James Ayukepi Ayukekbong1,2

E-mail | james.ayukekbong@microbio.gu.se

... revealed dengue IgG seroprevalence of 73% and malaria prevalence of 80% in some areas of the country. The diagnosis of the disease is further complicated by the fact that, dengue fever mimics malaria fever and the prevalence of dengue-malaria co-infection is high. Differential diagnosis of fever is therefore necessary to initiate the appropriate clinical care. Despite the endemicity of de...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...ontracting HCV, and high prevalence rates have been found in hemodialysis units around the world. HCV induces chronic liver disease, which is characterized by a persistent hepatic parenchyma inflammatory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patients with viral hepatitis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocarcin...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...t to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Ogbomoso. The blood sample of consented two hundred and seventy five (275) subjects were obtained and their sera were screened for antibodies to HEV using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Samples were collected over a period of 4 months (September – December, 2014). The mean age and mean CD4+ count of the subjects were 40.14±0.47 years and...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...%, as well as an overall prevalence of 80.8 %. The within flock seropositivity percentages ranged between 0% and 100.0%. Flocks with the highest seropositivity were found in low altitude regions close to the coast. Risk and protective factors determined in the present study were not in accordance with this insect borne disease. The results of this study indicate that BTV is endemic in sheep herds from Costa Rica, and animals seem not show clinical signs. We re...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...2.21-2.72%). The rate of prevalence of these species was bi-phasic and higher from April to June, and October to November 2009. Interestingly, the infectivity rate of BTV was also higher during these periods indicating that high risk of infection is directly proportional to that of transmission vectors. Moreover, results demonstrate that the life stage “bumper” of the female imicola is the indicator of the infecting activity of ...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...d ungulates. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic losses to livestock farming and industry has increased global concern for the disease. Currently, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, the rapid spread of SAT2 and other exotic FMDV lineages in L...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...sent study describes the prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus antibodies in sheep, goats and camels at Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples (n=400), collected during 2012–2013 from sick and clinically healthy herds, were subjected to antibodies detection using c-ELISA. Out of examined animals, 83 (62.9%) goats and 70 (33.2%) sheep were detected positive against PPRV antibodies, whereas camels appeared to be serone...

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...screen out. Overall sero-prevalence in cattle was 15.36% on SPAT, 14.39% by i-ELISA and 14.14% through PCR. Higher prevalence was recorded in abattoir shops (31.01%) followed by private farms (11%) and animal selling points (9.25%). Significant difference was recorded in different breeds i.e. achai, local non-descript and crossbred (non-descript x jersey) cattle. Higher prevalence in femal...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

... conducted to assess the prevalence of tick in goat’s population of three different areas (Kaptai, Kattoli and Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 60 goats were examined for tick infestation in three places using random positive sampling technique. Among the breed, Black Bengal goats were highly affected (53.33%) followed by Jamuna pari (33.33%) and cross breed (13.33%) (P=0.00). Black coat coloured...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...c patients to assess the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and to evaluate its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes on their first visit to a local hospital. Among the newly diagnosed diabetic subjects 33% (n=66) were with retinopathy. Out of which 30% (n=18) were male and 70% (n=48) were female. High density lipoprotein (HDL), both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol level and serum insulin were significantly higher (p< 0.05...

Bibi Tayyaba Batool1, Aemal Tareen1, Shahjahan Shabir Ahmed1, Hira Ejaz1, Mohammad Azam Kakar1, Syed Abdul Rehman2, Mohammed Saeed1, Zafar Ahmad3, Mohammad Masood Tariq3, Mohammad Arif Awan3 and Muhammad Naeem Shahwani1*

...udy was to determine the prevalence of brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis in cattle, goats and sheep in some primary dwelling districts of Balochistan. Our results showed that brucellosis was found 2.2% positive from Quetta district and 0.6% positive from Pishin district and bovine (TB) was found 0.60% positive from Quetta and none from Pishin district of Balochistan.

...

Abdul Sattar Baloch1*, Abdul Rasheed1,2, Rahmatullah Rind1, Jam Kashif Sahito1, Rehana Buriro1, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1 and Parkash Dewani1

...g tests, and overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was found to be as 21%, 21% and 13% by RBPT, SAT and c-ELISA tests, respectively. Seroprevalence was higher in females (26%) than in males (16%) by RBPT and SAT tests, and also in camels less than 9 years of age (13.33%). Milk samples were collected to detect the antibodies against the disease, however, none of the sample was found to be positive for brucellosis. It was conc...

Rongrong Li1, Kun Li2, Xiaoqiang Wang2, Houqiang Luo2, Gang Qiu2, Hui zhang2, Yanfang Lan2 and Jiakui Li2,3*

...s to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. A total 454 serum samples were collected from Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi in 2014 and 2015. Each sample was assayed for T. gondii antibodies by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and an indirect hemagglutination test. The results showed that seroprevalence in Tibetan pigs were 25.6% by ELISA. On gender basis, the

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...dy aimed to find out the prevalence of Brucella and active brucellosis in the human population of district Swat. Total 300 individuals (both female and male of all ages, meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria) with informed consent were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and brucellosis was detected by Standard Plate Agglutination Test (SPAT) and Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and later on confirmed by PCR. Disease was detected in 3.66...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...CD4 count showed highest prevalence (27.27%) among the age ranging from 41 to 50 years with the CD4+ count of 350- 500cells/µl. The result from this study highlight that EBV IgM is prevalent among individuals infected with HIV in Nigeria and may warrant future investigations to ascertain the impact of co-infection on public health.

...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

...this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical signs and drugs used for treatment during 13 January to 15 March 2015. A total of 131 cattle was investigated and 16.8% cattle cattle were recorded as FMD. The proportionate prevalence of FMD in dif...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...erological survey on the prevalence of antibodies to PPRV was carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to December 2015 with no history of vaccination. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed using PPRV antigen to determine antibody titres level. The overall pre...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...itive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegative. The prevalence of PPR was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 to 77.3% in 2016. Seropositivity was higher in wet seasons (60.9 to 61.4%) to 56.7% in dry hot season. Species, year and location appeared to be having signif...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...s with 74.5% (47/63) prevalence, following which were Streptococcus species (17.45%, 11/63), E. coli (3.17%, 2/63), and Bacillus cereus (4.76%, 3/63). Coagulase positive Staph. aureus (41 out of 47), and hemolysin producing Staph. aureus (39 out of 47) primed among Staph. aureus isolates indicating very pathogenic nature of infection in the area. Risk factors determinants were found significantly (P<0.05) associ...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...;40 years (14%). Overall prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG was seen in 12%, with significantly more in women with age more than 30 years as compared to those with age less than 30 years (19% vs 8%; p=0.038). The percentage of IgG seroprevalence was higher in women who ever got pregnant as compared to those who were never pregnant (13% vs 5%). The percentage was also higher in women with direct contact to soil...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...ittle is known about the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of major bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health. A total one hundred swabs and 500 organ samples were collected from apparently hea...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...hree LBM with an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Of the 84 samples collected, 17 contained Salmonella. With regard to the matrices, there was no difference in Salmonella prevalence among the four matrices considered. Four different serotypes were identified with Salmonella Llandoff having the highest isolation rate in all the matrices sampled (58.8%), followed by, S. Kentucky (17.7%), S. Schwarzengrund and S. Havana had the low...
Wali Khan*, Ghazal Mumtaz, Saima Bibi and Salma Afzal
...s aimed to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection in vegetables collected from the vegetable markets in Lower and Upper Dir districts. A total of 520 vegetable samples were collected during April to October 2016. These vegetable samples were screened for parasitic contamination. The results showed that 10.7% of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with one or more than one species of parasites. Intestinal parasites Ascaris lumbricoides 26.7%, ...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...e male. Overall weighted prevalence of PCR positivity was 38% (268). Of the total 268 PCR positive subjects, 0.74%, 56.71%, 15.67% were positive for serotype 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Only 72 suspected patients had concurrent infection with serotype 2 and 3. Higher incidence of RNA positivity by PCR was found in males (71%) as compared to the females (29%). The higher incidence of PCR positivity was found in age group of 16-25 rather than teenage (≤16) and o...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
...nducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus in cattle and buffaloes in the districts of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A total of 120 serum samples were randomly collected from buffaloes and cattle (60 per species) at Civil Veterinary Hospitals, animal markets and peri-urban livestock holdings in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). RBPT positive samples were subjected to ...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...robial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol, this study was designed to isolate lactoferrin from milk of camel. Cation exchange resin (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isolation of lactoferrin using the fast protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Disc diff...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...sults yielded an overall prevalence of 11.11%, with significant difference (P<0.05) among different study areas. Prevalence was highest in district Bannu (11.66%), followed by district Lakki Marwat and Kohat with 10% in each district. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference (P<0.05) among children of different age groups with highest disease prevalence in children of les...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...were recorded. The total prevalence recorded was 3.66%and out of 498 broiler operations yielded 17 (3.4%) positive isolates and 44 golden type native chicken farms yielded 05 (11.36%) isolates of AIV H9N2 and 58 captive pheasant’s samples were negative. It was observed that frequency of H9N2 prevalence in poultry population was directly proportional to temperature, season and...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
... taking into account the prevalence and severity of footpad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. The study included 300 one-day-old Ross 308 broilers. One group of broilers was reared on chopped wheat straw (the particle length of straw ≥ 10 cm). The second group was kept on newly formulated pelleted wheat straw. The duration of the trial was 42 days. Moisture content in litter materials and FPD occurrence and severity were assessed weekly. First signs of ...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...beings. In this project, prevalence and distribution of soil borne Brucella species in nine districts of Punjab including Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Sargodha, D.G. Khan, Chakwal, Sahiwal, Gujranwala and Attock were determined. By using grid based sampling strategy, soil samples (n= 1280) were collected from villages (n=256, 5 samples/village) of the nine districts. Brucella genus specific DNA (bcsp31) was detected using Real Time PCR...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence calculated was 5% and 4.4%, respectively, in these areas. Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) was frequently isolated (78%) from roots as well as in soil samples (81.7%) collected from infected fields. Amo...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...ext-align: justify;">The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis is rapidly increasing among high risk groups (HRGs) in Pakistan leading it away from achieving the 6th millennium development goal of halting and reversing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Syphilis increases the risk of HIV transmission by two to five times, and this co-infection is common among HRGs. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HI...
Shazia Rasheed1,* and Javed Mustaquim2
...vestigation. Octolasmids prevalence was significantly higher in female P. pelagicus (81.2%) than that of male (18.8%) while in case of P. sanguinolentus the prevalence was significantly higher in male (60.5%) rather than female (39.5%).
...
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...testinal parasites, with prevalence rate 6.98 %. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection during the period of study was as follows; Ascaris lumbricoides (n= 205, 1.8%), Giardia lamblia (n= 178, 1.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (n= 174, 1.57%), Trichuris trichiura (n= 118, 1.06%), Hymenolepis nana (n= 51, 0.46 %), Enterobius vermicularis (n= 28, 0.25%) and Taenia saginata ...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...p-value 0.0002). The prevalence of C allele was 13.5% in disease, 5.83% in controls and found significant with p-value 0.007. These findings suggest that c.G745C in COMT gene has a significant association and a possible role in the OCD development in Pakistani patients.
...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...> Amblyomma with the prevalence of 78.50%, 10.33%, 10.08%, 0.67% and 0.42%, respectively. On species basis, R. (Boophilus) annulatus, R. (Boophilus) microplus, Heamaphysalis aciculifer, R. appendiculatus, and R. decoloratus were noted 41.67, 18.42, 9.83, 8.25, and 6.83% respectively, whereas least prevalence was noted as 0.42% in case of A. pomposum and D. circumguttatus; 0.25% e...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...ertaken to determine the prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from piglets having white score diarrhea as a result of outbreak occurred in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau in 2015. A total of 81 E.coli were isolated from 83 fecal samples. The organisms were inoculated on MacConkey agar and EMB agar and identified via biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect representative virulence factors or ge...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...aimed to investigate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic intestinal protozoan parasitic infection in farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. One hundred and fifteen (11.04%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal protozoans. Forty one (35.6%) of the participant...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...efore, its incidence and prevalence was determined in seven major maize growing districts of Punjab during 2016. The maximum overall incidence of maize borer (12%) was recorded in Khanewal district followed by Multan (6%) while it was the minimum (1%) in district Okara. On the other hand, maximum prevalence of maize borer was observed in district Vehari (100%) followed by districts of Khanewal and Multan (73%) while minimum ...

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...ychosis with a worldwide prevalence of 1%. It is diagnosed on the basis of psychiatricsymptoms and till now no biochemical test is available for its diagnosis. It is considered one of the most costlydisease in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Its heritability content is considered to be up to 80% but still it isunknown whether it’s a pure genetic disease. It is considered a polygenic multifactorial condition where both genes and environment have roles i...

 Maleeha Manzoor1*, Madiha Manzoor2, Qurat-ul-ain Ahmed3, Sobia Ahmed4, Shazia Manzoor5

...n order to determine the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women attending Government Mian Munshi Teaching Hospital, Lahore. For this, one hundred pregnant females were selected randomly; relevant data was collected by interviewing and filling a questionnaire especially designed to record various socio-demographic characters of patients and their dietary history. Prevalence rate of anemia in the present study was found to ...
Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
...or bacteria. The overall prevalence of diarrhea was 72.56% with bacteria in 65.77% of diarrheic cases. The prevalence of different bacterial species shows that E. coli was the most prevalent bacteria with 48.77% as compared to Clostridium perfringens (18.56%) and Salmonella (17.9%). It was concluded that bacteria were the major cause of foal diarrhea in Punjab, Pakistan. 
...
Zahid Farooq1, Sufi Muhammad Akram2, Muhammad Saleem Khan3,* and Muhammad Wajid4
...; N = 39) were higher in prevalence. Northern wolf snake (Lycodon striatus striatus), Sind long-nose sand snake (Lytorhynchus paradoxus)and Afghan awl-head snake(L. ridgewayi)(0.38%; N = 2) were the least abundant. Snakes were more frequent in croplands and least frequent in barren areas.
...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...ted to determine the seroprevalence, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/696), for H7N7 6.03...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...ssumed risk factors with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied to check significance of results. The study noted overall 33.98% (123/362) of MDR S. aureus from subclinical mastitis milk samples while 123 of 192 S. aureus isolates (64.06%) were confirmed MDR. Non-significantly higher prevalence of MDR was noted in Cholistan area (38.38%) than to that of Sulaiman Range (29.98%) on subclin...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
... was aimed to assess the prevalence of Taenia saginata and Hymenolepis nana (tapeworms) infections among farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. Two hundred and twenty one (21.2%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal tapeworms. Seventy seven (7.39%) of the participants ...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
...-1 (1.111) evidenced the prevalence of non additive gene action controlling these traits. The present results, therefore, revealed that selection for these traits in early generation may not be useful and it has to be delayed till segregating generations.
...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...have shown an increasing prevalence and importance of CCoV around the world. Fatal CCoV infections have been described, however, there is limited information on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this study, canine fecal samples from diverse States of Brazil were screened by PCRs for CCoV and positive samples were subjected to partial sequencing for the membrane (M), spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein 3b genes. O...

 Nazir Ahmad*, Sultan Ayaz*, Sumaira Shams**, Karimullah*** and Riaz Ahmad****

PREVALENCE AND MORPHOLOGY OF HELMINTH PARASITES OF FISH FROM RIVER SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...opic techniques. Overall prevalence of the fish parasites was 58% (145/250). Among these Schizothorax plageostomus fish 93.04% (107/115), Schizothorax labiatus 61.11% (33/54), Salmo trutta fario 17.85% (05/28), Gara gotyla 0% (0/09), Rita rita 0% (0/25) and Oncorhynchus mykiss were 0% ( 0/19). The intensity of the parasite varied from 1% to 9.2%. Among them high intensity was noted in Rhabdochona schizothoracis (9.2%) and Schizothorax labiatus.

...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...detect and determine the prevalence, incidence and distribution of the poty viruses causing diseases in garlic (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the preval...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...based estimation of true prevalence is time occurring in different livestock species and requires to develop prevention and control strategy, that hasn't been done in Pakistan. Active disease surveillance at door steps was conducted to collect blood samples from small and large ruminants of subtropical rural communities in the province of Punjab during January-March, 2015. Total 59665 sera samples from apparently healthy animals were collected and screened by ...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...a (KPK) to determine the prevalence and risk factors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampling from apparently healthy lambs and were examined using the modified Ziehl Neelsen acid fast staining. Prevalence was calculated along with different risk factors associated wit...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...ere examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. Indoor biting Anopheles mosquitoes were collected by standard procedures within the study duration. Meteorological data on relative humidity and temperature was obtained from Centre for Basic Space Science, Nsukka, Enugu State. Overall recorded malaria prevalence at the hospitals from January to July was 72.8%. Malaria <...
Nasir Abbas1, Muhammad Suleman1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,*, Ijaz Ali3, Mubashir Rauf1,5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman4,*
...programme.
...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
... had the highest (76.4%) prevalence of infection; A. degneri had the least (37.5%). A total of 1 563 helminthes belonging to three species Cosmocercoides sp., Capillaria sp. and Philonema sp. were recovered. Mean intensity of Capillaria in A. achatina was 8.33 (5.00 – 12.00 [95% CI]) while Cosmocercoides sp. intensity in L. gracilis was 7.67 (6.00 – 11.00 [95% CI]). Diversity of parasite speci...
Abid Hussain1,*, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad2, Muhammad Hussan Mushtaq2, Mamoona Chaudhry2, Muhammad Sarwar Khan2, Michael Reichel3, Tanveer Hussain4, Amjad Khan2, MuhammadNisar2 and Imtiaz Ahmad Khan5
...d out to investigate the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy buffaloes. The present study was conducted in two districts Lahore and Bhimber Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Total sample size for this survey was consisted of 1,036 lactating buffaloes. The screening of lactating buffaloes was performed with the California Mastitis Test. The overall prevalence of mastitis was recorded at 49%. Among mastitis cases the...
Ahmad Farooq1, Usman Waheed2,3, Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3, Abdul Rauf4, Abida Arshad5, and Muhammad Arshad1,*
...udy was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among thalassaemia major patients. The study was conducted from June – December 2016, at the Thalassaemia Centre, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad and the Pakistan Thalassaemia Centre, Pakistan Baitul Mal, Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were obtained by clinical testing of 1,440 ß thalassaemia major patients visiting for blood transfusions at regular intervals. The co...
Tariq Mukhtar,1,* Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Humayun Javed2
...e 1.2% while the overall prevalence was 27%. As regards districts, the maximum incidence was recorded in district Bhakkar followed by Khushab. Similarly, the maximum prevalence was observed in district Bhakkar followed by Sargodha while it was the minimum in district Khushab. The incidence of the nematode was found to be variable on different wheat cultivars. The maximum incidence was recorded on cultivar Chakwal-50 followed...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah*, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Abdulrahman Jarelnabi, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman and Mansour F. Hussein
...div>...
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
... designed to inspect the prevalence and its correlation with various risk factors and host biomarkers concerned with the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep. Total 600 blood samples were taken each 200 from districts Bannu, Tank and Dera Ismail Khan of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and screened through blood microscopy. The current study revealed an overall prevalence of ovine theileriosis as 27.5%, 13% and 19.5% in d...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...o ascertain the hospital prevalence of buffalo diseases and to determine the temporal distribution of important infectious diseases of buffalo like as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) at Upazila veterinary hospitals of Jaintapur, Gowainghat and Kanaighat upazilas of Sylhet district. From October, 2015 to September, 2017 a total of 1057 cases of buffalo diseases were recorded in the hospital record books. Among all diseases, the ov...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...ortant to understand the prevalence, transmission, persistence and evolution of the virus, and to monitor the circulating AIV strains and emergence of new AIV subtypes in Egypt. The wide circulation of the 2.2.1.2 subclade, carrying triple mutations (120, 129∆, I151T) associated with increased binding affinity to human receptors, is an alarming finding with public health importance.
...
Muzafar Shah1,*, Mazhar Ali2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Khushi Muhammad3, Israr Alam1, Kausar Saeed1
...30 blood samples and low prevalence in U.C Ghalaigai with 42 positive (13.12%) out of 320 samples. Gender wise prevalence of malaria disease shows male 106 (27.53%) out of 385 whereas female 98 (16.01%) out of 612. 
...
Jehangir Khan1,*, Rasheedullah1, Bakht Tarin Khan2, Ayaz Ahmad3, Muhammad Salman4 and Khalid Khan5
...study reports an overall prevalence of HCV among 131 (14.55%), 103 (11.44%), and 94 (10.4%) by ICT, ELISA, and RT-PCR techniques in individuals belonging to 5 different age groups. The RT-PCR based results showed 53% HCV infection rate in samples from Tehsil Puran, 23% in Alpuri and 18% in Besham. The gender wise result (non-significant) showed 10% and 10.7% active HCV infection rates in males and females respectively. The RT-PCR based result observed maximum ...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...udy was to determine the prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes (AIV H9, AIV H7 and AIV H5) in non-vaccinated wild and domesticated bird species across Pakistan. During January-December 2013, in total 700 samples were collected from different species of non-vaccinated birds inhabiting diverse ecological zones of Pakistan. Altogether, 507 tissue and swab samples were screened for the presence of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain re...
Niamatullah Kakar, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Shafee and Tauseef Asmat*
...tudy was to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis along with associated risk factors in Quetta Jail, Pakistan. In this cross-sectional study, 186 sputum samples were collected randomly from jail inmates. Sputum was processed for smear microscopy and culture inoculation for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Moreover, the suspected samples were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three samples were found ...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...nducted to determine the prevalence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and the population of its vector, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), and determine the transmission properties of the prevalent isolate of the virus in the major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). For this purpose, surveys were conducted in the hilly areas of Mohmand Agency and Malakand Agency and plains of Shabqadar, Charsadda and Peshawar during 2011, 2012 and 2013, to deter...
Jia-kui Li1,2,*, Kun Li2, Zhao-qing Han2, Hui Zhang2, Xiao-qiang Wang2, Hou-qiang Luo2, Yan-fang Lan2 and Gang Qiu1,2
... (ELISA) kit to test the prevalence of BVDV(Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus) in yaks in Hongyuan, Sichuan province, a cold climate and high altitude area of China. Totally, 516 yak serum samples were randomly got during 2012 to 2014. BVDV was found highly prevalent among the adult yaks (51.1%; 95% CI: 46.5-55.6) and calves (60.5%; 95% CI: 43.4-76.0), respectively. The prevalence of BVDV infection in 2012 to 2014 was 45.3% (95% C...
Muhammad Asim Khan1,*, Shahid Niaz Khan1, Sanaullah Khan2, Abdul Jabbar Khan3, Muhammad Adnan4, Nawab Ali5 and Ijaz Ali6
...tember, while the lowest prevalence of malaria infection was found in the months of December (7.93%) and in February (12.62%).
...
Abdul Samad1, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Olena Pokryrshko2 and Tauseef M Asmat1,*
...conducted to examine the prevalence of deadly food contaminants like Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and E. coli (O157:H7) in various types of food items consumed locally. Total of 800 most common food samples such as chicken, beef meat, raw milk, vegetables and salad samples were collected from retail market, the overall contamination of food samples with infectious agents was 48.37%. Campylobacter jejuni<...
Hasina Baloch1, Rahmatullah Rind2,*, Muhammad Rafique Rind3, Viram Kumar4, Nazia Baloch5 and Rajesh K. Oad6
...es. Significantly higher prevalence (49. 07%) of clinical mastitis was observed in buffaloes with average age of 6 to 9 years whereas those of > 9 years of age showed higher (33.33%) but non-significant prevalence of subclinical mastitis. However, significant impact of the number of parity on the prevalence of clinical mastitis was observed in animals. Higher
Ali Zaman1,*, Abdul Haleem1, Sajjad Ur Rahman2, Adnan Amin3 Asma Saeed1, Sana Ullah4 and Naimat Ullah4
...antibodies. Highest sero-prevalence of Avian Influenza (H5) was recorded in district Abbottabad 36.15% (47/130) followed by Dera Ismail Khan 33.08% (43/130), Tank 26.92% (35/130), Peshawar 21.54% (28/130) and Mansehra 16.92% (22/130). Statistical analysis confirmed a significant (P<0.05) difference of sero-prevalence between the districts. There was a significant (P<0.05) association of occurrence of the ...
Riffat Mehboob1*, Shahida Perveen2, Naseer Ahmed3
...Lahore to understand the prevalence of inflammatory lesions, benign neoplasms and their age-wise comparison.
Methodology: The study was carried out at Pathology Department, King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Data of 368 cases of BBD during a time span of 3 years (2011-2014) was obtained retrospectively. 
Results: There were 190 patients of fibroadenoma (FA), 81 of fibrocystic disease (FCD), 64 of breast abscess (...
Rana Khurram Aftab1*, Farhat Ijaz2, Samia Jawed3
...re of normal weight. The prevalence of overweight in male and females was 17(17.5%) and 22(19.0%), prevalence in obese I in male and female was 20(20.6%) and 23(19.8%), and obese II was 3(3.1%) and 11(9.5%) respectively. Frequency of obesity was found to be more in females than in males according to BMI and WHR. Hypertension was present in 12(30.8%) normal weight students, 6(15.4%) overweight, 14(35.9%) obese I and 7(...
Muhammad Younus1*, Sabah Usman2 and Samia Jawed3
...l health problem and its prevalence is increasing continuously. It is the fifth leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with decreased lung functions.
Objective: This study was designed to compare the pulmonary functions in obese and non-obese subjects. Additionally, we aimed to correlate the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with pulmonary function tests (PFT’s).
Material ...
Mumtaz Akhtar, Iffat Naheed, Khadija Waheed* and Amna Khanum
...or margin was 5% and the prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage was 16.5%. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 17. In this study, the mean age of study participants was found to be 29.89±5.89 years while the mean gestational age was 38.86±1.38 weeks. Postpartum haemorrhage was observed in 35.45% cases. Blood loss was recorded in patients with a mean of 374±134.91 mL. Statistically, a highly significant difference was observed between ...
Bo Wu1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,7, Yan Zhao1, Bin Jiang1, Chengjun Xue3, Muhammad Tariq Javed6, Fazul Nabi2, Zhaoqing Han5,* and Houqiang Luo4,*
... to investigate the sero-prevalence and immunization program optimization of serotype O of FMD through ELISA and IHA in pigs in Zhejiang. A total of 368 serum samples were collected from June to July in 2016. Out of these samples, 23 (6.79%, 95% CI 4.4-9.9) pigs were found positive for FMD antibodies with the further distribution of 9.09% (95% CI 4.6–15.7), 6.90% (95% CI 2.6–14.4), 5.49%, (95% CI 1.8-12.4) and 4.35% (95% CI 0.9-12.2) from Wenzhou, ...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
... investigate the overall prevalence of members of MM cluster in suspected cases of CCPP in small ruminants.
...
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*
...of 2015 to determine the prevalence of Dengue fever virus in district Mansehra, Pakistan. Patients were selected with the convenience sampling which were admitted in Al-Khidmat foundation and King Abdullah hospitals in Mansehra, Pakistan, where patients were screened for dengue virus non-structural protein using Rapid Diagnostic kit for Dengue virus (DENV) i.e. SD BIOLINE Dengue IgG/IgM. Data was obtained from patient’s record, filled forms and th...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
Haroon Rashid1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Tasleem Ghori2, Mamoona Chaudhry3, Hamad Bin Rashid2, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir1, Muhammad Hamid Chaudhary4, Muhammad Asad Ali1, Mian Muhammad Khubaib Sattar5, Javed Muhammad1 and Bhushan Jayarao6
...s conducted to study the prevalence and distribution of soil-borne B. anthracis in Punjab Province, Pakistan and to ascertain its public health significance. Using a grid-based sampling strategy, soil samples (n=1985) were collected from villages (n = 397, 5 samples/village) and examined for Bacillus anthracis, using real time PCR assays. Soil samples were found positive for plasmid DNA of Bacillus anthracis (CapB) in 3 villages (n= 3/1985...
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
... province to explore the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens type D in small ruminants. A total of 204 fecal samples were collected from sheep and goats suffering from seasonal diarrhea. C. perfringens type D was identified through different biochemical tests and PCR. Antibiograms and lab animal trials were also carried out on local isolates of C. perfringens type D. Out of 204 analyzed samples, 89.18 % were found positive while 10.82 % ...
Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*
...nducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) among large ruminants of the five districts (Peshawar, Nowshera, Charsadda, Mardan and Swabi) located in the central zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A total of 2400 large ruminants were sampled by convenience sampling approach and tested by comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT) for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Data re...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
... to investigate the sero-prevalence of Coxiellosis and its relationship with some important risk factors in small ruminants kept at nine government livestock farms of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1000 blood samples (500 each from goats and sheep) were collected from animals kept at the respective livestock farms. An indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA) was used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in the serum. Serological analysis revea...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1*, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Dakwang Nalong1, Rengkat Jonah1 and Olabode Mayowa

...ied out to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pigs, sheep and goats at slaughter in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. Five hundred (500) serum samples comprising of 300 pigs, 100 each of sheep and goats were collected and analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) using latex agglutination test (LAT). Serum samples with LAT titer >10 IU/ml were considered positive. The study showed that 176 of the 500 samples analyzed were positive f...
Neelima Gupta

 

...i> Channa punctatus (prevalence 24%, intensity 2 to 18 per fish). Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were conducted to demonstrate the surface anatomy of the worm. The worm is slender, elongated and cylindrical. The mouth is slit-like, surrounded by two lateral rows of somatic papillae, cephalic end was conical with 12 labial papillae arranged in two circles of 6 papillae each. Scanning electron microscopy on attachment structures revealed that t...

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

...out to determine the seroprevalence of Human Parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies and to determine the risk factors associated with acquisition of the virus. A total of 326 blood samples were collected from consenting pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinic in Abuja, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demography and risk factors. The sera were obtained from samples were analyzed for IgG and IgM antibodies of human pa...

Mushtaq Hussain Lashari1*, Fozia Afzal1 and Umer Farooq

...was to determine the seroprevalence and hematological changes in free-range chicken (Gallus domesticus) naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Blood samples of chicken (n=71), were collected from Cholistan areas of Bahawalpur (Punjab), Pakistan. Serum samples were tested for toxoplasmosis with a commercial latex agglutination kit (Antec Diagnostic products, UK). The overall prevalence was 26.76%. The signific...
Shagufta Naz*, Saima Sharif, Hafsa Badar, Syeda Fareeha Tauheed
...was directed to find the prevalence of Macular corneal dystrophy in the families of Lahore. The techniques used for the diagnosis of MCD were visual Acuity test by Snellen chart, phoropter, slit lamp biomicroscopy, topography, keratometer and pachymetry. In this study, 50 patients of MCD were identified among which 40 were males and 10 were females, including 9 cases with family history. Main complaint was drop in visual acuity and loss of vision in all patien...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

... through RT-PCR. Overall prevalence of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) in indigenous breeds of bovine was 63.33%, lower, than exotic breeds 64.66% which were found to be more prone to disease. In the case of buffalo breeds, prevalence was more in Nili Ravi buffalo, i.e. 36.6% than Kundi breed, i.e. 33.3%. Prevalence of disease was found maximum in humid and plain area of Lahore,...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 50, Iss. 6, Pages 1999-2398

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