Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...ater, air, and live bird markets. Since the first isolate from 1994 in China, H9N2 AIVs have been prevalent over 20 areas of China, especially in South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian provinces. Vaccination is the predominant strategy to prevent and control H9N2 AIVs. There are three inactivated vaccines of H9N2 AIVs have been used in domestic poultry in China. But H9N2 AIVs occurred frequently and caused severe economic losses to the poultry ind...

Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas Ullah Jan, Dawood Jan

... the development of food markets in terms of market segmentation and quality improvements in Pakistan.

...

Tarun Kumar Sharma, John G. Bruno and William C. Cho

...research and diagnostics markets. However, translation of aptamer in several applied disciplines is still lagging behind as compared to antibodies. In this article, we discuss the translational aspects of aptamers, current potential of aptamers and strategies to create the “bench-to-bedside” translation of aptamer technology.

...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...improvement in vegetable markets and provision of extension services.

...

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

...es, and input and output markets which resulted in increased cost of production and decreased farm productivity of tomato. This further resulted in decreased net income of farmers from tomato crop. The study concludes that poverty in these areas can be alleviated if the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play their role in promoting social cohesion and management of any conflict in future.

...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...te water supply at these markets which hampers the ability of handlers to maintain good sanitary and hygiene conditions of the carcass, environment and themselves. Data collected could be valuable for instituting effective intervention strategies for Salmonella control in Nigeria with the aim of reducing Salmonella spread from poultry to humans.

...
Wali Khan*, Ghazal Mumtaz, Saima Bibi and Salma Afzal
...ected from the vegetable markets in Lower and Upper Dir districts. A total of 520 vegetable samples were collected during April to October 2016. These vegetable samples were screened for parasitic contamination. The results showed that 10.7% of the vegetables were found to be contaminated with one or more than one species of parasites. Intestinal parasites Ascaris lumbricoides 26.7%, Trichuris trichura 19.6%, Taenia saginata 25 % and Entamoeba histolytica cyst...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
...rinary Hospitals, animal markets and peri-urban livestock holdings in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Serum samples were initially screened by the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). RBPT positive samples were subjected to a B. abortus specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Serum samples that were confirmed to be positive for B. abortus through serology were subjected to an rPCR in order to test its efficacy in detecting Brucella<...

Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...eater in Vietnamese rice markets. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and Relative Trade Advantage Index (RTA) were used to understand the relative competitive advantages of China and Vietnam rice export. The results showed that Vietnamese rice comparative advantage grew steadily in the Chinese market. Overall Sino-Vietnam rice export competition is not strong, it is helpful to reduce trade friction between the two sides. Moreover, there is conducive to...

Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai and Samina Khalil*

...ed from 12 sectors (main markets and sub-sector markets). These samples were analyzed for total plate count (TPC), total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, yeasts and moulds. None of the sample was found contaminated with E. coli, contamination of moulds was also negligible. TPC ranged from 1.0x102 to 1.0x104 cfu g-1 except in three cases, whereas total coliform ranged from 0 to 93 except in two cases, where yeast was 0-16...

 Babar Hussain*, Muhammad Ashfaq**, Mazher Abbas***, Khalid Mahmood**** and M. Ather Mahmood***

... the functioning of such markets; such studies provide valuable information about the dynamics of market adjustment, and whether there exist market imperfection, which may justify government intervention. This study used the monthly wholesale price (Rs. / 40 kg) data from January 1991 to December 2006 of gram, in logarithmic form and empirically estimated the degree of integration in gram markets of Pakistan using co-integra...

 Sonila Hassan, Abid Hussain*, Muhammad Azeem Khan** and Irfan Mahmood*

RURAL-URBAN RETAIL PRICES AND MARKETING MARGINS OF FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN PAKISTAN
...les were higher in rural markets as compared to urban markets and differences were even higher in vegetables as compared to fruits. For fruits the difference ranged from 8.6-25.0% in Hyderabad, 5.2- 39.0% in Faisalabad, 2.3-22.0% in Muzaffarabad, 20.0-50.0% in Peshawar and 11.0% in Quetta. Difference in rural-urban retail prices for vegetables varied between 12.0-36.0% in Hyderabad 6.3-89.0% in Faisalabad, 4.0- 25.0% in Muza...

 Ayesha Tahir, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal*

AN OVERVIEW OF TOMATO ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
...dle East and Afghanistan markets. Therefore, there is a need to look for other markets to increase the tomato exports during the glut supply season. 

...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF CAMEL PRODUCTS IN SEMIDESERT AND DESERT AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...ted. It is observed that markets for camel milk, meat, hides and hair are less established in semi desert and desert areas of the country. Mean production of milk per farm household was 5.4 and 6.5 liters per day in summer and winter seasons, respectively; however, none of the surveyed farmers reported milk sale. During last one year, sales of camel hides and hair were reported by few farmers (6% each). Mean purchase price of camel hides reported by shopkeeper...

 Naveed Jehan*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla**, Muhammad Shahzad*, Abid Hussain**, Muhammad Zahoor*, Majid Khan* and Ahmed Bilal*

USE OF MOBILE PHONES BY FARMING COMMUNITY AND ITS IMPACT ON VEGETABLE PRODUCTIVITY
...dity prices in different markets. The farmers can get up-to-date information about various markets in different regions and can accordingly arrange transportation and labor services in time. The study was conducted to see the effect of timely information availability with mobile on productivity. The data was collected through well structured questionnaire by interviewing 60 farmers from district Charsadda. The data was analy...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid*, Shahzada Arshad Saleem**, Saeeda Raza* and Muhammad Naeem Safdar*

COMPARISON OF INDIGENOUSLY DEVELOPED TANGERINE-ORANGE MARMALADE WITH BRANDED MARMALADES AVAILABLE AT LOCAL MARKETS
...ere purchased from local markets while tangerines were product of in-house farm at Food Science and Product Development Institute (FSPDI), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. Juices were extracted and kept in sterilized and sealed glass bottles. Samples were subsequently analyzed for Total Plate Count (TPC), yeast, moulds, pH, sugars and vitamin C contents. Marmalade was prepared from blended juices of orange and tangerine. Branded marmala...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi* and Abdul Jabbar**

SEAFOOD EXPORTS: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
...cient facilities at fish markets, inadequate fishing policies and low export prices of seafood are major challenges faced by fisheries sector of Pakistan. Sustainable conservation of marine resources, promotion of shrimp culture, enhancement of the fish processing for export, provision of adequate facilities at fish markets and formulation of sustainable fishing policies are ways forward for the sustainable development of se...

 Anum Fatima*, Saleem Abid* and Sobia Naheed* 

TRENDS IN WHOLESALE PRICES OF ONION AND POTATO IN MAJOR MARKETS OF PAKISTAN: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS
... and potato in the major markets (Lahore, Hyderabad, Peshawar and Quetta) of Pakistan. Time series data about annual average wholesale prices of onion and potato were collected from 1981-82 to 2011-2012. Major findings of the study revealed that wholesale prices of onion and potato were increased with time. Results revealed that wholesale prices of onion in major markets namely Lahore, Hyderabad, Peshawar and Quetta were inc...

 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

SPATIAL PRICE TRANSMISSION IN PAKISTAN: THE CASE OF WHEAT AND RICE MARKETS
...ong major wheat and rice markets of Pakistan using their monthly retail prices. For analysis Vector Error Correction Model and Co-integration approach were employed. Results showed that wheat and rice market prices are integrated. Some markets have positive or negative transmission shocks on each other due to the different geographical locations and transport infrastructure. All the wheat markets

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

MARKETING SYSTEM OF LIVE CAMELS IN THE DESERT ECOLOGIES OF PAKISTAN
...ustify;"> Livestock markets are trading places for live animals where suppliers and buyers can make transactions. This study was designed to investigate the existing marketing system of live camels in the desert ecologies of Pakistan. Out of 220 camel farmers that were randomly interviewed for the study, during past one year sale of live camels was reported by more than half of the camel farmers. On an average two camels per farm mainly to meet urgent fam...

 Ghulam Sadiq Afridi*, Abdul Saboor**, Zahoor-ul-Haq***, Sultan Ali
Tariq**** and Muhammad Ishaq*****

EXPLORING POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PAKISTAN'S COTTON EXPORT
...pportunity exists in the markets of low, lower-middle and uppermiddle income countries and countries those have fair trade (low tariff and nontariff barriers) for cotton export. Greater export potential lies with Malaysia, Kenya, Jordan, Thailand, Mauritius, Netherlands, Norway, Australia and Russian Federation for export of cotton, however, export potential for cotton has been exhausted with Canada, France, India, Iran and Saudi Arabia. The study provide the ...
Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2, Sarfraz Ahmed Mian2 and Atta Ullah Khan2
...mer, customer structure, markets, costs involved in production process and revenue earned from selling of the produce in both local and in export market. Yield of hydroponic tomatoes was measured in hectares. Benefit cost ratio was studied and other measures of performance like export intensity, local penetration ratio etc. were also analyzed. Average yield of hydroponic tomatoes was found to be 161.8±6.6 ton per hectare as against 10.07±0.4 in o...
Zeqin Fu, Yunfang Tian, Yingying Ye*, Pengzhi Qi and Changwen Wu
...ely range of aquaculture markets and importantly economic value. In this study, we used one hundred and twenty primers pairs to screen all microsatellite loci and twenty-three polymorphic loci were identified. The number of alleles per loci ranged from six to twenty-one with an average of 12.913 and the allele size varied between 161 and 470 bp. The observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.143 to 1.000 and from 0.351 to 0.926, with average values of ...

Iqbal Javed1*, Amar Razzaq2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Ali Imran4, Haroon Javaid5, Iftikhar Nabi6, Anum Sardar1 and Shahbaz Ahmad

...figure out the potential markets for Pakistani mutton. For the purpose of a research conducted on mutton exports from Pakistan the secondary data were used. The major sources of the data used in the study were international trade center, Economics survey of Pakistan, statistical yearbook of Pakistan and Agricultural Price Institution, Islamabad, Pakistan. Nominal protection coefficient (NPC), revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and Revealed Symmetric Comparat...

Sajad Ali1*, Syed Asghar Ali Shah2, Jaffar Ali3, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal4, Arshadullah Jadoon5 and Farmanullah

...y available in the local markets. Furthermore, the 68 percent in district Mansehra while, in the Haripur 46 percent farmers traded the pea’s output in the local markets. The left over peas output in both the selected districts were offered for sale in the regional markets that is Rawalpindi and Peshawar markets. The 82 percent of the peas producers...

Shumaila Nazeer1, Iqbal Javed1*, Allah Bakhsh2, Mudassar Yasin2, Haroon Javaid3 and Kaniz Fatima1 

...akistan to international markets of UAE and USA by using the primary data. Primary data is collected through pretested questionnaire from 30 kinnow exporters out of total 40 exporters. Personal interviews were conducted by selecting convenient sampling technique. Along with export margin analysis of both markets, an effort is made to quantify impact of the major determinants on export of mandarin (Kinnow) to UAE and USA. Acc...

Ahmed Samy1*, Hala Mohamed Nabil Tolba2, Gamelat Kotb Farag3 and Ahmed Abd El Halim1 

...ol measures at live bird markets, alongside the development of a vaccine may be required to reduce the risk of PPMV1 outbreaks. 

...
Sher Bahadar Khan1,2,*, Zou Geng1, Cheng Yu-ting1, Asad Sultan3, Mumtaz Ali4,5, Irshad Ahmad6 and Rui Zhou1
...ples from super- and wet-markets (each 20 meat and liver) collected both in summer and winter. Isolates were tested for 15 antibiotics (CRO, AMX, GEN, STR, TET, CHL, CLR, LVX, OFX, GAT, CIP, SXT, AMP, LIN and AZM) according to the disc diffusion method and antibiotic resistant genes {tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), strA/strB, aadA, aac(3)IV), aadB, sul1, sul2 and sul3, blaCMY-2, blaTEM and blaSHV} using mPCR. Resistance for LIN was the highest in overall (96.3%, 77/80...

Anam Sardar1, Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehaman2*, Mudassar Yasin3, Raheel Saqib4, Allah Bakhsh3, Haroon Javaid5 and Muhammad Luqman

...understand the potential markets and the importance of beef meat industry in Pakistan. The secondary data have been used to conduct the research on beef export from 2002-2016. NPC (Nominal Protection Coefficient), RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage) and RSCA (Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage) were estimated to find the possible international markets for beef. According to the findings internal ...

Amany Adel, Wesam Mady*, Zienab Mosaad, Fatma Amer, Asmaa Shaaban, Dalia Said, Marwa Ali, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Mohamed Kamal Morsi and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan  

....5%), then 167 live bird markets (LBM) (16.5%) and 76 households (7%), respectively. Also, the highest number of positive samples were detected in chicken with highest prevalence (90%) for H9N2 infection among all the examined species, followed by Turkey (4%), duck (2.6%) and quail (2.4%), respectively. Genetically, the genetic sequence for the Hemagglutinin (HA) of 38 viruses circulating Egyptian viruses during 2015 and 2016 were belonging to the Middle East ...

Arshad Mahmood Malik1*, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2 and Abdul Saboor3 

...c market and in regional markets has significantly affecting total value product of the hydroponics. Return to scale value of 1.77 indicated that the product function is positive and increasing return to scale in TVP in relation to increase in input cost. The value of (DRC<1) indicated that Pakistan has comparative advantage in the efficiently utilizing domestic resources in the production of hydroponics products. 

...
Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Shahid Yousaf1, Salman Khurshid1*, Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar1, Saqib Arif1, Nasreen Fatima2 and Ali Murad Rahoo3
...he three different local markets of Karachi. Some of the fungal species viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternata have been identified in citrus samples. However, major incidence was recorded for Aspergillus niger (41.6%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (27.7%). Infected samples (5.9) had high pH as compared to the healthy samples (3.1). Total soluble solids were decr...
Hafrijal Syandri1*, Ainul Mardiah2, Azrita3 and Netti Aryani4

 

... has a high price in the markets. This study investigated the effect of stocking density on growth performance, body carcass composition and biometric indices of juvenile gurami sago in the synthetic sheet pond. Fish were stocked at densities of 10, 15 and 20 Ô¨Āsh/m3 in synthetic sheet pond with three replicate. Fish were fed with commercial feed containing 29% crude protein and gross energy of 3,340.50 kkal/kg of feed and cultured for 90 days. The...
Abdul Samad1, Raheela Asmat2, Muhammad Naeem1, Hamida Ali3, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa1, Ferhat Abbas1, Jannat Raza1,3 and Muhammad Tauseef Asmat1*

 

...re collected from retail markets of Quetta, Pakistan. Multiplex PCR was employed to identify the prevalent species and genes associated with virulence. Only 10 (1.25%) samples were found contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Milk samples were the most contaminated as 4 samples collected from retail shops or dairy farm were found positive for Listeria. While 2 samples of each beef, chicken meat and salad were contaminated with Listeria....

Muhammad Israr1*, Helen Ross2, Shakeel Ahmad3, Nafess Ahmad4 and Urooba Pervaiz5

...ture, and poor access to markets and to social and communal services. The study suggests that multi-sectorial interventions and investment in terms of education, infrastructure, environment, financial services and agriculture development are necessary to overcome the situation and improve the likelihood of achieving the targets of the SDGs. 

...

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Farhana Khaliq1, Amar Razzaq3, Mudassar Yasin4, Ghulam Mustafa5, Allah Bakhsh6 and Raheel Saqib7 

...ort of Pakistan. Basmati markets are categorized into three types. First category of high potential markets include UK, Canada, and USA. The 2nd category include middle potential markets which include Oman, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey and United Arab Emirates. Third category include the low potential markets which has low competitiveness are Yemen, Poland...

Humayun Saleem1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique

...ederal Capital Territory markets. The frequency and severity of shot hole disease was estimated from market random samples, and later the index was measured. The results showed that in all markets with varying degrees of disease incidence, frequency and disease index the prevalence of shot hole disease was 100 per cent. It was concluded that the markets near poor colonies are merely sellin...

Iqbal Javed1, Abdur Rehman2*, Iftikhar Nabi3, Amar Razzaq4, Raheel Saqib5, Allah Bakhsh6, Muhammad Mohibullah7 and Muhammad Luqman

...basmati to international markets and to estimate the impact of different factors on basmati export from Pakistan. For this purpose, panel data of eleven markets are collected from 2003 to 2016. Independent macroeconomics variables used in the study are exchange rate of Pakistan, exchange rates of trading partner, inflation in Pakistan, inflation in trading partner and dummy variables joint border and religion by application ...

Zia-Ur-Rehman1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Humayun Saleem1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1 

...peach rot disease in the markets of Federal Territories of Islamabad to estimate the intensity of the disease by calculating the disease index. The prevalence of disease was 100% in all markets of Khanna Pul, Burma Chowk, Taramri, NIH Market, Chatha Bakhtawar, I-8, I-10/2, I-10 (Markaz), Sabzi Mandi, I-9. Maximum Mean Disease Index 77.78% was found in the market of Khanna Pul which supplies the fruits to high class, middle c...

Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Humayun Saleem

...ack scurf disease in the markets of Federal Territories of Islamabad to estimate the intensity of the disease by calculating the disease index. Maximum disease index was observed in Abpara and F-10 markets i.e. 21.11% with varying disease incidence and severity percentage. However, the presence of black scurf disease in the market shows that in Pakistan the consumers do not consider it as a threat, because it remains in pota...

Samreen Fatima1*, Mudassir Uddin1 

COMPARISON OF ASYMMETRIC GARCH MODELS WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR STOCK MARKETS PREDICTION, A CASE STUDY
...ternational
stock markets, for example: Asia, Europe and Australia etc. But no frequent research has been done for the SAARC
countries stock markets. Therefore, bench mark Index of Pakistan; Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE-100) and Bombay
Stock Exchange (BSNSE) of India are selected as case study. They are not only the member of SAARC but also sharing
the common border, due to this they are also invol...

Fazli Rabbi1*, Muhammad Idrees2, Shahid Ali1, Muhammad Zamin3 and Hazrat Bilal4

Farmers Perceptions and Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Production and Marketing
...ilitated their access to markets and information. While others 78.6 % opinioned that ICTs have reduced the influence of the middle man in peach (P. persica L.) marketing. The findings further show a positive association between ICTs use and farmers’ socioeconomic and farm-level characteristics. More educated farmers and those who receive foreign remittances are more likely to use ICTs. Farmers’ awareness level is a significant determinant of the ad...

Rafi Javed Qureshi* and Iftikhar Hussain**

INTERNATIONALIZING MANUFACTURING SMEs IN A DEVELOPING REGION: AN EXHAUSTIVE CDA-BASED EXPLORATORY APPROACH
...nd entry to foreign markets by SMEs in both developing and developed economies. When data on SMEs attributes and entrepreneur’s characteristic is categorical, single methodology to analyze factors influencing exporting are far from sufficient. A multi-method and exhaustive approach is necessary to explore the adequacy of factors in question. The three methods relevant to categorical data analysis (CDA) in this paper highlights the&nbs...

Parakriti Gupta1, Kapil Goyal2 and Mini Pritam Singh3*

Hepatitis E Virus and Zoonosis
...ng globalization of food markets, the possibility exists of widespread HEV infection in new areas of the world. In the present era, there is a need to study transmission dynamics of HEV in context to humans, animals and the environment so as to develop better prevention control measures through ‘One Health’ concept. The clinical manifestations of HEV can vary from self-limiting acute viral hepatitis which occurs in apparently healthy individuals to...
Ishrat Perveen1, Yasar Saleem2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3* 
...available from Pakistani markets.
...

Shahid Nadeem1*, Taj Naseeb Khan1, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Adnan Younis2 and Iram Fatima3

Influence of Plant Growth Regulators by Foliar Application on Vegetative and Floral physiognomies of Gladiolus
...eatly demanded in floral markets. In order to achieve the maximum outcomes for the purchaser or community, a comprehensive study was conducted on gladiolus to enhance its vegetative and floral characteristics with the foliar application of growth hormones i.e. gibberellic acid (GA3) and salicylic acid (SA). The results revealed that the application of GA3 and SA had significant influence on vegetative as well as floral traits of gladiolus. The maximum numbers ...

Zarqa Khalid1*, Muhammad Asad ur Rehman Naseer1, Raza Ullah1 and Shahzad Khan2

Measuring the Global Trade Competitiveness of Pakistan’s Cotton Crop
...to explore new potential markets to strengthen its comparative and competitive advantage as well as raise cotton export earnings.

...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

December

Vol. 36, Iss. 4, Pages 1010-1324

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