts) were surveyed in 2016, 480 fields (from 69 districts) in 2017 and 294 fields (from 34 districts) in 2018, revealing a high prevalence of powdery mildew in the northern Himalayan parts of Paki...
Farheen Shaikh*, Saima Naz, Nadir Ali Birmani
...orded in each month. The prevalence of chewing lice species of Coturnix coturnix was recorded as 44.47% Cuclotogaster cinereus (Nitzsh, 1866) belongs to family Philopteridae 32.64% Menacanthus abdominalis (Piaget, 1880) and 22.87% Menacanthus cornutus belongs to family Menoponidae. The results revealed high infestation found in birds of rural localities. The present study will help to understand host-parasite interaction in study ar...
Tamoor Azeem1,*, M. Yasin Tipu1, Asim Aslam1, Sajjad Ahmed2, Salman Ahmed Abid1, Abdullah Iqbal3, Naeem Akhtar4, Muhammad Saleem4, Aamerzish Mushtaq4 and Sajid Umar4

Omer Baris Ince* 

...n in order to reduce the prevalence of the disease. In this study, blood samples were collected from clinically healthy sheep and bovine in the surrounding region of the southeast of Konya province that were classified as non-vaccinated, single-vaccinated, multiple vaccinated, aged 0-1 and 1-3 and male and female starting from the third month following the vaccination. In the study aimed to show the disease-related status of the selected region, to investigate...

Rafiullah1*, Abdur Rahman2, Khalid Khan1, Anwar Ali1, Arifullah Khan2, Abdul Sajid3 and Naimatullah Khan3 

...te Peshawar. The overall prevalence for Theileriosis was 27.75% through Real-time PCR, followed by Indirect ELISA (24.62%) and Microscopy (11.37%). Transect wise high prevalence for Theileria parva was observed in Lakki Marwat with 33.5% for Real-time PCR, significantly different at P<0.05 from Peshawar. Cattle showed 100% more positive results as compared to Buffalo. All the techniques showed highest

 Abdul Maalik1, Shahzad Ali1,*, Anam Iftikhar1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Haroon Ahmad2 and Iahtasham Khan1

...esigned to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of subclinical mastitis along with antibiotic resistance of one of the causative agent of bovine mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus. Ninety milk samples were collected from cows and buffaloes kept at different localities in district Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan. The possible risk factors inquired from farmers were animal type, breeds, urbanicity, age (years), teat washing, bedding area, lactating sta...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

...ted to record incidence, prevalence, and severity of root-knot nematode species associated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, prevalence of 85% and severity of 4.1 in terms of the galling index was recorded throughout the province. Differences in the incidence of root-knot nematodes were recorded from all the districts ranging from 11% to 70%. ...

 Sohaib Afzaal1, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3,*, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1

...re-dominant group (41.1% prevalence) among LAB strains in the isolated food samples. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated from these media. Among the tested strains maximum amount of lactic acid (26.457 mg/mL) was produced by the lactobacilliafter 48 h growth in skim milk broth, while the least (12.131 mg/mL) was produced by pediococci. These LAB strains are being studied for their probiotic properties and good quality indigenous starter cultures fr...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1, Batim Turdam1, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Waziri Ibrahim Anjili2 and Mayowa Olabode2 

...ay 2018 to determine the prevalence and risk factors for endoparasitic infections in donkeys at Ganawuri district market, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 300 donkeys and analyzed using a standard laboratory procedure. Coprological examination conducted using flotation and sedimentation techniques showed that 276 (92.0%) were positive for gastrointestinal nematodes. A greater proportion (70.7%) of the nematodes ...
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
...y. RBT confirmed the seroprevalences of 19.32% ± 0.289 and 12.29% ± 0.0105 brucellosis in sheep and goats, respectively and real-time PCR confirmed the B. abortus in 74 samples (62.71% ± 0.044) out of 118 seropositive samples in goats while 63 samples (69.23% ± 0.048) out of 91 seropositive samples of sheep. The presence of B. abortus in small ruminants could be due to mixed farming of small and large ruminants, sharin...
Sumreen Hayat1,6, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique2, Bilal Aslam1, Habibullah Nadeem2, Asma Ashraf3, Muhammad Saqalein1, Mohsin Khurshid4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Saima Muzammil1,*
...isolates with higher prevalence of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae among the children with urinary tract infections. Based on our findings, it is recommended that the ESBL production should be routinely monitored especially among the K. pneumoniae strains for the effective management and control of such MDR pathogens.
...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...nducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 120 quarter samples were collected from suspected buffaloes in selected areas of Peshawar, Charsadda, Mohmand Agency, and Dara Adam Khel. Initially, California Mastitis Test was performed for screening of positive samples. Afterward, the bacterial profile was confirmed through biochemical testing. The quarter wise
Abid Hussain1,2, Farida Ahmed3, Shyamali C. Dharmage4, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam5 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...ucted to investigate the prevalence of food and aero-allergen sensitization patterns. This retrospective study was designed to study allergy patients attending Allergy Centre, National Institute of Health, Islamabad. All enrolled patients were screened for set of allergens using skin prick test (SPT). Based on results of SPT, out of total 50550 allergen sensitized patients, 89.28% had aero-allergen sensitization while remaining 10.72% had food sensitization. S...
Asghar Khan1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Arfan Yousaf2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Mamoona Chaudhry1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Habibunnabi4 and Amjad Khan5
...country with the highest prevalence of Sub-clinical mastitis. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and assess the potential risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis in lactating buffaloes in Pothohar region of Pakistan. A questionnaire based cross-sectional based survey was conducted in 30 commercial and subsistent farms in Pothohar region of Rawalpindi district, Punjab. Where randomly 196 lactating bu...
Rabia Khalid1, Saleema Bashir Shams1, Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,*, Gaitee Joshua1, Saira Mushtaq1, Hassan Al-Talhi2 and Abdulaziz Al-Amri2
...mong the bank employees, prevalence of obesity was 67.53% and in general population it was 57.1%. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) for bank employees and control population was 24.10± 0.5 kg/m2 and 20.43±1.0 kg/m2, respectively. Analysis of the components of metabolic syndrome demonstrate an abnormal level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) 24.4% and 17.5%, total cholesterol 15% and 7.8%, triglycerides 17.35% and 8.8%...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...sectors in Egypt, with a prevalence rate 4.4% by the year 2015/2016. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive cases were recorded in 26 governorates., the positive samples were distributed in 783 farms with the highest prevalence rate (76.5%), Also, the most of positive cases were detected in chicken as the highe...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

... from 1026 for H9N2 with prevalence rate 4.4%. However, the LPAI H9N2 showed a wide range distribution with high geo-prevalence rate in 2015/2016 (96.3%) as positive samples were recorded from 26 governorates. Totally, the positive samples were distributed in 783 farms with the highest prevalence rate (76.5%), then 167 live bird markets (LBM) (16.5%) and 76 households (7%), respectively. A...
Farah Bilal*, Abdulmohsen Alhejaily, Shahida Husnain
...tudy was to evaluate the prevalence of common nucleotide changes (E545K/E542K and H1047R/H1047L) occur in PIK3CA gene in non smoker patients of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutational analysis was done by QMC-PCR following direct sequencing with sangers’ method. Only one sample detected p.E545K mutation at c.1633G>A. Another most common mutation was observed in PIK3CA exon 20 which leads to change A>G at codon 1047. Thi...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...notyping primers, with a prevalence rate of 16.2%. NDV outbreaks were recorded in 16 governorates, from total of18 investigated governorates and the recorded geo-prevalence of 89 %. Twenty-five samples were selected for further sequencing for the partial fusion protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 20 samples are genotyped as very virulent NDVclass II of genotype VIIb, 4 samples were of high identity (94%-100%) with N...

Wesam Mady*, Nahed Yehia, Mohammed Hassan Elhussieny, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Moataz Mohamed El Sayed, Neveen Rabie Bakry, Asmaa Shaaban, Abdel Satar Arafa, Afaf Abdel Baset Mahmoud and Wafaa Mohammed Hassan 

...even governorates with a prevalence rate of 0.93% and the positive samples were mainly located in Upper Egypt. The sequence of partial HA gene was performed for 10 positive samples and they were genetically characterized as HPAIV H5N8 belongs to clade 2.3.4.4b. Except three isolates in 2018 belongs to clade 2.3.4.4A, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that our sequenced viruses were clustered together in group B Russian like reassortant H5N8 viruses of clade 2...

Waqas Raza*, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Muhammad Imran Hamid 

...s. During 2016 and 2017, prevalence of disease in all the surveyed districts ranging between 34.6-24.4% and 39.3-28.6% respectively with district Okara recording the maximum (39.3%) and district Jhang the minimum incidence (24.4%) for both the years. Similarly, disease severity ranging from 19.3-16.1% and 21.1-17.4% during the year 2016 and 2017 was recorded with Okara recording the maximum (21.1%) and Sahiwal the lowest blight severity (16.1%). The results cl...
Aly Khan1,*, Khalil A. Khanzada1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
...y (RPA). The overall seroprevalence of MG detected through iELISA and RPA was 29.88 % and 20.67% respectively. Moreover, age-wise study revealed high prevalence of MG in 24-31 weeks old layers (44.17%) as compared to 55-63 weeks old layer flock (14.49%). The study of seasonal effect revealed highest MG prevalence in December (44%) while lowest in October (20%). Furthermore, higher
Qudrat Ullah1,8,*, Huma Jamil1, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Shakeeb Ullah1, Tariq Jamil2, Iahtasham Khan3, Shahbaz Bashir4, Qudratullah5, Inamullah Wazir6M. Abdus Sallam1 and Muhammad Zubair7
...iELISA). The overall seroprevalence was found to be 28.90 and 27.86% by RBPT and iELISA, respectively. Previous history of animal reproductive disorders was found to be significantly associated (P=0.0056) with seropositivity of the infection. Age, sex, parity, lactation and pregnancy status of the animal were not found significantly associated. Routine herd screening, consumtion of pasteurized milk and public awareness programmes would be helpful for co...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,*, Khalid Medmood3, Irfan Shaukat2, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem1,5, Ashar Mehfooz1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Zia-ud-Din Sindhu1, Shahid Ali Rajput4, Mubashar Hassan1,4, Saqib Umar1, Muhammad Ali Jamil1, Rao Zahid Abbas1 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi1

 

...iv>In the current study, prevalence related associated risk factors and hematological changes (due to bovine anaplasmosis) were studied in Sahiwal cattle and crossbred cattle of the district Faisalabad of Punjab province, Pakistan. Therapeutic efficiency of Oxytetracycline-Imidocarb dipropionate combination was compared with Enrofloxacin-Imidocarb dipropionate against Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale). For this study, the blood samples of three ...

Obaidul Islam*, Shameema Khatun and Mustasim Famous 

...onducted to estimate the prevalence of clinical conditions in dogs admitted at Central Veterinary Hospital (CVH), SAQ Teaching Veterinary Hospital (CVASU), Chittagong, and District Veterinary Hospital (DVH), Sylhet during the period from 22 September to 18 October 2018 at CVH, 20 October to 18 November 2018 at CVASU and 26 February to 21 March 2019 at DVH. The prevalence was analyzed on the basis of location, age, breed and ...
Salma Javed1, Muhammad Fiaz Khan1, Irfan Ullah2, Sadia Tabassum1,*
...arried out to assess the prevalence and the possible risk factors of type II diabetes in Hazara region Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The total area was divided into six clusters, and the data was collected randomly from different hospitals, clinics, and different localities of Hazara region.The report included 2,400 participants, amongst which, 1,000 subjects were suffering from type II diabetes, including 432 males (43.2%) and 568 females (56.8%). Wher...
Abdul Waheed1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Junaid Akhtar4, Muhammad Saeed5, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed6 and Shah Jahan7,*
Huma Sattar1, Sehrish Firyal1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Habib-Ur -Rehman2, Muhammad Sajid Hasni3 and Amjad Islam Aqib4*
...tle industry is the high prevalence of mammary gland infection. Despite significant technological developments in animal husbandry, udder infection is still widespread; particularly in large herds that causes high production losses to the dairy industry of Pakistan. Identification of molecular marker sequences that are directly related to immunity against mastitis might be helpful for animal selection trait and prevention of this disease. The aim of the p...
Rais Ahmed1,2,*, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor1,2, Iftikhar Hussain1, Muhammad Saqib3, Muhammad Hammad Hussain4, Amjad Islam Aqib5, Haleema Sadia6, Javed Muhammad7, Asma Irshad8, Kashif Prince5, Muhammad Zain Saleem9 and Abdul Whab Manzoor10
...ndition score (BCS) with prevalence of antibodies against MAP. Seropositivity against MAP was significantly (P<0.05) detected. Male and female animals were equally susceptible to the disease (OR: 0.908, 95% CI= 0.6111-1.350). Age groups were not found associated with chances of being seropositive. Seropositivity was significantly (P<0.05) higher in animals under 300kg body weight. Chances of being seropositive were found more in animals belonging to BCS ...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 51, Iss. 6, Pages 1999-2399

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