Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...ing serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homology with previously characterized strains from Pakistan (O/PAK Lahore), Afghanistan, Iran, India, Nepal and Bhutan. Phylogenetically, these strains clustered into PanAsian II lineage of FMD O sero...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...ing serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homology with previously characterized strains from Pakistan (O/PAK Lahore), Afghanistan, Iran, India, Nepal and Bhutan. Phylogenetically, these strains clustered into PanAsian II lineage of FMD O sero...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...ing serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similarity was determined between the representative strains. Furthermore, these strains have shown homology with previously characterized strains from Pakistan (O/PAK Lahore), Afghanistan, Iran, India, Nepal and Bhutan. Phylogenetically, these strains clustered into PanAsian II lineage of FMD O sero...

Muhangi Denis

...io-economic status of farmers. The disease is endemic in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, in Sardinia (Italy), the Russian Federations, the Caucasus and it has shown possibilities of spread within Eastern Europe. Involvement of all stakeholders in the pig value chain in designing and implementing of prevention and control strategies could be explored in future control programs. This may call for investing resources in changing disease management be...

Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

...b> in biology.

...

Nicola J. Stonehouse

... therapeutics.

...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...stically significant. Farmers’ education was found to be major determinant of technical efficiency/inefficiency. The esti- mated coefficient of farmers’ education was negative and statistically significant, implies that techni- cal inefficiency decreases with the increase in farmers’ education. The use of more labour and tractor plough hours would increase wheat productio...

Raja Waqar Ahmed Azad, Tahir Sarwar

...ield observations and farmers’ interviews. Water productivity of rice in the command area of selected watercourses ranged from 0.15-0.23 kgm-3 with average value of 0.19 kgm-3, water productivity of wheat ranged from 0.77-1.48 kgm-3 with average of 1.18 kgm-3, water productivity of maize ranged from 0.68-1.25 kgm-3 with average of 0.90 kgm-3 and average water productivity of onion crop ranged from 0.29-0.36 kgm-3, with average of 0.32 kgm-3. Water produc...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

..., credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. The current study attempts to analyse the impact of credit on wheat productivity in district Jhang. Furthermore, study explores the purpose of farmers for acquiring loan and major sources of credit in district Jhang. This study is based on p...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

...eliable technique for farmers to optimize fertilizer recommendations and harvest maximum returns from their investment in agricultural business.

 

...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

.... This study analysed farmers’ perception of the accountability of agricultural extension services rendered in Oyo State, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used in eliciting information from 195 farmers in rural communities across the four agro-ecological zones in the study area using a two-stage random sampling technique. Data used for the study were analysed using descriptive statistics, Likert scale and the...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

...d widely in Pakistan. Farmers make use of traditional wheat varieties, whose yields are quite below the modern wheat varieties. The result of the study reveals that the parameter estimate of wheat variety is negative and significant also. The parameter of seed rate variable is also negative and statistically significant. A technical inefficiency of 22% is present in the production of wheat crop in the selected district. Majority of the far

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...erence of progressive farmers, no timely availability of Inputs, unviability of crop specific machinery. It was recommended that MFSC may take initiative to compel private companies to sponsor schemes for low cost inputs. MFSC may take initiative for funds on account of pragmatic trainings arrangement, subsidized inputs and crop specific machinery.

...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...idual response of the farmers whose plots fall within the demarcated forty-sampled quadrats from both irrigated and non-irrigated farms. Information on socio-economic activities of the rice farmers, level of rice yield, agricultural practices for rice production and farm management techniques employed in the study area were observed. The study employed simple percentages to analyse the farmers...

John G. Bruno1*, Chien-Chung Chao2,3, Zhiwen Zhang3, Wei-Mei Ching2,3, Taylor Phillips1, Allison Edge1, Jeffery C. Sivils1

...b>Abstract | DNA aptamers were developed against Rickettsia typhi (R. typhi) whole cells and individual candidate aptamer sequences were ranked according to affinity by an ELISA-like microplate-screening assay (ELASA). Top three candidate aptamers were then paired in a matrix of all possible capture and reporter aptamer combinations and tested in a fluorescent peroxidase-linked Amplex® UltraRed (AUR; a ...

John G. Bruno

...botic development of aptamers or aptamer conjugates with associated mass production to provide rapid passive immunity for large human populations in the event of a major pandemic or infectious disease doomsday scenario. 

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...financial capacity of farmers to expand or improve the systems, and inadequate supply of quality vaccines and the problem of delivery to maintain cold chain, there is need for a very strong regional coordination for effective and sustainable control of PPR in Africa. The African continent is currently divided into 57 countries (or independent territories), many of which rely heavily on livestock for fuel, motor power and sustenance with many also endemic to th...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

... causing huge loss to farmers. In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate the economic losses based on the annual incidence, morbidity, mortality levels etc. derived from literature, discussion with experts, and based upon scientific facts. Different mathematical models were used to assess the losses due to mortality in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding ...

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...tify;"> Ensuring farmers’ access to agricultural credit market has been prioritized in agriculture finance policies of Pakistan. The main objectives of this study are to explore farmers’ access to different formal and informal credit sources, and to investigate their credit adequacy and the role of important socio-economic factors in access to credit. The data were collected from 87 farming households in Mar...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...hondrial DNA fragment primers- Cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and Cytochrome b (CytB). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calculate haplotype, haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity for the two species. Based on combined loci of cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and cytochrome b (CytB), twelve haplotypes were generated for G. p. palpalis and five for G. m. submor...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

...al to the health of consumers. Antioxidants and chelating agents are the most helpful inhibitors of lipid oxidation.

...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...cleic acids known as aptamers. Aptamers are known for their high selectivity and specificity and their ability to form 3D conformations. CELL SELEX is a modification of SELEX where instead of using purified ligand molecules, whole live cells are used as targets, so the aptamers being generated could bind target molecules on live cells in their native conformation and it is possible to know...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

...e analyses using DNA aptamers raised against the surfaces of general nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (ATCC No. 8739) as well as alpha and gamma intimins and Shiga-like toxin 2 (SLT-2) B subunit verified that the aptamers bound proteins of the correct molecular weights for intact outer membrane proteins (OMPs), intimins and SLT-2. Some bands on the aptamer Western blots were shared between the “Big 6” non-O157 Shig...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...epared using natural polymers chitosan and starch in molds. Structure of composites was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The physical parameters such as weight and swelling degree of composite were studied. Chitosan starch based composites were used in treatment of waste water to remove a toxic anionic dye Congo red. Congo red solution (0.015 mM) was treated with polymer composite at neutral pH overnight with 150 rpm orbital shaking at room tempera...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...Pakistan.  Those farmers were selected as the  respondents  for the  study  that used to  cultivate Non-BT cotton and BT cotton  varieties. In Pakistan, the NonBT cotton varieties have been promptly substituted with the BT-cotton varieties. This substitution of imported BT-cotton seed is taking into account without considering the local environmental conditions of Pakistan. Thus the main objective of the research was on the c...

Tarun Kumar Sharma, John G. Bruno and William C. Cho

...city in recent years aptamers, have emerged as competitive tools with the potential to replace antibodies in many diagnostic formats. The aptamer industry is continuously growing to create space in research and diagnostics markets. However, translation of aptamer in several applied disciplines is still lagging behind as compared to antibodies. In this article, we discuss the translational aspects of aptamers, current potenti...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...s on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic short sequences of single stranded (ss) oligonucleotides (ss-RNA or DNA), which are developed by an in-vitro selection process known as “Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX)” technique. Among the receptors available for biosensing, aptamer exhibit the advantages of high specificity, selectivity, stability, facile labelling and modification, which makes them ideal candidates fo...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...by PCR using specific primers for GPR54 and GNRHR splice site exons. Mutations were analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or sequencing. No mutation was identified in GPR54 gene, while two mutations in GNRHR gene were observed in one sporadic case of isolated HH. The first was a synonymous substitution mutation of T to G at nucleotide position 123, which did not replace valine with any other amino acid. The other mutation determined ...

John G. Bruno

...Lengthy 200 base DNA aptamers were developed against extracted lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of E. coli O157 and the so called “Big six” non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) serovars (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145). These aptamers were assessed by enzyme-linked aptamer sorbent assay (ELASA) to rank their relative affinities and discriminatory ability for distinguishing between each of the STEC serovars...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

... causing organisms. Consumers of milk and milk products from mastitic animals are at high risk of foodborne infections. Escalating antibiotic resistance strived us to explore the alternate option to control mastitis. In ongoing era, bacteriophages are an alternate possible effective remedy. Therefore, in this study the infection ability of three lytic phages SA, SANF and SA2 was determined against ten isolates of Staphylococci and one Micrococcus, isolated fro...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...raining needs of fish farmers’ on value addition initiatives in Kwara State, North Central Nigeria. Data were collected using a two-stage sampling technique to select one hundred and sixty respondents for the study. A purposive selection of two Local Government Areas each from the two Agricultural Development Programme administrative zones (Zones C and D) in Kwara State where fish farming is prominent and well-practiced was carried out. Forty fish far

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

... profitable; however, farmers need to utilize each input at its allocatively efficient level in order to get maximum profit.

...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...services. Many of the farmers achieving high and consistent yield and then obtaining high technical efficiency in study area can be used effectively to demonstrate the benefits of good farming practices for reduction of gap between the most technical efficient and the inefficient farmers. Empirical results illustrate that there exist opportunity to increase yield at present level of inputs use and technology.

...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...re collected from 150 farmers; those were cultivating cotton-melon crops in combination under tunnels. The study area was Punjab, Pakistan. The stochastic cost frontier analysis was used to estimate the allocative efficiency of cotton-melon cropping systems efficiency. The result illustrates that none of the farmers to be optimally using their inputs. The average allocative efficiency was around 75%. Approximately 36 percent...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...this, a sample of 226 farmers was selected by employing multi stage sampling technique. At first stage, all the three tehsils (i.e.; Mardan, Takht Bhai and Katlang) of the district were selected. At second stage, two villages from each tehsil were randomly selected. In third stage, all the beneficiaries of ZTBL credit program for maize crop was selected and interviewed. Descriptive statistics, paired t-test and correlation analysis were used to analyze the dat...

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

...ed t-test reveal that farmers observed a significant difference in the overall income and income from tomato crop after the conflict as shown by larger t-values of 6.17 with (p<0.01) and 10.91 with (p<0.01) respectively. It was mainly due to restrained mobility during the conflict, farmers had limited or no access to cultivable land, irrigation facilities, and input and output markets which resulted in increased cost o...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...rula. Using universal primers ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 amplified ITS region. And it yielded a unique PCR size of approximately 376-930 bp. PCR amplicons were digested with enzyme MspI and the generated bans corresponded to the predicted size.
...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...wo polydorid-specific primers were successfully designed, for the first time, to amplify target fragments of the COI gene. This study is the first to molecularly validate unidentified larvae from the aquatic environment through the known COI sequences of adults.
...
Jiancheng Zhai, Li Gao, Yanling Xia and Heping Li*
...d with three anchored primers and ten random primers using differential display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR). Five differentially expressed fragments were obtained through recovery, cloning and sequencing. Three of them (Af1, Ce1, Ci2) presented a higher expression in antler mesenchyme of female reindeer, but the other two (Ae1, Af3) were the opposite. The results of Blast in GenBank showed that they shared high homo...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
...inators to set fruit. Farmers in Pakistan are generally not aware of pollination needs of apple. Results depicted a high population decline of Syrphids and Non-Apis bees. Syrphids were recorded as 12.65 to 13.85 per 250 flowers in 2013 but decreased in year 2014 by 7.82 to 7.88 per 250 flowers and Non-Apis bees was recorded as 6.15 to 7.59 per 250 flowers in 2013 which also decreased and recorded as 5.35 to 5.70 per 250 flowers in year 2014. The results showed...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...ecific and degenerate primers. ToLCNDV is geographically wide spread Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae), considered as a close relative of TYLCV, and cause severe losses for many economical important crops in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This is the first report of the use of heterologous polyclonal antibodies (PAbs), raised against a geographically distinct begomovirus, ToLCNDV. The described results have shown to exhibit a many fold increas...

John G. Bruno

...y;">Twenty-seven DNA aptamers were developed against the Fab fragments of murine antibodies developed to bind Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia typhi. A feasibility study was conducted to generate anti-idiotypic aptamers against Fab fragments of these antibodies and to determine if the aptamers were capable of emulating rickettsial antigens to enable sensitive detection of rickettsia ex...

Waqar Islam

...ighlighting that what farmers know about plant viruses, what is their perception about yield losses by virus diseases and what management strategies they choose to apply against viruses. We further added our suggestions that how plant viruses can be managed effectively through simple and credible efforts.

...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...tation strategies for farmers to be made available, this should be the key policy intervention of the government to cater with the climate change on agriculture and particularly on maize. Fertilizer management and crop variety choices according to the changing climate will address this serious concern expected in the future.

...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...seases in mulberry at farmers field in Birbhum district.BLS incidence appeared in May and continued up to November. The correlation coefficient between disease severity and meteorological parameters revealed that BLS disease severity showed significant positive correlation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...ality products to the farmers, the Central Insecticide Board of Government of India has made registration of microbial pesticides mandatory before commercial production/import/sale. Guidelines and data requirements for registration of microbial pesticides have been provided in the annexure of Insecticide Act. Quality control parameters set by CIB are inadequate for knowing potentiality of a bioagent. Apart from the counts of live propagules in the formulation,...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
...2 days in advance for farmers. To escape critical aphid incidence, rape and mustard crops need to be sown by 15 October, because crops sown beyond this period are likely to be adversely affected by aphid. Keywords : Aphid, sowing date, moisture regime, weather parameters, correlation, regression

 

...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...p by many progressive farmers in Tamil Nadu and facilitated by Senthil Papain and Food Products Ltd (SPFP), Coimbatore since 2004. The onslaught by the new invasive mealybug (PMB)-Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) in 2006 caused major concern in papain production. The need for repeated application of insecticides and dearth of labour for application of insecticides made it difficult for the farmers to ma...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...es collected from the farmers field at Baffa (21.73%) of Hazara while (23.80%) in Kalam of Malakand division. The highest incidence of TRV based on ELISA in Hazara was found in Mangal 14.28% and in Malakand division the highest incidence was in Shangla Top 17.39%. Isolates of PMTV and TRV were characterized using biological and serological techniques. Biological characterization of the field isolates revealed that variability in the symptoms produced by them o...

Dhananjoy Mandal

Eco-friendly management of mealybug and wilt in pineapple
... treatments were: T1 [Farmers’ practice: phorate 10 G @ 20 kgha-1 during planting + monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.03% at 100 DAP + endosulfan 35% EC @ 0.02% during 150-180 DAP]; T2 [Treating planting materials (basal portion) with monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.02% + phorate 10 G @ 15 kg ha-1at 100 DAP + Neem oil 1500 ppm spray @ 2.5 m/L-1 at 150 DAP]; T3 [Treating planting materials (basal portion) with monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.02% + phorate 10 G @ 15 kgha-1 at 10...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...y available to Indian farmers in general. Due to Precision Farming (PF), production increased by 40 to 60 percent farmers’ margins of the produce and reduction of the commission charged by the middlemen to 7-10 percent. Further, bargaining power, capacity building, optimal crop protection and produce quality were improved and the cost of cultivation has reduced at Agaram Village, Dharamapuri, Tamil Nadu of Adhiyaman Pr...
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...nced using six set of primers. A total 15 polymorphisms; 12 in intronic and 3 in exonic region, were identified. The sequences of the amplified Pit1 gene fragments were aligned with the help of BLAST for SNPs identification. This is a first report toward genetic screening of this gene at molecular level in Sahiwal cattle of Pakistan. No work has been reported on this gene in Sahiwal cattle. In this study, a new set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SN...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...n of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro-level situation vas...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...roduces are stored by farmers under homestead condition for the purpose of consumption and seed for the next year sowing. Callosobruchus sp.(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the major stored grain pest of blackgram under homestead condition resulting 15 – 30% grain damage during storage. An attempt was made to identify a practical and low cost solution of such damage with the active participation of village women responsible for the storage. Proven b...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...cal efficiency of the farmers. On the basis of this study it is recommended that tomato growers in the study area need to increase the number of seedling for the purpose to increase the productivity. It is further recommended that government should provide training facilities to the farmers to improve their skills, as a results of which the productivity will be increased

...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...h the linkages of the farmers with the entire line department associated with the farming. FSC should take steps to build the capacity of the farmers regarding the latest improved practices of vegetable cultivation to achieve more production.

...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...ich is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was dark colored, low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatment (T3) containing 5.6g grapefruit albedo powder shows significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory scores in term of color (8.02±0.50), flavor (8.04±0.29), taste (8.18±0.37), mouth feel (8.03±0.41) and overall acceptability (7.84±0.28) during 30 days of storage. It is concluded that grapefr...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...in order to deal with farmers where a wide range of variations exists in their personalities and habits. A significant difference was reported in required and possessed competencies of preparing training schedules regarding crops followed by timely appointment and issuance of duties to junior staff for effective and efficient work. Results of the study reported that there is utmost need of training in competencies regarding identification of input supply deale...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...entional and dry rice farmers and also determine the factors which significantly contribute to increase the rice output. Moreover, this study estimated the sources of inefficiency. Data collected from 300 sample rice farmers into the Kharif cycle (2013-14) at five main rice growing districts of Punjab namely: Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Jhang, Vehari, and Gujranwala. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) was applied to find the res...

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

... that majority of the farmers sold their orchards to the pre-harvest contractors. The most widely used marketing channel was producers selling their orchard to pre-harvest contractor who then harvest the orchard, pack the produce and transport it to the market where the produce is handed to wholesalers. Wholesalers then channel the produce to retailer from where the ultimately consumers buy the product. It was also observed ...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

...r irrigation by local farmers since long has contaminated the soil and now the pollution is being transferred to our food chain. An investigation has been done to ascertain toxic heavy metal concentration in the wastewater, irrigated soil, their accumulation in vegetables, and potential human health risks. The results reveal that Cr concentration in the wastewater, Cd and Zn in soil and in vegetables have been found well above the permissible limits of World H...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
...ay be recommended for farmers having the problem of less germination and poor stand establishment.
...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...or the empowerment of farmers that aimed to provide agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, machinery along with advisory services in order to increase per acre yield. This study was conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in the year 2016. The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Farm Services Centers (FSCs) in district Charsadda regarding provision of agricultural services to its member farmers<...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
...em in this study. The primers designed by Primer Premier 5.0 based on conservative regions were tested on 22 individuals. Our results demonstrated that the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five and the mean number of alleles was 3.67. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.227 to 0.545 and 0.201 to 0.630, respectively. The polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.181 to 0.573. Null allele frequency varied from -0.0548...
Mushtaq Ahmad1,*, Mehboob Ahmed1,2 and Nasim Ahmad1
...solution); smears were immersed in tampon either at room temperature or at 60oC, Protocol III (concentration of dye in staining solution); slides were stained with 1, 5, 200, 500, or 1000µg/mL solution. The slides were observed, intensity of staining and debris presence in samples. The debris presence was reduced (P<0.05) due to washing of semen sample. Intensity of staining increased (P<0.05) due to washing and heating during incubation...
Umair Talib1*, Ijaz Ashraf1, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhary1, Riaz Ahmad2
...among the smallholder farmers in Pakistan. Since the late 1980s, the government of Pakistan include private sector in extension circle to enhance the effectiveness of public extension through competition. This study conducted in 2016, sought to analyze whether smallholder rice growers are more satisfied with public or private extension organizations and development of a strategy to enhance the effectiveness of extension work. The specific objectives ...
Habibun Nabi1, Saher Islam2, Amna Arshad Bajwa2, Imran Rashid1,*, Haroon Akbar1, Wasim Shehzad2, Kamran Ashraf1, Nisar Ahmad1 and Aneela Durrani3
...rformed. Five sets of primers were designed using PrimerSelect tool for PCR to amplify SAG2 gene 5’ and 3’ regions. Sequences of 5 fragments of SAG2 were annotated and analyzed using DNASTAR Lasergene. After phylogenetic analysis with 3 clonal types and atypical strains, and on the basis of restriction map of HhaI and Sau3AI, our 3 isolates of T. gondii were found more closely linked to a typical strain. This is the first genetic analysis of...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...ndomly. Among all the farmers, 120 farmers were evaluated through valid, reliable and pre-tested interview schedule. Data collected was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 20. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The study has revealed that field assistants (FA) provide new information (75 respondents). It was observed that FAs were available at their offices (70) and far
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...ent for positive PCR. Primers were selected for 16s rRNA and it could detect up to 100 cfu and 250 cfu from MS and MG respectively in a samples. We have tested pure DNA of other mycoplasmas (5 species from avian origin and 3 other mycoplasmas species) but it produced only the genus specific band. The optimized ratio of tPCR primers were 1: 1: 10: 1. For Outer F, Inner R, and Inner F and Outer R, respectively. MgCl2

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...tment among different farmers’ group in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The data were collected from 87 subsistence farmers in Mardan sub-district. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the study area. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data from farming households’ heads. Credit fungibility ratio and ANOVA were used to explore the credit fungibility and credit margin of investment among the groups o...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...dit services to small farmers with the aim to increase agricultural productivity and income of farmers. This study was conducted with the aim to assess the effects of micro-credit programme of KBL on agricultural productivity in district Mardan in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The study was conducted in three purposively selected villages namely; Nasir Kaly, Shankar and Kodeenaka. From the field surveys, it was fo...

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

...esults suggested that farmers may adopt 6 sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbean plants m-2 in intercropping system for increased productivity and economic return. 

...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...m employment of small farmers in Peshawar Valley. A sample of 201 small farmers were selected using random sampling technique and data were collected through a pre-tested interview schedule. This study focuses on two selected districts i.e. Peshawar, and Charsadda. Four villages were selected two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that the coefficients of household size, educational level of the sampled respond...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...arasitic infection in farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. One hundred and fifteen (11.04%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal protozoans. Forty one (35.6%) of the participants were infected with single parasite and seventy four (64.3%) with multiple infectio...
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...E, by using universal primers focusing V3 region of 16S rRNA gene, was performed for characterization of gut microbial composition. Sequencing of most dominant excised gel bands was done. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the copy numbers of dominant bacteria of gut microbiota. The results indicated that a significant diversity difference between asthma and healthy groups (*P< 0.05), was shown in DGGE profile. Similarity index was found to be l...
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool3, Fatima Ahmed4, Saiqa Tabassum3,6, Syeda Madiha3, Tahira Perveen3 and Saad Bilal Ahmed5
...lth outcomes on the consumers. The ill effects account for hyper-lipidemias and imbalance in the steroidal sex hormones may result in the development of cysts in the ovaries with resultant difficulties in reproduction. The present study was done on 75 rats divided randomly in 5 equal groups fed with rat chow, caged chicken meat, uncaged chicken meat, raw spinach and soybean for a period of six weeks. The levels of plasma cholesterol, progestril, estradiol, and...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...st management all the farmers used pesticides haphazardly while 1.3% used after it. 90.7%, 86.7% and 97.3% farmers were aware of economic threshold level of harmful insects, use of pesticides at economic threshold level and clean cotton picking respectively. 94.7% growers adopted thinning of plants, 91.3% knew pest scouting, 87.3% used pesticides after pest scouting while 74% farmers used ...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...ermine the ability of farmers to detect climate change and how they have adapted to whatever climate change they believe has occurred. Farmers have indigenous knowledge of the climate of the area to predict and forecast the changing weather and climate. Knowing such traditional knowledge provides an opportunity to understand how the farmers are adapting to new type of weather. The study wa...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

...cal efficiency of 178 farmers was more than 90%. Furthermore, farmers with more years of schooling, greater age, smaller farm size, greater experience and obtained credit were having 82%, 83%, 83%, 87% and 84% technical efficiency respectively. The study results suggested that’ education, training and credit availability can play a significant role in increasing the output efficiency of strawberry far

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...colonies Cmm-specific primers CMM-5 and CMM-6 were used for amplification of 614bp product from pat-1 gene of bacterial plasmid. The whole bacterial DNA was used as template, extracted with standard procedures using commercially available kit i.e. protinase-K (sigma). 27 out of 34 isolates were confirmed as Cmm having 614bp band. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L) was the only weed from which pathogen was consistently isolated. From Northern KP, a total of ni...

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

... Fe (55-72%) over the farmers practice and only second after sole FYM 20 t ha-1 whilst the maximum Mn (115-145%) were observed in these treatments. The FYM5,10,15,20 reduced the BD significantly (p<0.01) by 7-12% and increased the porosity by 9-14%, saturation water by 9-20% and available water by 19-29%. However the INM5:75,10:50, 15:25, closely followed the FYM5,10,15,20 with reduction in BD by 9-11% and increased in porosity by 11-13%, saturation water b...

Ronaq Zaman*, Shahid Ali and Inam Ullah 

...ler farming. Broilers farmers also need to be provided with loan facility on easy installments, for a smooth running of broiler farms in future. 

...

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

...ion and increases the farmers’ profit. However, concerns about production may hinder widespread adoption of this technology by farmers. The aim of the study is to evaluate economic feasibility of IPM method in Punjab. The study consisted of 326 farmers (161 IPM producer and 165 NON-IPM producers) and compared input and output outcomes of IPM and NON-IPM farms and provided a detailed ...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
...rms) infections among farmers, education concerned and shepherds of Swat, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. Two hundred and twenty one (21.2%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal tapeworms. Seventy seven (7.39%) of the participants were infected with single parasite and one hundred forty four (13.8%) with multiple infections. <...

Mohammad Aslam*

...consumption plan of consumers. The study reveals that rice is a substitute food commodity for wheat and may be promoted as such. Since level of significance is small, it may need sustained promotional efforts and appropriate policy measures on the part of the state. Moreover, wheat being a staple diet of people for centuries, switching over to rice may happen only over a long period of time.

...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

...ance the wheat yield, farmers were of the view that the timely availability of quality inputs (seed, fertilizers) at reasonable prices, canal water supply at critical stages of plant growth, and affordable diesel and electricity prices should be ensured. Timely availability of credit to the resource poor farmers would also enhance the wheat yield in Punjab.

...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

...rvention based on the farmers’ perception regarding the acceptability and compatibility of the balance feed was done through survey of the participating and fellow farmers at the project sites. Paired sample ‘T’ test was used to compare the difference in milk yield. Farmers reported 0.5 to 2 liters per day increase in milk yield with the use of balance feed. The paired sa...

Liaqat Ali Shahid, M. Azhar Saeed and Nadeem Amjad*

... ultimately increased farmers’ prosperity.

...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...arcane crop by sample farmers with more than 70% and 76% of total sugarcane areas were devoted to recommended varieties during 2006-07 and 2007-08, respectively. More than 25 sugarcane varieties were cultivated by sample farmers in Pakistan. Majority of the farmers planted only one variety. Among recommended varieties, Thatta-10 and CP-77-400 were relatively the most commonly planted. That...

 Mazher Abbas*, Muhammad Waqas Akram**, Ikram Saeed*** and Arshed Bashir*

...all, medium and large farmers was Rs. 35913.10, Rs. 39635.54 and Rs. 39868.80 acre-1 respectively. Average of net income by small, medium and large farmers was Rs. 21194.59, Rs. 20608.26 and Rs. 19956.50 respectively. Benefit cost ratio for small, medium and large farmers was 2.44:1.00, 2.08:1.00 and 2.00:1.00 respectively. The study revealed that canola production in Central Punjab is pro...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

...rs and 31 beneficiary farmers using a structured pretested questionnaire. The main influencing factor in keeping bucks was goat breed improvement. All the sample respondents were convinced of the benefits of crosses with Beetal buck and reported that the offsprings Beetal were of higher body weight (40% higher), good looking and well built. Regarding the suitability of Beetal with fodder and forage in the area, majority of the farmers<...

 Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Hassnain Shah, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal**

...vealed that Pakistani farmers’ profitability improved slightly during the study period but at the same time overall purchasing power of the farmers dropped. Pakistani farmers are expected to loose and consumers to gain if free agricultural trade (in selected commodities) opened with the neighboring India. It is suggested that farmer friendly polici...

 Zaheeruddin Mirani*and Aslam Memon**

...udy was the fact that farmers were not receiving new agricultural information from agricultural extension as most of the farmers were not visited. This entails the fact that farmers are not alone responsible for non-adoption of improved practices. Pesticide/fertilizer agents were viewed as effective in transferring messages, however, they were limited to their product sales since they have...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...ic and livelihoods of farmers in semi arid zones of Punjab and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan. Data for the study has been taken from various issues of Crop Area Production (by districts) MINFA (Economic Wing), district agricultural departments and meteorological department, Islamabad. Primary data for the study was collected in 2010 by conducting farm level surveys in Kohat and Attock districts. Clusters of six villages were selected from each distr...

 Rubina Bano, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif and Waqar Akhtar*

...of the sample poultry farmers along with cost and profitability analysis. Broiler farming was done by adult males on full time basis. It was the main source of income of a family. The average flock size in the study area was 4033 birds. The study also bifurcates the cost structure and fixed cost accounts for 7 % while variable cost accounts for 93% of total cost of production. Feed makes the major share and accounts for 49.34%. Broiler production in the study ...

 Muhammad Afzal, Sarfraz Ahmad , Abdul Salam Baloch* and Qazi Bashir Ahmad**

...arket. This will help farmers to know the exact weight of animal and brings them at par with other market agents in price bargaining. So, the good quality animals will bring more if they are sold by grade and weight.

...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1*, Rehmat Ullah1, Asif Nawaz1 and Ejaz Ashraf2 

...in the empowerment of farmers towards the sustainable development. Five districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa such as Mansehra, Dir Lower, Swat, Dera Ismail Khan and Swabi were the sampled districts and 80 farmers registered with Farm Services were randomly selected from each district. Thus, sample size was making a total of 400 respondents. Primary data were collected with the help of pre-tested interview schedule through persona...

Anish Shrestha 

...sample for the study. Farmers were rearing on an average 34.54 hives and average honey productivity was 34.6 Kg/hive. Average production cost was NRs. 7392.52 with the average net profit of NRs. 2987.05 (1 USD = 106 NRs), and B:C ratio was 1.67. Labor cost, migration cost and expenditure on sugar drug and comb foundation seems to have positive and significant relation with gross return. All of them appeared to be underutilized and needed to be increased by 39%...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...breaks this rotation. Farmers are aware of the beneficial effects of this crop rotation and believed that this riceberseem rotation control weeds in the next wheat crop along with yield -1 -1 improvement of both rice (upto 5.4 md acre ) and wheat (4.4 md acre ). However there is need to assess the economic impact and evaluation of berseem in rice-wheat cropping system and evaluation of different wheat planting techniques in relation with residue management. Th...

Arshed Bashir *, Shamsheer-Ul-Haq**, Mazher Abbas*, M. Aamir Munir** and Aneela Afzal***

Corresponding author:ssrifaisalabad@gmail.com

IMPACT OF SUGARCANE MILLS DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ON CANE PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB
...2010. The beneficiary farmers were operating significantly larger land holdings. Area under new high yielding, with more sugar recovery varieties was relatively higher at beneficiary farms as compared to non-beneficiary farms. The beneficiary farmers were getting higher returns from sugarcane production (fresh and ratoon crops) as compared to non-beneficiary farms. Inclusion of small and medium farme...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...as yet to be taken to farmers' field effectively. The present paper reviews these efforts, lapses and unfolds new strategies in research and extension in future.

...

 Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Umar Farooq, Nadeem Akmal*, Shahid Munir and Bashir Hussain**

POTENTIAL FOR INVESTMENT IN INDIGENOUS TECHNOLOGIES: A CASE OF LOW COST SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION STRUCTURES IN RAINFED POTHWAR, PAKISTAN
...efits realized by the farmers recorded through assessment survey revealed that the technology had a short payback period along with internal rate of return varying in the range of 25-37% under rainfed conditions and positive net present value. The farmers' perceptions revealed that the technology can solve the erosion problem along with 10-35% increase in crop yield and save repair and maintenance cost incurred on eroded lan...

 Mazher Abbas*, Tahir Mehmood**, Arshed Bashir*, Muneeb Zafar*** and Aneela Afzal****

ECONOMICS OF LALLEMANTIA ROYLEANA (TUKHAM-EBALANGOO) PRODUCTION IN THE LOW INTENSITY CROPPING ZONE OF THE PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
..., medium and large -1 farmers was Rs. 44175, Rs. 52483.02 and Rs. 55247.73 acre respectively. Average net income by small, medium and large farmers was Rs. 25281.02, Rs. 28734.98 and Rs. 28763.83, respectively. Benefit cost ratio for small, medium and large farmers was 2.34:1.00, 2.21:1.00 and 2.09:1.00 respectively. Cultivation of L. royleana in Punjab is profitable enterprise. Because of...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...r-wheat will help the farmers to sustain productivity of these crops, stable economic benefits and improvement in soil nutrients and organic matter over time.

...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...oved varieties to the farmers. An approved wheat variety 'Chakwal-50' of rainfed areas was selected for certified seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joint venture of a study on comparison of seed source(Certified vs. Farmer's seed) contribution towards wheat yield at six sites in the District. All the agronomic practices were the same in both -2 treatments. The number of fertile tillers m were significantly higher in certified s...

 Akhtar A. Siddiqui and Allah W. Rind*

EXTENSION FIELD WORKERS’ PERCEPTION OF COTTON INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME IN SINDH PROVINCE
...ogramme was to enable farmers to be self sufficient, using practices that are agro-ecological friendly. This study was carried out in four districts of Sindh province (Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Matiari, and Mirpurkhas). The sample size comprised 48 EFWs who participated in Training of Facilitators (ToF) and erecuted FFSs during 2001 and 2004. The results revealed that the EFWs performed effectively to attain the objectives of IPM programme. It appears that EF...

 Muhammad Zubair Anwar, M. Azeem Khan, Ikram Saeed, Akhtar Ali*, Shafique Zahid and Abdul Majid**

SMALL FARMERS PERCEPTIONS REGARDING IMPROVED FODDER AND FORAGE VARIETIES: RESULTS OF PARTICIPATORY ON FARM RESEARCH
...larly majority of the farmers (68%) pointed out 50% increase in dry stalk yield. Majority of the respondents (83%) appreciated the newly introduced plant species while about 17% have shown their interest in fruit trees.

...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...aled that a number of farmers received visits from private extension field staff on a fortnightly, monthly and quarterly basis, but not from public extension staff during these periods. When public field staff did visit, the favored method of extension was by exhibition and seminar, which ranked 1st and nd 2 , respectively, based on the mean score for each extension teaching method used. A majority of the farmers received fa...

 Wabekwa, J.W., I.A. Sodagni and F.K. Mohammad*

PHYSIOLOGICAL GROWTH AND YIELD EVALUATION IN PMINERALIZED SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L.) UNDER SUDANOSAHELIAN AGRO-ECOLOGY, NIGERIA
...ld be recommended for farmers' adaptive farm trials in the agro-ecological location.

...

 Sajida Taj*, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan**, Mazher Abbas and Arshed Bashir***

PRICE SPREAD AND MARKETING MARGINS OF CUT ROSE IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ata collected from 34 farmers, 13 wholesalers-cum-commission agents and 20 retailers from main flower producing areas of Kasur and Faisalabad districts from Punjab province, the structure and marketing margins of producers and other marketing intermediaries are quantified along the existing two marketing channels for cut flowers. In the first channel the main players were producers, wholesalers-cum-commission agents, retailers and consu

 Ayesha Tahir* and Zafar Altaf**

DETERMINANTS OF INCOME FROM VEGETABLES PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NORMAL AND OFF-SEASON VEGETABLES IN ABBOTTABAD
...jority of the sampled farmers were growing tomato and cucumber. There was not much fluctuation in the income among the farmers in normal season but the income from off-season vegetable production was almost double. Most of the farmers were not highly educated but many of them had their own land or land rented or shared in with other farmers so they were ...

 Shafique Qadir Memon*, Muhamamd Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal** Nadeem Amjad***, Muhammad Azhar Saeed, Shabbir Kalwar, Asif Ali Mirani and Habib Iqbal Javed****

TILLAGE AND NPK EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPRING MAIZE IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...owever, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK @ -1 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop.

...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...ides opportunities to farmers of improving various skills through practicing various techniques by themselves. Considering therefore, the importance of this approach, the study was conducted in 2011 to examine the role of FFS in enhancing skills of farming community in the central region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The data were collected through survey method on various aspects from 280 randomly selected farmer respondents. The data collected were analyz...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-din*, Syed Haider Abbas*, Maqsood Qamar* and Muhammad Noman*

EFFECT OF SPLIT N FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON PHYSIOAGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...r rainfed conditions. Farmers usually apply full N dose at seeding. However, winter showers during vegetative growth period provide an opportunity to apply N in split doses. Study was conducted to find out appropriate N rate and application method to enhance wheat productivity. -1 Three N rates i.e., 60, 90, and 120 kg ha and three application methods i.e. full basal N dose at planting and N application in two and three equal split doses at tiller formation an...

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

RAISED BED TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT CROP IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF CAMEL PRODUCTS IN SEMIDESERT AND DESERT AREAS OF PAKISTAN
..., 2011 from 220 camel farmers and 17 market intermediaries. It is found that both camel farmers and market intermediaries were less educated. It is observed that markets for camel milk, meat, hides and hair are less established in semi desert and desert areas of the country. Mean production of milk per farm household was 5.4 and 6.5 liters per day in summer and winter seasons, respectively; however, none of the surveyed far<...

 Naheed Zahra*, Muhammad Zubair Anwar*, Sonila Hassan** and Irfan Mehmood**

INSTITUTIONAL CREDIT ARRANGEMENT AND THEIR IMPLICATION ON AGRICULTURAL INCOME IN THE SELECTED VILLAGES OF RAWALPINDI DISTRICT
...pacity of subsistence farmers. The aim of the present research was to ascertain the impact of institutional credit on the agricultural income of the sample farmers. The study was based on the primary data collected from 150 farmers through purposive random sampling. Regression analysis was done to obtain the results. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method was applied to generate the results. R...

 Hafiz Sultan Mahmood*, Munir Ahmad**, Tanveer Ahmad*, Muhammad Azhar Saeed* and Muhammad Iqbal***

POTENTIALS AND PROSPECTS OF PRECISION AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN - A REVIEW
...o provide benefits to farmers as well as reduced environmental stresses in the developed world. Present paper provides an overview of precision agriculture and examines the potentials, prospects, implications, issues and relevance of precision agricultural applications in Pakistani agricultural system. There is a scope of many precision technologies to be implemented in the country. In this perspective, farmers and governmen...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad**, Badar Naseem Siddiqui***, Muhammad Zakaria Yousuf Hassan****, Ijaz Ashraf**, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan***** and Aijaz Kuharoo******

COMMUNICATION OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION THROUGH GROUP CONTACT METHODS IN PAKISTAN
...280 randomly selected farmers of four districts and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Survey method was used for data collection by researchers using a pre-tested research instrument. The results of the study show that sources of agricultural information used by the farmer respondents were seed/ fertilizer dealers, workshops, panel discussions, role playing and brainstorming. However, seed/ fertilizer dealers proved to be the most effective source of agri...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

ECONOMICS OF COW MILK PRODUCTION IN SINDH AND AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
...data of 130 livestock farmers, selected through simple random sampling technique. Shares of different feed resources in total feeding cost have been determined and cost-benefit analysis of milk production by ecological zones was also conducted. Wide variations in share of feed sources in total feeding cost per annum, milk productivity and profitability of main cow breeds across selected areas have been observed. Concentrate feeding is the main cost item for co...

Tanzila Kazmi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan**

FARMERS BELIEFS ABOUT INDIGENOUS FARMING PRACTICES AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
...ich the sample of 187 farmers were drawn out of the population of 3680, to cultivate insight and beliefs regarding the indigenous farming practices and how it is related with sustainable agricultural development. During the study a mixture of qualitative techniques including interview guide(s), focus group discussions (FGDs) and case study were used. The study revealed that indigenous knowledge is a long term process and demands a complete approach to achieve ...

 Naveed Jehan*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla**, Muhammad Shahzad*, Abid Hussain**, Muhammad Zahoor*, Majid Khan* and Ahmed Bilal*

USE OF MOBILE PHONES BY FARMING COMMUNITY AND ITS IMPACT ON VEGETABLE PRODUCTIVITY
...hancement, growth and farmers’ prosperity. Mobile phone helps farmers in getting information about commodity prices in different markets. The farmers can get up-to-date information about various markets in different regions and can accordingly arrange transportation and labor services in time. The study was conducted to see the effect of timely information availability with mobile on...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...ation decision of the farmers. But yield for mung and fertilizers price for both pulses were insignificant factors in influencing the farmers' decision to allocate land. Production of pluses mainly depends on area under the crop. Pulses area under irrigated conditions and sowing season rainfall positively influence the production of gram and mung. Technological factors by the time trend had given positive impact on the yield...

 Rehmat Ullah*, Kalim Ullah** and Mohammad Zafarullah Khan*

EXTENSION SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) IN DISTRICT DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...ating the problems of farmers and suggesting a suitable solution for these problems. Due to the utmost importance of agricultural extension services, its role was investigated in the major date producing areas (Dakki, Mian Wada, Mathra Abad, Jhok Ghamywali, Habib Abad, Bilot Sharif, Himat, Jhok Moazam, Matwala Shah, Chura and Jhok Malkanri) of the district Dera Ismail Khan by personal interview method from a sample of 51 respondents selected from these village...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Nouman Badar*

YIELD GAP DETERMINANTS FOR WHEAT PRODUCTION IN MAJOR IRRIGATED CROPPING ZONES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ctional data from 210 farmers for the crop year 2009-10. Results suggest that farm level wheat yields are less than the potential yield level by 33.0%, 43.0% and 50.6% in the mixed-cropping, cotton-wheat and rice-wheat zones of the province, respectively. Ordinary least square regression analysis of wheat production by assuming Cobb-Douglas specification reveals that the number of irrigations, usage of farm yard manure and fertilizers contribute positively and...

 Rashid Minhas*, Iftikhar Ahmad Khan**, Faisal Saeed Awan**, Lal Hussain Akhtar*, Syed Awais Sajid Shah* and M. Shahjhan Bukhari* 

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND HYBRID IDENTIFICATION IN AMERICAN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) BY PCR BASED RAPD ANALYSIS
...n. Out of the 26 RAPD primers used for DNA amplification, 14 primers produced polymorphic bands, while 12 produced monomorphic bands. These 14 primers yielded total 96 RAPD markers, out of which only 40 were found polymorphic which resulted in 41.66% polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The number of RAPD markers produced ranged from 4 to 12. Average number of 6.40 bands per primer wa...

 Hassnain Shah*, Nadeem Akmal*, Waqas Farooq*, Muhammad Azeem Khan* and Shahid Munir**

SHIFT FROM SITE DEVELOPMENT TO SKILL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF WATER HARVESTING THROUGH MICRO CATCHMENTS
... to get insight about farmers' intention towards adoption of micro catchments as a useful tool for rainwater harvesting. The assessment of acceptability and compatibility of the intervention through farmers' perceptions, feed-back, practices and intentions regarding up-scaling the technology would develop the up-scaling and sustainability options for wider area. Under Watershed Rehabilitation and Irrigation Improvement Proje...

 Nusrat Habib*, Saima Rani*, Sabeen Siddiqui*, Shah Zaman** and Muhammad Zubair Anwar*

IMPACT OF MAJOR FARM INPUTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGARCANE: A CASE STUDY IN TEHSIL KOT ADDU, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... returns of sugarcane farmers.

...

 Syeda Aimen Hadi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan***

PERCEPTION, APPROACHES AND PRACTICES OF LOCAL FARMING AND DEVELOPMENT: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH
...eing abandoned by the farmers. Modern farming which is representative of development has increased the competition, transitioning, breaking the community into people experimenting on modern technology and those who are still finding means to adapt their traditional agriculture to the fast changing needs of the societies. The research was carried out in the villages of Ghora Gali and Aruka through qualitative and quantitative methods. Sustainable development in...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

INOCULATION AND INTER-CROPPING OF LEGUMES IN ESTABLISHED GRASS FOR INCREASING BIOMASS OF FODDER
...nd high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Interc...

 Anum Fatima*, Saleem Abid* and Sobia Naheed* 

TRENDS IN WHOLESALE PRICES OF ONION AND POTATO IN MAJOR MARKETS OF PAKISTAN: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS
...lt to manage by the consumers. Hence, the government has to make some measures, rules and regulations regarding control of prices. 

...

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

ECONOMICS OF PERI-URBAN RADISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN FAISALABAD
...rom 70 radish growing farmers selected randomly from peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. It was found that majority of farmers were not following recommendations of the agriculture department regarding seed rate, fertilizers, and irrigations. Majority of respondents (94.2%) reported the local Meno as the best yielding variety. Imported and 40 day varieties were not popular as only 5.8% far...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

ECONOMICS OF MILK PRODUCTION OF MAJOR DAIRY BUFFALO BREEDS BY AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN PAKISTAN
... purpose, 219 buffalo farmers were randomly selected from mixed and rice-wheat cropping zones of Punjab and Sindh provinces, mixed cropping zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, coastal zone of Sindh and mountainousAJK. Of these, 155 and 64 were Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breed farmers, respectively. The study revealed that among the structure of cost components, feed cost occupied the major share in total cost of mil...

 Muhammad Asif Jamil*, Nowshad Khan*, FarhatUllah Khan* and Muhammad Zakria*

EFFECTIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION TO THE FARMING COMMUNITY OF DISTRICT BHIMBER, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR
... data consists of 150 farmers. The study revealed that respondent's acquaintance with extension staff was very low as only 18.00% of the respondents had personal acquaintance with the extension staff and 12.67% of them knew extension staff through their neighbour, while 38% of respondents from their friends. The farmers who knew extension staff through relatives were only 16%. It was also found that demonstration, personal c...

 Quratulain*, Muhammad Aslam**, Muhammad Khalid Rafique*, Mian Atiq Ahmad* and Rashid Mahmood***

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ROSE APHID MACROSIPHUM ROSAE L. ON DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF ROSA INDICA L. IN PAKISTAN
...studies revealed that farmers growing roses on a commercial scale should grow Christan Diar to avoid aphid attack. Maximum average number of aphid nymph, winged and wingeless adults on leaves, buds and flowers were 11.11, 4.97 and 10.13, respectively observed on Perfecta variety

...

 Junaid Alvi*, Ijaz Ashraf*, Khalid Mehmood Ch*, Muhammad Iftikhar* and Saleem Ashraf**

IMPACT OF LIVESTOCK IN UPLIFTING RURAL LIVELIHOOD
...ic needs fulfillment. Farmers were spending income on family chores, education, health and other aspects of life. Informal discussions and observation dictated the lower productivity than the potential and inadequate awareness and adoption of precise dairy farming practices. Livestock keepers demanded provision of location specific best management practices, training on livestock management and market aspects. Essential veterinary services enabling the livesto...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...3%, implying that the farmers can still enhance their technical efficiency by 11% within the given inputs and technology. The results have demonstrated that maize crop is lucrative crop in the study area as maize growers have received increasing return to scale i.e., 1.90 (Ep>1), hence economies of scale exists. The variance parameter lambda (λ) and gamma (Γ) both were significant indicating the good fitness of model and inefficiency impact, re...

 Anwar Hussain* and Muhammad Rahman**

ROLE OF TRAININGS ON FARMERS' PROFITABILITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA
...impact of training on farmers' profitability in medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in mountainous areas of district Swat. A convenient sample of 100 respondents, engaged in MAPs in Chail Valley Madyan was taken. Information about revenue from MAPs, marketing, prices and quantities was collected through a structured questionnaire. The respondents were given training under Swiss Development Cooperation Project at the time of collection, harvesting, cleaning, d...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Khuda Bakhsh**, Sultan Ali Tariq*, Mahmood Nasir***, Rashed Saeed**** and Muhammad Ather Mahmood****

FACTORS AFFECTING GROUNDNUT YIELD IN POTHWAR REGION OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...lts showed that large farmers allocated significantly higher area (34%) to groundnut cultivation compared to other categories of farmers. The gross margins were also significantly higher at large farms. Ploughing frequency, seed rate and labor mandays have positive relationship with groundnut productivity. Therefore, the provision of improved groundnut production technologies package and improved seed to groundnut growers ma...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

MARKETING SYSTEM OF LIVE CAMELS IN THE DESERT ECOLOGIES OF PAKISTAN
...tan. Out of 220 camel farmers that were randomly interviewed for the study, during past one year sale of live camels was reported by more than half of the camel farmers. On an average two camels per farm mainly to meet urgent family cash needs. Mean ages of adult males, milking and non-milking females, male and female young stocks at the time of sale were 8.3, 10.8, 12.3, 1.8 and 2.3 years, respectively, with average sale pr...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Muhammad Sharif**, Abdul Hayee Qureshi*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla*** and Muhammad Azeem Khan*

COMPETITIVENESS OF TOMATO PRODUCTION IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... protection to tomato farmers in the study area. Net effect of policy or market failure is reducing the profitability of tomato producers at farm level which indicates lack of motivation from policies for farmers to expand tomato production as import substitute crop. Present study recommended competitiveness and economic efficiency analysis in other tomato producing regions of the country for year round tomato supply on the ...

  Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saqib Shakeel Abbasi and Abid Hussain*

FARMERS PERCEPTION TOWARDS THE APPLICATION OF BIOZOTE IN SELECTED DEMONSTRATED RICE FIELDS AT HAFIZABAD AND SHEIKHUPURA DISTRICTS
...p was demonstrated at farmers' fields in Hafizabad and Sheikhupura districts under the project “Improving Soil Fertility and Soil Health in Pakistan”. The present paper aimed to assess the performance of biozote on rice and is based on perceptions of farmers involved in on-farm demonstration trials. Four different treatments on each selected plot were carried out for demonstration purpose by a team of technical p...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA
...ncial benefits to the farmers of the area. Advance lines PF-400 & 9375 which performed well in the experiment and bear bright future prospects should be considered in designing future hybridization programs.

...

 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM TO FACILITATE FARMERS IN WHEAT, SUGARCANE AND OTHER CROP DISEASES IDENTIFICATION
...ication to facilitate farmers to communicate their crop related issues directly to agriculture scientists is proposed. This 'AXPERT Platform' consists of web application that provides user centered interface to farmers and a desktop application that facilitates agricultural scientists to identify crop diseases. A case study was developed from Faisalabad region where information about crops, their soil conditions and associat...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...ess to information on farmers' risk management adoption decisions keeping in view the potential correlation between these risk management adoption decisions. Bivariate and multinomial probit models are used to assess the impact of access to information on farmers' risk management adoption decisions using data collected from 330 randomly selected respondents from four districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Biva...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... and close contact of farmers with their livestock in Pakistan. Where the socio-economic conditions of rural population does not allow test and slaughter policy, therefore, mass vaccination is recommended to control brucellosis through local government support.

...

 Nusrat Habib*

RELATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUNFLOWER IN DISTRICT SWABI AND MARDAN
... by a large number of farmers only by 1990's. Sunflower cultivation trend kept on increasing from the year 1990 to 1999. Since then a continuous decreasing trend in adoption of sunflower has been observed. The present research work was planned to estimate the relative cost effectiveness of sunflower with competing crops like sugarcane and tobacco to find out the major factors which caused the decreasing trend of sunflower in the area. Primary data of 100 respo...

Muhammad Nawaz*, Anwar Javaid Wahla*, Muhammad Saleem Kashif*, Masood Qadir Waqar**, Muhammad Anjum Ali*** and Asim Raza Chadhar****

EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS NITROGEN LEVELS ON THE YIELD OF RICE GRAIN IN SHEIKHUPURA, PAKISTAN
...e widely grown by the farmers in rice-wheat around the experimental site. Every year, the nursery of both the rice cultivars was transplanted during the second week of July. The results indicated that different nitrogen levels had a significant effect on all studied parameters of both rice cultivars during all the years of experimentation. Both cultivars also differed significantly from each other in number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and paddy yiel...

Sher Muhammad , Ijaz Ashraf*, Amir Khatam**, and Naima
Nawaz*** 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES OF MODEL FARM SERVICES CENTERS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...tive participation by farmers in farm related activities. The present paper focuses on farmers' participation in various activities of MFSCs as influenced by their socio-economic characteristics. The target population of current study consisted of the member farmers of the MFSCs in four districts of KPK having different ecological mix cropping zones. Data were collected with the help of a ...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
...nd attributes of goat farmers in the Oodi agricultural region, Botswana. Ninety-one farmers were purposively selected based on milk production potential from a list of 170 farmers officially registered with the Oodi agriculture station. Farmers were visited to conduct face to face interviews and administer a questionnaire. The results showed that fa...
Selçuk Kaplan1,* and Sertaç Atalay2
...region using specific primers and cleavage with the BfoI enzyme. Allele frequencies of A and B were found with 0.915 and 0.085 respectively. The genotype frequencies of IGF1 gene were 0.85 (AA), 0.13 (AB) and 0.02 (BB). The SNP in the exon 3 of the LEP gene was detected by amplification of the 494 bp region using specific primers and cleavage with the BcnI enzyme. The estimated frequencies of three genot...

Khalid Khan*1, Muhammad Abdul Kamal2, Saubia Ramazan3, Gulawar Khan4, Gulzar Ali5 and Sheharyar Ahmed

...vestock income of the farmers by 65%. Furthermore, the elasticity of agricultural credit is higher than the elasticity of family size and education level. The elasticity of the credit, family size and education level are 11%, 0.09 % and 0.05% respectively. Thus, this paper argue that if the policy makers give priority to livestock in agricultural credit and devise easy credit procedures for the small farmers, will ultimatel...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Zafarullah Baloch3 

...nowledge level of the farmers for producing, processing and marketing of dates in Panjgur-Balochistan, Pakistan. Snowball sampling technique was used to select 90 respondents. The data revealed that average age of the farmers was 53.9 years with education from secondary to graduate level. The results of the study showed that many of the farmers on average have 10 acres of land under date p...

Irfan Ullah, Shahid Ali*, Muhammad Fayaz and Abbas Ullah Jan 

...d experienced broiler farmers efficiently allocated resources on their farms. Therefore, the policy makers needs to provide education and training facilities to the farmers which are appropriate to rearing of broiler in open shed farms for the efficient utilization of resources and enhancing productivity of broilers. 

...
 Nazia Qamar1, Sher Khan Panhwar1,* and Ralf Riedel2,*
...ng of Scomberoides commersonnianus and S. tol were obtained between July 2013 and June 2015 for stomach content analysis. Analysis of prey composition was done using permutational analysis of variance (permanova), with species, life stage (juvenile and adults), gender, and weather (rainy and dry season) as factors. Patterns of empty stomachs were investigated to estimate feeding intensity. Feeding intensity was estimated with logistic regression,...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...ion services to guide farmers on proper inputs utilization, low interest rate crop based loans and comprehensive policy of setting right price for output to increase net return and per unit yield. 

...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...ion services to guide farmers on proper inputs utilization, low interest rate crop based loans and comprehensive policy of setting right price for output to increase net return and per unit yield. 

...

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

...e number of hours the farmers operates their well ranged from 2 to 10 hours per day. The water quality reveals that pH of the water varies from 8.2-8.9 while ECw ranges from 0.4-4.7 dS/m. Out of 36, only inseven villages groundwater has ECw higher than the useable limit recommended by WAPDA (1974) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio was within safe range, following various classification schemes. In Richard’s salinity diagram, it is observed that 21 (60%) villa...

Muhammad Suleman Bacha1*, Mohammad Nafees1 and Syed Adnan2
 

...s vulnerabilities and farmers adaptive measures toward climate change in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Additionally, vulnerability matrix was used to identify livelihood resources that are vulnerable to climate change induced hazards. Results showed that primarily deforestation and pollution contributed more to the perceived causes of climate change which resulted frequent and sever floods or droughts and reduction in agricultural productivit...

Nihal Ahmad Hadi, Shahid Ali* and Umer Wahid

 

...data from 150 broiler farmers. A well-structured interview schedule was used with both close and open-ended questions. Data from broiler farmers were collected during April and May 2016. Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) technique was used for estimation of stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas type production function. Results indicated the mean technical efficiency of 0.89 with the range of 0.63 to 0.97. This implies that far...

Shahid Ali1* and Salamat Ali2  

...pled respondents. 120 farmers, 60 farmers of open shed and 60 farmers of EC shed were interviewed during 2014. Dummy variable regression was applied for estimation and comparison of costs and revenues of open shed and EC shed broiler farms. Results revealed that there was statistically significant difference between the cost of production and net revenue of open shed and EC shed farms. Cos...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
... by using N2 specific primers that confirmed 100% of the matrix (M) gene positive isolates as subtype H9N2. This is the first report from Pakistan that confirms prevalence of AIV H9N2 among different bird species across various regions of the country. AIV remains a pandemic threat therefore vigilance for routine AIV surveillance programs and improved vaccination strategies are highly desirable.
...

Muhammad Waqar Yasin*, Mobushir Riaz Khan and Muhammad Amin 

...of this paper so that formers be trained to take necessary precautions while looking after their crops at different stages of crop cycle regarding these climatic variables i.e. temperature and rainfall. 

...

Urooba Pervaiz1, Abdus Salam1, Dawood Jan2, Ayesha Khan1 and Mahmood Iqbal

... was given to all the farmers, results of t-test showed that after getting training; tomato yield, income, total cost of seed, weeding, and pesticides were increased, while seed rate gm per acre was decreased. It is concluded that all the respondents adopted HYVs. Major constrains in the adoption of extension recommendations were high price of agricultural inputs, non-availability of; cold storage, agricultural credit and certified vegetable seeds, lack of fer...

Abdur Rehman1*, Wang Jian2, Noor Khan3 and Raheel Saqib

...gn: justify;">Chinese farmers faced price volatility risk of major agricultural crops. The main purpose of this article is to compute and determine exactly the sizes and degrees of major crops market risk. The market risk analysis of major crops such as coarse grain rice, wheat, corn, cotton and soybean are determined using the VaR (Value at Risk) model. The practical consequences indicated that the normal distribution model is not appropriate used in evaluati...

Baharullah Khattak1*, Saifullah2, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharraf Ahmad2, Asad Ali2, Mohammad Junaid2, Ijaz Ahmad Khan3, Taj Ali Khan1 and Mubbashir Hussain1 

...d set of three random primers was used for this purpose, which resulted in 113 bands on gel for the 15 isolates of T. harzianum. The analysis of the bi-variate data, using Unweighted Paired Groups Method Averages, divided the indigenous isolates of Trichoderma, into four well-defined clusters. These results clearly revealed that there were considerable genetic differences among the Trichoderma isolates. While, there was no correlation, found between RAPD clust...
Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2, Sarfraz Ahmed Mian2 and Atta Ullah Khan2
...cher. Sample firm was Farmers Market Pvt. Ltd which is unique entity involved in commercial production of hydroponic products in Pakistan. Data on various production and economic variables was collected from FMP during 2009 to 2013. Variable of the study were area, area allocation decisions of farmer, customer structure, markets, costs involved in production process and revenue earned from selling of the produce in both local and in export market. Yield of hyd...

Saima Rani*, Hassnian Shah, Nusrat Habib and Muhammad Azeem Khan 

...llingness to pay of consumers estimated by using the probit model. The model contains the information of socioeconomic characteristics, awareness and preferences of organic vegetables and product attributes. The empirical findings indicate that age, employment status, income, education, number of children, taste, no chemical residual, high nutritional value, freshness and colour of the vegetables have positive effects on consumer to pay a high price. While i...

Rehman-Ud-din* and Naeem-Ur-Rehman Khattak 

... a sample size of 175 farmers was randomly selected from nine villages on a proportional basis. The study reveals that a large number of both types of farmers are neither completely mechanised nor completely non-mechanised. Majority of the farmers in each type of farmers do not have their own farming machines/animals. Per acre productivity of mechanised ...

Usman Shakoor1, Ali Nasir2, Mudassar Rashid1, Muhammad Iftikhar-ul-Husnain1, Nabila Khurshid1 and Zuhair Husnain

...in return, would help farmers increase income leading to higher income tax revenue. 

...
Zeqin Fu, Yunfang Tian, Yingying Ye*, Pengzhi Qi and Changwen Wu
...ne hundred and twenty primers pairs to screen all microsatellite loci and twenty-three polymorphic loci were identified. The number of alleles per loci ranged from six to twenty-one with an average of 12.913 and the allele size varied between 161 and 470 bp. The observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.143 to 1.000 and from 0.351 to 0.926, with average values of 0.614 and 0.771, respectively. Eighteen loci accorded with the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium...

Wiqar Ahmad1* and Farmanullah Khan

... The control (C), ii. Farmers practice (FP; 60:45:0 N: P2O5: K2O), iii. Recommended NPK dose (RD; 120:90:60 N: P2O5: K2O ) and iv. 60:90:60 N: P2O5: K2O integrated with FYM 20 t ha-1 (N1/2PKF) in sub plots. Maize (Zea mays L.) CV Azam (yield data contained in this paper belongs to maize only), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) CV Uqab and lentils (Lense Culinarus M.) CV NM-89 were cultivated in rotation. Results revealed that during 2006, maize yield did not improv...
Xi-wen Chen1,2, Qian Wang1,3, Miao Yin1, Zhong-hui Pu1,2, Ai-wei Guo3, Lian Li 1,3, Wen-tao Luo1,3 and Xiong-qing Wang1,*
...to detect PRRSV. Four primers were designed targeting the ORF5 gene of PRRSV were designed. Reverse transcription and amplification of the viral RNA using AMV reverse transcriptase was optimal at a constant temperature of 65 °C. The output of the RT-LAMP assay was visualized using 1% agarose gel electrophoresis or color change after the addition of the SYBR Green I dye. The RT-LAMP method was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than RT-PCR for PRRSV dete...
Naeem Ahmad1,* and Zulqurnain2*
...critical decision for farmers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the growth performance of two GIFT strains (GIFT-Th, imported from Thailand; GIFT-Tw, obtained from a local hatchery) in two earthen ponds, fed with commercially available feed. Similar feeding regime and physical conditions were maintained for both treatments. It was found that there was no significant difference in final total length (TL) and standard length (SL) of the fish in bo...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Mujahid Iqbal3  

.... A sample size of 60 farmers was selected by systematic sampling technique using the available list of the farmers provided by Agricultural Extension Department. The respondents were than randomly assigned into two groups, one group was comprised of experimental group (to whom a set of advisory instructions were sent by mobile phone) and other was control (face-to-face). Two- population independent t-test was applied for co...

Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali, Liaquat Ali Jamali, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro*, Shakeel Hussain Chattha, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto, Naseer Ahmed Abbasi and Noor Mehdi Qumi  

... suggested that local farmers should adopt sugarcane trash cover method which do provides a convenient and safe storage system. 

...

Anish Shrestha* and Samata Baral 

...s. Result showed that farmers perceived the climate change as change in rainfall pattern, rainfall duration, onset of the monsoon, and changes from summer and winter etc. Some farmers realized the change in climate and its impact on their usual farming practices. But, majority of farmers (57.88%) are still unaware about climate change and how to deal with it. Among total respondent, only 1...

Amar Razzaq1, Abdur Rehman4*, Abdul Hassan Qureshi2, Iqbal Javed3, Raheel Saqib5 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal6 

...ta collected from 120 farmers located in Nurpur Thal, Bhalwal, Sargodha and Lodhran districts of Punjab province. These areas were purposively selected based on relatively higher concentration of HEI infrastructures installed on the farms. Sprinkler irrigation system was mainly installed on wheat crop while the drip irrigation systems were installed on mango orchards. Therefore, one half of the sample consisted of modern and conventional far

Sajad Ali1*, Syed Asghar Ali Shah2, Jaffar Ali3, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal4, Arshadullah Jadoon5 and Farmanullah

...straints faced by the farmers in augmenting and stimulating export of the country. The pea’s cultivators and also market agents were quizzed by using structured questionnaires in two related districts that is Haripur and Mansehra in the year 2013-14. The data were analyzed by using SPSS Package version 22 for calculating marketing marginal analysis and cross-tabulation were also been employed. The studied statistics of the land size of chosen pea’s...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...wing cotton crop. The farmers of Pakistan surveying and evolution for high quality of fiber and high quality of lint yield sweetening, the Pakistan also fulfills its 18.8% of comestible oil demand from cotton seed oil. Information acquiring on seed cotton oil and its consumptions is while ever short and not available. There is impregnable need from industry to furthermore sanctify cottonseed oil to provide it suit for direct used as vegetable cooking oil alter...

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 

...he perceptions of the farmers about the different dimensions of agriculture LD with the construction of LD index. For achieving this primary data was collected by proportionate random sampling techniques form 90 sampled farmers through face to face interview survey method by filling a questionnaire. Farmer’s perceptions on agriculture LD were measured through the extent of severity scale in terms of LD dimensions and i...

Abid Hussain1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2, Muhammad Anjum Ali Buttar3, Umar Farooq4, Muhmmad Islam5 and Zahid Ullah Khan1 

... pass benefits to the farmers by reducing input prices through reduction in GST, providing cash subsidy and supplying inexpensive feed gas for fertilizer industry. Currently, cash subsidy on urea is costing Rs. 12 billion to national exchequer and total tax relief (all products inclusive) costing around Rs. 40 billion to the national exchequer, respectively. Thus, total financial implication of subsidy and tax relief is Rs. 52 billion. In the existing tax regi...

Monsif Ur Rehman1*, Hidayat-ur-Rahman1, Muhammad Iqbal2, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1 and Zahir Shah3 

...; T3 were the best performers in terms of maximum grain yield (above checks) and desirable SCA effects. Another 33 crosses exhibited positive SCA effects for 100-grains weight and grain yield and could possibly be utilized in maize breeding programs for developing high yielding maize hybrids accompanied with other desirable attributes 

...

Aneel Salman1, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Muhammad Ashfaq2, Mudassar Rashid1 and Usman Shakoor1 

...for their sustenance. Farmers’ perception about climate change, current adaptation measures, and decision-making process is important for farmers’ successful adaptation strategies. Using data of 205 conventional farmers from three district of Punjab province, this study provides insights into farmers’ perceptions about climate change, o...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

...n services would help farmers to redirect their scarce resource allocation and reduce allocative inefficiency. 

...
Ghazunfar Rashid1, Muhammad Avais1, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Rais Ahmed3,*, Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Naveed-ul-Haque4, Mehtab Ahmad5Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Naimat Ullah Khan6
...ncome for small dairy farmers in developing countries. Dairy animals fed with a fodder containing a balanced nitrogen contents produce high quality milk. Excess use of nitrogen fertilizers in the soil cause excess accumulation of nitrates in fodder, which is the main source of nitrate poisoning in dairy animals. In the present study nitrate contents in fodder crops, viz., Sorghum bicolor (Jowar), Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra), Zea mays...

Nadia Sharif1, *Neelma Munir1 and Shagufta Naz1

MICROBIAL PRODUCTION OF ALGINATE
...ds, water soluble biopolymers. Alginate is a natural polysaccride that occur as 30 to 60% structural component of brown algae. Alginate favorable properties like ease of gelation and biocompatibility promote its applications in engineering and bio medical science.

...

Farah Deeba, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir, Muhammad Irfan, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Chitinase production in organisms: a review
... durable, richest biopolymers distributed widely in nature both in the terrestrial and marine environments. Chitinase are chitin degradable enzyme have control of phytopathogens, physiological functions and degradation of chitinous waste. Interest in chitin wastes utilization is increasing day by day because of its natural resistance against degradation. The review focused on different sources of naturally chitinase production in organisms was discussed.

...

Umair Talib1, Ijaz Ashraf2, Robert Agunga1 and Saleem Ashraf3* 

...lder or resource-poor farmers in a tropical country, such as Pakistan, are often the cause of environmental degradation and at the same are impacted by it. More than 80% of the farmers in Pakistan are resource-poor or practice subsistence farming which degrades the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for climate smart extension education for these farmers. The main purpose for ...

Imran Khan1*, Muhammad Iqbal1 and Malik Muhammad Hashim2 

...n important role. The farmers do not have sufficient knowledge about the suitable irrigation time (interval). The aim of study was to explore the best irrigation time for sugar beet crop. Hence, this study examines the physiological response of sugar beet cv. California-kws with different irrigation intervals at the research farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal university Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan during 2013-14 and 2014-15. The study was conducted using Random...

Mudassar Javed, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed*, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Afzal 

...mporary issues of the farmers in Afro-Asian regions. This two-year field study was carried out to evaluate an IPM (bio-intensive) module developed by selecting through in-situ evaluation and incorporating the most effective pest control options along with the biological (parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis egg cards) and cultural techniques against okra lepidopterous borers. According to results, maximum shoot and fruit infestations (i.e. 19.86 and 15.63%, respec...

Raza Ullah1* and Jamal Shah

... and heavy rains etc. Farmers adopt available risk coping tools to minimize the impacts of such risks at farm level however, these adoptions require farmers to incur cost or forgo part of the potential benefits from agricultural production. These costs (explicit or implicit) are referred to as the cost of risk management. Previous studies on risk management in agriculture however have ignored such costs. The present study is...

Khwaja Tariq Ziad1, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad2 and Muhammad Suleman Bacha3* 

...for small-scale dairy farmers in Pakistan. The study aimed at explaining the costs of the chosen supply channels and their transaction costs, the role of the mid-agent opportunistic behaviour in the relative milk supply chain. Using case study and qualitative method approach, eight key informants including five farmers, one local middleman, and representatives of two dairy companies were interviewed during the study, focusin...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Nosheen Fatima1, Raheel Babar3 and Ikramul Haq4  

...problems encounter by farmers of Pakistan. It is vitally important to take proactive measures to enact timely solutions to this issue, and avoid further losses in biodiversity. The present study was aimed to determine the awareness level of the respondents regarding biodiversity conservation. The results showed that farmers were relatively aware of regarding species diversity; however, they do not know the modern techniques ...

Aisha Siddiqua1*, Munir Ahmad1 and Nusrat Habib2 

...n Pakistan in future. Farmers are expected to receive significant positive benefits from the adaptation of the combination of strategies. Farmer’s adaptive capacity, farm size, access to credit and sources of information on climate change are significant drivers of adaptation to climate change. 

...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...ing to requirement to farmers by bank; Agriculture extension programs should be launched for transfer of knowledge and for awareness of rice growers; Inputs should be provided at door step on subsidized rate to farmer; Legal programs should be arranged for farmer awareness in the study area; Road facilities should be provided to farmer for pick and drop of input and output; Several farm plots should be combined and modern farming be practiced on the farm for e...

Naseer Ahmed Abbasi1, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1*, Bilawal Abbasi2, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1, Najeeb Ahmed Khan Nangraj1, Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahto1 and Sajjad Ahmed Morio1 

... but land manager and farmers face the main problem when and where to cultivate. The present study was aims to analyze the efficiency of the parametric and fuzzy set methods in the land assessment for wheat production of Tando Allahyar district of Sindh Province. The present study able to provide grade performance suitability of lands for agricultural purposes; it could be more helpful for farmers of the research area. Fuzzy...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Muhammad Jafir1, Muhammad Wajid Javed1, Sumaira Maqsood3 and Samina J.N. Ahmad1,2,*
...se I (COI) gene based primers were used for identification of this pest collected from various cotton fields in Punjab. Phylogenetic analysis was also complemented to differentiate DCB identified from other countries of the world. The PCR bands obtained in gel electrophoresis amplified PCR fragments from all DCB species at 710 bp. The sequencing results and phylogenetic analysis with sequences submitted at NCBI database revealed that DCB have 99-100% similarit...

Muhammad Ali1,2*, Norsida Man2 and Farrah Melissa Muharam2 

...lso the motivation of farmers. Perceptions of farmers could be influenced by a risky environment to become either risk averse or risk neutral. Indeed, less attention has been paid by researchers to empirically examine the motivation of farmers to manage their agricultural risks exclusively from the lens of Malaysia. Thus, the research was formulated to assess the motivation of farming comm...
Khalid Khan1, Saima Liaqat2*, Somaiya Rasheed1 and Ihsanullah Kakar3
...one hundred livestock farmers of diverse Tehsil/Union Council of District Lasbela. The findings of the study exhibited that trivial farm holders widely used livestock for income generation. Furthermore, livestock have a predominant role to accomplish the rudimentary needs of the households. Moreover, livestock offer opportunities of income generation and to spend it on education, health and housing, which eventually enhanced the living standard of the househol...
Ayesha Chaudhary1, Fouzia Mumtaz1, Muhammad Yaseen2* and Muhammad Younis Afzal3 
 
...ere is a need to make farmers aware of the reasons and causes of climate change so that they may contribute to their side in actively advocating the cause. The present study was survey-based research and carried out in the Faisalabad district of Punjab, Pakistan. The data was collected using a multistage sampling method with the help of well-structured interview schedule. At first, on the basis of simple random sampling Faisalabad saddar tehsil was selected. S...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Irshad Abbasi2, Himayatullah Khan1, Arjumand Nizami3, Abdul Hakeem4, Jawad Ali3 and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...t on glacier/snow and farmers face sever water shortage at the time of crops sowing in March/April when glacier/snow water is not available. It is therefore recommended to construct water storages at community as well as at farm level as well considering lifting of ground water or river water to meet irrigation water requirements at the crops sowing period. 

...

Ayesha Khan*, Zubair Ahmad Khan, Urooba Pervaiz And Mehmood Iqbal 

... constraints faced by farmers. Majority (86%) extension agents reported that the extension services are farmer friendly. The most appropriate teaching methods were group meetings (38%) and method demonstration (24%), while the most frequently used method for farmers contact was individual contact method (63%) as identified by extension agents. Non- significant association exist between diffusion of improved practices with ad...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

... Bt and Non-Bt cotton farmers in two core cotton districts Muzaffargarh and Rahim Yar Khan of Punjab, Pakistan. In this study, the stochastic frontier approach was employed for empirical analysis and multiple stages random sampling technique used for data collection of 400 Bt and Non-Bt cotton farmers for the year of 2012-13. The results of the study have indicated Bt cotton farmers of bot...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

... livelihood of cotton farmers in Pakistan. Potential productivity in agriculture is possible with introduction of advanced mechanization, which is only feasible with financial injections in this sector. The study in hand has focused the role of credit in the cotton production of southern Punjab. Simple Random Sampling technique was used in the study for selecting the respondents in both districts of cotton area. Pre-tested questionnaire was developed for the c...

Farhana Gul1*, Dawood Jan1 and Muhammad Ashfaq2 

... survey data from 150 farmers from different climatic zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were measured in this study. TOA-MD model was used to measure the impact of climate change adaptation strategies. Adjustment in sowing time, improved fertilizer application method and increasing sowing densities were three-major adaptation practices whose benefits were analyzed. The adaptation results indicated that adopters of adaptation technology would range from 33 ...

Saeed Ullah1, Muhammad Israr1*, Shakeel Ahmad2, Nafees Ahmad3 and Asif Yaseen

...Mardan. A total of 90 farmers were selected through proportionate simple random sampling from 857 register farmers. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire from the heads of the farming households (HH) and analysed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. It was found that majority (62%) of the farmers were in the age groups of 41-60. HH size of the far

 Jawaria Shaheen1, Samiah Shahid1, Sabahat Shahzadi2, M. Waheed Akhtar1,3 and Saima Sadaf1,*

...hich miR-specific DNA primers were used to increase sensitivity of reaction. Expression of miRNA panel was normalized with mir-16 and expression fold change was calculated by 2-ΔΔCt method. Further analysis was done by SPSS, medcalc and Graphpad prism software. Area under curve analysis was used to get diagnosis outcome of selected miRNA panel. Upregulation of miRNA panel (mir-376c, mir-155, mir-17a and mir-10b) has been seen in the plas...

 Abdul Maalik1, Shahzad Ali1,*, Anam Iftikhar1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Haroon Ahmad2 and Iahtasham Khan1

...factors inquired from farmers were animal type, breeds, urbanicity, age (years), teat washing, bedding area, lactating stage and previous exposure of mastitis. Initially surf field mastitis test (SFMT) was applied for screening subclinical mastitis followed by bacteriological techniques on positive milk samples for confirmatory isolation of Staph. aureus as a bovine mastitis causing agent. These Staph. aureus isolates were further tested for anti...
Faiz-ul Hassan1,*, Muhammad Sajjad Khan1, Muhammad Saif-ur-Rehman1, Syed Muhammad Raihan Dilshad2 and Muhammad Amjad Ali3
... by PCR using 40 RAPD primers. PCR products were separated on an agarose gel electrophoresis and scoring of bands was performed. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by UPGMA method to determine the genetic similarity among the horse breeds. Thoroughbred and Arab horse breeds showed a higher similarity with Pakistani indigenous breeds, suggesting that these two exotic breeds had contributed significantly in the development of indigenous horse breeds of Pakistan. ...

Muhammad Adnan Islam1,2*, Muhammad Iqbal2, Zia-ul-Haq2,3, Muhammad Mohsin Ali1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1, Shabbir Ahmed Kalwar1, Liaqat Ali Shahid1, Badar Munir Khan Niazi1 and Muzammil Husain1 

...od is delayed and the farmers sown wheat in the December and January due to long process of field preparation by conventional method. Zone disc tiller machine developed in the department of Farm Machinery and Power, was employed for sowing wheat instead of conventional tillage in cotton stubble to avoid further late sowing of wheat. Zone disc tiller drill sows crop in strips. Strip tillage of soil reduced labour, fuel, irrigation and machinery costs. Zone disk...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...nomic losses to dairy farmers. It mainly occurs due to non-contagious environmental bacterial species. In Pakistan, it is the major disease of different dairy animals including bovines. However, only a little information is available about bacterial profile of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 120 quarter samples were ...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...mmercializing to help farmers to combat the disease. There is a need to use environmentally safe approaches to overcome the loss of grain yield in rice due to this disease. Climate change has a serious effect on this disease because in current scenarios cropping pattern has been changed and the stakeholders has shifted to some other crops rather the practicing ones. Since, farming community has adopted rice crop in non-core areas of Indian Sub-continent where ...
Zahra Nazir1, Saba Ijaz1, Roquyya Gul2 and Mahjabeen Saleem1,*
...mplex polysaccharide polymers of plant tissues into simpler monomer like D-galacturonic acids. In this study, polygalacturonase from grape skin was purified by salting out with ammonium sulfate, gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 column and ion exchange on Q-Sepharose column chromatography. Polygalacturonase was recognised as a protein with 47kDa molecular weight by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH of purified polygalacturonase activity was found to be 4.5 and stable wit...

Arshad Farooq* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

...;was found among farmers of D.I. Khan district regarding land preparation, sowing and harvesting time while in case of Mardan district no knowledge gap was observed in sowing and harvesting time. Farmers of D.I. Khan district had low knowledge gap (1 to 20%) in cane varieties, seed quantity, sowing practices, irrigation application, stoppage of irrigation before harvesting and cane cutting where...

Hafiz Umar Farid1, Muhammad Zubair2, Zahid Mahmood Khan1, Aamir Shakoor1*, Behzad Mustafa1, Aftab Ahmad Khan3, Muhamad Naveed Anjum4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Mubeen

...icy makers as well as farmers for sustainability of installed HEIS and up-scaling of these water saving techniques for the welfare of mankind. 

...

Tariq Shah1*, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad3 

...lore the knowledge of farmers and their linkages with government as well private sector for livestock improvement in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province. A total of 480 respondents from four districts, namely Swat, Mardan, Abbotabad and Dera Ismail Khan were randomly selected for interview purpose. Descriptive statistical techniques along with independent sample t-test and dummy variable regression were used for analysis. It is observed during the study that live...

Shahid Ali1*, Asim Khan1, Aftab Khan1 and Bakhtawar Riaz

...tomato production. 90 farmers were selected through multi-stage proportional allocation sampling techniques. Data was collected by using a well-structured interview schedule. Cobb-Douglas production function was employed to assess technical efficiency. Maximum likelihood estimation techniques were employed for estimation. Results showed that all explanatory variables except pesticides have significant effect on tomato production. The results showed that a 1% i...

Asim Khan1, Shahid Ali1*, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Aftab Khan1 and Raza Ullah2 

...over, awareness among farmers on climate change is required regarding plantation of trees and afforestation 

...

Ayat Ullah* and Ayesha Khan 

...e effect of extension-farmers contact frequency on farmers’ knowledge of improved ways of chemical, biological and cultural control methods in the rain-fed districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Using multistage random sampling technique data were collected from 395 respondents according to Yamane’s formula. The study uses the Kruskal–Wallis H test for checking differences among far
Hayat Zada1, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1,*, Ijaz Ali2, Bashir Ahmad1, Abdul Waheed Khan2 and Shabeer Ahmad2
...ons. Out of 30 tested primers, 21 amplified 157 polymorphic bands in three populations. The mean gene frequency (f), genetic distance (I) and Shannon’s information index (h) for three populations were 1.336, 0.304 and 0.437, respectively. Nei’s unbiased measures of genetic identity and genetic distance revealed that higher genetic distance was observed among the isolates from Kalam and Madyan (97.87 %) whereas low genetic distance (35.58%) was calc...

Waqar Akhtar1*, Munir Ahmad2, Nadeem Akmal1, Hassnain Shah1 and Asif Ali Mirani2 

...ed dates) produced by farmers. The finding of positive Private Profitability and Private Cost Ratio (PCR) value less than 1 argues farm level competitiveness under small, medium and large farms in the study area. Fresh Dates has more competitiveness with less PCR value 0.62 compared to dry dates with PCR value 0.75.There is also influence of farm size on cost efficiency and competitiveness level. Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) ratio less than unity reveled overa...
Asghar Khan1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Arfan Yousaf2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Mamoona Chaudhry1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Habibunnabi4 and Amjad Khan5
... face interviews from farmers, managers and owners. Milk samples collected were subjected to California Mastitis Test.Data entry and validation was performed through Epi-Data. Data analysis was performed through SPSS. Chi-square and regression analysis were conducted. An overall prevalence of 67.3% was found. On multivariable logistic regression several health (lactation stage, number of lactations, body mass index, udder shape and milk yield), management (udd...

Essossinam Ali* 

...">This paper analyzes farmers’ attitudes towards climatic risks and assesses farmers’ risk aversion behavior on inputs use focusing on fertilizer, drought tolerant seeds (DTS) and labor allocation. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 704 farm households in three regions (Central, Kara and Savannah) in subsistence agriculture in Northern Togo. Tobit and linear regression models were used t...

Mehran Ahmad, Syed Attaullah Shah and Shahid Ali* 

...uction credit to poor farmers for purchase of chemical fertilizers for optimal utilization of these inputs.

...

Hafiz Abdul Ghafoor*, Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Luqman and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed 

...ic pesticides, citrus farmers are unable to get rid of this pest. In order to find out alternate biorational pesticides, this laboratory study was carried out to evaluate few selected novel chemistry insecticidal formulations against 2nd instar nymphs of D. mangiferae using standard twig-dip bioassay method according to Completely Randomized Design. Results showed that both factors i.e. insecticidal treatments (F 9, 245 = 146.90, P < 0.001) and time (F 4, 2...

Shumaila Sadiq1,2*, Abdul Saboor2, Fouzia Jamshaid3, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin2 and Azeem Khalid

...ommunity to determine farmers’ climate change vulnerability index among 9 agro-climatic zones of Pakistan by using data sets from PMD (1981-2010) and HIES (2010-11). Findings revealed that farmers in KPK and Balochistan were the most while farmers in Mixed Punjab and Cotton-Wheat Sindh were the least vulnerable to climate change. In depth analysis of variables of sub-indices suggeste...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...-PCR using genotyping primers, with a prevalence rate of 16.2%. NDV outbreaks were recorded in 16 governorates, from total of18 investigated governorates and the recorded geo-prevalence of 89 %. Twenty-five samples were selected for further sequencing for the partial fusion protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 20 samples are genotyped as very virulent NDVclass II of genotype VIIb, 4 samples were of high identity (94%-100%) with NDV class II of genotype...
Lusha Liu1,*, Lei Cheng2, Xingqi Zhang3, Yulong Li1 and Jianping Jiang1,*
...rosatellite to design primers and do genetic analysis in the Sichuan basin population of M. fissipes. Of all, 35 primer pairs (57.38%) successfully amplificated in M. fissipes, of which 14 (40.00%) were polymorphism. The observed and expected heterozygosity in the test population ranged from 0.02 to 0.92 and from 0.02 to 0.62, respectively. High transferability rates were detected in M. butleri (37.14%), M. heymonsi (45.71%), M. ...

Umar Hayat1*, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad

... to livestock-related farmers and to promote agricultural exports for foreign exchange earnings to achieve the ultimate goal of agricultural growth in Pakistan.

...
Nazia Qamar* and Sher Khan Panhwar
...ecies Scomberoides commersonnianus (414), S. lysan (15), S. tala (8), S. tol (344) and Megalaspis cordyla (277) were collected from the commercial catches from July 2013 to March 2015. Fish length and otolith length for five species recorded as S. commersonnianus TLcm = 16.3−88.4, OLcm = 0.3−0.9; S. lysan TL=23.2−73, OL = 0.2−0.7; ...
Shujjah Haider1,*, Ayesha Maqbool1, Tariq Pervez1, Saima Parveen1, Arfan Ahmad2, Zahid Iqbal3, Javed Iqbal3, Shahid Mehmood3, Amanullah Khan4 and Sajid Umar5
...e concern for poultry farmers and cause huge economic loss to poultry industry every year. Various pathogens can initiate respiratory diseases in poultry, including mycoplasmosis caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). The distribution pattern of MG in layer flocks is not known in Chakwal. Keeping this in mind, current study was designed to know about distribution of MG. The present study was conducted on 25 commercial layer flocks from different regio...
Aqsa Javaid and Nageen Hussain*
...ing specific designed primers. Gradient PCR was performed and the product length was 197 bps which was further analyzed on 1% agarose gel. Sequencing was done through genetic analyzer (3500 ABI). No mutation was observed in FOXP3 gene exon 1of Pakistani HIV patients.
...

Masooma Munir1,2*, Abdul Ahad3, Asra Gull1, Aqsa Qayyum2, Nouman Rashid Siddique2, Amer Mumtaz2, Naeem Safdar2, Barkat Ali2, Muhammad Nadeem1 and Tahir Mahmood Qureshi

...n earth. Now a day, consumers prefer ready to eat and convenient food. Food bars are healthy nutritious, small meals having sensory attributes as well. In the present study, apricot based snack bars were prepared with spinach powder addition to enhance micronutrient status of snack food bars. Four treatments were prepared by increasing the level of spinach in apricot bars and storage was done up to 3 months. Moisture and sugar content decreased with storage t...

Zeshan Siraj1*, Amjad Farooq1 and Zahid Mehmood2 

...recommended for local farmers to do some control measures to avoid attack of jassids in this month priorly in order to reduce the economic loss,.It was concluded that mid of September was more suitable for incidence of jassids 

...

Haidar Ali1, Malik Muhammad Shafi1*, Himayatullah Khan1 and Hamra Haidar

...arm households (small farmers) in the research area during February 15 to July 27, 2018 by using research tools such as interview schedule or direct observations. Random sampling technique was used for selecting a sample size of 195 small farmers. The present study is focused on two selected districts of Peshawar Valley namely Mardan and Peshawar. Analysis showed that there was a significant difference in the off-farm employ...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1*, Taiba Sharif3, Samina J.N. Ahmad2, Sumaira Maqsood4 and Fariha Zafar3 
...se I (COI) gene based primers. Phylogenetic analysis was also complemented to differentiate fruit flies identified from other countries of the world. The sequencing results and phylogenetic analysis of collected specimens indicated that sequences of B. dorsalis, B. cucurbitae and B. zonata have 99-100% similarity with fruit flies reported from other countries. This is the first report of molecular identification and characterization of Tephritid ...

Rizwan Ahmad and Muhammad Zulfiqar* 

... gap by investigating farmers’ perceptions and adaptation about change in climate and impact of change in climate on wheat productivity in Lakki Marwat. A combination of multi-stage sampling and simple random sampling used to select five Union Councils (UCs), one village council from each UC and one village from each village council. Out of 611 households (HHs), 180 head/elders selected through random sampling process were interviewed. The secondary data...

Sanaullah and Urooba Pervaiz* 

...in the empowerment of farmers and increasing crop yield in the study area. The study recommends need based trainings for growers, availability of credit/loan facilities, provision of subsidized inputs and irrigation water in the study area. 

...

Zara Ahmad1*, Fazli Rabbi2, Muhammad Zamin3, Bushra Kiran2, Tariq Shah2 and Shahzad Kouser4 

... from a sample of 110 farmers in the district of Faisal Abad, Punjab Pakistan. The data was analysed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. The results show that there is a significant difference between the on-season and off-season application of pesticides to bitter guard crop. The results clearly reveal that bitter guards’ yield is significantly higher in the off-season than on-season. It was also found that off-season bitter guard fetches 66% h...

Naveed Afsar* and Muhammad Idrees 

... was done to know the farmers perceptions about agricultural extension services in disseminating climate change knowledge in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data was collected from the 400 farmers of the two purposively sampled districts as these two were the highly vulnerable areas from climate change. The major source of climate change information of the majority of farmers was electronic media and ...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Syeeda Areeba Gillani1, Syed Shehzad Hassan1, Muneeb Aamir1, Muhammad Saifullah1, Mubashar Basheer1, Atif Ahmad1, Saif-ul-Rehman2 and Tariq Ali1 

...aluate accurately for farmers. This research was conducted in eastern Punjab Pakistan by incorporating yield/area as reported by Crop Reporting Service Department along with open source satellite datasets. We downloaded three images of each year (2008-2018) from Geological Survey of United States and applied geometric corrections. All the spectral wavelengths were transformed to Top of Atmosphere reflectance and processed the bands in infrared and red waveleng...

Mustasim Famous*, Obaidul Islam, Shameema Khatun, Mohammed Mustafizur Rahman and Tania Ferdoushi 

...as taken of status of farmers, source of technical support, the turkey flock size (according to age variation), feed intake, housing system, feeding system, quantity of feed supplied to each turkey/day, floor space, feeder space, waterer space uses in turkey marketing age, weight, price of turkey. Among 6 farms only 66% of farms maintain a common vaccination schedule, other farms use only new-castle disease vaccine. Most of the turkey far...

Muhammad Ali1*, Norsida Man2 and Farrah Melissa Muharam

...ms on ICT usage among farmers for the management of agricultural risk in Malaysia. Therefore, the present study was designed to meet the objective. The research data were collected through a field survey in which 360 farmers were interviewed through the multistage cluster sampling technique. The subjective norms were measured through 5 points Likert scale (ranging from 1 as strongly disagree to 5 as strongly agree) based sta...
Zia-ud-Din1, Muhammad Nauman Aftab2, Tanveer Hussain3,*, Irfana Iqbal4 and Asma Zafar5
...eholds and commercial farmers are suggested to prefer Mushki variety of Aseel chicken as attempt to produce Aseel females and probiotic supplementation would be of high economic viability for such flocks.
...
Ihsanullah*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Sohail Akhtar and Syed Muhammad Suhail
... finding may help the farmers in culling of the lactating cows to maintain an optimum herd average for milk production.
...
Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Umar Mumtaz1, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan3 and Abdul Naveed4
...perceptions of senior farmers for their advisory role in capacity building of young farmers in Sargodha district-Punjab, Pakistan. As per list obtained from District Officer Agriculture Extension, Sargodha, tehsil Sahiwal was randomly selected. Sahiwal comprises of 17 union councils; four union councils were randomly selected and two villages per union council were randomly selected. The list of potential old aged far
Faheem Aslam1*, Aneel Salman1 and Inayatullah Jan2
... great importance for farmers and agriculture policy makers to improve production planning decisions. Numerous studies proved that traditional econometric techniques face significant challenges in out of sample predictability tests due to model uncertainty and parameter instability. Recent studies introduce several machine learning algorithms to improve time series prediction accuracy. The purpose of this study is to develop a precise wheat production mod...
Muhammad Nisar* and Muhammad Idress
...ic benefits for small farmers. Home gardening also called kitchen or homestead gardening. Home gardening study is necessary not only due to its social, food security and economic contribution, but its consideration’s negligence in development agendas. Home gardening data provide complete agricultural input in a nation’s domestic treasure. Therefore, the current study was carried out with the objective to assess small farmer...
Muhammad Qasim1*, Said Qasim2, Muhammad Naeem1, Amir Nawaz Khan3 and Shahid Iqbal4
...ming fishers, fishing farmers and occasional fishers, through two stage cluster sampling. Livelihoods asset pentagons were used for the analysis. Considerable decline in physical and economic assets were noted among all the three types of fishers, whereas the total value of livelihood assets for farming fishers deteriorated from 0.40 in 2001 to 0.33 in 2016. The study recommends that concerned authorities should take initiative to create awareness regarding co...
Beenish Zahid*1,2,7, Javed Iqbal Qazi2, Amir Zohaib2, Asim Aslam3, Raheela Akhter3, Haleema Sadia4, Qurat ul Ain5, Razia Sultana6, Irfan Irshad3 and Sobia Alyas7
...ied by using specific primers of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Out of 50 field samples 11 cloacal swabs (34%), were positive and out of 50, nine oropharyngeal swabs (18%) were positive for NDV through RT-PCR. DNA sequencing was performed by amplifying the RT-PCR amplicon targeted the F gene. Phylogenetic tree was constructed. It was concluded that virulent strains were existed in ducks and more than one genotype of NDV was prevalent...

Muhammad Abdul Rahman1*, Abdul Saboor1, Gulnaz Hameed1, Ghulam Bilal2 and Farooq Tanwir3 

...all, medium and large farmers. Input price mechanism, regularization of dairy sector, separate policy measures for meat and dairy animals and preservation of local breeds are few optimistic policy options to safeguard Pakistan’s dairy production system from environmental factor under climate change. 

...

Muhammad Azam Niazi1* and Umar Farooq2 

...veness of the Basmati farmers to various stimuli is important for the policy makers to plan resource allocation and output of Basmati rice. Supply response analysis was carried out to quantify the response of farmers to price and non-price factors. Most of the literature on supply response of crops in Pakistan has relied on the assumption that the data series used for analyses were stationary while most of time series are in...

Hina Fatima1*, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khurram Nawaz3 

...vey of 430 wheat crop farmers was conducted in the district of Rahim Yar Khan in year 2014. In order to estimate the impact of farm inputs on wheat crop production, Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) was used. The major objectives of this survey were to identify factors of variation and effect of planting of wheat after BT and Non-BT-cotton varieties on wheat production. In this study, the average technical efficiency of wheat farms on collective level was aro...

Hala Rajab1, Muhammad Sayyar Khan1*, Safdar Hussain Shah1 and Syed Mehar Ali Shah2 

... NtSAT4 gene specific primers. The positive transgenic lines were successfully acclimatized to soil and glass house conditions. The developed transgenic lines have the potential to overproduce high levels of cysteine and glutathione for enhanced stress tolerance especially against heavy metals. 

...

Jahangir Khan*, Syed Attaullah Shah, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai, Muhammad Fayaz, Shahid Ali, Abbas Ullah Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

... study investigates consumers’ preferences and estimate willingness to pay for different quality attributes of apple in Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample 150 apple consumers were interviewed at different fruits retail shops to collect data on apple varieties, prices and quality attributes, such as color, size, shape, freshness and external defect. The data were analyzed using hedonic pricing model. Resu...

Yousaf Noor*, Zahir Shah and Muhammad Tariq 

...areous soils at three farmers fields in Dubandai and Palai area of District Malakand of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2009-2010. A randomized complete block experiment with split plot arrangement was used. Methods of application (Soil and Foliar) were assigned to main plots while micronutrients (Zn @2.5 kg ha-1, B @ 2.5 kg ha-1 and Zn plus B) were kept in subplots. The results showed that Zn, B and Zn + B and their methods of application significantly af...

Raheel Saqib1*, Muhammad Luqman2, Iqbal Javed3, Abdur Rehman4, Muhammad Yaseen2, Saleem Ashraf5 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed2 

...tegies of small-scale farmers in rain-fed areas of Pakistan. The targeted area of the study was Potohar region of the Punjab Province. Quantitative data were collected from 200 households and analyzed by using SPSS. Results highlighted that the situation of livelihood assets possessed by the respondents was not satisfactory. Majority of the households had limited human, financial, physical, social and natural capitals. In the scenario of climate change, househ...

Shahid Ali1*, Farhan1, Murtaza1, Neelum Andaleeb2 and Amjad Ali1 

...partment should train farmers to improve their farming skills and provide them formal as well as informal education to enhance the technical efficiency of wheat growers. 

...

Muhammad Israr* and Noor Khan 

...ntre (FSC) program on farmers’ adoption of improved wheat seed technology in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. A sample of 336 wheat growers, consisted of equal number of FSC registered and non-registered farmers, was selected from Northern, Central and Southern climatic zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The selected wheat growers were interviewed for data collection. Binary Logistic regression analysis was conducted...

Ankur Abrol, Madhumeet Singh, Akshay Sharma* and Pravesh Kumar 

...onsiderable impact on farmers economically. From a clinical frame of reference, the etiology of dystocia is either of maternal or fetal origin although the exact etiology is multifaceted. Uterine torsion is considered as one of major contributors among the maternal causes. This condition exerts considerable stress on the animal and if not treated promptly, it can lead to deterioration of liver and kidney functions resulting in toxaemia followed by dam as well ...

Urooba Pervaiz1*, Madeeha Iqbal1 and Dawood Jan2 

...e required sample, 80 farmers were randomly selected from five villages and data were collected through interview schedule. It was found that majority farmers were literate up to middle; young farmers showed more positive attitude towards extension recommendations, 93% farmers knew extension workers both by name and face and also knew extension recommend...

Shazia Akhtar1, Abdul Samad1*, Afshan Gohar1, Muhammad Munir Shahid2, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, Arslan Sarwer1, Adnan Khan1 and Karam Ahad1 

...le the pesticides for farmers in peach orchards of Swat, Malakand Division. There should also be monitoring of the health status of farm workers.  

...

Fayyaz Hussain*, Raza Ullah Khan, Asim Hayat, Humair Ahmed and Ahmad Khan 

...nts were conducted on farmers field at two locations aimed at exploring the response of phosphorus (P) applied to rice at different growth stages.Phosphorus was applied in three interval i.e. at transplanting (0 DAT), 15 days after transplanting (15 DAT), and 25 days after transplanting (25 DAT), in addition to control (no P), and farmer fertilizer practice (FFP).Results show that mean paddy yield across both sites range from 2.972 to 4.334t ha-1, and maximum ...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1, Mazhar Saeed Chaudry2, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori4,*
...t the 3′-end of primers to produce a BstNI recognition sequence at codon 12 while codon 13 was analysed by introducing HaeIII recognition sequence. By using RFLP and sequencing, point mutation substituting the glycine (GGC) to aspartic acid (GAC) was observed at codon 13. The p.G13D or cDNA.230G>A/ g.5590G>A is previously recognized as rs112445441 and being reported for the first time in NHL. By in silico analysis, it is anticipa...
Monica Paula Marin1, Elena Narcisa Pogurschi1*, Iuliana Marin2 and Carmen Georgeta Nicolae1
...e selection done by consumers. The natural, less expensive methods for improving the milk quality are the most studied by farmers and researches. Clinoptilolite, natural zeolite added to dairy cows diets, has been proven to be an efficient and economic solution. Starting from the fact that natural zeolites are recognized as having beneficial effects on the animal organism, being detoxifiers, immunomodulators, regulators of t...

Muhammad Bakhtiar Khan1 and Jangraiz Khan2* 

... been adopted by many farmers. However, growing off-season vegetables in tunnels entails added efforts and cost. Through this research study the economic analysis of Tunnel farming of off-season vegetables has been done for district Peshawar. Primary data was collected from eighty-four farmers who had grown off-season vegetables through tunnel-farming, and seasonal vegetables without tunnel and their productivity were compar...

Majid Khan, Naveed Jehan*, Muhammad Zahoor and Nadia Naz 

...uestionnaire from 159 farmers. Monthly farmers’ income was calculated from the total crop and non-crop income. The results revealed that the poverty ratio and Poverty Gap index were 8.3 percent and 0.016 percent for the Virginia tobacco growers and 42.52 percent and 0.076 percent for the non-tobacco growers, respectively. This shows that the Virginia Tobacco growers poverty status was better. Therefore, tobacco is reco...

Asif Yaseen1, Muhammad Israr2*, Allah Bux Khan1, Ahsan Javed3, Nafees Ahmad4 and Zia Ullah

... analyzing smallholder famers’ selection of high value marketing channels to boost self-sufficiency in the Pakistani Citrus industry, and second, to identify the issues of greater importance pertaining to famers’ selection of high value market channels in the Pakistani citrus industry. The study employed survey technique to collect data from 300 citrus farmers in Punjab, and mu...

Rakhshanda Kousar1, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Raza Ullah1, Aqeela Saghir3, Sohaib Usman3* and Tahira Sadaf

...re collected from 120 farmers of rural area of Faisalabad. This study calculated the extent of land fragmentation by using Simpson index. Production function was employed to estimate the impact of land fragmentation on the crop productivity. The results suggested that higher the land fragmentation of the farms, negative is the impact on the productivity. The findings of the study have important implication for formulating of efficient land use policy. 

Gulfam Hassan1*, Ijaz Ashraf2, Muhammad Qavi Irshad3, Shafiq-ur-Rehman Zia2 and Muhammad Idrees

...world as it helps the farmers to access inputs and market outputs easily. Lack of sufficient training and low technical efficiency are some common barriers in low productivity of vegetables in Pakistan. This study assesses strengths and weaknesses of trainings conducted by public sector extension in peri-urban areas of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Two hundred and eight vegetable growers were interviewed using a validated and reliable interview schedule. Findings reve...
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool4, Laraib Liaquat3, Fatima Ahmed5, Asra Khan1, Tahira Perveen3, Mirza Jawad ul Hasnain6, Saima Khaliq7 and Saad Bilal Ahmed8

Saba1, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Waqar Khalid2* and Saifullah Khan

...m sample of 110 women farmers from the union council of village Shewa, and a well-structured questionnaire was designed to accumulate the primary dataset from rural women through face to face interviews. A women’s participation index was designed to compute the degree of women’s involvement, and a multiple linear regression model was proposed to measure factors influencing women’s participation in livestock management practices. The computed ...
Nihat YeĹźilayer*
...olour demand of the consumers. This study showed that SalmoFan CardTM scores could be practical and reliable tool for Salmonid farms as compared to other methods.
...
Nadeem Munawar1,2*, Tariq Mahmood2, Paula Rivadeneira1, Ali Akhter2 and Saqib Mehmood2
...ng crop season, local farmers in the Pothwar agro-ecosystem in Pakistan do not manage wild vegetation on the field edges, and that may impact rodent populations near their fields. This study was conducted to examine the effect of adjacent non-crop vegetation on rodent populations in the Pothwar agro-ecosystem in Pakistan. Over 14 months, vegetation analysis was conducted using the quadrate method to record the vegetation around rodents’ active burrows at...
Su-Hu Duan, Liu-An Li*, Zai-Qiang Li, Meng-Ran Qin, Zhen-Zhen Fan, Qian Wang, Ke-Yan Zhang, Zhong-Mou Zhang, Bai-Liang Yang and Tian-Ming Jin
...tical reference for customers for selection of eggs.
...

Haidar Ali1*, Malik Muhammad Shafi1, Himayatullah Khan1 and Hamra Haidar

...sis showed that small farmers of developed villages perform more off-farm employment than small farmers of underdeveloped villages. This could be associated to the developed means of transport and communications, better education facilities, market facilities as well as availability of off-farm jobs locally. Furthermore, in developed villages average per month income of small farm households from farm output was higher than ...

Sanaullah1*, Urooba Pervaiz1, Shahid Ali2, Mohammad Fayaz2 and Aftab Khan

... subsidized to enable farmers apply recommended quantities of these inputs for getting the optimum yield. Extension department needs to introduce improved farming practices among farming community to achieve higher maize yields. 

...
Kanwal Nisa1, Sadaf Ashraf1, Masood Ahmed Siddiqui1*,Naila Taj1Habib-Ur-Rehman1, Arifa Bano1 and Naeem Rashid2
...as a dimer of heterotetramers (αβÉŁδ)2 with molecular masses of 44, 36, 20 and 12 kDa, respectively. Both of the activities were oxygen sensitive. The apparent Km values for POR reaction towards pyruvate and CoASH were 0.49 µM and 115 µM, respectively, while for PDC reaction values these values were µM 0.34 and 42 µM. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on purification and ...
Amna Shoaib*, Zoia Arshad Awan and Naureen Akhtar
...ndash;5.8S–ITS4 primers sequence and amplification of ISSR nucleotide sequences using three primers [P01 (AGAG)4 G, P02 (GTG)5, and P03 (GACA)4] confirmed that A. minisclerotigenes and A. flavus are two genetically distinct strains. Furthermore, both strains were qualitatively analyzed for aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) production by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). A polyphas...
Veli Sel1, Isa Yilmaz2,* and Mete Yanar3
...ducation level of the farmers and the effect of the milker on the SCC were found to be significant (P <0.001). SCC value (65.930 ± 2.484 cells/ml) was found to be the lowest when the milker is the person from the household. The udder cleaning before milking was a significant factor (P <0.001), SCC was 66.330±2.570 cells/ml for the producers that applied hygiene and was 125.860±9.500 cells/ml for the ones that did not. Season was dete...
Meriem Msaad Guerfali1,*, Heitham Hamden1, Salma Fadhl1, Wafa Djobbi1, Lotfi Sillini1, Wafa Marzouki1 and Mohammed Ammar2
...rvey carried out with farmers and to give precise informations about treatment management state. Surveys and sampling of the wild strain of Ceratitis capitata were conducted in several regions to learn about the nature and number of treatments. The samples were subjected to ingestion toxicity bioassays of malathion and spinosad at different concentrations. Histopathol...

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...d for survey of Camel farmers and information regarding the age of respondent, experience, type of community, feeding/watering pattern of camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic losses were collected. A total of one thousand and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts...

Arjumand Nizami1, Muhammad Zulfiqar2*, Jawad Ali1, Naushad Khan2 and Imran Sheikh

...ogy by the respondent farmers. The data were collected from the three selected villages using focused group discussions and individual interviews of 21 beneficiary rice producers. Out of 21 farmers, 7 farmers were selected each from head, middle and tail of the water channels located at Joyianwala, Saikhum and Kathianwala villages. The baseline data were collected in July 2017 while post t...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir

...nditions of the small farmers through various agricultural interventions. One of the important and essential interventions of CMP was micro-credit facilities to small farmers. The current research study focused on the core objective of the CMP aimed at finding out the effect of micro-credit intervention on small farmers and how their socioeconomic status improved during the span of the pro...

Aftab Khan1, Shahid Ali1*, Asim Khan1, Muhammad Waqas1 and Sufyan Ullah Khan2 

...significant effect on farmers’ inefficiency. It is recommended that maize farmers need to be provided with formal as well as informal education, agricultural trainings and credit on easy terms for purchase of costly inputs. 

...

Muhammad1*, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Syed Akhtar Ali Shah1 

...cing factors of urban farmers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for organic fertilizer in District Mardan, Pakistan. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used and data were randomly collected from 384 heads of the household of urban farmers. Data was set in SPSS software version 22.0 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Logit Model. The study revealed that a major proportion (62.5%) of solid waste is generated fr...
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...Two different sets of primers were used for the identification of the viral genome. Thirty samples were found PCR positive and a subset of ten samples was direct sequenced. Sequence analysis showed 94% similarity to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia which is considered to be the second most prevalent bacterial species in mosquitoe’s midgut. This observation may lead  towards the confusion that the outbreak is either of Dengue or Chikunguna virus. ...
Wen Qin1,2, YanGan Huang1, Lei Wang1, Gonghua Lin1, Jundong Yang1,2, Pengfei Song1,2, Hongmei Gao1,2, Jingjie Zhang1,2 and Tongzuo Zhang1,3,*
...winters to short, hot summers. The gut microbiota plays a very important role in host health, immunity, and digestion. Therefore, seasonal changes in gut microbiota can affect host digestion and metabolism in ways that help the host adapt to different forage conditions. Understanding the relationship between seasonal variations in the gut microbiota and host adaptability is a good basis for the protection of the goitered gazelle. Here, we present our findings ...

Amjad Ali1*, Lal Almas2, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Hina Fatima3 and Asim Khan1  

...d to keep experienced farmers involved in sugarcane production, because of positive relationship between grower’s experience and technical efficiency.  

...
Saeed Fatima1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Usman Atique2,3*, Arshad Javid4, Noor Khan2, Sonia Iqbal2, Hamid Majeed5, Hamda Azmat2, Bakhat Yawar Ali Khan6, Irfan7, Muhammad Tausif Shahid1, Gulnaz Afzal1
...in the fish and its consumers, therefore, it is not safe to consume these studied fish species from Head Punjnad. 
...

Muhammad Shakeel1,2*, Salik Nawaz2, Yasar Saleem3, Shazia Shafique2, Ateeq Tahir2 and Muhammad Riaz2

...mabad. A total of 167 farmers and amateurs growers, engaged in the cultivation of high value or medicinal crops were contacted. Out of these, 68 found as broccoli growers and most probably due to shyness only 37 contributed in data collection process. In the perspectives of health-promoting properties of broccoli 62% were unaware of health benefits and 7% aware of beneficial properties against heart diseases. In case of selection of varieties 37% were unaware ...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Riyasat Sultan 

... before the onsets of summers, but today in Utla out of total 745 households, only 40 households practice seasonal migrations. Though seasonal migration in village Utla is as old as the village by itself, it is on decline. The field survey suggested that Decrease in the number of Livestock, increasing Employment opportunities, availability of dairy products in the market etc. are the most important causes contributing to the decline of seasonal migration. A ve...

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3 and Guo Xiangyu4* 

...al areas of Pakistan, farmers do not utilize all available resources efficiently. Therefore, it leads to inefficient choices which subsequently affect the production. This study evaluated determinants of rice production in the district Nasirabad, Balochistan by employing Neo-Classical and Cobb-Douglas production functions. The findings of the study show that education, fertilizers, rent, training and total area under the rice crop (wetland), labor, capital, av...

Muhammad Usman Saleem, Nadeem Iqbal, Shawaiz Iqbal*, Usama Bin Khalid, Adila Iram, Muhammad Akhter, Tahir Latif and Tahir Hussain Awan 

...or-intensive and more farmers-friendly, time-saving and cost-effective technology than TPR. The Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, has refined the DSR technology and production practices and conducted 20 field demonstrations of DSR with modified seed drills during 2017 in Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Narowal, Sheikhupura, and Sialkot districts. The super basmati rice variety was direct seeded in comparison with manually TPR. The DSR was carried out in well pre...

Khalid Khan* and Guo Xiangyu 

...n and training of the farmers can significantly improve the technical efficiency. In other words, the extension department of Balochistan should take a step to provide all the necessary training and consultation to the farmers to improve the technical efficiency of the rice producers in the district. 

...

Fazal Haq*, Asia Parveen, Safdar Hussain and Arshad Hussain 

...m the random selected farmers were used as a tool for collecting primary data. The raw data is tabulated and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The analyzed data is used to develop the mathematical model. Simplex method is applied to find the optimal solution of the model, which showed 10.18% increase in the net revenue per year.  

...
Dil Afroza Khanom1, Amirun Nesa1, Muhammad Abu Sayed Jewel1, Muhammad Ayenuddin Haque1, Alok Kumar Paul1, Sonia Iqbal2, Usman Atique2,3*, Lubna Alam4
...genic threat to the consumers. In conclusion, this study provides useful insights into the identification of potential risks of these commercially valuable fishes to the continuous consumption of fish flesh originating from a contaminated water body may lead to heavy metals toxicity leading to mental retardation, kidney tissue damages, cancerous cell growth, and even death in case of chronic exposure. 

Arshad Farooq1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan2, Abdul Hassan1, Muhammad Ishaq3 and Asif Nawaz

...ind the influences of farmers’ characteristics on knowledge gap of sugarcane recommended production management practices in the research area. Data were collected personally through face to face interview schedule from 285 sample respondents randomly selected from eight villages of the eight selected union councils. The empirical results indicated that farmers of district Mardan had 41 percent knowledge gap with cane y...

Muhammad Ali1*, Norsida Man2, Farrah Melissa Muharam2 and Siti Zobidah Omar

...havioral intention of farmers to use ICTs for agricultural risk management. The past research reveals that many researchers had tried to determine factors affecting behavioural intentions of the respondents and TPB has been applied as technology acceptance model in various contexts. However, predicting behavioral intentions to use ICTs for agricultural risk management has not been evaluated from the actual field. Therefore, the data were collected from 360 far...

Shah Nawaz Khuhro1*, Irshad Ali Junejo1, Muhammad Haroon Hullio1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan2, Sultan Ahmed Maitlo3 and Mukhtiar Ahmed Shaikh

...on targeted vegetable farmers in three Districts Shikarpur, Larkana, and Dadu of northern Sindh, Pakistan. The effect of pesticides on human health and the environment is a main public health issue in Pakistan. These negative effects of pesticides can be minimized by awareness to the growers focusing more on alternative methods for sustainable crop production and by reducing the use of pesticides and trainings on pest counting helps in sustainable pesticide us...

Md. Zubael Islam, Rukhsana Amin Runa and Md. Mahmudul Alam* 

... to foot diseases the farmers face a considerable amount of economic loss. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of foot diseases in cattle and also to explore the risk factors having a promoting role in developing foot affections in three unions (Potazia, Jalalpur, and Kaijuri) of Shahjadpur Upazila. Foot affections were physically investigated and examined from May to October 2019 and a total of 257 surgical affections were recorded, among th...

Anurag Sharma*, Naresh Kumar, Geetanjali Singh and Anika Sharma 

...urce-poor smallholder farmers. This article is a review of present literature data of Fenugreek and Giloy as potential nutraceuticals and galactagogue in animal husbandry. Both these herbs are known to have pharmacological effects which include hypoglycemic, hypo-lipidemic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and galactagogue activity. The commercially available drugs pose health threats and prove de...

Zia-Ur-Rehman1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Humayun Saleem1 and Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1 

...l it reaches to the consumers

...

Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddique1, Faisal Sohail Fateh2*, Zia-Ur-Rehman1 and Humayun Saleem

...hat in Pakistan the consumers do not consider it as a threat, because it remains in potato peel only. 

...

Muhammad Raheel Faiz1, Ijaz Ashraf1, Haq Nawaz2, Muhammad Zubair3*, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood4, Sajid Hussain5 and Abdul Qadeer2 

...ensively grown by the farmers. There were total 58 rural union councils in Faisalabad Sadar, out of which 6 were selected through simple random sampling. From each selected union council, one village was selected at random and from each selected village, 20 vegetable growers were selected randomly thus making a sample size of 120 respondents. A well-planned interview schedule was prepared for the collection of data from the selected respondents. The survey sho...

Khalid Khan1, Marguerite Wotto2, Saima Liaqat3, Gulawar Khan1, Balach Rasheed1, Sara Rafiq4 and Guo Xiangyu5* 

... for selection of the farmers. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to estimate the technical efficiency and performance of the farmers. The study results disclosed that all explanatory variables have a positive impact on the farmers’ technical efficiency apart from pesticides. Additionally, the average technical performance of the farmer was 85% which shows that on average ...

Paul Oludare Adetunji* and Safiriyu Idowu Ola 

...w to helping both the farmers and breeders in selecting the best performing variety for rearing and further genetic improvement. Eighteen cockerels of three plumage colours (brown, black and barred) were divided into 2 replicates with 3 birds per replicate. The study lasted for 38 weeks (Feb.-Nov., 2019). Data were taken on the onset of puberty parameters (age at first sperm cell and puberty) from 16-22 weeks of age, semen quality parameters (semen volume, sem...

 Salman Khan, Irfan Ullah*, Shahid Ali and Murtaza

...and thereby profit of farmers.

...

 Abdus Salam* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...mpare and analyze the farmers’ perceptions regarding use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in agriculture extension at three selected districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Based on the multi-stage sampling technique, population for the current study, 3 zones from 5 were purposively selected on the basis of their different agricultural condition. Selection of sample size was made using Yamane formula. The number of respondents as per formula ...
Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel2, Ejaz Ashraf3*, Asad Ali4 and Arooba Rubab5
Effect of Insecticides on the Longevity of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
...acilitates beekeeping farmers to avoid the use of chemical compounds for their colonies to reduce colony problems.

...
Kemi F. Omotesho*, Adedamola V. Adetayo, Adeniyi F. Akinrinde and Deborah A. Olabode
 
Challenges to the Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: The Case of Yam Minisett Technology in Kwara State, Nigeria
...ints faced by adopter farmers in its use. The determinants of farmers’ adoption were also investigated. A four-stage sampling procedure was used to select 205 respondents on whom an interview schedule was administered. Descriptive statistics, Probit Regression Analysis and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation, were used to analyse data. Result reveals that the farmers were most...

Hina Fatima1*, Sania Shaheen2, Lal Khan Almas3 and Sehrish Haroon4

Profit Efficiency among Transplanting and Direct Seeded Rice Producers (Case Study of Certain Rice Growing Areas of Province Punjab, Pakistan)
...imated with data from farmers belonging to various districts of Punjab. Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Jhang and Sialkot are the major rice producing areas of Punjab. The primary data is collected from the above mentioned areas through random sampling. Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) serves as a tool of obtaining reliable estimations of profit efficiency of rice production. Findings from SFA reveal profit efficiency of rice far...

Muhammad Naveed Anjum1, Abdur Rehman1*, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan1, Raheel Saqib2, Mohammad Fayaz3 and Iqbal Javed4

Impact of Microfinance on Socioeconomic Status of Farmers in District Dera Ismail Khan
...crease in income, the farmers are able to get more access to the health facilities than before. 82.2% farmer’s response indicated that the microfinance have a positive and significant impact on the children’s educational status and due to microfinance their children were moved from government to private schools. Moreover, the parents whose children were not getting their education from the educational institutions due to their financial crisis and ...

 Fcroz Shah*~ Mohammad A. Irfan**, Rizwan Gul*~ Abdul Shakoor*

ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR NUMERICAL DETECTION OF HOT SPOTS IN CASTING GEOMETRY
...h surround- ing edges, comers, curved surfaces, holes etc. of the geometry. These vectors develop a network of triangular segments, which define the boundar...

Farid Ullah Khan*, Sheraz Ali Khan*

A SMART STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC ELECTRIC POWER GENERATORS
...ay and step down transformers are used in the prototype circuit to control the functions required for startup, shutdown and switching onto and off the electric grid supply. Simulation of the developed system was performed in Proteus software and a prototype system has been implemented and tested with a 3500 W household electrical generator. The system performance has been analyzed for three different fUels i.e. Petrol, Liquefied Petroleum Gas and Natural gas.<...
Naeem Ejaz*, Daulat Khan**, Usman Ali Naeem*, Muhammad Ali Shamim*, Muhammad Fiaz Tahir*, Faisal Shabbir*, Jawad Hussain*
DETERIORATION OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT AND FLY-ASH BASED GEO-POLYMER CONCRETES DUE TO SULFATE ATTACK UNDER THE ACTION OF SULFURIC ACID AND WASTEWATER
...g, specimens were immersed in three types of sulfate containing solutions to check corrosion.. These sulfate containing solutions include static sulfuric acid, dynamic wastewater and static wastewater. Samples were tested at 28, 45 and 60 days after immersing in different type of solutions to find the corrosion depth. By visual inspection the corrosion depth and residual compressive strength were observed...

Asif Nawaz*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Rehmat Ullah, Khalid Nawab and Urooba Pervaiz

Investigation of Professional Competency Level and Training Needs of Field Assistants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...ability of motivating farmers. Regression analysis showed that rural domicile, job experience, and higher educational level of Field Assistants have positive and significant effect on the development of their competency. Therefore, it is suggested to provide in-service training for the Field Assistants in the identified areas for the adequate acquisition of relevant skills and knowledge.

...

Fazli Rabbi1*, Muhammad Idrees2, Shahid Ali1, Muhammad Zamin3 and Hazrat Bilal4

Farmers Perceptions and Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Production and Marketing
...ncreasing trend among farmers from apple growing to peach (P. persica L.) production in the Swat valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the last couple of years. However, these peach growers face various contraints in peach marketing. The farmers are reverting to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to overcome marketing hurdles. This research investigates the farmers&...

Sajad Ali1*, Jangraiz Khan2, Arshadullah Jadoon3, Muhammad Riaz4 and Abid Khan1

Evaluation of Farmers Socioeconomic Characteristics Influencing Tomato Output in District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...mically attractive to farmers, due to its short duration for ripping which increases productivity. Thus, it is becoming an indispensable source of farmer’s income in Pakistan. The production of tomato has been decreased considerably during the last five years. The present study has been conducted to explore the farmer’s socio-economic characteristics, affecting the tomato production in district Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A multi-stage-...

Syed Mufeed Hadi Naqvi1*, Badar Naseem Siddiqui1, Waqar-Ul-Hassan Tareen1, Muhammad Ameer Qarib Naqvi2 and Naseeb Hussain3

Usage of Mobile Phone by Vegetable Growers and its Impact on Vegetable Production
...inancial support five farmers from every village were selected to make a total one hundred and twenty respondents for the study. Most (44.2%) of the respondents of present study were present in middle age group and one out of three (31.7%) of the respondents were young and belong to age group of 15-35 years. Slightly more than one out of four (28.3%) of the respondent were owner-cum-tenant. Majority (76.7%) of them were literate at various level and they used ...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...IFS helps small scale farmers to increase cash income, improve quality and quantity of food produced by methodical exploitation of resources. Purpose of the study was to assess the awareness of the farmers to determine the impact of integrated farming system (IFS) on agricultural development and improving the livelihoods in the study area. To accomplish these objectives, an interview schedule was developed as a research inst...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...IFS helps small scale farmers to increase cash income, improve quality and quantity of food produced by methodical exploitation of resources. Purpose of the study was to assess the awareness of the farmers to determine the impact of integrated farming system (IFS) on agricultural development and improving the livelihoods in the study area. To accomplish these objectives, an interview schedule was developed as a research inst...

Asadullah Saleem* and Nadeem Ehsan*

STATUS OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS IN INFRASTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION FIRMS OF PAKISTAN
...ers like employees, customers and suppliers. Further the system design is marred by short-termism and less attention is paid to non-financial
performance drivers necessary for achieving long term goals.
...
Faheem Ali1, Muhammad Amir1, Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1, Abdul Basit2, Muhammad Kashif Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad1
AN SVC BASED POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL FOR CONSUMERS CONNECTED TO WEAK BUSSES IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
...y, residential consumers go with voltage stabilizers as a cheap solution consequently overstressing weak busses. Industrial consumers use other alternatives like switched capacitor banks to cope with low power factor but the limitation is step-wise reactive power injection which does not meet the changing load requirements. Real time improvement requires constant monitoring and real-time injection of Volt-Ampere-Re...

 Uzma Nawaz1*, Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1

TECHNO-ECONOMICS OF UPS SYSTEM AS BACKUP POWER SOURCE DURING LOAD SHEDDING
... forced electricity consumers to use backup power sources based on portable generator sets and Un-interrupted Power Supply (UPS) devices. In order to maintain continuity of supply to basic appliances such as lights and ceiling fans, the majority of consumers use UPS with battery backup due to its less initial cost compared to portable generator sets. Following the increased use of battery based UPS as bac...

Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh1,2*, Mohammad Tufazzal Hussan3, Md. Abul Hashem2,4, Mohammad Eliyas5 and A.K.M. Mostafa Anower1

Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Infection: An Emerging Threat to Cattle Health in Bangladesh
...esh, and necessity of farmers’ awareness building and telemedicine service during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks in controlling LSD.

...

Zakeer Ahmed Khan Abbasi* and Allah Nawaz 

...han those employed by farmers in the developing countries like Pakistan. The climate change awareness obviously determines the nature, quality and strength of climate change adaptations. The current study measures the impact of climate change awareness on climate change adaptation and climate change adaptation issues (constraints) and their interactions to help in addressing the native agricultural issues emerging from global climate change. The statistical an...

Oluwatoyin Olagunju1* and Luqman Abiodun Akinbile2

Farmers Perceptions of the Effect of Rural Transportation Systems on Farming Income in Ondo State, Nigeria
...sportation systems on farmers’ income in Ondo State, Nigeria. A structured interview was used in eliciting information from 120 farmers in rural communities across the two local governments in the study area using a two-stage random sampling technique. Data used for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as chi-square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The study...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,*, Samina J.N. Ahmad1,2,*, Mubashir Ahmad Malik1, Abid Ali1, Muhammad Ali3, Ejaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Tahir2 and Muhammad Ashraf2
...se I (COI) gene based primers. Gel electrophoresis of the PCR products of desert locustsindicated a 710bp amplified DNA fragment on 1.5% agarose gel. DNA sequence analysis of PCR product indicated that specimens shared a 99-100% identity with Schistocerca gregaria gregaria)(Forskål, 1775). Molecular phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary divergence study also revealed the formation of same cluster in phylogenetic tree with that of specific subspec...

Shahzad Malik* and Ayesha Khan

Gap Analysis of Farmers’ Capacity Building by Public and Private Agriculture Extension Sectors in Central Plain Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
... capacity building of farmers by public and private agriculture extension sectors. Three districts namely Peshawar, Mardan and Charsadda were selected purposively. In order to carry out the research, in the three districts of Peshawar, Mardan and Charsadda one tehsil was selected from each district i.e. Town-4 from Peshawar, Takhtbhai from Mardan and tehsil Charsadda from district Charsadda. Sample size for the present study was 270 respondents i.e. 90 respond...

Muhammad Jawad1*, Shahid Riaz Malik1, Rana Muhammad Atif2, Haris Ahmed2 and Muhammad Shahzad Afzal3

Species Identification of Gram Wilt Complex through ITS Region by PCR-RFLP Analysis
...otein source for poor farmers in the developing countries. Yield and production severely challenged by biotic stresses. Wilt complex is the major biotic factor that contribute significantly in yield loss. Wilt complex is caused by various pathogens, including diverse type of Fusarium species. Molecular approach is a useful technique for the identification of wilt complex pathogens. The study conducted to identify the polygenetic association of the pathogens of...
Murtaza, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah, Mehran Ahmad, Irfan Ullah and Jahangir Khan
Adoption of Hybrid Maize Technology in District Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...revealed that younger farmers were comparatively more adoptive of the hybrid maize technology. Education level, number of adult males involved in agriculture and land holdings of the farmers affected the adoption of the hybrid maize technology positively. The owners as compared to tenants and farmers having main sources of income other than agriculture were having lower probability to adop...
Arif Alam1*, Faridullah2, Ikram Shah1, Shahzad Khan3, Noor Elahi1 and Ehsan Inamullah1
Estimation of Farm Level Technical Efficiency in Maize Production at the High Mountain North Region of Pakistan
...l efficiency of maize farmers was estimated 73.6%. It was inferred that the productivity can be enhanced by reducing the inefficiency from the ecological factors, peasants’ personal characteristics and farming conditions.

...

Inam Ullah1, Mahfooz Khan2*, Munir Khan2, Himayatullah Khan2 and Azra3

Factors Affecting Different Wheat Varieties Yield in District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A Comparative Analysis
... that majority of the farmers were illiterate and do not apply the recommended amount of inputs due to its high prices/lack of availability of irrigation water. It is recommended that respondents should be encouraged to get training from the concerned Agricultural Research Centre in order to apply the recommended amount of inputs. The government should also provide inputs on subsidized rates and make irrigation water available through initiating different proj...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

An Empirical Analysis of Economic Efficiency and Farm Size of Cotton Farmers
... efficiency of cotton farmers in southern Punjab of Pakistan. Farm-level allocative, economic and technical efficiency of samples of 240 small, medium and large-scale cotton farmers was estimated using Stochastic Frontier Approach of district Rahim Yar Khan Punjab, Pakistan. Empirical findings of the study indicated that medium farm size cotton farmers were more allocative, technically and...

Yasir Arafat1*, Syeda Nabahat2, Hafiz Ullah3, Afaq Ali Muluk4 and Azra5

An Analysis of Energy Supply and Oil Price Shocks on Agricultural Productivity of Pakistan
...e yield which affects farmers directly. Most of the farmers either use electricity or oil to run the tube well for irrigation, increase in the prices of both electricity and oil affect crop productivity negatively. Consequently, government should provide electricity and oil in subsidized rates to the farmers at the time of cultivation and irrigation.

...

Shahzad Khan*, Munir Khan, Inayatullah Jan, Mahfooz Khan and Fida Muhammad Khan

Determinants of Sugarcane Yield in District Charsadda, Pakistan
...ire. The selection of farmers was based on proportional allocation technique in the selected villages. For data analysis, profit margin, gross margin and Cobb-Douglas production function were applied. The study found that the per acre profit of sugarcane was 289.82 US$. Labour and fertilizers costs were found major components in the total variable cost. The profit margin was obtained as 37.37%. Empirical results of regression model found seed, farm yard manure...
Sajad Ali1*, Naeem Ur Rehman Khatak1, Iftikhar Ahmad2, Jangraiz Khan3 and Azra4
Impact of Socioeconomic Factors and farm Size on Wheat Productivity: A Case Study of District Peshawar, Pakistan
...educate and train the farmers in order to bring advance techniques or improve theirconventional agriculture practices to increase wheat productivity.

...

Muhammad Imran1,2*, Shahbaz Talib Sahi1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Amer Rasul3

Brown Leaf Spot: An Exacerbated Embryonic Disease of Rice: A Review
...ultivars) are used by farmers in different field areas of the world. The use of the resistant source is the simple, reliable, operative and cost-effective strategy to control the diseases and maximize the yield in limited time. Due to changing the environmental conditions and appearance of the disease epidemic, the use of fungicides judiciously is the alternate significant method for quick and efficient control of diseases and improving the yield of rice. Whil...

Kubilay Ucar1, Sait Engindeniz1* and Jozef Palkovic2

Risk and Return Analysis of Open-Field Tomato Grown in Turkey: A Monte Carlo Simulation Approach
...oice decisions of the farmers are affected by the risk in price, cost, and yield outcomes. One of the products that are grown in irrigable lands and has high returns is tomato. The aim of this study is to analyze production costs, return and the risks associated with open-field tomato grown in Izmir province of Turkey in 2011-2017 period. Statistical data used in the study have been obtained from FAOSTAT, Turkish Statistical Institute and Turkish Ministry of A...

Mehnaz Safdar and Urooba Pervaiz*

Constraints in Accessing Agricultural Extension Services by Rural Women: Evidence from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...tion sources of women farmers and constraints they were facing in carrying out agricultural operations, 128  women respondents from each district were randomly selected and interviewed through pre-designed interview schedule in 2018. Results indicated that 47% respondents were in middle age category (31-40 years), 59% were illiterate, 91% women respondents were married and 75% households were headed by male. It was observed that local fa
Muhammad Umer Khan1,2*, Muhammad Farooq Sabar1, Atif Amin Baig3, Arif-un-Nisa Naqvi4 and Muhammad Usman Ghani1
...cation using specific primers for the control region of mtDNA (covering positions 16024–16569 and 1–576), including the three hypervariable segments (HVS1, HVS2, HVS3). The PCR products were subjected to cycle sequencing and further evaluated through computational analysis. A total of 75 different haplotypes were identified in Shin people; among them, 72 were unique and 3 were shared by more than one individual. This study revealed the predominance...

Asma Rashid Tariq1,2*, Saadia R. Tariq2, Tariq Mahmud1 and Misbah Sultan1*

Selective Capture of CO2 from Mixture of Different Gases using Cellulose Acetate, Polyimide, Polysulfone and some other Polymers based Mixed Matrix Membranes: A Review
... number of different polymers have been employed for the fabrication of mixed matrix membranes for example cellulose acetate, polyimides, polysulfone, pebax, polybenzimidazole, polymer of intrinsic porosity, polyurethane, chitosan and many more. Likewise, along with other fillers, Metal organic frame works have also been tested as additive for the mixed matrix membranes as they offer several advantages over other fillers. This review majorly presents use of th...
Hassam Ud Din1*, Huma Rizwana1, Rameez Raja Kaleri2, Kaleem Ullah2 and Muhammad Din2
Evaluation of Production Performance and Marketing of Small Ruminants in District Dukki, Balochistan
...m the small ruminants farmers of five union councils i.e. Vialla Dukki, Thal, Nana Sahib, Sadar and Nasar Abad of district Dukki of Balochistan. The sample size was composed by producer (50), wholesalers (50) and retailer (50) for convenient sampling contribution of each selected producer involved in the business area. The result showed that in the study area (60.00%, 24.00% and 16.00%) farmers have kacha, pacca and semi pac...

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Muhammad Luqman1*, Zahoor Hussain2, Usman Saleem3, Asif Nawaz1, Tahir Munir Butt4 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood1

Assessment of Knowledge Level and Information Sources of Vegetable Growers regarding Tunnel Farming in District Sargodha
...quite satisfactorily. Farmers do not know how to overcome the increasing attack of insects, pests, and diseases in tunnel farming. Some areas were identified, which require the attention of responsible authorities for the relevant knowledge.

...
Taqiur Rahman1, Tabassum Yaseen1*, Ali Mujtaba Shah2, Samiullah3, Ghulam Jelani3, Gul Nawaz1,Qudratullah Kalwar2
...wledge from the elder formers (R1, R2 and R4) this study labels the ethno veterinary practices in different villages of District Shangla, where the documentation process is carried out through semi-structured questionnaires in 2017 (R1) where about seventy plant species belonging to different families of spermatophytes have been collected, among which forty-eight belonged to angiosperm families and 2 families were gymnosperms. This comprises 39 herb, 14 shrubs...

Agustine Christela Melviana1, Rizkita Rachmi Esyanti1*, Roy Hendroko Setyobudi2, Maizirwan Mel3, Praptiningsih Gamawati Adinurani4 and Juris Burlakovs5

Gene Expression Related to Steviol Glycoside Synthesis Produced in Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Shoot Culture Induced with High Far-Red LED Light in TIS RITA® Bioreactor System
...or Automated Temporary Immersion System) is used in the production of a large amount of stevia biomass in approximately a short period. The forming of flowers is one of the limiting factors interfering with the metabolite production, as the content of steviol glycoside will decrease after plant flowering dramatically. This mechanism happened because steviol glycoside synthesis and flowering process share the same precursor. However, this interfering factor cou...

Muhammad Abdullah1, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai1, Jahangir Khan1*, Mohammad Fayaz1, Irfan Ullah1* and Sabeeh Ullah2

Analysis of Agricultural Land Price Determinants and Policy Implications for Controlling Residential and Commercial Encroachments: Facts from District Swabi (Pakistan)
...nt inputs could raise farmers’ returns from agriculture and could change their perception to favor using land for agriculture.

...

Sajid Khan* and Shahnaz Akhtar

Effect of Farm Labor Transformation on Households Income in Central Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...technical training to farmers for the dissemination of the latest technology and skill enhancement for growing various crops and vegetables to enhance agriculture and rural development.

...

Syed Muhammad1*, Badar Naseem Siddiqui2, Farhat Ullah Khan1 and Nawab Khan3

Self-perceived Constraints of Extension Field Staff Affecting their Working Efficiency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...logies to educate the farmers’ community about how to use new applications and techniques of modern technology for the purpose to increase agricultural production. The efficiency of EFS is, therefore, reflected by the farmers’ adoption level of modern recommended technology. The current study was designed and conducted during February 2018 for the purpose to find out self-perceived main constraints, affecting the...

Sanaullah1*, Abdul Basit2 and Inayat Ullah3

Challenges and Prospects of Farm Mechanization in Pakistan: A Case Study of Rural Farmers in District Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
...nomic features of the farmers and available machinery. A total of 240 rural farmers were randomly selected from two local union councils of provincial government Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar. The accumulated data were analysed using mean and standard deviation with an acceptance mean value of ≥3.00 and estimating logit model. Socio demographic features revealed that majority (52%) were in middle age group of 41-50 years, 6...

Chibuzo Uzoma Izuogu1*, Robert Ugochukwu Onyeneke1, Loveday Chukwudi Njoku1, Gillian Chidozie Azuamairo1 and Mary Chikerenma Atasie2

 

Repositioning Nigeria’s Agricultural Extension System Towards Building Climate Change Resilience
...silience practices to farmers as well as ensuring that government and other agencies are kept abreast with farmer’s feedback on their challenges in building climate change resilience.

...

Shawaiz Iqbal1*, Nadeem Iqbal2, Usama Bin Khalid1, Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Adila Iram1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Muhammad Sabar1 and Tahir Hussain Awan1

Growth, Yield and Economic Analysis of Dry-Seeded Basmati Rice
...hnique, which enables farmers to harvest economical rice production. Field study was conducted at Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Pakistan in 2014 and in 2015 to evaluate the different planting methods. Three dry-seeded rice (DSR) planting methods viz. (i) DSR-broadcast, (ii) DSR-drill, (iii) DSR-ridges were compared with the conventional transplanting (TR) method in lines having row to row and plant to plant distance of 22.5cm distance, and farmer tr...

Muhammad Tariq Mahmood1*, Muhammad Akhtar2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Saleem2, Ali Aziz2, Irfan Rasool2, Zeshan Ali3 and Muhammad Amin2

An Update on Biology, Extent of Damage and Effective Management Strategies of Chickpea Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera)
...in as last option for farmers. However, management of chickpea pod borer through use of resistant cultivars, adopting recommended cultural practices and biological control measures have been found more effective, economical, sustainable and eco-friendly.

...
Luka Anthony*, Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi, Elizabeth Samuel Ebukiba and Vandi Gamba
...ase the income of the farmers. Primary data were used for this study. Data were obtained using a well-designed well-structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered to two hundred and seven (207) small-holder rural rice farming households. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted. Data were analyzed using Multinomial Logit Model, Gini-Coefficient, Double-Log Regression Model, (Cobb-Douglas) and Principal Component Analysis. The results of the M...

Hillary M.O. Otieno

A Review of White Mango Scale (Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead; Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Sub-Saharan Africa: Distribution, Impact and Management Strategies
...t practices ready for farmers to implement. This has caused farmers to rely on nature and sometimes adoption of crude and ineffective traditional control methods. Farmers capable of using pesticides apply very toxic products that are not only harmful to the applicators but also to the beneficial organisms. Agronomic management strategies like right varieties, spacing, better fertilization ...
Ashara Sajid1, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Saeed Rauf 2, Zahoor Hussain3, Salman Ahmad1 and Yasir Iftikhar1,*
... (standardization) of primers used in previous and current studies. Characteristic symptoms combined with molecular detection would be useful to formulate the management strategies.
...
Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,2*, Muhammad Ajmal3, Iftikhar Zeb1,4 and Muhammad Azeem Khan1,5
 
 
...eas of the globe. The farmers in these areas especially in the developing countries are using saline water for irrigation. This laboratory scale study was aimed to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on development of total water potential within coarse and fine textured soils using a novel method based on water potential dynamics. Chilled mirror dew point hygrometer accurately captured the water potential dynamics when soil samples were irrigat...
Mashal Malik and Mudassar Nawaz Khan*
 
...land owing to lack of farmers interest and government attention. Soybean lines; B24G14, B23G5, B20G16, B21G2, B21G9, B6G23, B23G16 and B29G11 were grown for one month and analyzed for morphological and molecular variations. In order to analyze genetic variations, Single sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used. The line B20G16 showed the highest morphological growth parameters of plant height, total number of leaves, ...
Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khalid Munir1, Ghulam Abbas1’*, Isra Munir1Mumtaz Ahmad Khan1, Asif Iqbal1, Munsoor ud Din Ahmad1, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Zareen Fatima1 and Maria Arshad1

Dabesa Wegari and Fikiru Temesgen Gelata*

 

 

...hers, 12 hotels, 10 consumers and other institution actors; totally 476 respondents by using interview schedule, site visit and personal observation. Data analysis was made using descriptive and inferential statistics. In the study areas, the major beef cattle value chain actors were input suppliers, producers, traders, fatteners, processors, retailers, consumers and governmental and non-governmental institutions. The core f...
Grace Okongor, Chukwudi Njoku*, Pauline Essoka and Joel Efiong
...or better planning by farmers and policy makers.

...
Raheel Saqib1*, Muhammad Luqman2, Saleem Ashraf3, Tahir Munir Butt4, Abdur Rehman5, Imtiaz Hussain6 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood2
 
 
...eed to educate female farmers involved in family farming through extension activities to perform their activities effectively and efficiently. The major purpose of present study was to explore the constraints and potential benefits associated with family farming for livelihood improvement in the highlands of Pakistan.
...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

March

Vol. 37, Iss. 1, Pages 1-330

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe