Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...ngue virus is one of the pathogens benefitting from this. The related virus Japanese encephalitis virus is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world, and is maintained in avian reservoirs and amplified by pigs. The occasional spill-over of the virus into humans results in more than 60 000 clinical cases of Japanese encephalitis annually, with high case fatality rates. The main vectors preferably feed on livestock and breed in rice f...

Lei Chen, Ling Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wan-Zhu Guo

 

Molecular Genetics of Aichivirus C (Porcine Kobuvirus) in China
...hought to be a potential pathogeny of pig diarrhea. The review represented the discovery of Aichivirus C in China, and made a brief summary about molecular and epidemiology characterizations of Chinese Aichivirus C strains. Mutiple Aichivirus C strains and Aichivirus C variants are circulating in China. Recombination events were also observed in Chinese Aichivirus C strains. More further studies are needed to clarify the evolutionary features and

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

...ses caused by a specific pathogen in the absence of interfering maternal antibodies, other maternal immune regulators, and intestinal and environmental microbes. Due to the similarities between pigs and humans in terms of genetics, physiology, intestinal anatomy, and immune system, pig is particularly a suitable animal species for the modeling of human enteric pathogen infections, immune responses and for vaccine evaluations...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...mmune response and virus pathogenesis are increasingly recognized. Recent evidence strongly indicated that skeletal muscle cells fully support productive replication of influenza A virus (IAV) and could play an important role in disease outcome. We are of the opinion that skeletal muscle could be a key innate immune tissue/organ in the pathogenesis of influenza and other systemic viral infections which warrants further in-de...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...justify; ">Virulence and pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the major determinants for the clinicopathological manifestations in infected hosts. Recent studies showed that the host innate immune responses to infection play important role in the pathologenesis of NDV, and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, especially in ...

Leonard Izzard1, 2, John Stambas1, 2*

...being used to manipulate pathogenicity and immunity and as biomarkers for disease severity.

...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

... life cycles. The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a major concern for the swine industry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immu...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

...EV would remain a global pathogen and might cause worldwide pandemics. Currently, more research is required to be applied to JEV pathogenesis and antivirus therapy. This review aims to reveal the exigency of developing a worldwide effort to acknowledge the importance of performing an extensive study of this deadly disease.

...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...al dissemination of pathogens. Infection of a single host can be viewed similarly as an epidemic spread on a microscale, creating a unique opportunity for the application of phylogeography at the intra-host level, which has until recently been limited by dataset quality and the lack of a rigorous statistical framework. As recently described in studies using the SIV-macaque model of neuroAIDS, the incorporation of
spatial, temporal, a...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...bat the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1. HPAIV are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated for their inactivation ability, but there is still a need for their evaluation under different condi...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...community of etiological pathogens, without any knowledge on the targets in advance. However, clinical specimens usually comprise an overwhelming amount of host nucleic acids, which by far exceeds the number of pathogen nucleic acids in the sample. Subsequently, it is necessary to either decrease the amount of host nucleic acids or increase the amount of pathogen nucleic acids, to allow fo...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...V) is generally a noncytopathogenic virus in cell cultures. The development of reporter CSFV has provided an excellent option to directly detect viral replication without the use of secondary labeling. This mini-review discusses the applications of reporter CSFV in the study of CSFV biology, including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic met...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...gs and the intracerebral pathogenicity index (1.2), and the amino acid motif, (112KRQKR116), at the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein indicated the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of the F and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes indicated that the isolate clustered with the PPMV-1 strains recently reported from Israel within subgenotype VIb. Our findings report the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egyptian pigeons and the potential role the...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...onsidered as an emerging pathogen.. However, the increased detection of the virus in the light of rinderpest eradication and the lack of awareness of the disease in areas where the virus has been detected for the first time in recent years given the educational status of farmers contributed to this emergence.

...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...us and its host-specific pathogenesis. Moreover, understanding the nature of such circulating field viruses is essential to underpin the endemic potential of PPRV and its possible spread to the susceptible wild or domestic small ruminants.

...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...erous cells, detect live pathogenic organisms, and to discover novel disease biomarkers to facilitate early detection of the disease and for therapeutic purposes.

...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

...e surfaces of general nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (ATCC No. 8739) as well as alpha and gamma intimins and Shiga-like toxin 2 (SLT-2) B subunit verified that the aptamers bound proteins of the correct molecular weights for intact outer membrane proteins (OMPs), intimins and SLT-2. Some bands on the aptamer Western blots were shared between the “Big 6” non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), E. coli O157 and related Gram negative bacteria. ...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...and application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) depend on the use of host insects for in vivo production. As there is little information regarding relationship between nematode dosage and production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies investigations were done on these aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria mellonella was observed with White t...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...e a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats in Leptospira propagation. Influential habitats would serve as key targets for interventions. To achieve this aim, we have designed a pseudo-longitudinal survey to be undertaken for two years in Kibera slums in Nairobi city Kenya. Human and anima...

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

...malgam of beneficial and pathogenic microbes and its pH (6.7 to 7.4), high concentration of phosphorus (4.50% and 4.33%) and nitrogen (3.26% and 2.37%) favor seed germination, enhance root growth and soil fertility.

...

Giselle R.R. Ayres* and Brandão P.E

...ription, replication and pathogenesis. The last 3’ one-third of the genome codes the four structural and accessory proteins. Nsps act in a complex replication process, made possible by the special characteristics of AvCoV genome. This manuscript aims to present an overview of the main aspects of the current knowledge on the main AvCoV replicase genes.

...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

... exotic species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) was checked on Galleria mellonella larvae. The native species included Steinernema asiaticum and Heterorhabditis indica whereas exotic species were S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. G. mellonella larvae were exposed to 300 IJs of each species. After inoculation at different temperatures, the reproductive potential of EPNs increased with increasing temperature and was found to be the best at 25oC. No EPNs spec...

John G. Bruno

...riching specific E. coli pathogens during aptamer-magnetic separation in food samples, leading to a greater ability to detect these serotypes if coupled with genetic identification techniques such as PCR or gene probe hybridization.

...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

...ccount the genotypic and pathogenic characterization of H9N2 in avian species. However little is known about the impact of different strains on the innate immune response. In the present study, using quantitative real-time PCR, cytokines gene expression were examined in response to infection with two strains of Egyptian H9N2 (namely V3 and RSF/1) in chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Hemagglutinin gene sequence analysis of the two strains revea...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

... role in progression and pathogenesis of RA. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene polymorphism [rs2070424 (–251A/G)] in RA and to compare the levels of metals and minerals among its various genotypes in RA patients. A total of 400 individuals including age and gender matched healthy individuals (control group) and RA patients were genotyped. Detection of rs2070424 polymorphism was carried out using...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...ned against Wilt causing pathogens using the dual culture assay. Among them, Aspergillus flavus was found active fungus against the selected vascular Wilt causing fungus and bacteria, i.e. Fusarium oxysporum (87.50 ± 0.11% inhibition), Xanthomonas campestris (67.00 ± 0.46% inhibition) and Clavibacter michiganensis (72.00 ± 1.02% inhibition). The A. flavus was grown on two different media, i.e. Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and Glucose Nutrie...
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
...d isolates. Additionally pathogenicity of isolated Fusarium species was evaluated against nymph and adult of Bemisia tabaci. Under controlled conditions different species of Fusarium restrained the growth of B. tabaci as compared with control.
...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...of the host to recognize pathogens by means of specific pattern recognition receptors. This interaction induces the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons. Through Janus kinase/signal transducers and transcription activators pathway, interferon induces the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), responsible for playing an essential and decisive role in the virus pathology. Some studies have already reported the overexpression of these...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...isolates indicating very pathogenic nature of infection in the area. Risk factors determinants were found significantly (P<0.05) associated with mastitis occurrence except frequency of milking per day. Antibiogram of Staph. aureus indicated very strong resistance to oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicilline, amoxicillin, azlocine, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin,...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...tance of major bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health. A total one hundred swabs and 500 organ samples were collected from apparently healthy and freshly dead quails respectively. Bacterial iso...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...a (PED) was triggered by pathogenic coronavirus causing watery diarrhea and high mortality in piglets. This post-viral syndrome results in severe economic losses in the pig industry. However, limited information on the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus-infected pigs is available. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify transcriptomes with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) of piglets, Large White x Landrace crossbred...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...align: justify;">The low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) subtype H9N2 are highly prevalent in the Middle East and are causing economic losses in the commercial poultry production sectors. Due to potential of H9N2 infections in human, LPAI H9N2 poses serious public health risk. Therefore, development of new potent and cost-effective influenza vaccines is urgently needed to safeguard poultry and to contain zoonosis. The primary goal of this study was ...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...rofuse root galling. The pathogenic potential of M. incognita on passion fruit was determined; the minimum 10 second stage juvenile (J2)/200 cc soil can cause reduction of plant growth parameters and highest reproduction (R=87.27). 
...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
...the major features of AD pathogenesis. To provide the basis for further studies with this new animal model, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze changes in the hippocampal transcriptome induced by injection of the three AD agents. These results open the door to new small-animal studies of AD that complement and extend studies in rodents and primates.
...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...nst different food borne pathogens and quantification of the chlorogenic acid (CA) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The chlorogenic acid was isolated using resin. The recovered amount of compound was calculated. Aliquots of the extracts at known concentration of chlorogenic acid were then applied against different bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of isolated compound was also measured. Two a...
Neenish Rana, Nosheen Ehsan, Awais Ihsan and Farrukh Jamil*
...genome sequence of human pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strain 26695. Computational analysis of the genome showed 6 transcriptionally active pseudogenes that can produce stable mRNA secondary structure compared to their functional parents. Moreover it was observed that their putative protein products will be thermodynamically stable. The sequence-based predictions suggested that the pseudogenes-derived proteins may involve in...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...differentiation of viral pathogens.These methods, initially based solely on identifying the distinct biological characteristics of different viruses, were soon supplemented with methods based on light or electron microscopy and serology and subsequently by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) and finally the use of molecular (nucleic acid-based) techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis of plant viruses. While the technologies available to virologists ...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...-off and seedling blight pathogens,Phomopsis vexans and Sclerotium rolfsii. In the field, garlic and allamanda spray reduced leaf blight severity by 84-86% and fruit rot by 91%. Severities of nematode and virus infection were also reduced significantly with allamanda spray. Active compounds in allamanda leaves have been separated and identified.Formulated trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray re...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...olates belonged to plant pathogenic genera like,Alternaria, Cercospora, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Glomerella, Mycosphaerella, Phoma and Stemphylium and the other 24 isolates of fungi belonged to Aspergillus, Acremonium, Chaetomella,Cunninghamella, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Monodictys, Mucor, Myrothecium, Penicillium, Periconia and Pithomyces. One-hundred and thirteen isolates of chilli microflora and 49 isolates of Trichoderma, 19 isolates of Bacillus sp., 34...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...he highest appearance of pathogens viz.,Alternaria alternata was recorded in seeds of mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.), A. brassicae in mustard (Brassica campestris L.) and Drechslera oryzae in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Propineb 70WP and prochloraz 45EC considerably reduced the appearance of A. alternata and flusilazole 40EC reduced Fusarium sp.in mungbean seed than untreated control.Amarked reduction in population of A. brassicae by difenoconazole 25EC and flu...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...mber of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi, suppressive effects on some root nematodes without adversely affecting beneficial microbes like Rhizobium and capable of promoting growth of certain crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on various cereal grains, agricultural wastes and byproducts. The solid state production ...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...the infection of rotting pathogens on Som plants at Regional Muga Research Station (RMRS), Boko, Assam, India with during 2004-06. The disease incidence (DI %) caused by B. mediterranea was 12% while P. contigus showed 20% infection. Correlating the age of Som plants with susceptibility rot infection was found to be maximum in 10 years old plantation. Keywords: Rot disease, Som, Muga, Heart rot, Canker rot, Phellinus contigus, Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Assam...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...oth bacterial and fungal pathogens. Smilarly, fungal-fungal, fungal-bacteria and actinomycete-fungal/actinomycete interactions exist in nature and opens a new area of research in biocontrol of plant diseases. The mechanisms of action of these biocontrol agents against target pathogens are antibiosis, mycoparasitism, competition for space and nutrient, production of certain toxins and secondary metabolites, solublization and ...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...otrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique, whereas 15% increased seed germination and 26% reduced disease incidence is recoded when compar...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...against soil-borne plant pathogens, namely, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Padw.) Matuo. and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Efficacy in plant growth promoting activity of all the isolates was also tested on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.), chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with culture filtrate of biocontrol agents and found both positive and negative effect on seed germination, plant growth and vigour...

M.S. Islam, M.Ali, and I. Ahmad

Efficacy of sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP to control die-back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh
...f tea in Bangladesh. The pathogen, C. gloeosporioides was isolated from the dieback infected tea twigs on PDA medium. Mycelial blocks of the isolated pathogen were transferred to PDA plates amended with sedomil 72WP (mancozeb) @ 720, 1080, 1440 and 1800 ppm and recozeb 80WP (mancozeb + metalaxyl) @ 800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 ppm concentrations. Sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP caused colony growth inhibition, respectively by 75.0...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...ue against sheath blight pathogen of rice was developed as an emulsifiable concentrate. The formulation of 10EC at 0.25% was standardized as the best emulsifiable concentration for use against the pathogen. The pre inoculation spray of the formulation was observed to produce 63.62% reduction in lesion height caused by the sheath blight pathogen. Two isoforms of poly phenol oxidase, PPO 1 a...

Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...ey, one isolate of entomopathogenic nematode from ginger rhizosphere was collected from Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh (India). Morphological and morphometric studies identified the isolate as Stein-ernema carpocapsae. This was further confirmed by ITS-rDNA sequences analysis. Phylogenetic was constructed for studying relationship with known isolates. Pathogenic potential of the isolate of S. carpocapsae (IISR-EPN 06) on...

M. S. Joshi , D.M. Sawant and A.P. Gaikwad

Isolate variations in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting pomegranate
...inst six isolates of the pathogen. The interaction between isolates x varieties was also statistically significant. Highest DRI (15.22) was recorded in the interaction between Bhagwa x Cg 85 and it was on par with Ganesh x Cg 86, Aarakta x Cg 82, Aarakta x Cg 84, Ruby X Cg 86, Patna 5 X Cg 86 and Patna 5 X Cg 82.

...

Anil Sehajpal, Saroj Arora and Parminder Kaur 

 

Evaluation of plant extracts against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice
...8 plant oils against the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Out of 44 plants tested, 36 plant extracts showed varied degree of antimicrobial effect at different concentrations against the pathogen whereas 8 plant extracts, viz. Abrus precatorious, Acacia auriculiformis, Bougainvillea glabra, Convolvulus arvensis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Morus alba, Thevatia peruviana, and Withania somnifera d...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
... single major soil borne pathogen or pest across vast cultivated area but not for the peasant farming or the pest complex ridden unaided agriculture as in India. PA is not about an abstract of characterization. The specific values indicating variations in population at exact grids and helping the individual farmer in decision-making in pest management at varied pesticide doses depending on varied soil pest population intensity and spatial distribution. Often i...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...ection of bacterial wilt pathogen in seed tuber. Therefore, it is always desirable to obtain planting tuber from reliable source. So, integration between whole tuber planting or seed piece treatment units supervised management may offer better protection from the dreaded disease. Dynamic nature of disease management offers the scope for future modification.
 

 

...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...he diseases (referred as pathogens) that were the highest and fastest during warm and wet (rainy) months were: Alternaria alternata on Polyanthes tuberosa; Alternaria alternata and Septoria chrysanthemella on Chrysanthemum indicum; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria sp. on Dracaena deremensis; Alternaria sp. and Cercospora hibisci-manihotis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Calathea ornata; Alternaria sp. on Ficus religios...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...l changes in response to pathogenic field infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The Bursa of fabricius was collected from poultry flocks of Punjab Pakistan for isolation of IBD virus by inoculating in embryonated chicken eggs through chorioallantoic membrane. The two hundred birds were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D). The birds in group A were commercial broiler chicks having maternal derived antibodies and were challenged with IBDV field isolate at the...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...tibodies production. The pathogenicity and etiology of the disease has yet to be elucidated. It is presently accepted that environmental factors trigger the disease in genetically sensitive individuals. Gluten, a protein fraction commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a number of autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that gluten containing diet would further exacerbate an already undergoing arbitrary immune reaction in SLE pa...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol, this study was designed to isolate lactoferrin from milk of camel. Cation exchange resin (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isolation of lactoferrin using the fast protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Disc diffusion method was applied ...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...relevant literature. The pathogenicity of the isolates was examined to select biocontrol agent against host weed. 
...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...manage root rot and knot pathogen enhanced when it was integrated with bio-products. It was hypothesized that direct antagonism and defense by bio-product enhance the resistance in chili cultivars. So, T. harzianum is an efficient biological control for integrated management of chili plants under controlled condition cultivation. To explore the nature of resistance response of C-33 to M. incognita and S. rolfsii further research is needed....

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...>The incursion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain H5N1 in 2006 in Egypt caused severe economic losses for both commercial and backyard poultry production sectors. Owing to public health risk, effective control of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...lecular diversity of the pathogens together with sero-conversion in animals and humans.
...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...s an important potential pathogen which can control a wide range of bollworm larvae in both agricultural and horticultural crpos. Flubendiamide is a new chemistry insecticide which also controls bollworm effectively and relatively safer for natural enemies and beneficial arthropods. Present investigations were carried out to determine their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence of 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...ify;">Brucella is pathogenic bacteria that cause animal and human brucellosis. Currently, the mechanism behind the pathogenesis of Brucella remains unclear. For this reason omp10 mutant was constructed to examine the impacts of the outer membrane protein 10 (Omp10) on bacterial survival, virulence, phagosome-lysosome fusion, and apoptosis induction, as assessed in appropriate in vitro (cell cultur...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
... agents against isolated pathogens at three different concentration viz., R, R/2 and R/4. Combination of bio agents (T+P) gave maximum results at R concentration against R. bataticola and M. incognita.
...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

... against phyto and human pathogenic bacterial strains. T. harzianum was grown under different conditions and their extracts were evaluated, using disc diffusion method against tomato wilt causing bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris and Clavibacter michiganensis). Extracts that resulted in strong activity were fractionated into acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by testing against human pathogenic bacterial strains (Escheri...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...es viruses are important pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, successful establishment of infection in the respiratory tract switch on the pathogen recognition by innate immune receptors and establish first line of defense against viral infections. When specific cellular receptors recognize a virus they trigger the translation of inflammatory cytokine and chemokines leading to establishme...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...asma synoviae and nonpathogenic mycoplasmas at the same in a single PCR reaction collected from diseased chicken. Direct PCR from the clinical samples produced false negative results. Both culture and PCR were combined as culture-enhanced PCR approach. Three different DNA crude preparation methods were used and broth dilution method found simpler and most efficient for positive PCR. Primers were selected for 16s rRNA and it could detect up to 100 cfu and 2...
Saba Manzoor1,*, Ali Raza Awan1, Abdul Wajid1, Sehrish Firyal1, Muhammad Tayyab1, Muhammad Mansha2, Asim Khalid Mahmood3, Abu Saeed Hashmi1 and Muhammad Wasim1,*
...determined role in tumor pathogenesis. A total of 52 tumor and normal samples were examined, among these, 40 canine and 12 feline samples were analyzed using Sanger sequencing method and RT-qPCR for the mutation and expression profiling of c-Myc gene. The coding region of c-Myc gene (exon2 and 3) did not show any variation in both species. While expression of c-Myc gene was found to be up regulated in different canine (62.5% in mammary ade...
Zahid Latif1,*, Kathrin Blasius2-4, Tufail Hussain Tahir7, Muhammad Nasim Khan1, Ghazanfar Ali5, Ansar Ahmed Abbasi6, Abdul Rauf1, Hao Hu8 and Angela M. Kaindl2,3,4
...B1 gene as an underlying pathogenic variant for non-syndromic autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.
...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...opcorn disease and these pathogenesis-related proteins provide valuable information to further study the pathogenesis of popcorn disease and disease-resistant molecular breeding in mulberry.
...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...rmine the prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from piglets having white score diarrhea as a result of outbreak occurred in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau in 2015. A total of 81 E.coli were isolated from 83 fecal samples. The organisms were inoculated on MacConkey agar and EMB agar and identified via biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect representative virulence factors or genes, including ...

Imtiaz Ahmed, Muhammad Abbas Khan, Noorullah Khan, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Fazal Yazdan Saleem, Sajjad Khan and Sohail Aslam 

...Garlic rust is caused by pathogen (Puccinia allii) that severely hinders the productivity of Alliaceae family. Experiment was conducted to determine the optimum plant spacing in order to abate garlic rust and maximize garlic crop yield. The experiment was carried out in RCB design with three replications; garlic cultivar (china) and three levels of intra-row spacing (10, 15 and 20 cm) were included in the study. Data regarding disease occurrence, disease sever...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...revalence of potentially pathogenic intestinal protozoan parasitic infection in farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. One hundred and fifteen (11.04%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal protozoans. Forty one (35.6%) of the participants were infected with singl...
Muhammad Saqlain1, Humaira Kalsoom1, Muhammad Fiaz1,2, Abid Mahmood1, Rizwan Aziz Qazi4 ,Waseem Safdar5, Pakeeza Arzoo Shaiq1,Bernard M.Y. Cheung3 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1,*
...d binding protein in the pathogenesis of MetS.
...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...r transferring a mass of pathogens i.e., West Nile Virus (WNV), avian pox virus (APV) etc. in rural and urban areas. To mitigate these problems study was conducted by using binary mixtures of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (isolates Bb-01, Bb-10), Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (isolate Ma-11.1, Ma-2.4)and Isaria fumosorosea (isolates If-2.3, If-02) and chemical insectic...
Qingying Jia1, Hui Wang1, Tianhong Wang1, Na Dong1, Shuguang Ren1,2, Xiaolong Yang1, Jingze Liu1,* and Zhijun Yu1,3,*
...mit a great diversity of pathogens. The current study investigated the effects of temperature on reproductive fitness of the engorged H. longicornis, results indicated that the engorged H. longicornis could survive all treatments at 0°C and 4°C, and pre-ovipositon periods were prolonged after 0°C, 4°C and 40°C treatment, whereas it was shortened after 37°C stress (P<0.05). The oviposition periods were varied among diffe...

Ayesha Aihetasham*, Faiza Qayyum and Muhammad Xaaceph

Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...nfections of respiratory pathogens. However, impact of co-infections is not well known, especially in broilers. The current study was aimed to assess the probable synergism of E. coli (O78) and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in the broiler model. Three-week-old commercial broilers were inoculated with either vNDV, E. coli serotype O78 or both agents simultaneously or 3 days apart. The birds were clinically observed and swabbed daily. They were...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...the only weed from which pathogen was consistently isolated. From Northern KP, a total of nine weeds including; Solanum nigrum L., Solanum americanum Mill., Solanum Sarrachoides Sedntner, Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats, Amaranthus albus L., Lactuca serriola L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Malva parviflora L. and Sisymbrium irio L.were found to be possible sources of primary inoculum of the pathogen in tomato fields. 

...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...ple drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in milk of camels with characteristically zoonotic potential. Current study was planned to investigate epidemiology of MDR S. aureus in camel milk, and in-vitro therapeutic response to drugs. Two different ecological zones, Cholistan (n=185) and Suleiman Range (n=177) of Pakistan having major population of camel were screened for subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test using convenient sampling techn...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
...of potentially important pathogenic parasitic infections particularly in remote parts of the country.
...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...The suitability of entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents of specific target insects is affected by their level of infectivity and reproductive capacity. Therefore, in the present study the productivity of five entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema feltiae, S. kraussei, S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. indica) were compared in Galleria mellonella larvae. The product...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
...v>...
Hina Safdar1,*, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1 and Muhammad Arshad2
...ntrol potential of entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema glaseri) against different larval instars (2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th) of armyworm (Spodoptera litura F.) at different exposure times were evaluated. Entomopathogenic nematodes were applied at 1000 IJs/ml and larvae maintained at 25°C. Mortality was recorded upto four da...

 Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Arshad Ali**, Tariq Sultan** and Muhammad Munir Ahmed***

CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ROOT SYSTEM OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L) GROWN UNDER SALT AFFECTED AREA OF PAKISTAN
...wth by suppressing plant pathogens. The objective of this study was isolation and characterization of bacterial strains from rhizosphere, endosphere and rhizoplane of sunflower. Thirty six bacterial strains were selected out of 44 from plant root samples along with rhizospheric soil, collected from different salt affected areas of Central Punjab (Pakistan). Selected bacterial strains were characterized morphologically as well as biochemically at National Agric...

 Muhammad Mohsin Raza*, Muhammad Aslam Khan*, Irfan Ahmad**, Ali Ahsan Bajwa***, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam*, Badar Ahsan Ullah****, and Kashif Riaz*

FOREST PATHOGENS AND DISEASES UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE -A REVIEW
...cks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disease effects with predicted changing climate. The impact of changing climate on host, pathogen, and their interaction will have frequent and mostly unsympathetic outcomes to forest ecosystems. By employing the proactive and...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...e major gastrointestinal pathogens in young ruminants and has been associated with diarrhea. The current study was conducted in three selected districts (Bannu, Lakki Marwat and Kohat) of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) to determine the prevalence and risk factors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected through convenient sampli...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
...ganic materials. Several pathogenic microbial species utilize enzymes as virulence factors to cause diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate enzymatic activities of the bacterial strain Shigella dysenteriae IM using API-ZYM test system. Out of nineteen different enzymes, S. dysenteriae IM strain was capable to poroduce nine enzymes, i.e., alkaline-phosphatase, acidic-phosphatase, lipase, valine arylamidase, cystine arylamidas...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Ali Murad Jakhar3, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo3
...mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are not yet available and the development and use of EPN mainly depends on the use of host insects such as greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) for in vivo production. Since G. mellonella may not always be available, therefore, yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) could be an alternative host. Therefore, in the present studies recovery of two EPN (Steinernema feltiae and ...
Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska1,*, Magdalena Skibicka1, Barbara Cioch-Szklarz1, Jolanta Karakulska2, Karol Fijałkowski2 and Sonia Hiller3
...revealed the presence of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria at the level of the average number of micro-organisms (11-50 CFU) or high (> 50 CFU), which negatively affected the health of the calves. However, in cold rearing there was recorded absence or presence of microorganisms in the nasal cavity in a small amount (<10 CFU).
...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah*, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Abdulrahman Jarelnabi, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman and Mansour F. Hussein
...actors and to assess the pathogenic effects and economic consequences of neosporosis in camels.
...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...e hosts. Zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 has recently diversified into two distinct genetic subclades (2.2.1.1 and 2.2.1.2) in Egypt. This study was conducted as part of routine surveillance activities in Egypt; 5202 cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from live/dead birds, including commercial and backyard flocks, in five different locations in Egypt between the years of 2015 and 2016. All samples were s...

Baharullah Khattak1*, Saifullah2, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharraf Ahmad2, Asad Ali2, Mohammad Junaid2, Ijaz Ahmad Khan3, Taj Ali Khan1 and Mubbashir Hussain1 

...ement of important plant pathogens including root knot nematodes (RKN). In the present studies, 15 isolates of Trichoderma harzianum were collected from different the root knot nematodes-infested tomato field of Malakand and Swat, Pakistan. These isolates were tested for their nematocidal effects against Meloidogyne javanica. Anti-J2 antagonistic test divided the isolates into 5 antagonistic groups or AGs. AG1 was observed as the most antagonistic group, causi...
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...that caries isolates are pathogenic S. mutans and soil isolates belong to the genus Streptomyces. The antibiotic resistance profile of S. mutans illustrated resistance to optochin. The antimicrobial screening of Streptomyces against S. mutans showed that these strain are the prolific producers of active agents to inhibit the growth of caries causing S. mutans. The natural extracts of Streptomyces strains signifi...
Abdul Samad1, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Olena Pokryrshko2 and Tauseef M Asmat1,*
...s. 

...
Zihong Chen1, Ling Xu2, Xiaona Yang2, Yaguan Zhang3* and Yuming Yang4
...arhizium is an entomopathogenic fungal genus relevant in biological protection. A new species of the genus, collected from Taibao mountain, Baoshan City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, was described here as Metarhizium baoshanense. It was proposed and determined based on morphological characters combined with a multigene phylogenetics analysis involving 5.8S–ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, EF–1α, RPB1 and RPB2. In multilocus phylogeny,
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...cine from the prevailing pathogenic strains of Type D Clostridiumperfringens strains and evaluate its immune responses in rabbits, goats and sheep. C. perfringens were isolated from enterotoxaemia suspected sheep and goats from the endemic areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan during 2016. The isolates were initially identified through colony characters, Gram staining and biochemical tests. The identified isolates were quantified ...

Wasim Javaid1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2 and Muhammad Usman Raja2 

...stify;">Aptness of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was evaluated to manage pulse beetle (PB), Callosobruchus chinensis by using different fungal concentrations of 1×106, 1×107 and 1×108 spores/ml in stored chickpea grains. Highest mortality (90%) of PB was observed in 72 hours through application of 1×108spores/ml of M. anisopliae compared to B. bassiana with 60% mortality. On 24 hours of expo...
Sahar Naz1, Farhan Rasheed2, Muhammad Saeed3*, Shagufta Iram4 and Ambereen Anwar Imran5

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...rus, an important animal pathogen globally. Being zoonotic and endemic in most parts of the developing world, it is necessary to prevent and control the infection using latest molecular diagnostics and effective vaccine along with anti-viral therapeutics. This short commentary deals with current knowledge and opportunities on ORFV and future challenges as control perspectives in India. 

...
Muhammad Sarfraz*, Shahida Hasnain
...g resistance of clinical pathogens against several beta-lactam antibiotics. This study was conducted on 11,725 specimens collected from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients from July 2013 to June 2016. API 20E system has been used to identify K. pneumoniae and E. coli; preliminary screening for AmpC beta-lactamase production was done by cefoxitin disc followed by inhibitor based confirmatory method. Antibiogram was performed following CLSI ...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...ognita and the entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium muscarium. The initial inoculum was measured before okra was seeded in the field. At harvest, the numbers of root galls, egg masses, and eggs per root system, the root weight, the final population of the second stage juveniles, and the reproduction rate were detected at the highest levels in untreated soil, whereas low numbers were encountered in soils initially treated with the fungus,
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...measures to control this pathogen are needed, along with contemporary information about antibiotic resistances that are present in isolates from different environments. In the present study 72 samples from blood, 43 from sputum, and 19 were obtained from tracheal aspirates patients suffering from chronic and acute lung infections admitted to a local hospital in Lahore. Susceptibility of 134 isolates of P. aeruginosa was tested against selected antibioti...
Xiaqing Chen, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...hiraiana is a fungal pathogen that attacks mulberry fruits and causes disease named as “popcorn disease”. Many Trichoderma spp. produce a series of antibiotic metabolites that can inhibit plant pathogens. Trichoderma hamatum isolated from infected mulberry fruits was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress plant pathogen S. shiraiana alone or in c...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...um is a serious phytopathogen resulting in significant loss of crop yield. Trichderma hamatum has the capacity to inhibit S. sclerotiorum growth by production of toxic metabolites and mycoparasitism. In vitro bioassays were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. hamatum and difenoconazole alone or its combinations against S. sclerotiorum. The results showed that T. hamatum could infect and destroy the mycelia and scle...
Arifa Mehreen1, Iram Liaqat2,Muhammad Arshad3, Muzzamil Waheed4 and Najma Arshad1,*
...eus, the most common pathogen,using conventional microbiological and molecular methods. The agar disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility. Virulence-associated genes were detected using PCR while association analysis was used to test the likelihood of strains carrying combinations of genes involved in toxin production and/or host immune evasion. Highest resistance was observed against beta-lactam group followed by cephalospo...

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

...being a highly versatile pathogen can quickly acquire resistance genes. The development of resistance in bacteria predates the era of antibiotic use. However, resistance developments in S. aureus have been reported since the early 1940-ties, when penicillin resistant S. aureus was first reported. Ever since, this pathogen has gain global notoriety as the most common cause of nosocomial, community and livestock associated inf...
Haroon Rashid1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Tasleem Ghori2, Mamoona Chaudhry3, Hamad Bin Rashid2, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir1, Muhammad Hamid Chaudhary4, Muhammad Asad Ali1, Mian Muhammad Khubaib Sattar5, Javed Muhammad1 and Bhushan Jayarao6
...(PA) in Chakwal District pathogen B. anthracis PA plasmid positive sample shows no association with distance from Animal Market, distance from road, distance from drainage, not subjected to human population, and for distance animal density because only one sample was found positive others districts (Gujranwala, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Faisalabad and D.G Khan) showed no association.
...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
...plification, followed by pathogenicity determination. Results showed that the isolates belonged to 10 genera, including Vibrio (72%), Staphylococcus (9%), Pseudomonas (4%), Bacillus (4%), Vagococcus (3%), Shewanella (3%), Planococcus migula (4%), Exiguobacterium (1%), Enterobacter (1%) and Kocuria roseus (1%). Vibrio spp. and Vibrio harveyi were the predominant genus and specie...
Ali Murad Rahoo1, Tariq Mukhtar2,*, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...div>The fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) as biological control agents of specific target insects depends on their level of infectivity and reproductive capacity. Nematodes with higher levels of infectivity and reproduction within a specific target host may be more effective in controlling a particular insect under field conditions. The production of infective juveniles (IJ) from Galleria mellonella cadavers may differ among different species ...
Nimra Naseer, Adeela Fatima and Imran Sajid*
...ultidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, there is a demand of novel biological active compounds to replace currently used antibiotics in order to evade resistance. Currently, the pathogenic organisms of concern are methicillin and vancomycin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp., extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp.<...

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

...hibition (%) against the pathogen. Penicillium sp. showed maximum growth inhibition (63.85 ± 3.26 %) and its extract showed 9.20 ± 0.14 mm zone of inhibition at 1000 mg·L-1 against the Fusarium wilt. Based on its higher in vitro antifungal activity, in vivo screen house experiments were conducted. Plants given the treatment as Penicillium + Fusarium showed slight yellowing of the leaves after 60th days of cultivation. Present results may h...

Mohsin Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2, Muhammad Usman Raja2, Muhammad Fiaz3 and Muhammad Nadeem1 

...n current studies, entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were used as the bio-control agents against this economic pest and proved good alternatives to chemicals. Less number of eggs (2 per grain), more number of holes (8.3 per grain), less number of F1 adults (20.3 per jar) and more number of days (7) to 100% mortality of C. chinensis adults were recorded when chickpea grains were treated with the highest concentration of B. ba...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*
...h can house a variety of pathogens. As it drains it pollutes the groundwater table and if used for irrigation purpose represents a major health risk not only to humans but also to local flora and fauna. The purpose of current research work was to analyze the toxicity of leachate in Wistar rats. Wistar rats of about 250g were selected and divided into three groups namely Control, Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 was given 4ml/kg leachate while Group 2 received 4ml/...
Zafar Iqbal*, Farah Ansar, Zil-e-Huma
...ollusca (Glochdium). The pathogenic fungal genera isolated were: Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium, Mucor. Blastomyces, Rhizopus and Fusarium. Ten bacterial genera were also isolated; Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Moraxella, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus,. Carnobacterium. There has not been a single case of topically acquired infection among students, laboratory...

Nadia Khan1*, Abdul Waheed1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Naveed Ahmed1, Zafar Iqbal2, Seemab Ali1, Madiha Bashir1 and Hina Gul3  

...ctivity against two phytopathogenic bacterial species (Clavibacter sp. and Xanthomonas sp.) and a human pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) in 2016. Experiment was carried out by using complete randomized design with three replications in vitro. Phytochemical analysis reveals that the methanolic fraction of oil possesses metabolites like carbohydrates, amino acids, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides. To test the antiba...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ammarah Hasnain2, Ateeq ur Rehman1 and Rashida Perveen1 

...its efficacy against the pathogen. The combination of M. piperita, A. indica and C. limon was superior in reducing the BLB of rice. Besides this, all treatments showed significant effect on the agronomic traits of rice plants. The reduction of disease in all the trials along with healthy crop stand in glass house and field indicated that these decoctions might play an important role in biological management strategies for the control of BLB of rice. The presen...

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
...h the study of bacterial pathogens associated with irrigated wheat field water. Study was carried out to check the efficacy of heavy metals and antibiotics against five isolated bacterial pathogens. Different morphological and biochemical tests were performed to identify and characterize bacterial pathogens. Among isolated strains, two belong to genus Staphylococcus spp., other two were Ps...

Farah Deeba, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir, Muhammad Irfan, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Chitinase production in organisms: a review
...yme have control of phytopathogens, physiological functions and degradation of chitinous waste. Interest in chitin wastes utilization is increasing day by day because of its natural resistance against degradation. The review focused on different sources of naturally chitinase production in organisms was discussed.

...

Saman Fatima* and Shazia Iram 

... economy. Due to various pathogens the quality of fruit gets diminished. One of such problem includes the occurrence of various skin disorders which leads to the rejection of fruit in international market. This study was designed in order to identify the pathogens that ruin the peal of Citrus reticulata Blanco (kinnow) in order to improve its quality. About twenty six sampled fruits of Citrus reticulata having damaged skin w...
Muhammad Asad Saleem1,*, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1, Mudssar Ali1, Muhammad Amin2, Muhammad Tayyab1,3 and Sumaira Maqsood4
...PW. Combination of entomopathogenic fungus (Bb) and Nitenpyram (Nit) were found more lethal to survival of RPW. A reduction in pupation and adult emergence was recorded in the combined treatments. Moreover, decrease in weight gain, frass production and cumulative gain in size was found when larvae were treated with integrated effect of Bb and Nit. Depending on the lethal of treatment, development duration of RPW was disturbed. Integration of Bb and Nit delays ...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Ashfaq1, Muhammad A. Aqueel2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah2
...ication when both insect pathogens were used in combination (SpltNPV 1×108 POB/ml + Bt 0.1 μg/g) i.e. 85.25, 79.31 and 92.11% mortality (in case of 2nd instar larvae) and 70.42, 63.64 and 80.88% (in case 4th instar larvae) of Faisalabad, Chiniot and Sargodha’s population of S. litura, respectively. This study could be helpful to use NPV and Bt in intensive pest management under field c...
Huseyin Cetin1,*, Oner Kocak2, Emre Oz1, Samed Koc1, Yesim Polat1 and Kalender Arıkan2
...echanical vector of many pathogenic bacteria, fungi and parasites. The use of synthetic pyrethroid (SP) insecticides is recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of adult houseflies. Despite the fact that SPs have been used effectively, this insect has developed resistance in many regions/countries of the world. The use of synergistic substances to overcome insecticide resistance is widespread. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is used as a synergist...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...ions for deploying entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in Pakistan can be harsh and the survival of infective juveniles (IJ) following inundative applications would be quite short. The application of EPN in cadavers may be appropriate because of the non-availability of industrially produced isolates. Therefore, in the present studies, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor were compared for invasion and production of IJ of Steinernema feltiae

Muhammad Aslam Rajput1,3, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Rehana Naz Syed3 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi3* 

...niques are required. The pathogen inoculation method should be less cumbersome, simple, and rapid. Here, we compared the effectiveness of six different inoculation methods, i.e., dipping, paste, wound+paste, soil infestation, spraying and injection methods for the establishment of smut disease. It appears that disease expression was significantly influenced by pathogen inoculation method. The infection caused by S. scitamine...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...olates were assessed for pathogenicity based upon the mean death time (MDT), the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) and the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) in chicken. The ICPI and MDT revealed that all tested isolates were of moderate virulence (Mesogenic) in chickens. Mature chickens showed no clinical signs or death as assessed by IVPI. Pigeon in Egypt reared in free rang s...
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zaheer1, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Shafique1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar1
...mong major Gram negative pathogens is an emerging threat and a matter of great concern worldwide. Especially increasing resistance to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporin and carbapenems is an issue of high importance. Present study was aimed to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MBL producing carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (GNRs) isolated from clinical specimens. A clinical descriptive study was...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Sidra Mushtaq1, Muhammad Tariq Malik2, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Shoaib Fareed3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...nt. A diversity of plant pathogenic fungi has been identified and isolated from the various affected sheesham trees from Indian sub-continent, yet the actual cause of the diseases is still controversial. It is pertinent to mention here that no viruses or any bacteria has been reported from a singly tree in whole of the Indian sub-continent. Although the involvement of the insect’s species has been recorded and authenticated by various scientists reportin...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...unflower is major fungal pathogen which can survive for months to years in soil and also over season in the seed. Therefore, population density and their aggressiveness to cause the disease is playing critical role for management of this pathogen. For such purpose colony forming units (cfu) per gram of soil and seed were determined and capability of previously characterized M. phaseolina isolates to cause the disease was tes...

Manzoor Hussain1, Muhammad Awais2, Farhatullah3, Saiqa Bibi1, Muhammad Rameez Khan3, Afifa Khalid1 and Sajid Ali3* 

...xt-align: justify;">Rust pathogens represent a major threat to cereal crops, though little is known about the status of oat crown rust in Pakistan. This study was designed to assess crown rust status and field based partial resistance of 16 exotic oat lines introduced from Europe along with local check, under natural field conditions at District Mansehra, Pakistan. Data on crown rust severity and host reaction was taken at three scoring dates to assess partial...

 Sohaib Afzaal1, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3,*, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1

...ples. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated from these media. Among the tested strains maximum amount of lactic acid (26.457 mg/mL) was produced by the lactobacilliafter 48 h growth in skim milk broth, while the least (12.131 mg/mL) was produced by pediococci. These LAB strains are being studied for their probiotic properties and good quality indigenous starter cultures from them are anticipated to be employed in food industry.

...

Amer Mumtaz2*, Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui2, Muhammad Naeem Safdar2, Masooma Munir2, Aqsa Qayyum2, Sahar Shibli2 and Muhammad Khalid Ibrahim3 

... for inactivation of the pathogenic organisms present in food by poration and DNA fragmentation. Ultrasounds have diversified application in meat industry, extraction of bio actives, dairy industry, Enzyme technology, fruit and vegetable juice industry, water, waste water treatment, starch modification and removal of food allergens from food. 

...
Sumreen Hayat1,6, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique2, Bilal Aslam1, Habibullah Nadeem2, Asma Ashraf3, Muhammad Saqalein1, Mohsin Khurshid4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Saima Muzammil1,*
... and control of such MDR pathogens.
...

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...tudy, manure of specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of 8 log2 NDV and kept at room temperature then daily examination of poultry manure for the survival of NDV on the basis of virus isolation and haemagglutination assay (HA). Our results revealed that pH of the manure from time of its mixing with the NDV infected allantoic fluid till day 4 was 7, then pH values changed progressively and recorded 8.5 on day 12. After that, ...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...dy, manure from specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of NDV and kept at room temperature ranged from 20 to 25oc which is nearly the same as poultry farms on different coupon surfaces (metal, plastic and cooling pads). Daily examination of poultry manure for the persistence of NDV was conducted on the basis of virus isolation followed by haemagglutination assay (HA) which revealed that NDV survived in the manure up to 28 day...

Javed Asghar Tariq1*, Bashir Ahmed2, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Muhammad Ismail1, Muhammad Usman Asif1 and Raza Muhammad1 

...c effect against another pathogenic microflora. Current studies were designed with the aim to search out such type of antagonistic bacteria from rice crop. For this purpose, soil was collected from rice growing areas of Tando Jam. The isolation from rhizospheric soil was done by dilution plate technique. Among isolated isolates, 6 representative colonies were purified, multiplied and characterized using light microscopy and other biochemical tests. The bacteri...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...ay be due to transfer of pathogen from cow to buffaloes and from the environment in herds of mixed farming. The study results may be helpful in developing the strategic policies against the control of disease. 

...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...tiology, symptomatology, pathogen biology, disease development, disease cycle, epidemics and epidemiology, geographical distribution and strategies for the disease management viz., exploitation of host plant resistance, cultural, physical, chemical and biological control. Studies on pathogen variation have revealed that breeding with single major gene for resistance may be unsuccessful due to breakdown in resistance. Up to t...

Muhammad Ijaz, Sayed Rashad Ali Shah*, Muhammad Izhar-ul-Haq and Amir Afzal 

...d leaf assay against LLS pathogen. Most of genotypes during three years of study at early assessments under field conditions showed resistant response whereas, at late assessments most of genotypes were susceptible. In pathogen-host relationship several components of partial resistance have been proposed. Under detached leaf assay Virginia type groundnut showed minimum spots per leaf, sporulation, and product of spots per le...

Mehboob Arslan* and Xin Yang 

...e obligate intracellular pathogens and rely on host machinery to successfully cause infections. In order to succumb hosts, viruses have evolved strategies to manipulate specific cellular metabolic pathways that aid the production of viral particles. Viruses need to breach a complex network of metabolic intrinsic factors and microenvironment established within the host cells. The pressure exerted by invading pathogen disrupts...
Sher Bahadar Khan1,2,*, Zou Geng1, Cheng Yu-ting1, Asad Sultan3, Mumtaz Ali4,5, Irshad Ahmad6 and Rui Zhou1
...ny traits with the human pathogenic isolates based on virulence gene contents that may pose a potential threat to public health.

...
Mohsan Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1, Rashid Mahmood2,*, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2, Imran Bodlah1, Farah Naz3 and Muhammad Usman Raja3
...rgistic effects of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and entomopathogenic bacteria (EPB), Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus nematophila were studied as bio-control agents to manage this pest. In addition, percent conidial germination and % mortality of C. chinensis were also evaluated when B. bassiana was used with DEBBM. The minimum num...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosad, Fatema Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali Abdel Maged, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...solation of the H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus in 2011, the virus has distributed rapidly and widely in different poultry sectors in Egypt causing severe economic losses and the problematic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, 1026 confirmed positive H9N2 cases by RT-PCR out of 23182 different examined samples of different species and secto...
Wafaa M. Hikal1,2,* and Hussein A.H. Said-Al Ahl3
...study was to isolate the pathogen from the dental units and hospital water network and treatment of Acanthamoeba with Trachyspermum ammi essential oil that have the ability to kill cysts. The amoebicidal activity of T. ammi oil was determined in vitro. Out of T. ammi oil showed that, higher concentrations (90 μg/mL after 72 and 96 hrs and 100 μg/mL after 24 and 48 h) was more active, being able to kill 100% of th...
Zhimin Yuan1, Yan Yu2, Yanmei Wang1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...al reservoir of zoonotic pathogens. Some strains of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of bats are pathogenic to humans. Hypsugo alaschanicus feeds on insects and has a wide geographic distribution in China, and people are in frequent contact with these bats. However, assessing the gut microbiota, especially the potential pathogens, is needed for public health. Thus, this study ...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

...solation of the H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) in 2011, the virus has been distributed rapidly and widely in different Egyptian poultry sectors causing severe economic losses and the problematic situation in poultry production especially with a co-infection with other circulating pathogens. In this study, a total of 23182 cloacal and tracheal samples were collected from suspected cases between 2015 and 2...
Xuefeng Cao1, Guangneng Peng1, Xiaobin Gu1, Changliang He1, Guizhou Yue2, Jun Shi3,* and Zhijun Zhong1,*
...ss-reactivity with other pathogens. Sensitivity testing showed the minimum detection limits of real-time (RT)-PCR were 7.44×101 copies·μL-1 (CPV) and 4.20×101 copies·μL-1 (CDV). DARPM detection of CPV with DNA showed a minimum detectable of 1.53×101copies μL-1, while the minimum detectable amount from the virus culture supernatant was 6.70×101 copie...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...rmore, the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) for selected 5 virulent viruses reveals velogenic features with high pathogenicity index (1.60 to 1.74). 

...

Yasir Ali1,2*, Bashir Ahmad1, Naqeebullah Jogezai3 and Adil Hussain

... of the strains were non-pathogenic and potentially industrial strains for the production of thermolabile protease and alkaliphilic lipase 

...

Shaikh Abdul Lateef, Zhou Lin, Wu Jian, Junjie Qian, Jonathan Hartanto Tan and Zheng Shusen*
 

... (HBV) as a deadly viral pathogen and crucial challenge for mankind is directly involved in the progress of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) subsequently affecting 250 million human population. Due to the complex viral genome of HBV, complete recovery from hepatitis is not achieved. Epidemiologically, it has been classified into infectious and serum hepatitis. The pattern of disease progression manifests liver inflammation, chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular c...

Wesam Mady*, Nahed Yehia, Mohammed Hassan Elhussieny, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Moataz Mohamed El Sayed, Neveen Rabie Bakry, Asmaa Shaaban, Abdel Satar Arafa, Afaf Abdel Baset Mahmoud and Wafaa Mohammed Hassan 

...ince incursion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N8 in November 2016 in Egypt, it caused severe economic losses for both the commercial and backyard poultry production sectors. The aim of this work is to study the Situation and molecular characterization of HPAIV (H5N8) in backyard poultry production sector in Egypt. In this study, a total of 7505 samples of tracheal swabs representing 1180 backyard poultry flocks were collected based on the...
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
...stry every year. Various pathogens can initiate respiratory diseases in poultry, including mycoplasmosis caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). The distribution pattern of MG in layer flocks is not known in Chakwal. Keeping this in mind, current study was designed to know about distribution of MG. The present study was conducted on 25 commercial layer flocks from different regions of district Chakwal, Pakistan. A total of 358 blood samples were collec...
Zil-e-Huma1, 2, Abdul Malik Tareen3, Kaleem Ullah3, Tauseef M Asmat4,Abdul Samad4Asim Iqbal2, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa3*,Irshad Ahmad5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman6
...li pathotypes (enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Results show that the virulent EAEC strain of E. coli was found to be the most prevalent (35%), while EPEC was identified in 15%, followed by EHEC (8%). Notably, none of the samples was found positive for EIEC. Moreover, ETEC was ident...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar, Muhammad Imran Hamid, Mubashar Raza, Waqas Raza*, Misbah Iqbal Qamar 

...against soil borne plant pathogens. The present study was conducted with the aim to determine the efficacy of Trichoderma species using dual culture and pot assays against Phytophthora infestans (late blight) and Fusarium oxysporum (wilt) of tomato on different compost including carbon rich compost, nitrogen rich compost and nutrient enriched compost. The species of Trichoderma includes T. harzianum and T. asperellum isolated from rhizosphere of tomato from di...
Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Shahid Yousaf1, Salman Khurshid1*, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Nasreen Fatima2 and Ali Murad Rahoo3
...ion to the occurrence of pathogenic diseases. Fruit samples (injured and healthy) were taken from the three different local markets of Karachi. Some of the fungal species viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternata have been identified in citrus samples. However, major incidence was recorded for Aspergillus niger (41.6%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (27.7%). Infected...
Irfan Irshad1, Asim Aslam1,*, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Kamran Ashraf2, Beenish Zahid3 and Abdul Wajid4
...rains of AAvV-1s and low-pathogenic H9N2 avian influenza viruses are presently endemic in Pakistan and repeated outbreaks are continuously being reported with high mortality in poultry and non-poultry avian species. In this study, five AAvV-1s have been pathotyped and genetically characterized from vaccinated birds collected between 2013-14. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to sub-genotype VIIi with high similarity of 97.9 to 99....
Sabbah M. Allam, T.M. El-Bedawy, M.H. Bakr and A.E.M. Mahmoud*
...sence and count of fecal pathogenic bacteria e.g. E. coli and Salmonella spp. Forty lactating Holstein cows, weighing 550±50 kg, with an average of 20 kg daily milk yield, were randomly divided into four groups (ten in each group). Animals were fed rations containing DOP at 0, 25, 50 and 75% substitution of yellow corn grains (R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively). Digestion trail was conducted in the last week of the experiment using Ac...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Naimat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Asfandyar Khan2, Kashif Prince1,*, Mahboob Ali1, Ghazunfar Rashid1 and Azmat Ulah Khan2
Abdul Hanan1, Talha Nazir1, Abdul Basit1, Shahbaz Ahmad2 and Dewen Qiu1,*
...The utilization of entomopathogenic fungi as potential microbial control against different insect pests is important due to their eco-friendly nature. The virulence potential of 3 different isolates of Lecanicillium lecanii formerly recognized as Verticillium lecanii (V-2, V-3 and V-5) with different bioassay materials (conidia, filtrate and the binary combination of conidia + filtrate) were evaluated against green peach aphid (Myzus persicae<...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 51, Iss. 6, Pages 1999-2399

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