Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...elationship of fungi and nematodes in soil.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

... control sugar beet cyst nematodes Heterodera schachtii. Lecanicillium muscarium decreased nematode population significantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nematode population compared to that of untreated control. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in numbers of eggs per cyst warrants tha...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...ive rate (Rf = Pf/Pi) of nematodes was much higher in the non-treated plants than those that were treated. The root quality of the fungus-treated plants was significantly improved. All fungi conclusively proved to be effective against H. schachtii and need to be further investigated at the molecular level.

...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...tion of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) depend on the use of host insects for in vivo production. As there is little information regarding relationship between nematode dosage and production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies investigations were done on these aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria mellonella was observed with White traps than w...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...cies of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) was checked on Galleria mellonella larvae. The native species included Steinernema asiaticum and Heterorhabditis indica whereas exotic species were S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora. G. mellonella larvae were exposed to 300 IJs of each species. After inoculation at different temperatures, the reproductive potential of EPNs increased with increasing temperature and was found to be the best at 25oC. No EPNs species could r...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...;">Among plant parasitic nematodes, root knot nematodes are the major problem for vegetables including eggplant. Chemical control of nematodes is hazardous to health and causes environmental pollution by contaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyn...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...ive effects on some root nematodes without adversely affecting beneficial microbes like Rhizobium and capable of promoting growth of certain crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on various cereal grains, agricultural wastes and byproducts. The solid state production is highly labour intensive and fit for cottage indu...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
... such as insects, mites, nematodes, diseases and weeds. Globally 1034 species of arthropods and 82 species of nematodes are associated with tea plants. Among them 25 species of insects, 4 species of mites and 10 species of nematodes are recorded from Bangladesh. Enormous crop loss was incurred due to the attack of these pests and largely responsible for the declining productivity of tea. E...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...the major antagonists of nematodes. They include nematode trapping fungi as well as endoparasitic fungi. For more than a century scientists are studying different facets of biology of NF including their potential as a bioagents to control nematodes. Their inconsistent success in control of nematodes in field trials, however, is enigmatic. This paper takes a review of the researches done by...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...ology of plant parasitic nematodes during the early seventies of last century. The main research areas were biochemical mechanism of resistance against phytonematodes and diagnostics of economically important plant parasitic nematodes. Specific isozymes have been identified for differentiating the important root knot nematodes species of India belonging ...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...e of fungi and root knot nematodes in root rot disease complex of cotton and to optimize their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence ca...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...lity of entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents of specific target insects is affected by their level of infectivity and reproductive capacity. Therefore, in the present study the productivity of five entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema feltiae, S. kraussei, S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. indica) were compared in Galleria mellonella larvae. The production of infe...

 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

...n densities of all three nematodes. Carbofuran was most effective against all the nematodes. Apart from other three treatments, Tridax procumbens emerged as an effective phytonematicide. Helicotylenchus indicus, Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita had similar population density levels and were more or less equally suppressed by all the treatments in the order: Carbofuran > Tridax procumbens > Fertinemaki...

 Aly Khan* and S. Shahid Shaukat**

..."> A survey of phytonematodes associated with pomegranate was conducted encompassing 12 localities of Balochistan Province. Twelve genera were recorded from the rhizosphere of pomegranate. The most dominant species was Meloidogyne incognita. Species diversity (H’) was highest in Wadh while lowest in Ali Dasht. Equitability (J’) component of diversity was highest in Kork and lowest in Ali Dasht, while species richness (d’) component was h...
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
...rvey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) belonging to the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae was conducted in the municipality of Tecomán, Colima, Mexico in an effort to obtain alternative controls for cattle ticks. Soil cores from grasslands were baited with last instars of the great wax moth (GWM), Galleria mellonella L., and an EPN isolate was obtained, it belonged to the genus Heterorhabditis and identified as JMO71. The ...
Hina Safdar1,*, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1 and Muhammad Arshad2
...tial of entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema glaseri) against different larval instars (2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th) of armyworm (Spodoptera litura F.) at different exposure times were evaluated. Entomopathogenic nematodes were applied at 1000 IJs/ml and larvae maintained at 25°C. Mortality was recorded upto four days. Both sp...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Muhammad Arshad Hussain3
... threatened by root-knot nematodes. As the damaging effects of Meloidogyne incognita have not been assessed on cucumber, therefore, the present studies report the effects of five initial population densities of M. incognita on growth and yield of cucumber and nematode reproduction. All inoculum densities caused significant reductions in growth and yield of cucumber and were found to be positively correlated with the latter. On the other hand, age...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Ali Murad Jakhar3, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo3
...tion of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are not yet available and the development and use of EPN mainly depends on the use of host insects such as greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) for in vivo production. Since G. mellonella may not always be available, therefore, yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) could be an alternative host. Therefore, in the present studies recovery of two EPN (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabd...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...ex and reproductivity of nematodes, i.e., total number of egg masses, juveniles and females, were observed in highly susceptible plants. The values of canopy length, dry root weight, fresh root weight, root length, dry shoot weight and shoot height was variable for all plants and the maximum canopy length was recorded in C. macrocarpa, while maximum fresh root weight, dry root weight, root length and shoot weight were recorded in O. japonicus<...

Baharullah Khattak1*, Saifullah2, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharraf Ahmad2, Asad Ali2, Mohammad Junaid2, Ijaz Ahmad Khan3, Taj Ali Khan1 and Mubbashir Hussain1 

...gens including root knot nematodes (RKN). In the present studies, 15 isolates of Trichoderma harzianum were collected from different the root knot nematodes-infested tomato field of Malakand and Swat, Pakistan. These isolates were tested for their nematocidal effects against Meloidogyne javanica. Anti-J2 antagonistic test divided the isolates into 5 antagonistic groups or AGs. AG1 was observed as the most antagonistic group,...
Nadia Saeed1,Mian Sayed Khan2, Habib Ahmad3, Muhammad Abdullah4 and Muzafar Shah5,*
...ted with plant parasitic nematodes were treated with different organic amendments pigeon manure, horse dung, cow dung, duck manure and castor oil cakes at the rate of 8 Kg/tree and saw dust at the rate of 10kg/tree, respectively. Untreated trees were kept for the comparison. Soil samples and sub samples of both treated and untreated trees after 3, 6 and 12 month from Abbottabad and Mansehra by using Bearmann funnel technique. After Quantitative analysis of bot...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*and Tariq Mukhtar2
.../i>.
...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

 

...raction and repulsion of nematodes to several fungi. Of the 14 fungi tested, 11 attracted root-knot nematodes, one repelled nematodes, and two were neutral. The attraction intensity was directly proportional to time and based on the nutrients provided by the nematodes. In this experiment, the nematophagous fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora, A. superba, A....
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...nd other plant parasitic nematodes multiplied significantly more in untreated soil than in treated soil, which clearly indicated that L. muscarium effectively reduced the nematode infestation level in the soil.
...
Ali Murad Rahoo1, Tariq Mukhtar2,*, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...ness of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) as biological control agents of specific target insects depends on their level of infectivity and reproductive capacity. Nematodes with higher levels of infectivity and reproduction within a specific target host may be more effective in controlling a particular insect under field conditions. The production of infective juveniles (IJ) from Galleria mellonella cadavers may differ...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...ploying entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in Pakistan can be harsh and the survival of infective juveniles (IJ) following inundative applications would be quite short. The application of EPN in cadavers may be appropriate because of the non-availability of industrially produced isolates. Therefore, in the present studies, Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor were compared for invasion and production of IJ of Steinernema feltiae and H...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

... threatened by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). As very little information is available on the distribution of root-knot nematodes in okra plantations, therefore, in the present studies surveys were conducted to record incidence, prevalence, and severity of root-knot nematode species associated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, p...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1, Batim Turdam1, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Waziri Ibrahim Anjili2 and Mayowa Olabode2 

...ive for gastrointestinal nematodes. A greater proportion (70.7%) of the nematodes were Strongyles followed by mixed infection of Strongyles and Parasacaris equorum (15.2%) and Strongyloides westeri (14 1%). Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to analyzed data obtained. The prevalence of the gastrointestinal nematodes was not found to be associated with factors such as sex, age and loc...
Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1,*, Shahina Fayyaz2 and Nasira Kazi2
...plant parasitic and soil nematodes associated with cotton plants in Sindh. During 2017–2018 extensive surveys were conducted at the time of cropping and at harvesting and soil root samples were collected from different fields in the cotton producing regions of five districts of Sindh viz., Sanghar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Mityari and Tando Allahyar. The analysis of samples resulted in the identification of one new species of soil nematode viz....
Aly Khan1,*, Khalil A. Khanzada1 and S. Shahid Shaukat2
...tan. A total of 13 plant nematodes were recorded. Out of these seven nematodes were encountered in only one locality. Most common species in maize fields was found to be Pratylenchus zeae that occurred in 5 out of eight localities, one-way of variance was performed for those nematodes that occurred in two or more localities. With one exception, the density differed significantly amo...
Khansa Nazir1,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Humayun Javed2
...ement of plant parasitic nematodes using nanoparticles can be one of the important alternatives. In the present study, the nematicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) was investigated against the most destructive root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). The maximum mortality of juveniles was recorded at a concentration of 100 mg/ml followed by 75 mg/ml of AgNP. The minimum mortality was recorded with 25 mg/ml of AgNP. With the increase in con...
Muhammad Saeed1,2,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Malik Abdul Rehman3
...e pattern. The number of nematodes in the soil and females in the roots were the higher during the months of April to June and August-September showing two peaks throughout the year. The regression analysis between temperature and number of nematodes in the soil and females in the roots showed highly significant results at both the orchards. A direct relationship was observed between nematode population and temperature. Maxi...
Manzoor Hussain*, Marie Maňasová, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...ainst northern root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne hapla, on carrots in a greenhouse. All fungi and chemicals proved to be efficient in reducing the infestation level of Meloidogyne hapla and providing better growth of carrots compared to their controls. Maximum reductions in nematode population were observed in the plants treated with Lecanicillium muscarium and both chemicals. Lecanicillium muscarium treatments alone or...
Zelle Huma1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1 and Farman Ali2
...collect entomopathogenic nematodes, Insect bait technique was used for Entomopathogenic nematodes collection. For this experiment, Galleria mellonella larvae were reared in the laboratory. When  samples soil were collected from different regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for nematodes collection G. mellonella larvae were left in sampling jar and were collected back after 2-3...

Abdul Razzaq1*, Muhammad Islam2, Zahra Islam3, Zahida Fatima1, Munib Hussain4 and Farmanullah5,6 

...y;">The gastrointestinal nematodes are common pathogens in grazing sheep/goats throughout the world which impairs productivity and leads to high economic losses. In most part of the world, drug resistance against anthelmintic is now very common. In this context, various alternative control programs including herbal use against these worms is also an important option. To explore the problem, three available synthetic anthelmintic (Oxfendazole alone, oxfendazole...

Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

September

Vol. 32, Iss. 3, Pages 416-561

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