Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...eight (35 cm), number of leaves (16.4), fresh foliage yields (330 g pot-1), dry foliage yields (32 g pot-1), leaf length (40.5 cm) and leaf area (238.4 mm2) relative to poultry manure, compost or FYM treatments. Similar trend was observed during 2010-11. Over all, press mud with EM was more effective in improving soil quality and enhancing spinach growth and quality followed by FYM and poultry manure. These results suggested that Press mud applied with EM have...

Arshad Ali Khan1, Muhammad Sajid1, Abdur Rab1, Sahib Alam2, Abdul Bari3

...o. The highest number of leaves plant-1 (75.25) and yield (49.25 t ha-1) were gained by Falcon in 50-50 treatment during, 2010. However, the plant height (134 cm) and fruit size (147.1 cm3) were higher at 25-75 and 75-25 treatment, respec- tively. Whereas, the less number of leaves plant-1 (15), plant height (28.25 cm), fruit size (92.3 cm3) and tomato yield (7.5 t ha-1) were recorded for Rio Grande in control during, 2009. ...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

...ht (45.83 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (54.1), fresh flower weight (44.29 g) and dry flower weight (5.12 g) was obtained with the application of 200 mg K2O pot-1. In case of maleic hydrazide, the plants grown under control treatment took minimum days (112.9) to flowering, maximum plant height (47.06 cm) and number of leaves (57.89) plant-1. Maximum fresh flower weight (47.85 g) and dry flower weight (5.80 g) was observed wi...

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

...ess (0.12 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (16.33) and plant survival percentage (81.72%). The more day to new bud sprout (24 days) and the minimum sprouting percentage (79%), number of sprout plant-1 (4.80), sprout length (23.96 cm), sprout thickness (0.07 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (12.88) and plant survival percentage (59.18%) were recorded in open field growing condition. In case of plant...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Hidayat-ur-Rahman2, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Fakharuddin2

...30.8 for number of cured leaves kg-1, -10.8 and 17.1 for yield, -16.0 and 9.94 for grade index, -10.4 and 68.66 for nicotine and -26.89 and 31.25 for reducing sugar, respectively. The current study identified KHG24/Spt G 28; KHG21/NC606 and Spt G 126/KHG24 as best crosses for yield while KHG22/KHG21 was the only best cross for grade index.  

...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

...idence maximum lesion on leaves were found in Kinnow (14.2) while in Cara Cara, Salustiana and Arnold Blood, lesser lesions were found. On the basis of results and overall performance Tarocco and Hamlin performed best in all aspects while Arnold Blood and Cara Cara revealed poor growth.  

...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...llelopathic potential of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (L.) against Convolvulus arvensis (L.) and Cyperus rotundus (L.) was undertaken during summer 2011. The study was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in three replicated completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of control (untreated), eucalyptus water extract at 10, 20 and 30 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

... height, number of green leaves plant-1, number of opened bolls plant-1, seed index, and seed cotton yield ha-1. Red leaves reduced when soil was fertilized with N, P and K @ 120-70-40 kg ha-1; and plots without application of K (120-70-0 kg ha-1) and PK (120-0-0 kg N ha-1) increased number of red leaves. In case of micronutrients, Zn @ 4 kg and B @ 1.5 kg ha-1 were highly effective to con...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

... branches plant-1, 41.25 leaves plant-1, 39.75 days taken to initiate flower bud, 7.49 cm flower diameter, 5.76 g weight of single flower, 3.27 days taken to open 1st flower, 8.41 flowers plant-1, 23.67 days blooming period and 28 percent leaf chlorophyll content. Similarly, photoperiodic treatment comprised of 6 hours daylight (8 am – 2 pm) produced 30.37 cm plant height, 4.36 side branches plant-1, 23.91 leaves plant...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

... height (11%), number of leaves (124%), fresh foliage yield (136%), dry foliage yield (16.4%), leaf length (20.2%) and leaf area (77.4%) were noted where pressmud + EM was applied as compared to its corresponding treatment without EM. Maximum Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations were found where pressmud + EM was applied. Dietary fiber, vitamin C and crude proteins were also increased in spinach with pressmud + EM application. It was concluded that EM-inoculated press...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...the water content of the leaves of overexpression lines was recorded compared to 33.87% reduction in leaf water content of WT plants as a result of heat stress. Furthermore, overexpression lines accumulated significantly higher amounts of proline compared to WT, both at room temperature and at 42°C. The above results showed that HsfA1d positively regulates thermotolerance in tobacco plants and can be used as target gene for engineering thermotolerance in c...

 Sheraz Ahmed and Fida Mohammad

...sitively correlated with leaves per plant, green leaves weight per plot, cured leaves weight per plot and grade index at both phenotypic and genotypic level. Based on findings of the present study, selection among RILs would be more effective on the basis of nicotine, reducing sugar, leaves per plant, green leaves weig...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...nt height, and number of leaves per plant, number of main-stem nodes, leaf area and percentage of vegetation cover as well as increased the nutritional value of alfalfa in terms of nutrient elements, proteins and factors such as ADF, Ash, CF, NDF.

...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...rlic bulbs and allamanda leaves tremendously increased germination and reduced damping-off, seed rot, seedling blight and tip over of vegetables (egg-plant, tomato, chilli) in the nursery and leaf blight, anthracnose, fruit rot, root knot and leaf curl/mosaic of tomato and carrot in the field. Aqueous solution of garlic and allamanda tablet sprayed at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 conc. increased seed germination by 45-60%, completely eliminated damping-off, se...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
... was found to infest the leaves of different ornamental plants in Rajshahi and Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is a polyphagous pest damaging coffee, sweet potato, jute, groundnut, tomato, citrus, cotton, guava etc. causing enormous damage to them. The female lays about 300-400 eggs which hatch in few hours. The life cycle is completed in about 40 days. The small and big black ants tend F. virgata and they keep other insects including hymenopteran parasites away from th...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...like fresh weight of 100 leaves and leaf yield were good in treatments where BM was applied. Trichoderma applications resulted in better c : b ratio during 1 st year, where as applications of P. fluorescens over two year analysis of pooled data gave the best c : b ratio.

...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...ghest yield in number of leaves per sq.M was recorded where carbendazim was sprayed. The highest yield in fresh weight, dry weight of leaves, fresh weight and dry weight of 1000 leaves was recorded. Application of mancozeb resulted in the lowest PDI of target spot of Sarpagandha, increased the yield (both fresh weight and dry weight of the plant per sq.M) and increased the fresh weight and...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...al surface of the papaya leaves along the veins and later disperse to the unripe fruits rendering them unmarketable and inedible. The damage appeared to be in the range between 70 and 95 per cent. Generally young plants die due to heavy infestation and colony formation of the mealybug. P. marginatus is a polyphagous pest attacking several agricultural, horticultural crops, ornamental plants and weeds of economic value. The papaya mealybug feeds on the sap of t...

Nilesh Suresh Gole and Bijan Kumar Das

Biology of Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), a serious pest of Indian ipecac, Tylophora indica
...year, fed voraciously on leaves and flowers causing extensive damage to T. indica during June and December. Eggs were laid singly or in batch of 2-3 on younger leaves (mostly on under surface) or on young shoot tips. Life cycle was completed in 41-46 days during January- February and 26-32 days during June-July. There were several overlapping generations in a year. Descriptions of different life stages have been made. Adapti...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...to take the bug infested leaves and fruits from parasite-released fields and dispersed in new fields. The effective mass-spreading of parasitoid was made thorough door-to-door contact and farmers were monitored not to take up spraying. The infested plant parts from infested fields were availed regularly by TNAU to facilitate mass production of parasitoid. This is a successful model of partnership of private sector-public institutions in biocontrol of the PMB b...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
...the attacking fruits and leaves. P. marginatus passes through egg and three nymphal stages to become adult. Generally, three and four nymphal instars occur in case of female and male mealybug, respectively. The adults are most active in warm, dry and humid weather. The male adult mealybugs possess two pairs of wings. Female have no wings and move by crawling short distances or by being blown in air currents. Female usually lays 100 to 600 eggs. Eggs are greeni...

Dharmishthabahen R. Shah and Abhishek Shukla

Reaction of gerbera cultivars to spider mite, Tetranychus urti-cae Koch (Tetranychidae: Acari) under polyhouse conditions
...on having green coloured leaves and red coloured flowers, while the highly tolerant cultivar Cherany with dark green leaves and pink coloured flower.

...

Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
...igonychus coffeae on tea leaves was maximum during month of April to May-June and September-October (2011). The minimum number of mites was recorded from July- August and November (2011) to February (2012). The data taken from 1st week of April, 2011 to last week of March 2012. In case of eggs population, there was a gradual increasing trend in egg number to reach the peak population in the month of April. From April to June overall higher population of eggs/l...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
... (20 aphids/100 compound leaves) during first to second week of January in Kufri Chandramukhi whereas in Kufri Jyoti and Kufri Joawhar, the pest was observed first by fourth week of December and attained the critical level during second to third week of January. The pest initially occurred during early to mid January in K.Chipsona-1, K.Chipsona-2 and Atlantic and reached the threshold limit between end January to early February. Maximum population of aphid was...

S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...diolus by feeding on the leaves. The tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) was serious on Gladiolus and Anthurium. Cutworm (Agrotis segetum) damaged the seedlings of Gladiolus. Among the Coleopteran pests, the Blister beetle (Mylabris p) was the most important feeding on the flowers of Gladiolus and China rose. The steel blue beetle, Altica p. and white spotted flea beetle (Monolepta signata) was found infesting Gladiolus and Chrysanthemum respectively. The ...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...propagules like infected leaves, stems, root and floral parts on different fungal growth media. The diagnostic characteristic features of each isolate were critically studied using relevant literature. The pathogenicity of the isolates was examined to select biocontrol agent against host weed. 
...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...nella foenum-graecum leaves. The extracts of powdered leaves were obtained in various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and distilled water) using hot and cold extraction methods. Phytochemical analysis of leaves was performed on powder and extracts of leaves using already reported methods. Mineral analysis was done using atomi...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...lusmn;0.4554). The fresh leaves of rose, citrus, brassica and wheat (1.2±0.2006, 1.3556±0.1416, 1.5778±0.1829, 2.1444±0.2027, respectively) attracted significantly more numbers of C. septempunctata as compared to control and aphids alone (0.7667±0.1204 and 0.8333±0.1153). With every next hour (3, 6 and 12 h) of observation the movement of C. septempunctata toward target localities was elevated. Finding of...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
...used for extraction from leaves. Amongst the various treatments applied, the acetone extract of D. alba showed the highest repellency of 84.14%, whereas, the lowest repellency of 10.73% was observed by the chloroform extract of T. peruviana. Significant ovipositional deterrent effects of the extracts applied have been observed. Maximum oviposition inhibition was shown by petroleum ether extract of A. indica (57.14%), while the lowest ovipo...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

... plant-1(2.83 and 3.49), leaves plant-1(11.44 and 12.79), leaf area (21.47cm2 and 25.20cm2) and more days to emergence (9.92 and 8.98), was recorded from salinity levels of 135mM and 90mM, respectively compared with maximum germination (94.80%), tillers plant-1 (4.42), leaves plant-1 (17.45), leaf area (32.10cm2) less number of days to emergence (7.54) from control. All growth parameters were significantly improved by seed p...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...racting fibre from sisal leaves. A prototype of sisal decorticator was designed and fabricated at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The prototype machine was tested for fibre extraction. Results indicated that sisal fibre production capacity of this machine was 15.94 kg h-1 (dry fibre). Average yield of dry sisal fibre was 3.2% of green leaf weight and average fibre length was 1348.9...
Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz
...sup>-2), number of leaves tillers-1 (5.66), total dry matter (17.70 t ha-1) and fodder yield (60.90 t ha-1) showed that nitrogen application @ 150 % N of recommended dose with drill sowing proved to be the most cost effective technique for fodder oat production in salt affected soil as compared to other treatments.
...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...ects of popcorn infected leaves on silkworm performance. One group of silkworms was fed infected mulberry leaves and the second silkworms group was given control mulberry leaves that were infection free. Results showed that infected leaves exhibited limited toxicity to the silkworm; however, the cocoons yield found in infected group was deeply affected. ...

Bibi Haleema1*, Abdur Rab1 and Syed Asghar Hussain2 

...condary (7.15) branches, leaves plant-1 (182), leaf area (65.52 cm2), and fruit per plant (66.15). In case of B levels, more plant height (88.14 cm), number of primary (2.61) and secondary (7.44) branches, number of leaves plant-1 (177), number fruits plant-1 (67.78) were recorded with foliar spray of B at 0.25%, while maximum leaf area was found at 0.5% B. Comparing the means for Zn concentrations, maximum plant height (86....
Sidra Iqbal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabbsum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...gn: justify;">Eucalyptus leaves were pretreated through Box-Bhenken design of response surface methodology using three variables with three levels such as NaOH concentration (0.6, 0.8, 1.0%), substrate concentration (5, 10, 15%) and residence time (4, 6, 8h) with and without steam (autoclaving at 121oC for 15min and 15psi). After pretreatment, cellulase production was conducted in 250ml Erlenmeyer flask at 50 ºC, pH 5 with shaking speed of 120 rpm using 2...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

... stages (at emergence, 4 leaves, 8 leaves and tassel visible and blister) performed better as compared with other treatments applied for obtaining good return from maize crop in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Province, Pakistan. 

...
John Martin Fischer
... with me that this still leaves the question of whether God’s foreknowledge rules out acting freely (and moral responsibility). I defend semicompatibilism about God’s foreknowledge and moral responsibility; thus I hold that acting freely and moral responsibility are compatible with God’s foreknowledge, even if God’s foreknowledge rules out freedom to do otherwise.
...

 Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Munir* and Muhammad Aslam**

...H-ABA was applied to the leaves of two soybean cultivars: cv. Williams-82 and its hypernodulating mutant, NODI-3. There was a significant difference in the percent uptake of 3H-ABA between the two varieties both in inoculated and uninoculated plants. A marked difference in the percent distribution of 3H-ABA between different parts of the plants was observed at different developmental phases of root nodules. Leaves of NODI-3 ...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...nted with ber (Zizyphus) leaves, wheat and mustard fodders in winter season and ber leaves, sorghum and bajra fodders in summer. Groundnut and wheat straws were main dry fodder. Wheat grains, oil seed cakes, wheat bran (choker), grams and left over dry breads were the concentrates fed to goats. On the whole about 30% metabolizable energy requirements of non-milking goats and 34% of does were fulfilled by supplementation. Goa...

 Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Amanullah, Saifullah Khan, Basharat Hussain Shah and Munir Ahmed Khetran*

... Coratina with 2–4 leaves and 15–18 cm in length were obtained from existing progeny in an orchard of Arid Zone Research Centre (AZRC), Quetta, Pakistan. The basal portion of these cuttings were treated with 3000, 4000 and 5000 ppm IBA solution for 3- 4 seconds. The treated cuttings were immediately planted in polyethylene tubes (10 cm x 20 cm) filled with a sandy loam soil. In the control, the cuttings were planted directly in polyethylene bags wi...

Tariq Mahmood, M. Sudheer Tariq, Khalid Mahmood Khokar, Hidayatullah and Syed Ijaz Hussain*

...xtracts (neem seed, neem leaves and tobacco leaves) and insecticide permethrin dust alone or mixed with dung, were conducted against red pumpkin beetle in the field at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during kharif 2008. Permethrin (0.5%) alone or mixed (0.05%) with dung ash as dust controlled the attack of red pumpkin beetle on the crop with no mortality of plants. Highest mortality of plants due to foliage ...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik**, M. Aslam Gill*** and
Nasir M. Cheema*

Corresponding author: parvezkhaliq786@yahoo.com

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON MAIZE FODDER YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
... plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment -1 produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha ) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg -1 ha produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green fodder yield produced with these two fertilizer treatments were s...

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*

IMPACT OF CULTIVATION SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA) CV. “CHANDLER”
... plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights of leaves, crown size , root length and reproductive parameters i.e., number of trusses, number of flowers, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and qualitative measures viz., total soluble solids, total sugars, ascorbic acid were found significantly higher under tunnel condition as compared to other cultivation systems. The experiment was arranged by em...

 Sara Khalid*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz*, Khalid Saifullah Khan* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH, FRUIT AND YIELD QUALITY OF STRAWBERRY
...ht (0.92 g), number of 2 leaves (6.67), leaf area (43.07 cm ) and days required for first bloom (96.67). Leaf manure based treatment (T3 ) enhanced root length (20.11 cm), T4 improved quality parameters like total solid soluble (TSS) (8.88) and ascorbic acid contents (64 mg) while T improved total sugar contents in 1 fruits (6.82%). Hence farm yard manure(FYM) and vermicompost based organic amendments enhanced vegetative growth and improved quality of strawber...

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
... fresh and dry weight of leaves, number of leaves, fruit yield in term of fruit number, fruit size and fruit weight, and fruit quality with high ascorbic acid contents were observed. On the other hand, plants grown in silt, sand and FYM (1 : 1 : 1) at both planting densities showed significant increment in vegetative growth resulting in early flowering with more flowers per plant, better fruit setting and fruit set percentag...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, A. K. Azad**, Leon O. Namuco***, Teresita H. Borromeo***, Maria Lourdes O. Cedo*** and Edna A. Aguilar***

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF A MAKAPUNO COCONUT POPULATION IN U.P. LOS BANOS
...nd lower number of green leaves. Cluster IV is characterized by heavy fruit and nut weight with elongated shape of nut. Higher number of green leaves presence is the common character of palms of cluster V. Girth at bole region and longer petiole length of leaves are the common characters of palms belonging to cluster VI. 

...

 Farman Ullah Shah*, G. Mustafa Sajid** and Sadar Uddin Siddiqui**

EVALUATION OF MULCHING MATERIALS AS INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT COMPONENT IN MAIZE CROP
...f cobs plant , number of leaves -1 -1 plant , average grain number of five cobs and grain yield (t ha ). With the -2 -2 exception of hand weeding, minimum number of weeds 128 m and 164 m were recorded in black plastic and weeds as mulch, respectively, compared -2 to 595 m in weedy check. Similarly, maximum grain yields (1.91 and 1.85 -1 t ha ) were recorded in black plastic and weeds as mulch, while minimum -1 grain yield (0.64 t ha ) was recorded in weedy che...

 Rashid Minhas*, Iftikhar Ahmad Khan**, Faisal Saeed Awan**, Lal Hussain Akhtar*, Syed Awais Sajid Shah* and M. Shahjhan Bukhari* 

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND HYBRID IDENTIFICATION IN AMERICAN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.) BY PCR BASED RAPD ANALYSIS
...ully from their immature leaves to estimate 1 genetic diversity and hybrid identification. Out of the 26 RAPD primers used for DNA amplification, 14 primers produced polymorphic bands, while 12 produced monomorphic bands. These 14 primers yielded total 96 RAPD markers, out of which only 40 were found polymorphic which resulted in 41.66% polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The number of RAPD markers produced ranged from 4 to 12. Average number of 6.40 ban...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...opogon aucheri with tree leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil) in the ratio of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, along with sole species on their chemical composition. Samples were analyzed for proximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared t...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...ontortus (HC), with tree leaves of Leucaena leucocephala (Ipil ipil, II) in the ratio of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, along with sole species on their digestibility in small ruminants. Goats fed II , HC II , HC II , HC II and HC had similar 100% 25% 75% 50% 50% 75% 25% 100% dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) consumption among all the treatments. The digestibility percentage of dry matter intake (DMI) varied among the treatments ranging from 68.25...

 Muhammad Ayub*, Rizwan Maqbool*, Muhammad Tahir*, Zoaib Aslam*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem* and Muhammad Ibrahim**

IMPROVED GROWTH, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) THROUGH SOIL APPLIED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...height by 44%, number of leaves per plant by 76%, 1000 seed weight by 44%, biological yield by 50%, seed yield by 296%, harvest index by 162% and protein content by 6%. However, fertilizer NP -1 (90:45 kg ha ) decreased oil content by 26%. Therefore, addition of NP fertilizer had the potential to increase fennel seed yield, but reduce oil content, under Faisalabad conditions.

...

 Ibrar Ali*, Abdul Mateen Khattak*, Muhammad Ali* and Kalim Ullah**

PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT TOMATO CULTIVARS UNDER ORGANIC AND INORGANIC REGIMES
...vival (93.8%), number of leaves plant -1 -1 (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), -1 3 -1 number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm ), fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and -1 total yield (22.9 t ha ). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for -1 -1 number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of -1 -1 fruits inflorescence (4.0) ...

 Quratulain*, Muhammad Aslam**, Muhammad Khalid Rafique*, Mian Atiq Ahmad* and Rashid Mahmood***

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF ROSE APHID MACROSIPHUM ROSAE L. ON DIFFERENT CULTIVARS OF ROSA INDICA L. IN PAKISTAN
...adults were counted from leaves (upper, middle and lower leaves), buds and flowers by visual observation from tagged plants. Aphid populations start to develop in November and its population decline with decline in temperature in December. While its population started rising again at the end of February. Significantly more aphid populations were observed on Perfecta than other varieties; however, significantly few aphids wer...

Salar Khan Yousafzai*, Shah Masaud Khan*, Khalil ur Rehman**, Junaid Khan*, Sher Aslam Khan*, Ijaz Hussain* and Ishrat Naz***

RESPONSE OF TOMATO CULTIVARS TO DIFFERENT ORGANIC FERTILIZERS UNDER AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF MINGORA, SWAT
...ght (8.84 kg), number of leaves plant (83.66), fruit size (64.70 cm ) and total -1 yield (25.67 t ha ) in Farm Yard Manure (FYM). Considering the overall performance, it was found that the tomato cultivar Rio Grand was promising for yield and other characters whereFYM was applied.

...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Nawal Zafar* 

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF RABI CEREALS SOWN ALONE AND IN BLENDED POPULATION AT VARIABLE SEED RATIOS
...er of tillers, number of leaves plant , leaf area, crop growth -1 -1 rate, fresh weight plant , dry weight plant , green forage yield and dry matter yield were obtained in plots where barley was sown alone at 100% seed ratio. The highest crude fiber and total ash percentage was observed in plots where oat was sown alone at 100% seed ratio and crude protein percentage was highest when oat was blended together with barley at 75% + 25% seed ratios.

...

 Tassadduq Rasool*, Ali Zohaib*, Ehsanullah*, Riaz Ahmad*, Tasawer Abbas*, Tahira Tabassum*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem*, Mahmood-ul-Hassan*

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY IN PEARL MILLET-SESBANIA INTERCROPPING SYSTEM UNDER VARIOUS GEOMETRICAL PATTERNS
...area (42%) and number of leaves (16%) of pearl millet was occurred by intercropping sesbania in 45 cm apart two-row strips of pearl millet, as compared to sole cropping of pearl millet. Total green forage yield (60%) was increased by sesbania intercropping over sole-cropping of pearl millet and the intercropping of sesbania in 45 cm apart two-row strips of pearl millet was most beneficial. Intercropping improved quality of fodder mixture, compared to sole-crop...

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

...cb2 gene in the selected leaves. Application of CaCl2 increased the RWC, proline and sugar content as well as the Lhcb2 expression in the leaves under both irrigation conditions; however, the effect was more prominent under water stress. In the control plants, water stress decreased RWC (-57%) and Lhcb2 transcript abundance (-44.37%) but increased proline (9.02 fold) and sugar content (3.42 fold) after 20 days. Significantly...

Hamza Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Ijaz Ahmad*2, Ihsanullah Khan3, Shujaat Hussain1, Bashir Ahmad Khan4 and Muhammad Suhaib5  

...stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, plant height, head diameter, days to maturity, 100 seed weight, number of seeds per head and seed yield per hectare. Quality parameters were consisted upon oil content (%), protein content (%) and Fatty acid profile. Results showed that SMH-1001 and SMH-1215 hybrids performed best for yield and quality parameters, whereas, SMH-1006 and SMH-0909 were considered best for early maturing traits.  

...

Qasim Iqbal1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Bashir Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Ihsanullah Khan4  

...head diameter, number of leaves, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per hectare. Quality parameters were consisted upon oil content (%), protein content (%), and fatty acid profile. The results showed that significantly highest seed yield (2187.3) kg ha-1 was produced by SF 16003 followed by SF16010 and SF 16002 having (2016.2) kg ha-1 and (1888.2) kg ha-1 seed yield respectively. The Cluster analysis also determined SF 16003 as best hybrid which was at a very cl...

Fayaz Ahmad1*, Noorullah Khan1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Qamar uz Zaman1, Shamsul Islam1, Muhammad Abbas Khan1 and Sair Sarwar

...fertilizer for number of leaves per shoot was not significant, however tea bushes pruned on December 2012 and applied with potash fertilizer @ 150 kg ha-1 produced maximum number of leaves per shoot (24.53) and was followed by December pruning (24.53 leaves per shoot) with the application of potash @ 120 kg ha-1. Shoot thickness was also significantly affected by time of pruning and applic...
Abdur Rahman1,*, Ibrahim Sadi Cetingul2, Ismail Bayram2, Cangir Uyarlar2, Abdil Burhaneddin Akkaya2, Eyup Eren Gultepe2, Hikmet Keles3, Aykut Ulucan4 and Zafar Hayat1
...ntation of Oregano dried leaves in the quail diet on the intestinal properties and gut morphology. Quails fed diets containing 0% (A), 1% (B), 2% (C), 3% (D), 4% (E) and 5% (F) dried ground Oregano leaves. Results revealed that villus height was significantly higher in group D compared to control group, whereas crypt depth was significantly higher in all supplemented groups specifically remarkable in group D. Thickness of th...
Xia Lin Zheng1, Zhen Hua Xian1, Zhen De Yang2, Xiu Hao Yang3 and Wen Lu1,*
...aapiella sp. damaged leaves, while Contarinia sp. damaged stems and leafstalks. The damage ratio and the index of Jaapiella sp. in December 2012, March, July and December 2013 were 9.7±2.0%, 14.8±1.9%, 24.1±1.5%, 12.3±0.6% and 25.6%, 31.3%, 35.6%, 26.2%, respectively, while those of Contarinia sp. were 33.2±3.4%, 38.4±4.3%, 43.2±3.1%, 31.6±3.5% and 29.6%, 30.9%, 36.0%, 30.9%,...

Fazal Munsif1, Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Arif2, Kawsar Ali3 and Ijaz Ahmad

... plant height, number of leaves tiller-1, mean leaf area, leaf area index, stem diameter, number of nodes tiller-1, internodes length, cane yield, total dry matter, cane yield, pol and sugar recovery. Higher number of tillers (14.0), number of nodes tiller-1 (15.3) mean leaf area (466.3 cm2), leaf area index (10.47), internode length (14.3 cm), thicker canes (2.48 cm), total dry matter (105.8 t ha-1), cane yield (82.5 t ha-1) and higher sugar recovery (13.49 %...
Xiaqing Chen, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...not detected on mulberry leaves and branches, whereas it was only detected in mulberry fruits. T. hamatum fermentation broth and its ethyl acetate extracts caused high mycelial growth inhibition and germination inhibition of S. shiraiana, with the inhibition value up to 80% and 90%, respectively. An apparent increase in mycelial growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner was observed when ethyl acetate extract and carbendazim were applied indiv...

Safina Naz1, Khushbo Hussain1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2* and Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3
 

...e, while fresh weight of leaves is 5.1g, dry weight is 0.41g, while fresh weight of fruit is 121.66 g and fruit length is 14.11 cm. Salicylic acid promoted vine length upto 11.33 feet while chlorophyll contents were calculated as 71.09 (SPAD Value), while fresh weight of leaves was 4.9g, dry weight was 0.38g while fresh weight of fruit was 113.34g and fruit length was 9.80 cm. However, the combination of NAA and SA gave vine...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

... in solution form on the leaves of the canola plants. Results indicated that reducing irrigation water shortened days to 50% flowering (103 days), days to 50% pod formation (120 days) and days to maturity (161 days). Optimum water supply delayed days to flowering (107 days), days to pod formation (122 days) and days to maturity (166 days). Moisture stress reduced number of branches plant-1 (5.6) and leaves plant-1 (12.8). Ap...

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

... slight yellowing of the leaves after 60th days of cultivation. Present results may help in exploiting the Penicillium sp. extract for isolation and structural characterization of its antifungal compounds. 

...

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

...n made of perennial tree leaves. The study compares early growth performance of alfalfa varieties for forage biomass production. The seed was soaked overnight (14 h) in extracts made from dry powdered leaves of Bakayn (Azadir achtaindica), Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) and water (H2O) and planted in pots on the next morning. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design at the University of Agriculture Peshawar ...
Ghazunfar Rashid1, Muhammad Avais1, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Rais Ahmed3,*, Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Naveed-ul-Haque4, Mehtab Ahmad5Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Naimat Ullah Khan6
... in the afternoon in the leaves and in mature crops as compared to stem parts, immature plants, and in samples collected from plants during morning hours. The nitrate concentration was lower in samples collected from Ravi area, as compared to samples collected from villages of Pattoki and Okara. Blood samples were collected from animals feeding on above fodders; Spectrophotometry analysis of blood samples from these animals showed abnormally high levels of nit...
Tariq Mahmood1,*, Ijaz Ahmad1, Faraz Akrim1, Abdul Hamid1, Muhammad Waseem1, Abid Hussain1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...aterial consisted of dry leaves of annual grass Poa annua, small twigs of bushes and downy feathers. The depth of nest ranged between 5-10 cm. Clutch size ranged from 8-20 eggs while the incubation period was found to be 22-24 days. Hatching success was up to 85% (range 75 to 85%) in different nests. The dense vegetation consisting of Dodonaea viscosa and Poa annua provided shelter, cover and abundant supply of insects to the chicks. The s...

 Muhammad Akram and Faheem Aftab

THIDIAZURON INDUCES IN VITRO BUD BREAK AND SHOOT DEVELOPMENT FROM NODAL EXPLANTS OF ORTHOTROPIC SHOOTS OF MAIDENHAIR TREE (GINKGO BILOBA L.)
...nd 7.2 average number of leaves for another 10 days. Similarly, all other TDZ’s concentrations below 1 uM were also effective in bud breaking and development of shoots with green and vigorous growth. The frequency of bud break was significantly reduced with the increasing concentrations of TDZ. There were 2 phases of callus formation on the explant, i.e., before bud break and after the break. The frequency of callus induction was highest (100%) at 5uM TD...

 Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan1*, Muhammad Zafar2, Munazza Perveen3, Munir Ahmad3, Asia Iqbal4, Asmatullah3

Efficacy of malathion and carbosulfan against crop invadedaphid types Aphis craccivora (Koch) and Aphis gossypii (glover) on bean and brinjal plants
...ory, the vegetable plant leaves being applied by residual
film technique with tested Aphid population. The most toxic insecticide was found
to be malathion with LC50 as 20.11 μg cm-2 for A. craccivora and 25.28 μg cm-2 for
A. gossypii while carbosulfan was found to be least toxic with LC50 as 312.80 μg
cm-2 for A. craccivora and 322.25 μg cm-2 for A. gossypii respectively. No
significant heterogeneity was to be fo...

Imran Khan1*, Muhammad Iqbal1 and Malik Muhammad Hashim2 

...t height (cm), number of leaves plant -1, leaf length (cm), leaf area (cm2), leaf weight plant-1(g), root weight plant-1 (g), root/top ratio, root length (cm), root diameter (cm), sucrose%, tss %, purity %, leaf yield (t ha-1), root yield (t ha-1), sugar yield (t ha-1) and harvesting index. The results indicated significant variation among the treatments for all parameters during both years of study. Among the treatments I3 (15 days’’ interval) imp...

Liaqat Ali Shahid1*, Nadeem Amjad2 and Muhammad Abdul Hanan Siddhu3 

...ixed waste material with leaves. The average machine throughput capacity was found to be 503 kg.h-1 with an average machine efficiency of 89 percent. Total average fuel consumption and labour requirement (un-skilled + skilled) were found to be 3.5 litres and 3.53 man-hour, respectively. The machine was also tested with clean Eucalyptus stems without leaves and small branches. The average throughput capacity in this case was ...

Sabi-ur-rehman1, Farooq Azam1, Shaheed Ur Rehman2, Tasbeeh Ur Rahman3, Ayeza Mehmood4, Afshan Gohar5 and Abdul Samad5* 

...inal importance like its leaves and fruits have been using traditionally as antipyretic, anti diabetic, anti malarial and for the treatment of conjunctivitis, syphilis, gonorrhea, orchitis, diarrhea, anemia, prickly heat and swellings etc. The plant has also reported to have pharmacological active phytochemicals i.e. conocarpan, conocarpol, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ellagitannin, castalagin, quercetin, myricetin and syringetin etc. The review expresses the et...
Aqeel Mehboob, Syed Muhammad Zaka*, Muhammad Sarmadand Maryam Bajwa
...ly stages attacks on the leaves and later stage larva fed almost every part of plant. Due to environmental pollution and the incapability of toxic agents in controlling the target pests at the recommended doses of synthetic pesticides, alternative methods like botanical extract in the control of this pest consider greater importance nowadays. The antifeedant and oviposition deterrent index of Moringa oleifera, Murraya paniculata and Piper nigr...

Shamsher Ali1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Zahir Shah2, Naveedullah3 and Abdul Jalal1 

... plant height, number of leaves, shoots and roots weight. The results revealed that all data parameters except number of leaves were affected significantly (p < 0.05) by different levels of salinity. Irrespective of maize varieties, the percent emergence, plant height, number of leaves, shoots and roots weight of Maize were reduced with linear increasing levels of salinity. Among the ge...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...c Extracts (CEE)of dried leaves of A. lebbeck L. and whole plant of C. sinensis L. were prepared by cold maceration method. The anthelmintic activity was analyzed by adult motility assay (AMA). Levamisole was used as positive control to compare the efficacy of CEE of both plants. Adult worms were treated with different concentrations i.e., 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/ml of ethanolic extract and motility of the worms was examined after every two to eight hou...

Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Syed Burhan-ud-Din2, Muhammad Fahad Khan1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Naila Ilyas1

...ysis of treated mungbean leaves with SA and BTH exhibited peak accumulation of phenols and defense related enzymatic antioxidants. Highest enzymatic activity was observed in treated plants followed by inoculation with MYMV. Increase in resistance by the application of SA and BTH, antioxidant enzymatic activities of SOD, POD, CAT were also increased for second week. This revealed that SA and BTH can be used as a potential source for the activation of resistance...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
..., moisture, thickness of leaves and fruit length of okra varieties. The leaf area was slightly greater in comparatively resistant varieties. Similarly, fruit was found to be significantly more in case of comparatively resistant varieties as compared to intermediate resistant and comparatively susceptible varieties. It was also observed that fruit and shoot infestation was the maximum on comparatively susceptible cultivars while infestation was significantly lo...

Sabi-Ur-Rehman1, Anwar Khalid2, Qazi Najam Us Saqib3, Farooq Ahmad1, Shaheed-Ur-Rehman4, Neelam Zaman3, Ayeza Mehmood5 and Abdul Samad6*  

...e saponins isolated from leaves and roots of Sarcococca saligna, using disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains include, B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus, P. fluorescens and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, A. flavus, and D. turcica. The maximum zones of inhibition, 23.00±0.56 mm and 25.00±0.50 mm was given by ethyl acetate fraction of leaves against P. fluorescens and A. niger respectively. Th...

Zafrullah Khan* and Shah Alam Khan 

...ing on phloem tissues of leaves of potato plant and significantly reduces the yield of potato. Antixenosis experiments were performed to assess the resistance potential of eight different potato cultivars against M. persicae under glasshouse conditions for three different durations of time (12, 24 and 48 hours) during spring and autumn potato growing seasons of 2016. Both the experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design. Each experiment havi...

Hamid Ali, Muhammad Arshad, Ibad Ullah Jan, Muhammad Zamin*, Junaid Khan, Ikram Ullah and Mushtaq Ali 

...ght (53,21cm), number of leaves (16.34), length of spike (77.68cm), diameter of spike (7.51cm), floret number (25.27) and length of rachis (16.1cm) at 150 ppm gibberellic acid and 3000 ppm micro nutrients and hence recommended for increasing growth and flowers in tuberose. 

...
Wang Zaigui1,*, Guo Panpan1, Ye Miao1, Sun Linghong1, Zhang Hongfu2 and Liu Chaoliang1,*
...ining amount of mulberry leaves (RAML) was significantly decreased contrasting to the blank group (P<0.05). (2) In the larval duration of 4th instar silkworm, adding B. subtilis to the feed could significantly increase the AWG and RFC and decrease of RAML (P<0.05) (3) In the larval duration of 5th instar silkworm, maximum growth parameters level were achieved with silkworm in the experiment group, that the AWG, ...
Lichao Feng1,2, Shaoqing Zhang4, Dianyuan Chen2, Sina Adl3 and Donghui Wu1,4*
...us trionum), or leaves of grasses (Poa annua, Echinochloa crusgalli), or maize leaves (Songyu 419, a hybrid variety) as food sources to feed the adult of A. fuscicollis. The larvae were reared on roots of the same grasses and germinated maize seedlings. Additionally, potato tuber the common food used to grew the beetles that was selected as a reference to demonstrate that blooming wildflowers th...

Kamran Aziz1*, Aamir Saleem1 and Arshad Mahmood Malik2 

...s such as roots, shoots, leaves and other parts. The present study was conducted to estimate the decomposition rate, litter fall production and elemental composition of Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the study area Dungagali, Taohidabad, Kuzagali and Khanspur situated around the Ayubia National Park. The research was carried from September, 2016 to August, 2017. Litter bag technique was used to estimate the decomposition rate, elemental composition wa...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

...like the total number of leaves per plant, plant height, fruit length, root and shoot dry weight, fresh fruit weight, the total number of fruits per plant, fruit yield and total yield increase. No significant increase was observed in the yield and growth of okra under control and full NPK fertilizer treatment. Application of organic fertilizers like poultry manure and compost as well as its mixture with full NPK considerably increase the growth and total yield...

Ammara Saeed* and Noor-ul-Amin 

...lant-1 (11.4), number of leaves branch-1 (19.0), flower stalk length (44.7 cm), flower diameter (7.7 cm), number of flower plant-1 (12.2), flower persistence (11.6 days) and survival percentage (96.8 %). Results further showed that all the study attributes were recorded significantly best in 2015 compared to 2014. In cultivars, Gold Medal produced early sprouting (12.7 days), maximum number of branches (7.4), and number of leaves
Asad Abdullah, Muhammad Irfan Ullah*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Afzal
... litura were offered leaves of cabbage, alfalfa, sesbania and, maize in comparison to artificial diet under laboratory conditions (32±05 oC; 65±05 RH). Thelarval suitability was found maximum on cabbage followed by sesbania, alfalfa and minimum on maize. The larval length and weight were found higher on cabbage followed by alfalfa and sesbania. Similarly, the pupal development was minimum in respect to days on maize than others. Th...

Mehwish Kiran1, Muhammad Saleem Jilani1, Kashif Waseem1*, Muhammad Sohail Khan1, Fazal Haq2, Muhammad Amjad Nadim3, Ghazanfar Ullah3 and Salma Shaheen

...3 replications. Data for leaves’ count plant-1, leaf length (cm), leaves weight (g plant-1), root size (length & diameter), root weight (g plant-1), total biomass (g plant-1), root yield (t ha-1) were collected and analysed. Results showed significant improvement in almost all studied parameters with the application of NPK and different organic manures. Highest mean data for all the parameters studied were recorded...
Naveed Ahmed1*, Abdul Waheed1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Imtiaz Ahmed1, Muhammad Abbas Khan1, Sohail Aslam1, Muhammad Adil Younis2, Seemab Ali1, Nadia Khan1 and Madiha Bashir1
...th (42.66 cm), number of leaves plant-1(15.73cm), root length (27.53 cm), yield (55.63 t/ha) was recorded for cultivar cabbage red with the application of 60ppm of GA3
...
Qudsia Yousafi1*, Muhammad Aslam2 andShahzad Saleem1
...s were recorded on three leaves per plant and four plants per plot and averaged per leaf. Numbers of ladybeetles were recorded from the whole plant by sampling three plants per plot. Seasonal mean number of aphids per leaf was at the maximum on the variety Black Beauty and lowest on Nirala, during the 2013-14 growing season. During the 2014-15season the maximum number of aphids per leaf was recorded on the variety Round Black and lowest on Nirala. When samplin...

Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Muhammad Afzal1, Azhar Abbas Khan2, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1, Muhammad Saqib1, Asad Abdullah1, Saba Kousar1 and Maryam Riaz1 

... greater on high-watered leaves compared to water stress leaves. The results showed that the performance of H. armigera was superior on non-transgenic compared to transgenic genotypes at high-watered plants. 

...

Aamir Saleem1, Arshad Mahmood Malik2*, Najam Ul Hassan1 and Imtiaz A. Qamar

...er of tillers, number of leaves, plant height, fresh land dry weight and crude protein) and meteorological data regarding rain fall, temperature, pan evaporation, sunshine and wind speed for interpreting results along with their statistical analysis as fixing legume with grass has improved the forage quality. Overall, these results has suggested that grass-legume mixtures can improve livestock and pasture productivity, sustainability and as well as to fix atmo...

Manzoor1*, Ahmad Khan1, Amir Sohail2, Shahzad Ali1, Fawad Ali Shah3, Junaid Iqbal3, Muhammad Owais Khan4 and Sultan Nawaz4 

...itive growth stages (six leaves, twelve leaves, flowering and grain filling stages) and role of different planting methods (Ridge, Flat and Broadcast) in soil moisture conservation for maize crop. The research was carried out using RCBD with split plot arrangement having 4 replications at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during May 2017. Deficit Irrigations were allotted to main plots, while pl...

Syeda Naila, Muhammad Ibrar, Fazal Hadi* and Muhammad Nauman Khan 

...results revealed that it leaves are compound, perennial and summer deciduous with upper epidermis followed by mesophyll region with vascular bundle and the lower epidermis. The leaf features showed that palisade ratio was (7.35), vein islets number (9), and vein termination number (9.1), stomata number (47) and stomatal index were (42.72). Transverse section of the root showed outer epidermal cells, cortex and pericycle, xylem and phloem cells. Powder drug mic...

Waseem Abbas1, Shakeel-ur-Rehman2, Abdul Rashid2, Muhammad Kamran3, Muhammad Atiq2 and Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq3* 

Hassnain1, Abdul Basit1*, Mehboob Alam1, Imran Ahmad1, Izhar Ullah1, Noor Alam2, Inayat Ullah3, Muhammad Areeb Khalid1, Muhammad Shair4 and Noor ul Ain1 

...9 cm), average number of leaves (104.02), leaf area (81.47 cm2), chlorophyll content (71.31 SPAD), relative water content (67.27%), excided leaf water retention (68.24%), number of fruit plant-1(24.66), average fruit weight (73.718 g) and yield (37.50-ton ha-1). Similarly, foliar application of chitosan at 100 mg L-1 resulted maximum average plant height (80.74 cm), average number of leaves (104.19), leaf area (81.05 cm2), c...

Jawad Ali*, Ibad Ullah Jan and Hidayat Ullah 

... decreases the number of leaves, plant height, number of branches, stem dry weight, root dry weight, fruit diameter, number of fruit per plant and 1000 seed weight. Visually reduction in vegetative and yield parametric quality okra plant okra were significantly alleviated by the foliar application of Se under drought stress. Se application of 3 mg L−1 significantly increased the number of leaves, plant height, number o...

Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz*, Khalil Ahmed, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Faisal Nawaz and Muhammad Sarfraz 

... of plant/m-2, number of leaves/plants, root length, bulb diameter, forage yield and total bulb yield. Results revealed that all the studied parameters were significantly improved with nitrogen application @ 80 and 100 kg ha-1 in ridge sowing. However, 80 kg N ha-1 in ridge sowing documented maximum economic benefit as compared to other treatments and is suggested as most cost-effective technique for turnip production under moderately salt-affected soils. ...

Yousaf Ali1, Muhammad Zamin1*, Ibadullah Jan1, Shahen Shah2, Muhammad Mazhar Hussain3, Fazli Rabbi4 and Muhammad Amin

... shoot height, number of leaves, stem and root length, however stem diameter was significantly affected by compost and non significantly affected by genotypes. As far as the genotypes performance is concerned, genotype money maker showed the best performance for all the agronomic characters providing maximum shoot height (34.07cm), lengthiest root (47.87 cm), maximum number of leaves (6.42) and the highest stem diameter (1.2...
Muhammad Faheem Akbar1,*, Muhammad Abdul Haq2, Imtiaz Ahmad1, Vasileva Viliana3 and Amjad Sultan1
...ys of application in the leaves and cauliflower curd using high performance liquid chromatography. First order degradation kinetics was fitted on this data and degradation rate constants and half-life were calculated. Conventional pesticides were found to be more persistent in the crop (Average half-life: 2.94, 4.06 and 2.74 days for imidacloprid, endosulfan and profenofos respectively) than bio pesticides (Average half-life: 3.87 and 1.81 days for spinosad an...
Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Muhammad Arshad1, Sajjad Ali2, Asad Abdullah1, Samina Khalid3, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif4, Syed Muhammad Ali Zahid1, Muhammad Afzal1 and Jaima Molina-Ochoa5
...pplication. The infected leaves due to citrus canker were also tested using BioLeaf for foliar analysis. Our results demonstrated that the quantification of foliar damage using BioLeaf application was easy and accurate. This method is also comparable with other techniques like digital analysis by ImageJ software and leaf area meter devices. With these results, it is concluded that the BioLeaf application has resulted in an accurate leaf area measuring tool of ...
Chandragouda M. Patil, Shashikant S. Udikeri* and Shreeshail. S. Karabhantanal
...fenazaquin 10%EC treated leaves. Field populations had high degree of resistance to Sulphur 80WG with LC 50 of 17769.72 ppm against 651.17 ppm for a laboratory susceptible strain. Thus 27.30 fold resistance ratio was observed (RR) for sulphur. The least resistance ratio 4.45 fold was observed for fenazaquin 10% EC and the field and laboratory susceptible populations have exhibited LC 50 values of 44.62 ppm and 9.57 ppm, respectively. Base...

Amna Qazi1, Ghulam Shah Nizamani2*, Muhammad Tahir Khan2, Shafquat Yasmeen2, Shahla Karim Baloch1, Muharram Ali1, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan2, Sagheer Ahmad3, Muhammad Rashid Nizamani4 and Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui

... shoot length and number leaves of the plantlets, BL4 was seen to produce excellent results in MS media containing 1.00 mg l-1 IAA + 1.00 mg l-1 Kin + 1.00 mg l-1 BAP and 20 g l-1 sucrose. Mean number of shoots, leaves and shoot length, were all recorded to be highest for this composition of media (1.42, 1.54 and 3.90, respectively). The results indicated critical role of BAP and Kin in shoot development and elongation. On r...
Rafia Sadaf1, Ishrat Younus2*, Sidra Maqbool2, Talha Bin Fayyaz3Sarah Jameel Khan1, Sidra Siddique1 and Rida Fatima1
...Pulsatilla nigricans leaves. The acute oral toxicity shows that, plant extract up to 5000 mg/kg produces no signs and symptoms related to toxicity and also no mortality was observed. Antianxiety activity of Pulsatilla nigricans was examined by using elevated plus-maze paradigm and hole-board paradigm in rats at two different doses i.e. 250 and 500 mg/kg, and significant anxiolytic effects were observed as compare to control.
...

Amjad Usman1*, Arshad Khan1, Ruidar Ali Shah2 and Toheed Iqbal3 

...n-glandular trichomes on leaves. Among the glandular trichomes, Type IV was the most abundant followed by Type VI whereas Type I and VII were rarely found on the leaf of the tested genotypes. Among the non-glandular trichomes, Type V was most abundant compared to II, III VIII. RomaVF had higher trichome density (52.58±0.49 and 62.48±2.7 per mm2) followed Bambino (48.60±1.95 and 49.71±71 per mm2) and Roma (45.82±2.11 and 51.65...

Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar*, Ayyan Umer, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar, Faiz Ullah Faiz and Sikandar Hussain 

... B. mori were fed on the leaves of Morus alba treated with B. thuringiensis until the start of 5th instar and the Total Haemocyte Count (THC) of the Bts infected silkworm’s haemolymph were counted. The findings of current research showed that THC was significantly increased at 1st and 2nd day i.e., 5128/ml and 5704/ml as compared to control 3047/ml, respectively. Afterwards, THC were rapidly decreased and THC were recorded 1928/ml (3rd day) and 344/ml (4...

Muhammad Zamin1*, Abdullah Khan1, Ibadullah Jan1, Fazli Rabbi2, Shahen Shah3, Rashid Ali1, Kaleem Ullah1 and Muhammad Amin4 

... plant height, number of leaves, leaf length and spike length were at par with their respective maximum results. However, the lengthiest spike (88.10cm) was produced at 100kg/ha nitrogen. Similarly, the application of nitrogen at the rate of 200 kg/ha produced tallest (110.95cm) plants with maximum (9.37) number of leaves and lengthiest (55.75cm) leaves. It can be concluded that applicatio...
Xuhui Zhang1, Zhiyuan Sun2, Jinfeng Cai1, Guibin Wang1, Zunling Zhu1, Linguo Zhao3 and Fuliang Cao1,*
...dix astragali-ginkgo leaves (FR) products produced by fermentation using Aspergillus niger on growth, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of broilers. Three hundred day-old commercial Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 5 dietary treatments including five variations: control group, fed with the basal diets; NF group, the addition of 3 g/kg NF products; FR1, FR2 and FR3 groups, addition of FR products 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg and 6 g...

Attique Ahmed1, Tariq Sultan1, Ghulam Qadir2, Obaid Afzal2*, Mukhtar Ahmed5, Shamim-Ul-Sibtain Shah3, Muhammad Asif4, Safdar Ali2 and Muhammad Zeeshan Mehmood

...orophyll content, no. of leaves, plant height, ear leaf area, ear inter nodes girth, flag leaf area over T1 in pot experiment. Similarly, the inoculation of PGPR + PSB with T2 and in combination with T1 also at 75% of recommended NP significantly increased chlorophyll content, no. of leaves, plant height, ear leaf area, ear inter nodes girth, flag leaf area over control in the field experiment. Inclusion of PGPR and PSB sign...

Ahmad Naeem Shahzad1, Muhammad Kamran Qureshi2, Samee Ullah1, Muhammad Latif3, Shakeel Ahmad1 and Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari1* 

...assium concentrations in leaves and roots of plants. Different morphological traits of plants including number of leaves, leaf fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, plant height, leaf dry weight and root dry weight were severely hampered by salt stress. The absence of necrosis in cotton leaves under salt treatments indicated that growth was primarily restricted by the osmoti...
Muhammad Sarmad, Syed Muhammad Zaka* and Syed Muhammad Tahir Abbas Shah
...cotton bug feeds on leaves, stems and seeds of host plants. Being a serious pest of many important crops, the present work will study on biology and bionomics of O. laetus on three different hosts Gossypium hirsutum, Abelmoschus esculentus and Helianthus annuus. Shorter nymphal duration was observed on Gossypium hirsutum 20.00±0.14 days as compared to Abelmoschus esculentus 21.00±0.26 ...

Peer Sikandar Shah1, Ghulam Nabi1, Maqsood Khan*1,2, Saddam Hussain1 and Jawad Ali Jan1

...ce (80.43 %), numbers of leaves plant-1 (45.87), leaf area (99.87 cm2), number of fruit plant-1 (7.94), fruit weight (289.20 g), fruit volume (193.84 cm3), yield plant-1 (2.42 kg) and total yield (12.09 t ha-1) were obtained by Jaipuri cultivar. While in case of manure regimes maximum vine length (465.50 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (49.13), leaf area (110.48 cm2), (14.09 cm), number of fruit plan-1 (9.25), yield plant-1 (...

Muhammad Shakeel1,2*, Salik Nawaz2, Yasar Saleem3, Shazia Shafique2, Ateeq Tahir2 and Muhammad Riaz2

...aterial whereas broccoli leaves were being used for wrapping of florets by 30% while 21.6% farmers were using paper for wrapping. The present studies concluded that broccoli has great potential for adoption especially for smallholding growers. But it needs government and media assistance for creating awareness for its health benefits and crop production technology. 

...

Abid Khan*, Mukhtar Alam and Yousaf Jamal 

...turity (2.4%), increased leaves and leaf area tiller-1 (6.8 and 4.1%), increased LAI (9.6%), increased height (3.5%), enhanced crop growth rate (CGR) (8.6%) and increased chlorophyll a and b (9.8% and 8.5%). BM application significantly increased emergence (6.1%), delayed heading (2.3%) and maturity (3.04%), increased leaves and leaf area tiller-1 (9.1 and 14.1%), increased LAI (36.4%), increased height (8.65%), enhanced CGR...

Muhammad Medrar Hussain*, Asad Jan* and Sayyar Khan Kazi 

...hyll content of top four leaves of OsTZF8-OX transgenic indica line A and B were observed to be high compared to control. In conclusion our study revealed that over-expression of OsTZF8 gene has significant role in conferring tolerance to drought stress in rice. 

...

Jawad Ali Jan1, Ghulam Nabi1, Maqsood Khan1,2*, Shehzad Ahmad1, Peer Sikandar Shah1, Saddam Hussain1 and Sehrish

...ays), maximum numbers of leaves plant-1 (208.93), plant height (42.27 cm), stem diameter (1.60 cm), number of fruit plant-1 (52.53), yield plant-1 (184.61 g) and total yield (3.69 t ha-1), while maximum fruit weight (3.65 g), fruit volume (9.47 cm3) and fruit diameter (12.0 mm) were noted in variety Magma. In case of humic acid levels, maximum number of leaves plant-1 (243.67), branches plant-1 (5.50), plant height (47.33 cm...

Amjad Ali1, Awais Salman1, Gul Daraz Khan1, Aftab Ahmad Khan2, Sher Shah Hassan2*, Muhammad Arif Goheer2, Mahmood Alam Khan3 and Sajjad Ahmed

...urnip. Maximum number of leaves per plant (19.16), leaf length (19.97 cm), leaf width (10.46 cm), plant height (39.27 cm), turnip length (17.24 cm), turnip diameter (7.84 cm), turnip yield (22.42 tons ha-1), turnip weight (256.62 gm) and harvest index (52.34 %) were recorded for I1. Maximum turnip length (18.09 cm), turnip diameter (7.69 cm), turnip yield (21.11 tons ha-1), turnip weight (304.22 gm) and turnip moisture content (93.62 %) were recorded for SD1. ...

Muhammad Zamin1*, Fazli Rabbi2, Shahen Shah3, Muhammad Amin4, Haroon Ur Rashid5, Hasnain Alam6 and Sabahat  Ali1

Performance of Lilium (Lilium elegans L.) Genotypes using Different Planting Media
...wever, maximum number of leaves (53.3) were recorded in genotype Red carpet and largest (17.67cm) flowers were noted in genotype Yena. On the other hand, the genotype Star fighter started flowering after 125.17 days and other varieties were found between the two-genotype range, covering a large period of flowering. As far as the planting medium is concerned, lilium planted on medium containing compost took maximum (85.07) days to flowering while maximum plant ...

Mehwish Liaquat1*, Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Muhammad Ishaq1, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim Ashraf2 and Ismara Naseem

...m diameter and number of leaves were observed at 30 days aged seedlings in coco peat media. The experiment was executed according to completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the data. Significant changes were observed in growth parameters among different tomato varieties. Data were collected on germination percentage after two days interval. The results revealed that the germination percentage (10...

Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra3, Abu Baker Ijaz4, Zahid Hassan Tarar5, Muhammad Ansar6, Umer Iqbal7, Tayyaba Naz4, Bilquees Fatima8, Muhammad Akram9, Allah Wasaya10, Asif Iqbal11, Shakeel Ahmed Anwar12, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan13, Azeem Khalid14, Asif Aziz15 and Rashid Mehmood16 

... nutrient content in ear leaves of maize during heat stress. 

...

Haiyan Yang1, Hongxia Liu1, Wenlong Wu1*, Weilin Li2 and Lianfei Lyu

... and peroxidase (POD) in leaves of ‘Hull Thornless’ were investigated. In the treatment group, water stress significantly increased EL, and the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, protein, soluble sugar, H2O2 and MDA. After re-watering, all of those parameters showed decreases of different degree. LWC was significantly decreased in response to drought treatment. However, after 5 days of re-watering, the LWC restored. Moreover, SOD activity inc...

Ali Hazrat1*, Mohammad Nisar1, Khan Sher2, Jehandar Shah2, Tour Jan1 and Abid Ullah1

Taxonomic and Medicinal Study of Papilionaceae of District Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...onella emodi flowers and leaves are dried and powdered. One spoon of powder is taken twice a day for one week to cure jaundice, Vicia faba can be eaten before it is fully ripened in the same way as broad beans, fully ripened seed requires overnight soaking to soften it before cooking. All the species of the selected family are reported for the first time and studied for medicinal purposes.

...

Ummad ud Din Umar1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ishfaq Ahmed1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2, Sibghat Ullah3, Shah Pasand4, Zehri Khan3 and Abdur Rehman5

Prevalence and Serological Detection of Spiroplasma citri, a Cause of Citrus Stubborn Disease in Southern Punjab, Pakistan
...aped, lopsided fruit and leaves with shortened internodes were appeared to be characteristic disease symptoms in Citrus stands of Southern Punjab.

...

Hafsa Naheed* and Hidayat-Ur-Rahman

Genotype by Environment Interactions of Vegetative Growth Traits of Bread Wheat Genotypes
...age produced larger flag leaves having maximum leaf area in Peshawar while lowest was observed in Mansehra. For straw yield of the 40 genotypes across seven environments, the highest straw yield of 12547 kg ha-1 was produced at Mansehra in 2016-17 and the lowest yield of 2440 kg ha-1 was recorded at Buner in 2017-18. Overall, the genotypes included in the study had more biological yield in Mansehra as compared to other locations. Line G06 and G17 produced maxi...

Safina Naz1*, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Bushra Siddique2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3*, Sajid Ali1, Hassan Sardar1, Sakeena Tul Ain Haider1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4, Hajra Azeem3, Sibghat Ullah5, Shah Pasand6 and Zehri Khan5

Effect of Sewage Water Irrigation Frequency on Growth, Yield and Heavy Metals Accumulation of Tomato and Okra
...petitive irrigation. The leaves and root of okra and tomato displayed the higher contents of metal when these crops were cultivated with a repetitive application of the sewage water. The final result revealed that the metal concentration high in tomato and okra plant parts with decreasing irrigation intervals of sewage water.

...

Rabab Rafaqat1, Habib Ahmed Rathore1, Tariq Masud2, Imran Hayat1* and Imtiaz Hussain1

Determination of Different Chemical Constituents of Fruit, Leaves and Oil of Olea cuspidata (Wild Olive) Grown at Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
...haracteristics of fruit, leaves and oil of Olea cuspidata (wild olive). For this purpose, the moisture content, crude fibre, crude protein, total oil, ash content and nitrogen free extract of fruit and leaves were studied. Extracts of wild olive fruit and leaves were made in four different solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone and water). Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid con...

Shahid Nadeem1*, Taj Naseeb Khan1, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Adnan Younis2 and Iram Fatima3

Influence of Plant Growth Regulators by Foliar Application on Vegetative and Floral physiognomies of Gladiolus
...) and maximum numbers of leaves (9.86) were observed by 1.75mM SA. The relationship between plant’s vegetative phase and growth regulators stood noteworthy resulted in maximum leaf length (71.14cm), rachis length (57.33cm) and spike length (77.67cm) at 1.75mM concentration of GA3. The Effect of SA found worthy as it enhanced the floral growth and decrease the number of days towards blooming. Moreover, the days to spike emergence, days to bud color and da...

Muhammad Zamin1*, Anees Muhammad1, Ibadullah Jan1, Hidayat Ullah1, Shahen Shah2, Muhammad Amin3 and Haroon Ur Rashid4

Production of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) as Affected by Bulb Size and Planting Medium
...lants, maximum number of leaves plant-1 (22.17), florets spike-1 (22.79) and number of bulblets produced plant-1 (22.03) were found in soil amended with humic acid. However, the least days (85.22) to flowering were observed in planting medium amended with potting soil and largest bulblets (2.14cm) were found in compost amended sandy soil. As far as the effect of bulb size is concerned, maximum days to flowering (97.44), plant height (43.29cm), number of

Muhammad Zamin1*, Anees Muhammad1, Ibadullah Jan1, Hidayat Ullah1, Shahen Shah2, Muhammad Amin3 and Haroon Ur Rashid4

Production of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) as Affected by Bulb Size and Planting Medium
...lants, maximum number of leaves plant-1 (22.17), florets spike-1 (22.79) and number of bulblets produced plant-1 (22.03) were found in soil amended with humic acid. However, the least days (85.22) to flowering were observed in planting medium amended with potting soil and largest bulblets (2.14cm) were found in compost amended sandy soil. As far as the effect of bulb size is concerned, maximum days to flowering (97.44), plant height (43.29cm), number of

Saeed Ahmad1, Abdul Ghaffar1, Muhammad Habib ur Rahman1,3*, Tanveer-ul-Haq2, Mahmood Alam Khan4 and Arshad Mahmood5

Evaluation of Different Production Systems in Combination with Foliar Sulphur Application for Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under Arid Climatic Conditions of Pakistan
...) with maximum number of leaves (32.7) recorded with the application of foliar sulphur spray (150 ppm). Similarly, sunflower produced maximum head diameter (18.0 cm), number of achenes per head (1510), 1000-achene weight (55.7 g) resulted in higher achene yield (2225 kg ha-1) including oil contents (38.7%) with foliar sulphur spray of 150 ppm. The nursery transplanted production system, however, produced the highest number of achenes per head (1466), head diam...

Safiullah1, Azmat Ali Awan2, Mohammad Ilyas3, Fahim Ullah Khan3, Arshad Iqbal3*, Muhammad Adil3 and Asad Ullah1

Effects of Different Concentrations of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on Rooting of Various Olive Varieties
...meter (0.18 cm), maximum leaves shoot-1 (15.67) were noted in Nocellara variety, lengthy root (4.30 cm) was found in Sevallino variety and maximum survival (47.6%) was observed in Hamdi variety, while minimum days to root appearance (46.33), number of days to bud sprout (34.89), maximum roots cutting-1 (5.78), root length (5.36 cm), shoot length (16.66 cm), shoot diameter (0.30cm), number of leaves shoot-1 (15.78), number of...
Wajahat Azeem1,*, Tariq Mukhtar1 and Tooba Hamid2
...ions of A. indica leaves and T. harzianum. A. indica amendments proved at par with those of T. harzianum. The maximum increases in these parameters were obtained where A. indica leaves were mixed at the rate of 50 g with 6 g of T. harzianum. The amendments also showed significant effects on root weight. The maximum decrease in root weight was observed where both A. indica and ...

Malik Abdul Rehman1*, Hafiz Muhammad Ehsan2, Tehseen Ashraf2, Zulfiqar Ali Gurmani3, Sajjad Khan3 and Mujahid Ali2

Effect of Growing Media on Plant Growth of Rough Lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and Poncirus (Citrus trifoliata)
...stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, and survival percentage was recorded. Chemical analysis of leaf was done by taking samples from treatments were analyzed for determination of N, P, K. Results indicated that stem length, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and survival percentage were significant in different growing media after everyone months of transplantation. Various media i.e. peatmass+soil+sawdust, le...

Agustine Christela Melviana1, Rizkita Rachmi Esyanti1*, Roy Hendroko Setyobudi2, Maizirwan Mel3, Praptiningsih Gamawati Adinurani4 and Juris Burlakovs5

Gene Expression Related to Steviol Glycoside Synthesis Produced in Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Shoot Culture Induced with High Far-Red LED Light in TIS RITAÂŽ Bioreactor System
...ides contained in Stevia leaves have considerable potential uses for the natural sweetener industry due to it’s antidiabetic properties, hence a large number of plant source is required to supply the industry. To overcome the hindrances in the propagation of Stevia plants using in vivo methods, an alternative technique of propagation using in vitro methods is needed. The micropropagation method with the RITA® (Recipient for Automated Temporary Immers...

Samia Ikram1*, Riaz ur Rehman1, Farwa Batool2 and Atyab Amjad3

Evaluation of Bird of Paradise for Commercial Flower Production by using Organic Manures
...uckers (4.20), Number of leaves (8.00), Number of flowers (4.11), Stem diameter (5.025 cm) and Spike diameter (5.03 cm) were contributed by T2whereas maximum spike length (61.21 cm) was recorded in T3 and maximum shelf life (14.81 days) was noted in T4. The present research study revealed that T2 significantly contributes to commercial cut flower production of Bird of paradise in agro metrological conditions of Islamabad.

...

Zubia Rahim1, Gulnaz Parveen1*, Salma Gul2 and Khushnood-ur-Rehman3

Ameliorating Effects of Salt Stress (KCl, NaCl) on Growth and Germination Parameters of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum americanum)
... study growth (number of leaves, leaf length, stem breadth, stem length, number of tillers) and yield (spike length, total seeds on single spike, whole plant weight, weight of 50 seeds per spike) parameters in the field, which was performed in completely randomized design (CRD). 39 pots lined with polythene bags were used to avoid percolation of water. Data was analyzed by variance (ANOVA). Salinity effects on the test species were analyzed by (LSD) Least Sign...
Arifa Khan1*, Arsalan Bashir1, Shazia Erum2, Jabar Zaman Khan Khatak1 and Aish Muhammad3
Effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Indole-3-acetic Acid on Growth and Root Development of Banana Explants in Micropropagation
...the number of shoots and leaves. Wiallium-8818 hybrid gave more shoots (7.33) when the concentration of BAP and IAA was 2.5 and 1 mg L-1, respectively. Alike, Wiallium-8818 hybrid produced the longest shoot (12.20 cm) with more leaves (6.23) at 1 mg L-1 of each BAP and IAA. But Pisang variety produced maximum fresh weight (15.45 g) with a greater number of roots at 5 + 1 mg L-1 of BAP + IAA, respectively.

...

Ghulam Murtaza1*, Muhammad Ramzan2, Amna Razzaq4, Muhammad Numan3, Rukhsar Beanish4, Ayesha Zafar4, Muhammad Shan Latif3 and Muhammad Adnan3

Screening of Brinjal (Solanum melongena) Varieties against Jassid, Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla
...l sap from underside the leaves resulting in leaves curling and yellowing. Jassid (Amrasca bigutulla bigutulla) inject toxic materials into leaves which results necrosis. An experimental study was conducted by using randomized complete block design (RCBD) during 2018 to check the resistant brinjal varieties (Nirala, Dilnasheen and Bemisal) against jassid (A. bigutulla bigutulla). The highe...

Sajid Ali1, Abdul Basit1,3*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Syed Tanveer Shah1, Izhar Ullah2, Noor Alam Khan3, Imran Ahmad1, Kamran Rauf1, Salman Khan1, Irfan Ullah1 and Intizar Ahmad1

Managing the Growth and Flower Production of Zinnia (Zinnia elegans) through Benzyle Amino Purine (BAP) Application and Pinching
...0mg.L-1 and pinched at 6 leaves stage recorded maximum days to flowering, flower persistency, branches, leaves and flowers plant-1 and stem thickness. While in case of untreated and un-pinched plants maximum flower diameter, fresh and dry flower weight, and height of plant were reported. Hence, it is concluded form the research study that BAP application (@100 mg.L-1) reduced height of plant, enhanced number of flowers per p...

Bilal Pervaiz Khan1, Neelam Ara1, Shujaat Ali1,2*, Kamran Khurshid Baigh1 and Abdul Wahab1

Effect of Seed Priming on Radish with Different Nutrients at Various Soaking Durations
...height (41 cm), yield of leaves plant-1 (14.4), leaf area (295.8 cm2), root length (20.6 cm), root weight in g (522.4) root diameter in cm (4.51), and total yield (23.8 tones ha-1) were obtained when seeds were soaked in DAP solution. In case of storage duration, The maximum germination percentage (82.5 %), survival percentage (84.4 %), plant height (43.7cm), ), total yield of leaves plant-1 (14.2 g), area of leaf (293 cm2),...

Noor Ayaz1*, Faiza Aman1, Sidra Saleem1*, Maqbool Rehman1 and Muhammad Fahim2

Olive Cuttings as Affected by Different Concentrations of Indole Butyric Acid
...gth cutting-1, number of leaves cutting-1, days to rooting, and survival percentage. Significant differences (P≤0.01) were observed among olive cultivar treated with different IBA concentrations for days to 50% sprouting, days to rooting, and survival percentage, while non-significant differences were observed for the number of leaves cutting-1, number of sprouts cutting-1 and sprouts length cutting-1. The cuttings treate...

Muhammad Tariq Mahmood1*, Muhammad Akhtar2, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Saleem2, Ali Aziz2, Irfan Rasool2, Zeshan Ali3 and Muhammad Amin2

An Update on Biology, Extent of Damage and Effective Management Strategies of Chickpea Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera)
...larvae generally feed on leaves, twigs and flowers. In later stages larger larvae (4th to 6th instar caterpillars) shift to developing pods by making holes/bores and consume entire developing seeds. Pod borers can cause yield losses up to 90 percent depending upon the insect density and susceptibility of cultivars. Sustainable management of chickpea pod borer involves use of resistant cultivars, manipulation of sowing dates, maintaining low crop density, manag...

Iqtidar Hussain*, Muzafar Ali, Imam Bakhsh and Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik

Effect of Different Levels of Naphthalene Acetic Acid at Various Phenological Stages of Hybrid Sorghum to Enhance Fodder Productivity
...study. Maximum number of leaves (16.70 plant-1), leaf area (411.98 cm2), chlorophyll contents (46.84 and 53.50 µg cm-2) at 30 and 60 DAS and fodder yield (35550 kg ha-1) were higher with L4 (120 ml) followed by L3 (80 ml). While L5 (160 ml) and L2 (40 ml ha-1 NAA) were statistically at par. Mean values indicated that NAA level of L4 (120 ml ha-1) had maximum fodder yield (35,550 kg ha-1) as compared to control (13,024 kg ha-1). The results indicated that...

Sabina Noor1*, Fatimah Abang1 and Hamady Dieng2

Biology of an Exotic Butterfly Acraea terpsicore (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae), in a Newly Invaded Region, Sarawak, Borneo
...inal areas of host plant leaves. The developmental time of A. terpsicore to complete its life cycle took an average of 30 ± 3.01 days with a total of five larval instars. The ontogenesis of larvae was accomplished without any disruption of diapause. The female adults were ochreous orange in color with a wingspan of about 50-60 mm. The males were brighter orange in color and had a wingspan of about 40-50 mm. The population index was found to be common th...
Alam Zeb* and Amanullah Jan
...le; 0.05) produced more: leaves plant-1 (243), leaves area plant-1(444.35cm2), branchesplant-1(9), plant height (198.51cm), and seed yield (1339kg ha-1), were recorded as compared with other sowing methods. It was also resulted from findings that N (180 kg ha-1) had significantly delayed flower and pod formation (7 and 9days) respectively as compared with cont...

Zafar Abbas1*, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2, Muhammad Nasir3, Muhammad Ashraf4, Salma Kausar5, Nadeem Iqbal6, Muhammad Zahid Khan Nazar7, Iftikhar Ahmad3, Ghulam Murtaza1 and Ijaz Ahmad8

Evaluation of Best Dose of Micronutrients (Zinc, Iron and Boron) to Combat Malnutrition in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)
...centage except number of leaves plant-1 which were maximum in T4 i.e. (100-60-50)+ ZnSO4 0.5%. Concludingly, growth parameters of all the theree cultivars of egg plant showed maximum performance i.e plant height (88.57, 139.77 and 135.11 cm), fruit weight (213, 284 and 261 g), yield (10.11, 11.98 and 12.39 t ha-1), survival percentage (95.71, 99.63 and 90.23%) and number of fruits per plant (9.81, 8.67 and 8.11) due to T5 in black boy, twinkle star and shamli ...

Saba Aleem1*, Mehvish Tahir2, Iram Sharif3, Muqadas Aleem4, Muhammad Najeebullah2, Ali Nawaz1, Amina Batool1, Muhammad Imran Khan1 and Waheed Arshad1

Principal Component and Cluster Analyses as Tools in the Assessment of Genetic Diversity for Late Season Cauliflower Genotypes
...treme, and the number of leaves contributed significant positive component loading to these principal components (PCs). Biplot analysis among the first two PCs found the Casper RZ, AA Cauli-08, and Snow queen as diverse genotypes. Cluster analysis based on Euclidian distance grouped the genotypes into 3 distinct clusters. Some of the genotypes that have narrow genetic base were grouped into a similar cluster. Based on these results, it may be concluded that so...
Ashara Sajid1, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Saeed Rauf 2, Zahoor Hussain3, Salman Ahmad1 and Yasir Iftikhar1,*
Javeria Afzal, Muhammad Abid, Faisal Hussain* and Alia Abbas
...i>at 2% concentration in leaves and stem extracts after 72 hours of exposure time as compared to control. 
...
Mashal Malik and Mudassar Nawaz Khan*
 
... height, total number of leaves, leaf width, leaf length and leaf weight, while line B29G11 revealed the lowest. The maximum plant height (128.03 cm) was found for line B20G16. A maximum number of 48 leaves with leaf width of 2.34 cm, leaf length of 3.34 cm leaf and leaf weight of 156.11 mg were recorded in line B20G16. The line B29G11 grew with the least plant height (51.01 cm), number of leaves

Saleem Maseeh Bhatti1*, Aslam Khan Gadehi1, Inayatullah Rajpar1, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro2, Mukesh Kumar Soothar1 and Zohaib Ur Rehman Bughio1

 

 

...had less fresh weight of leaves (> 30%) than the plants that were irrigated with canal water. English spinach significantly produced more fresh weight of leaves (20.86±0.50 grams) than Sindhi spinach (18.82±0.27 grams). The concentration of Na+ increased up to 3.4 times and Cl- concentration enhanced up to 2.7 times in leaves of spinach genotypes whil...

Ahmad Ur Rahman Saljoqi, Muhammad Salim* and Iftikhar Ahmad 

 

...ant height and number of leaves by recording maximum plant height (84.2 cm) and maximum number of leaves (8.76 plant-1). Neem seed extract and neem oil treated plots showed average plant height of 70.4 and 69.3 cm with average number of leaves of 8.24 and 8.18 plant-1, respectively. Plots treated with Emamectin also resulted in maximum yield i.e. 19.3 tons ha
Sadaqat Khan1,Saleem Ullah1* and Muhammad Sajid2
...entimeter, buds, flower, leaves and leaflets in numbers per plants with a range of 131.33 to 176.67 cm, 60 to 105, 41.5 to 60.0, 50.66 to 77.167 and 7.607 to 15.33, 30.33 to 82.0, respectively were significantly affected (P<0.05) by the interaction of selenium application in irrigation and foliar spray in relation to season. The effect was also significant (P<0.05) on some minerals like Cu, Mn, Zinc, Mg and Se that ranged from 0.2080 to 0.3150, 0.1260 to...

Muhammad Ihtisham1, Noor Amjad2, Muhammad Nauman3, Asghar Ali3, Khawar Riaz3, Muhammad Sajid3, Muhammad Owais Shahid*3 

 

...plant height (25.42 cm), leaves plant-1 (34.45), leaf area (8.00 cm2), stem thickness (0.47 cm), fresh leaves weight (3.31 g), fresh stem weight (1.95 g), root length (22.10 cm) and winter survival (94.44%). However, the same treatment also gave minimum days to germination (2.96) and seedling emergence (12.96). The seeds scarified for 90 min gave maximum plant emergence percentage (97.78%). The seeds sown on 14th April gave ...
Haseeb Khattak1, Imran Ahmad1, Abdul Basit1*, Izhar Ullah1,2, Syed Tanveer Shah1, Humaira Wasila3, Inayat Ullah4, Intizar Ahmad1 and Noman Ahmad1
 
...emale flowers, number of leaves and fruits plant-1, leaf area, fruit length, fruit diameter and total yield were observed under vertical gardening pattern. Data recorded for genotypes observed an increase in total yield and fruits plant-1 of Damaz while and increased number of leaves plant-1, leaf area, fruit diameter and length were observed by SCM-01. The interactive response of genotypes a...
Hafiz Tassawar Abbas1*, Tamoor Khan1, Ghulam Khaliq2, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3, Muhammad Rashid4, Intazar Ali5, Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar2, Ghulam Ali Bugti6 and Muhammad Waseem4
 

Shehzadi Saima1, Maqsoda Perveen2, Muhammad Nawaz1, Khalid M. Ahmad1,* and Haider Sultan1
... fresh and dry weight of leaves, number of leaves significantly at P<0.01 more than side dressing. Although side dressing of potassium also increased the plant growth to some extent more than control, however, number of cormels per plant was decreased. Therefore, it can be concluded that application of potassium by foliar spray is more effective in increasing the growth and flowering of Gladiolus than side dressing.
...
Aysha Riaz* and Said Wahab
... micronutrients. Moringa leaves are very rich in nutrients namely proteins, fibers and minerals. Keeping in view the nutritional importance of moringa leaves powder, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of moringa leaves enrichment on the overall quality of whole wheat flour biscuits. Composite flours were made by incorporating moringa leaves...
Uzma Ayaz1,* and Muhammad Fareed Khan2
 

... development days, total leaves per plant, chlorophyll content (mg/cm-2), height of plant (cm), disk length (cm), thickness of stem (mm), 1000-achene’s weight (g), fresh achene’s weight (g), dry achene’s weight (g) and achene’s yield (kg/ha). This experimental study depicts dependence and linkage of some agronomic factors with other inter-linked traits i.e flowering days, maturing days, width of stem, head diameter, chlorophy...

Arshad Mehmood Khattak1, Saleem Ullah1*, Farida Anjum2, Hamid U. Shah1 and Sahib Alam1

...rries. Samples of tender leaves, green pods, green grains, Mature pods and Mature grains of seven different Chickpea cultivars KK-1, KK-2, KK-3, Chattan, Lawaghir, Sheenghar, Fakhar-e-Thal, were obtained from Karak Research Station Ahmad Wala and evaluated for proximate composition and mineral contents. The data related to proximate composition and mineral profile showed significant difference (P<0.05) by comparing cultivars and edible parts. Proximate comp...

Saleem Maseeh Bhatti1*, Muhammad Aslam Panhwar1, Zohaib ur Rehman Bughio1, Muhammad Saleem Sarki1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi1, and Niaz Ahmed Wahocho2

...al increase in number of leaves, number and weight of berries, fresh weight of strawberry plants, and Zn concentration in strawberry fruit was observed as a function of foliar application of zinc. Plants sprayed with 66 and 99 mg Zn L-1 had significantly more number of leaves (27.4 ± 1.14 and 29.9 ± 1.36) and berries plant-1 (12.0 ± 1.02 and 13.0 ± 0.61), heavier berries plant-1 (129.7 ± 8....

Imran Ullah Khan*, Noor Ul Amin, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Maqsood Khan, Shehzad Ahmad and Syed Aizaz Ali Shah

...t height (cm), number of leaves plant-1, leaf area (cm2), number of branches plant-1, number of flower plant-1, diameter of flower (cm), fresh flower weigh (g), flower stalk length (cm) and flower vase life. The above mentioned parameters are highly influenced by most of humic acid levels. The increment value were shown on humic acid at the rate of 10 kg ha ‑1 for days to flowering (21.2 days), plant height (85.0 cm), number of leave...

Fayaz Ahmad, Noorullah Khan, Farrukh Siyar Hamid, Abdul Waheed, M. Abbas Khan, Imtiaz Ahmad, Shamsul Islam, Basharat Hussain Shah, Sohail Aslam and Qamar uz Zaman

...r plant (NBP), number of leaves per plant (NLP), stem diameter (SD), main root length (MRL), root diameter (RD), number of lateral roots per plant (NLRP), dry shoot weight (DRW) and dry root weight (DRW). The highest plant height (78.66 cm) was produced by clone BP2-2, followed by Clones BP1-4, BP1-3, BP3-1 and BP2-5 with plant height of 70.46, 67.60, 67.20 and 66.36 cm respectively. Clone BP2-2 also produced highest number of leaves

Imtiaz Ahmed*, Naveed Ahmed, Abdul Waheed, Muhammad Abbass Khan, Noorullah Khan and Fayyaz Ahmed

...ngth (4.55 m), number of leaves vine-1 (41.22), number of fruit set vine-1 (4.04), fruit weight (2.23 kg), fruit length (41.63 cm), number of seeds fruit-1 (648.83), seed weight fruit-1 (86.66 g) and seed yield (290.33 kg ha-1) was obtained from plants which were trained vertically whereas minimum vine length (4.16 m), number of leaves vine1 (33.49), number fruit set vine-1 (3.49), fruit weight (1.88 kg), fruit length (41.63...

Habiba ur Rehman, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Waqas Raza

...and 47.33 cm), number of leaves/plant (6.33, 7.67 and 11.33), minimum disease incidence (12.33, 11.12 and 10.13 %), minimum disease severity (26.80, 24.67 and 11.37 %) and maximum plant survival (89.62, 94.35 and 98.37%) at 15, 30 and 45 days after treatment, respectively. The application of Success @ 6mM was also good but lowers than the Nativo. The poor performance and maximum disease incidence and disease severity were recorded from the controlled pots. Amo...

Misbah Ali1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan2*, Rana Binyamin3, Nadeem Ahmed4, Muhammad Usman Ghani5 and Awais Ahmed Khan2

... ground parts especially leaves. In the present study, four fungicides (Aliette, Cabrio Top, Nativo, and Melody Duo) were evaluated against C. graminicola under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. The poisoned food technique was used for in vitro trials with three concentrations (150 ppm, 200 ppm, and 250 ppm). The most effective concentration of fungicides from laboratory experiment was used in field conditions against red leaf spot of sorghum. Results showed th...

Tahseen Ullah* and Noorul Amin

...al %, sprout weight, dry leaves weight, leaf area, root diameter, chlorophyll content, sprout diameter, fresh root weight, number of branches, shoot length and root length while the days to bud sprouting, fresh leaves weight and number of roots have non-significantly affected by IBA concentration and types of stem cutting. The results had shown that sprouting percentage was highest (99.33 %) in hard wood cutting while minimu...

Syed Muhammad Sulaiman, Nazir Ahmad and Nazir Ahmad Khan*

... separated into stem and leaves portion, subsequently weighed and analysed for dry matter (DM) content. The remaining samples were air dried, ground and analysed for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility (IVDMD) and in vitro gas production (IVGP). The results revealed large variability (P < 0.001) in DM yield, ranging from 1943 to 2763 kg/ha. There was also greater variability (P ˂ 0.001) in morphological characteristics among the wheat cultivars...

Mokbel, Samah A.1,Ahmed K. El Attar1; Azza G.Farag2.

...ants. Samples of hibiscusleaves were collected from El Giza, Alexandria, Qlubia,El-
Fayom, and El-Mansouragovernoratesand analyzed for phytoplasma infection.The
collected hibiscus plants showed characteristic symptoms for Phytoplasma associated
witches‟-Broom disease, which is characterized by excessive axillary branching,
abnormally small leaves, and deformed flowers. Dienes...

K.A. El-Dougdoug1, A.R. Sofy2, A.A. Mousa2 and E.E. Refaey2

...v>
was differed in leaves of potato cultivars. Since PVY infection unexpectedly increased in
(Anabel, Sisi, Lady Balfor, Nicola and Execusa) or decrease of total protein in (Hermes and
Spunta). The potato cultivars (healthy and infected) varied in number and density of protein
bands. As well as specific bands with 72% polymorphism, commonly bands were percentage
24%. On the other hand, the unique band appea...

Om-Hashem M. El-Banna1, Maisa A.E. Awad2, M.S. Abbas3, Hoda M. A. Waziri2 and Huda S. A. Darwish2

...he cytoplasm of infected leaves.Phloem tissues were also affected by infection. Investigations of leaf tissues of both tomato and grapevine by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) revealed several ultrastructure changes in each of chloroplast, mitochondria, and the nucleus. The ultrastructure changes expanded also to the cell wall, cell membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum.
The chloroplast exhibited different degrees of malformation and lysis. ...

Eman A. H. Kattab1,3, A. H. Ebrahem2 , Om-Hashem M. El-Banna2 and Hanan F. EL-Kammar³

...mottle and distortion of leaves. The identity of the virus was confirmed biologically, serologically and by light and electron microscopy. It was found that BBMV reacted systemically with 12 species belonging to Fabaceae and locally with 2 species belonging to Chenopodiace. It was transmitted mechanically and by Sitona lineate. It was detected serologically by indirect ELISA using BBMV specific antiserum. Light microscopy of epidermal strips of faba bean infec...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam

...us in infected sugarcane leaves
and in its vector Saccharicoccus sacchari and in another unidentified
Pseudococcidae- mealybug. Amplicons for the RT/RNaseH motifs of the two virus
isolates were cloned, sequenced, and submitted to the GenBanak. Pair-wise nucleotide
identity indicated 86% identity between the Giza and Assiut isolates. NCBI-blastn
analysis for the two isolates with four SCBV accessions r...

Aly M. Abdel-Salam1 and Samah A. Mokbel2

...pots, and shoot holes on leaves. Severely infectedtrees
withered, became useless, and were removed causing severe economic losses.
Reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RT-PCR, using
degenerate primer pair for the coat protein (CP) gene of Ilarvirus amplified products
similar to those produced from peach and apricot isolates of NRSV-infecting stone
fruits. Dot blotting immuno-bin...
M. A. Kararah1, Om-Hashem M. El-Banna1, Salwa N. Zein2 and Abd-Elrehiem, A.F.3 
... 1.7 mg/100g of infected leaves. Electron
micrographs of the partially purified virus preparation revealed the presence
of filamentous flexuous virus particles about 700- 750nm long. Titers of the
antisera after first, second and third bleeding were 1/800, 1/1600 and 1/3200
respectively.The optimum concentrations of IgG and IgG conjugate were 1.0
μg/ml and 1/1000, respectively. The antigen dilution...

Arshad Abdulkhalq Yaseen1,2* and Mária Takácsné Hájos1

...ate content in the plant leaves of both experiments by 4% in 2019 and 20% in 2020. In both experiments, the significantly influenced factors on the bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and vitamin C) were mainly due to the plant varieties and the interaction of 6% MLE and plant varieties. In our experiments, physical parameters like relative chlorophyll content, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were also evaluated. The results indicate that 6% M...
Eman A. Ahmed1, Osama Y. shalaby2, Emad F. Dwidar2, Samah A. Mokbel1 and Ahmed K. El-Attar1
...stem, flower petiole and leaves of infected tomato with phytoplasma with healthy ones in order to reveal anatomical modifications caused by the infection process. The results obtained showed that infection of tomato plants with phytoplasma led to an increase in stem diameter by 10.23% as well as greatly increase in measurements of the other stem components while the diameter of pith was decreased by 38.46%. This infection was led to an increase in the diameter...

Manal A. El-Shazly1. M. I .Kobeasy2and Sarah H . Altalhi3

...and necrotic spot on the leaves. Disease symptoms of infected fruits produced from inoculated healthy tomato seedling showing discoloration, faint concentric rings, necrotic and chlorotic spot on mature tomato fruits. The virus was biologically purified from a single local lesion formed on Chenopodium amaranticolor Caste & Reyn. The isolated virus was identified on the basis of symptomatology, transmissibility, host range and serological tests by indirect ...

Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

...e necrotic ring spots on leaves, bud failure and poor quantity and quality of fruits. Upon
continuous observation of peach trees previously known to be infected with PNRSV, additional
suspected symptoms of phytoplasma infection were detected. These involved leaf yellowing and
withering, reduction in fruit size, malformation of fruits (where two or three fruits were attached
together), and tree death were observed...

Maha A. El-Abhar1, Moustafa A. Elkady1, Khaled M. Ghanem2, Hussieny A. Bosila3

...s of
healthy leaves. Electron microscopy, revealed cytological and histological changes induced by Alfalfa
mosaic virus infection in potato leaves
Conclusion: In this work, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) characterized and ultrastructure aspected of
infecting potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) in Egypt illustrating important effect of AMV on potato
plant. Finally our recomme...

Ahmed K. El-Attar1, Samah A. Mokbel1 and Om-Hashem M. EL-Banna2

...saic and malformation of leaves suggested viral infection of AMV on
basil plants grown in Beni Suef governorate.
Objectives: The present study aimed to characterize the virus at the molecular level and
described the ultrastructural changes or other histopathological alterations in basil cells
following infection by AMV.
Methods: Studies were conducted to elucidate the etiology of the disease. The diag...

Samah A. Mokbel, Eman A. Ahmed, Hanan F. El-Kammar, Ahmed A. Kheder

...structures of sugar beet leaves were rare.
Methods: The CMV was isolated from sugar beet samples collected during November 2018 from the
Fayoum governorate, exhibited symptoms of mosaic and leaf malformation. Detection was performed
depending on the presence of specific antibodies against CMV, and isolation from local lesions on
Chenopodium amaranticolor as a local lesion host. Eleven plant species belonging to f...

Muzamil Farooque Jamali1, Fayaz Ali Jamali1, Tanveer Fatima Miano1, Zulfiqar Ali Abbasi2, Sohail Ahmed Otho3, Khalid Hussain Talpur4, Niaz Ahmed Wahocho1 and Muhammad Iqbal Jakhro5*

... branches/plant (45.61), leaves/plant (201.67), flowers/plant (8.56), diameter of flower (7.95 cm), fresh root biomass (0.821 g) and dry root biomass (2.28 mg). The plants treated with 2 dSm-1 showed seed germination (65.35 %), seed germination index (1.53), plant height (16.61cm), branches/plant (40.38), leaves/plant (195.33), flowers/plant (6.83), diameter of flower (6.75 cm), fresh root biomass (0.718 g) and dry root biom...

Izaz Hussain, Ahmad Khan* and Habib Akbar 

...contributing parameters (leaves plant-1, leaf area and index, ear length, and plant height) were improved in treated plots than control plots. The application of 50 L BM ha-1 improved maize growth contributing parameters over 25 L BM ha-1. Increasing the application rate of HA from 3 to 9 kg ha-1 had increased leaves plant-1, leaf area, leaf area index, plant height and ear length of maize. Higher application of FYM had impr...
Tanmoy Mandal1 and Sunil Kr. Ghosh2*
...>West wood) is reared on leaves of som plant (Machilus bombycina King) because of their high nutritional value. Rearing becomes difficult due to attack of large number of insect-pests on som plant. Leaf miner(Phytomyza spp.)(Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a major pest and very harmful to som plant leaves. From observation it is found that leaf miner was found active throughout the year on som plant
Aftab Raza Khan1, Azhar Abbas Khan2*, Javed Iqbal3, Arif Muhammad Khan4, Zeshan Hassan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif2 and Umbreen Shahzad2

Kawa A. Ali1*, Sazar S. Noraldeen2 and Arshad A. Yaseen2, 3

...struments, then the same leaves were cut and chlorophyll estimation were done by destructive methods using two organic solvents ( 80% acetone and 100% ethanol). Results demonstrate significant differences between SPAD and atLEAF data for tomato and pepper plants where higher levels with atLEAF instrument comparing to SPAD chlorophyll meter. Higher chlorophyll levels were recorded in open field plants comparing to lath and plastic houses plants. Chlorophyll a c...
Yuli Andriani1*, Rintan Octaviana Julia1, Lintang Permata Sari Yuliadi1, Iskandar Iskandar1 and 
Yaya Rukayadi2
...litoria ternatea L.) leaves meal (BPLM) as a source of natural pigment and its effect on the tail color quality of Swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri, Heckel. 1848). Completely Randomized Designed (CRD) was applied consisting of four treatments with three replications. The treatments were added 0 % (A), 1 %, (B), 6 % (C) and 12 % (D) of BPLM. The parameters observed included biochemical compound and carotenoid content of dried BPLM, changes in tail...

Rasool Bux Kalhoro1, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari2*, Ghulam Hyder Jamro2 and Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio2

...stem, potassium 1.405%in leaves, potassium 1.753%in pods, protein content 41.87% at seed rate 75 kg ha-1with row spacing 45cm. The primary conclusion is that the cultivation of soybean at a seed rate 75 kg ha-1combined with row spacing 45cm beneficial to achieve maximum yield with high nutritional quality.

...

Tilahun Woretaw1, Netsanet Beyero2*, Yonatan Kassu3 

...o ANOVA. P. schimperiana leaves and twigs were used as animal feed, traditional medicinal value, and source of income as indicated by 100, 59.4, and 44.6% of respondents, respectively. As animal feed, about 100, 80.2, 69.3, 58.4, 50.5, 42.6, 30.7, 19.8, and 5.9% of them utilized to supplement their milk cow, dry cow, heifers, calves, oxen, bull, sheep, goat, and equine, respectively. The drinking mixture of P. schimperiana in milk, and water was higher during ...

Vahid Mollasadeghi1,2* and Samaneh Elyasi1,2

... b, leaf area, number of leaves, stem length and tuber weight. The results showed that the symptoms of PVY were completely distinguishable on the leaves of tobacco plants compared to PVY on the leaves of Agria. PVY-infected leaves were more curled and paler than healthy leaves of cultivars Agria. The results of analysi...

Zahoor Hussain1,2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Mustansar Mubeen3, Muhammad Zia Saleem3, Muhammad Umer Naseer3, Muhammad Luqman4, Raheel Anwar5, Faheem Khadija6 and Aqleem Abbas7

...reening, such as mottled leaves, were observed on the infected trees. The infected fruits were undeveloped and partially or entirely failed in attaining natural orange fruit colour. Moreover, the iodo-starch tests revealed that the color of HLB-positive leaves was dark grey to black across the sliced surface. Afterward, the Zinc sulfate and Manganese sulfate at the concentrations of 0.25 g/L, 0.5 g/L, and 0.75 g/L were appli...

Qurban Ali1, Muhammad Faheem Akhtar1, Asad Aslam1*, Muhammad Shehzad2, Muhammad Jamal2, Humaira Malik1, Imran Nadeem1, Aqsa Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Saleem1, Tamsila Nazir1 and Kanwal Hanif1

...g the number of infested leaves and survival rate of pest. The results revealed that H. armigera infestation started to appear during the second fortnight of February that continued to increase till the crop maturity. Lowest number of eggs (115) were recorded on K01308 while K09012 and K01242 were found to be most preferred for oviposition (261 and 250, respectively). Maximum larval survival about 0.98 was recorded on K09012 followed by K01216. Whereas, minimu...

Muhammad Iqbal Jakhro1*, Nadeem Sadiq1, Javed Ahmed Abro1, Amanullah1, Fateh Muhammad2, Maqbool Ahmed3, Syed Ishtiaq Ahmed Shah3 and Qasid Hussain4

...ich was height of plant, leaves per plant, branches per plants and girth of stem. As regards to soil analysis for nutrients concentration, it is concluded from this study that the observed from various of parameters which is growth and developments of olive saplings and soil nutrient status improved through mineral fertilizer when applied in soil during the two periods (three months), besides treatment 5 (NPK 50:25:25) was the superior in this concern.

...
Elfadil Elfadul Babiker1, Khalid Ahmed Abdoun2*, Fahad AL Juhaimi1, Kashif Ghafoor1, Riyadh Salih Aljumaah2 and Ahmed Abrahim Al-Haidary2
... Moringa peregrine (MPD) leaves. Thirty ewes (2 years old and 50-60 kg BW) and 30 goats (2 years old and 35-40 kg BW) were randomly allocated to 3 experimental groups, consisting of 10 ewes and 10 goats each. The 3 experimental groups of either ewes or goats were fed on one of the experimental diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD) for 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks throughout the experimental period. Vitamin C concentration and the total antioxidant ca...
Dyah Roeswitawati1*, Iva Kristova1, Muhidin Muhidin1, Otto Endarto2, Manar Fayiz Mousa Atoum3,4, Irum Iqrar5,6 and Luqman Ali Shah7
 
...n spots on Citrus leaves. So far, farmers have dealt with chemical pesticides that contain compounds with high toxicity. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of type and concentration of natural pesticides soursop (Annona muricata L.) leaves, papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves, chrysanth(Chrysanthemum morefolium Ramat.) leaves...

Lungile Gumede1,2, Thobela L. Tyasi1, Teedzai Chitura1*, Khanyisile R. Mbatha3 

...a oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves supplemented to the diets of wether BaPedi goats following vaccination with blanthrax vaccine. Twelve clinically healthy BaPedi goats with an average body weight of 19 ± 1.47 kg and an average age of 11±0.26 months were randomly selected from the flock at the University of Limpopo experimental farm. The experiment was conducted in three phases which are adaption, vaccination and moringa inclusion over 42 days. At t...

Muhammad Tahir Jan1, Sarfraz Ali Shad2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3 and Muhammad Binyameen2,*

...n such structures as the leaves, terminal buds and NE leaves. The current study regarding the site selection for oviposition provides information that can be used to develop guidelines for E. vittella management in cotton production. 

...

Sana Khalid1,2*, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman2,3, Usman Hameed2,4, Shabnum Shaheen1, Muhammad Naveed Shahid5, Khajista Jabeen1, Farah Khan1, Muhammad Saleem Haider1

...tiana benthamiana Domin. leaves. Although whitefly successfully acquired and transmitted the CLCuKoV-Bu from symptomatic tomato leaves to healthy one whose presence later confirmed by DNA extraction from whiteflies and symptomatic plants followed by PCR amplification of CP gene and full length genome of viruses for authentication of results. So, it has been confirmed that whiteflies were not responsible for transmission of C...

Naima Din1, Misbah Ashraf1, Muhammad Rizwan2*, Muhammad Babar Shahzad Afzal4, Hafiz Ghazanfar Abbas2, Farrukh Ilahi2, Amir Hameed5, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub6, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Farooq2,3

...ns were recorded from 20 leaves per treatment at random (upper, lower, middle leaves), Physio-morphic characters viz., plant height, number of branches, area of leaf lamina, hair density on midrib, chlorophyll contents and moisture percentage were also evaluated for the tested varieties. Among the tested varieties, OK Advanta-803 was most resistant to the jassid (13.36/leaf), whereas NS-810 was most susceptible to the A. dev...
Afsheen Noman Saddar1, Anila Naz Soomro2*, Sadaf Tabasum Qureshi1, Syeda Saleha Hassaney1 and Mukhtiar Ahmed Mahar2
... root of land-calotrops, leaves of peppermint and flower of red cabbage through brine shrimp toxicity assay. Brine shrimp eggs hatching was optimized by applying three temperature levels (25°C, 27°C and 29°C), three salinities (10 ppt, 30 ppt and 35 ppt), two food demands (0.8 g and 1.6 g) and two levels of shrimp egg (1 g/l and 1.5 g/l). Five concentrations (1200, 2500, 5000, 10000 and 15000 µg/ml) of aqueous extracts of five fertility enhan...

El-Kholy KH1, Tag El-Din H1, Tawfeek FA2, Sara HM Hassab1* 

...(Ziziphus spina-christi) leaves aqueous extract (SLAE) on endocrine hormones and reproductive function in laying hens under hyperthermia stress. Two hundred and twenty 25-wks-old-laying hens were randomly split into 4 groups, each is composed of 50 hens and 5 cock; the groups were included control group (received a basal diet without addition), SLAE2.5 group (received basal diet + 2.5 ml SLAE /kg diet), SLAE 5 (basal diet + 5 ml SLAE /kg diet) and SLAE 7.5 (ba...

Doaa Khairy1, Mohamed Ali Osman2 and Fatma Abdel Mohsen Mostafa1*

...e enzyme (PAL) in tomato leaves were significantly (P<0.05) induced by plant extracts mixture. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous neem leaf extract demonstrated the occurrence of a number of flavonoids (21) and phenolic compounds (23) including Hespiridin, Naringin, Rosmarinic acid, Pyrogallol, Salicylic acid and Gallic acid which are implicated in plant preservation and hence induce strength against nematode infection. The results of current study indicated...

Muhammad Asif1*, Ahmad Ali Shahid1,2 and Nasir Ahmad3

...tack of pathogen. Tomato leaves infected with early blight symptoms were collected from Lahore. Pathogen was isolated on PDA and its morphological characters were studied. All the characters used for identification of pathogen confirmed the culture as Alterneria solani. Ganoderma lucidum was collected from University of the Punjab, Lahore associated with dead oaks of Dalbergia sisso. Macro and microscopic identification was performed to confirm the characteris...

Aiman Al Mufarji, Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed* 

...eed. Organic M. oleifera leaves were analyzed for chemical composition, sugar and fatty acid profiles and undetected pesticides residues and its effect on modulation of blood and plasma parameters of ewes in subtropics. Twenty seven Naimi ewes, 51.3 ± 2.70 kg body weight and aged 2.5 - 3.0 years, were randomly allocated to three equal groups (nine/group) as control and M. oleifera groups (25 & 50.0 g daily). Blood samples were collected and were sub...
Paulus Klau Tahuk*, Oktovianus R. Nahak T.B., Gerson F. Bira, Adrianus Manek, Donatus Manek, Tobias Y. Purnama, Emanuel Bubun, Bergias Subay
...els of Gliricidia sepium leaves in the Complete Feed on the Performance of Fattened Male Bali Cattle. The cattle employed in this research were 12 male Bali cattle aged between 2-2.5 years old, with the average initial body weight was 181.50±16.51 kg. The animals were divided into three groups according to the ration treatment used. The rations include T1 ration which contained standard crude protein and high energy (11% CP and 72% TDN), T2 ration which...
Ahmed Mohamed Elmahdy1*, Naglaa Mohammed Alkalamawy2
...jorana “O.M” leaves extract in male rabbits against the negative effects of ivermectin. Twenty male rabbits were used and divided into four groups each group contain 5 rabbits as a following: Group one: rabbits which served as negative control were orally administered distilled water for 60 consecutive days. Group two: The rabbits in this group were given an aqueous extract of O.M. orally (200 milligrams per kilogram of body weight), once daily for...

Arfan Ahmed Gilal1*, Lubna Bashir Rajput1, Muhammad Ibrahim Kubar1, Ghulam Murtaza Kaleri2, Tanzeela-ul-Zahra1,3, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi4 and Zeeshan Rasheed1

...tory conditions on maize leaves and stems. Three cohorts comprised of 131, 112 and 105 eggs of similar age were used for both leaves and stems. The results indicated that maximum mortality of FAW in both maize stems and leaves were recorded in pupa and 1st larval instar, respectively whereas, maximum survival was recorded in 4th and 5th larval instars. Almost, similar male to female sex ra...

Yasmin M. M. Mahmoud* 

...on of dried chicory herb leaves (DCHL) in their diets on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, some blood parameters and hematological profile. Animals were chosen with an average body weight 15.40±1.99kg and divided randomly into three similar groups (8 kids/each). The 1st group (G0) was fed the control diet formulated from concentrate feed mixture and berseem hay with rate of 60 and 40%, respectively. Kids in the 2nd (G1) and 3rd (G2) groups wer...

Aiman Al-Mufarji3, Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed3*, Rashid Al-Zeidi1, Haitham Al-Masruri2, Al-Hassan Mohammed4

...stify;">Moringa oleifera leaves supplementation has positive effects on productive and reproductive performances in animals and humans as well. The current study aimed to overcome the negative impact of the peripartum period on ovarian follicular development, and blood and metabolic profiles with Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) supplementation. Fifteen pregnant Naimi ewes (49.0 ± 1.85 kg body weight) were allocated to three groups: control and two M. ole...

Sameena Gul1, Sayyeda Hira Hassan1, Amara Maryam1, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Muhammad Khan*1, Muhammad Irfan2, Farah Rauf Shakoori1 and Javed Iqbal Qazi1

...enols present in the dry leaves of green tea plant (Camellia sinensis). It has been observed to potentiate the apoptosis and also inhibit cancer cell growth by affecting various signaling molecules and cell cycle regulatory proteins. Clinical studies demonstrated that EGCG treatment of different type of cancers has synergistic effect in combination treatment with other common clinical drugs (cisplatin, taxol, doxorubicin and vinblastine) by modulating chemothe...

Muhammad Ajmal Khan1, Muhammad Yahya2*, Ali Hazrat2, Javed Khan3, Saeed Jan4, Tabinda Nowsheen2 and Inam Ullah5

...tracts of T. camphoratum leaves. The methanolic extract was quantitatively evaluated for alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids contents. The antibacterial activity of methanolic leaves extract of T. camphoratum was carried out against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains through agar well diffusion assay (small wells were made with cork borer and 6μl of plant extract was added to the wells). The antioxidant ac...

Muhammad Furqan and Zulfiqar Ali

...hich consisted of seeds, leaves, flowers, fruits, rhizomes, and bulbs. Invertebrates including ants, insects, larvae, and grit were also recorded. According to respondents the highest sighting (62.4%) of kalij pheasant was recorded from the forest, followed by cultivated land (20.4%). Major threats to kalij pheasant include forest fire (41.6%), followed by hunting (27.2%), habitat destruction (18.8%), and natural predators (12.4%). The hunting (n=142) of kalij...

Haitham Al Masruri1, Rashid Al Zeidi2, Aiman Al Mufarji3, Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed3, Ahmed Al-Madani4, Al-Hassan Mohammed5* 

... production. M. oleifera leaves, seeds, and extracts are administered to animals for therapeutic and nutritional purposes. The effects of using M. oleifera and its extracts on animals’ production and health have shown beneficial effects in several studies. The roles of M. oleifera and its extracts on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and enzyme activities, growth and reproductive performances, antioxidants, and milk production and composition ha...

Iqtidar Hussain1*, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi2, Muhammad Jawad Nazir1, Ehtesham Ul Haq1, Faheem Abbas1 and Muhammad Saqib Raza Shah1

...r (Populus deltoides L.) leaves aqueous extract was determined in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucumL.), bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench. Response of aqueous leaves extract was assessed through various agronomic and physiological parameters including number of plants emerged, leaves...

Nagina Zeb* and Noor ul Amin

...4.80 cm), more number of leaves (123), more number of roots (4.73), and plant survival percentage (61.78 %) as compared to the cuttings planted on August, 30 in both the years. Regarding cutting types, semi hard wood cuttings took minimum days to sprouting (16.91), more number of sprouts (4.30), sprout length (32.74 cm) number of leaves (113), number of roots (3.66) and higher plant survival percentage (40.81 %) in compariso...

Riaz Hussain1*, Adnan Ihsan2, Azaz Ali Shah2, Najeeb Ullah2, Hamza Iftikhar3 and Ranra Jalal4

...tivum) @ 2%, tobacco dry leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) @ 2%, red chili (Capsicum spp.) @ 5% and Chinaberry dry fruits (Melia azedarach) @ 10% concentrations were used singly and tobacco dry leaves (N. tabacum) + Chinaberry dry fruits (M. azedarach) @ 1% + 5%, garlicbulb (A. sativum) + Red chili(Capsicum spp.) @1% + 2.5%, tobacco dry leaves (N. tabacum) + Red chili (Capsicum spp.) @ 1%+2.5%, a...

Asim Ali Khan1, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan1, Yasir Iftikhar1*, Mustansar Mubeen1, Maham Sohail1, Sonum Bashir1, Malik Abdul Rehman2 and Muhammad Usman Ghani3

...em pitting, yellowing of leaves, stunted growth of large, small lateral branches and twigs. The study was carried out to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of CTV disease in major citrus growing areas of Sargodha district (Sargodha, Kot Momin, and Bhalwal). The samples from the declined orchards were collected based on symptomology and confirmed through ELISA. CTV was detected in 3 varieties viz., Kinnow (Citrus reticulate), Mosambi (Citrus sinensi...

Dede Kardaya*, Ayu Ratnasari, Dewi Wahyuni 

...r (Garcinia atroviridis) leaves are known to reduce fat content in duck meat because it contains hydroxy citric acid. This study aimed to examine the effect of Garcinia atroviridis leaf meal (GALM) supplementation in fermented nonconventional diets on the percentage of spent layer duck carcasses. The study used a completely randomized design with three treatments, and 50 replicates. The treatments consisted of 50% rice bran and 50% aking (leftover rice) diets ...

Ali Ahmad1*, Zubair Aslam1, Korkmaz Bellitürk2, Ehsan Ullah1, Ali Raza1 and Muhammad Asif3

...lorophyll content in the leaves are all improved by the absorption of macro- and micronutrients in vermicompost. End users, such as farmers, may benefit significantly from the vermicompost generated, since it can be used to replace chemical fertilizers and get higher price for organic products by utilizing locally available composting material.

...

Chooi Lin Phooi1, Elisa Azura Azman1* and Roslan Ismail2,3

...er, chlorophyll content, leaves the area, leaves number, plant nutrient, sugar, total soluble solid, organic acid, and ascorbic acid. No doubt, plant growth performance is closed related to soil properties. Bokashi is proper organic waste management and is easy to be implemented by household size. Bokashi can turn waste into the next food nutrient and ensure food security. 

...

Ishtiaq Ahmad1,2* and Muhammad Akbar Anjum1

...48 g), maximum number of leaves per plant were counted in genotypes AZRI-Selection-02-A2 (516.91 ± 22.29), however maximum leaf area was recorded in genotypes Kot Sultan (62.24 ± 2.14 cm2), the maximum time took to flower was observed in genotype 37032 (66.0 ± 2.50 days), while maximum time took to ripen fruit was observed in genotypes CKD 2204 (57.0 ± 2.00 days), the maximum relative leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) was measur...

Khalid Khan1*, Mahmood-ul-Hassan2, Ihsan Ullah1, Haris Khurshid1, F.Y Saleem Marwat1, Salman Saleem1, M. Jehanzeb1 and Zubair Ahmad1

... ICSA220XICSR90, highest leaves per plant (11.68) were reported of hybrid combination ICSA220XICSR90, maximum leaf to stem ratios (0.02) was recorded for hybrid combinations ICSA233XICSR90, high stem weight (327g) was recorded for hybrid combination ICSA216XICSR-1, maximum days to 50% flowering (77) was recorded for hybrid combination ICSA88019XICSR93012,excellentcrop stand depicted by hybrid combinationICSA220XICSR55, maximum panicle length (25.23cm) was reco...

Hanaa H.A. Gomaa1*, Dalia Y.Z. Amin1, Mona A. Ismail1 and Khalid A. El-Dougdoug2

...rmation were observed in leaves of fig plants. To evaluate the presence of Fig latent virus (FLV -1) in fig plants. One hundreds fig trees were collected with virus-like symptoms and symptomless fig trees. The virus was detected by DAS-ELISA. Infected fig leaves were mechanically inoculated on Chenopodium amaranticolor L. and reinoculated on Ch. amaranticolar L. and Nicotiana glutinosa for virus propagation. Fresh wood cutti...

Ayesha Saeed1*, Farzana Kishwar2, Ahsan Nazir3, Sharjeel Abid4, Muhammad Abiodullah5, and Danial Ali6

...scus Rosa Sinensis (HRS) leaves famous for its medicinal value as they contain phytochemicals such as triterpenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Keeping in view and get benefit from their fruitful properties the aim of the study was to develop antibacterial dry sheet nanofiber mask loaded with leaf extracts of MA and HRS as antibacterial agents in SA/PVA nanofibers through electrospinning method, which was just wet before its application. Leaf extr...

Rani Winardi Wulan Sari1, Novirman Jamarun2*, Suyitman3, Khasrad4, Elihasridas2, James Hellyward5, Gusri Yanti1 

... combination of mangrove leaves (Rhizophora apiculata) and native grass based on phytochemical contents, nutrient and cells fiber digestibility, rumen fluid characteristic, and gas production using an in vitro methodology. Samples of Hay Mangrove Leaves (HML) (Rhizophora apiculaca) and Native Grass (NG) were arranged into dietary tretmeants (Dry Matter (DM) Basic). The experimental design used is a randomized block design co...

Madad Ali1, Muhammad Ahsan1, Muhammad Zubair Akram*2 and Samreen Nazeer3

...4) followed by number of leaves per plant (r = 0.715). Grains yield also showed the highest positive and significant phenotypic correlation with plant height (r = 0.469) followed by total biomass (r = 0.431). Number of grain rows per cob (r = 2.662) exhibited the highest positive direct effect on grain yield per plant followed by total biomass (r = 1.993) and 100 grains weight (r = 1.194). Among the hybrids understudy, DH-8XDH-6 showed the best performance in ...

Shahid Iqbal1,2, Zulha Javed1, Mushtaq Hussain Zahid3, Qurat ul Ane Gillani4 and Furhan Iqbal1,*

...of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh on hematological parameters and biochemical components of blood serum of male albino mice. The extracts were administrated orally (100 mg/ ml solvent/ Kg body weight) for 15 days and it was observed that the complete blood count (CBC) remained unaffected while cholesterol (P = 0.03) and triglyceride (P = 0.008) levels in serum were significantly elevated in P. pi...

K. H. El-Kholy1*, Enayat Hassan Abo El-Azayem2, Safaa Ataya Barakat2, Mona Gamel Mohamed3, Sara H. M. Hassab1 

...hat using Aloe vera (AV) leaves powder may provide protection against stress and enhance animal physiological responses. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary AV addition on growth traits, caecal ecosystem and some physiological and biochemical responses in growing rabbits. APRI rabbits (age = 6 weeks, n = 60) were split equally into four groups (n = 15 in each group). First group was fed a basal diet only (control group, G1), while the o...

Fahrauk Faramayuda*, Soraya Riyanti and Sitty Mahanadhiandinie

...ssing. Brewing white tea leaves have been shown to have antioxidant activity. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of white tea leaves grown in Indonesia using extraction methods other than brewing, i.e., maceration. Study of free radical scavenging activity of 1,1- Diphenyl-2- Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the determination of the total polyphenol content of white tea leaves...
Humaira Gul1*, Muhammad Junaid Yousaf1*, Fawad Ali1, Mamoona Rauf1, Farhad Ali2 and Iqthedar Ali3
...andy soil. The number of leaves, branches, fruits, plant height, proteins, and chlorophylls were significantly (P<0.05) increased in sandy soil proportion whereas in soil analysis moisture, hygroscopic water, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), chlorides, organic matter were significantly (P<0.05) increased for the soily soil in same proportion that is of sandy soil. This reveals that Barley should be grown in sandy soil for its better growth and product...

Shama Sadaf1*, Komal Hassan1, Ayesha Saeed1 and Zeeshan Ahmad2 

...inish was extracted from leaves of Azadirachata indica, Butea monosperma and Litchi chinensis plants and applied on 100% cotton. Before and after applying antimicrobial finish mechanical property was checked. The antimicrobial finish was applied by pad dry cure method and finish was fixed by using of poly urethane binder. The presence of microorganisms was checked by ASTEM E2149 shake flask method before and after applying antimicrobial finish and after succes...

Naila Shahzadi1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1*, Azizullah1, Muhamamd Farooq Bhatti2, Shaukat Ali1, Muhamamd Summer1 and Farman Ahmad Chaudhary3

...ain (untreated) mulberry leaves were offered to the control group while experimental groups were fed on the mulberry leaves treated with exogenous nutrients alone (5% sericin, 3% honey) and in combination (5% sericin + 3% honey). Results showed that the larval weight of G3 (3% honey) (134.95%) was 40.38% higher than control (96.13%). The significant difference was noted in the larval weight in both control and experimental g...

Muhammad Khalid Bhatti, Khalil Ahmed*, Ghulam Shabir, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Muhammad Sarfraz, Amar Iqbal Saqib, Abdul Wakeel, Hafeezullah Rafa, Nadeem Iqbal, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Rizwan and Muhammad Faisal Nawaz

...tents were determined in leaves. Overall results revealed that SRI-23 and SRI-28 showed better performance than all other genotypes and produced comparatively better plant height, shoot fresh/dry weight, root fresh/dry weight, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, with low leave’s Na and high K contents. On contrary, the performance of SRI-38 and SRI-24 was poor for these attributes. It was concluded that SRI-23 and SRI-28 were comparatively salt tolerant, whi...
Shahrokh Mojarradgandoukmolla* and Hasan Akan
...al analysis of seeds and leaves of these taxa was performed by GC-MASs and their morphological evaluation was performed by SEM electron microscopy. Hematological and biochemical variables such as hepatic enzymes activity, glucose, lipid profile, ESR, CRP, renal function tests, and oxidative biomarkers were measured. Histological evaluation was also performed. Among the hematological parameters in the treated groups, only lymphocytes showed a significant change...

Zaheer Ahmed Lashari1, Muhammad Saleem Sarki1, Saleem Maseeh Bhatti1, Muhammad Sachal Khokhar1 and Zohaib ur Rehman Bughio2*

... the NPK levels in onion leaves with respect to control treatment. The upmost content of N (0.91 %), P (0.91 %) and K (2.80 %) were recorded from T8, T2, and T7 respectively. We suggest that an integration of compost with inorganic fertilizer is a better choice for improved growth, yield and quality of onion crop.

...

Saima Rubab1,3*, Ghazala H Rizwani2, Arjumand Iqbal Durrani3, Iram Liaqat4*, Urooj Zafar5, Mahjabeen6, Farah Batool7, Noor-E- Seher3, Naveera Younas3 and Ayesha Sadiqa8

...) of dried roots, stems, leaves and seeds provided a conclusive support to the above results. Anti-inflammatory effect was less significant (p < 0.05) in seed extract, while leaf extract displayed highly significant results both at low and high doses. Likewise, both seed and leaf showed significant analgesic effects. However, compared to seed extract which showed highly significant (p < 0.001) increase in concentration dependent manner, leaf extract disp...

Oluwatoyin Adenike Fabiyi1*, Mariam Temitope Baker2 and Gabriel Ademola Olatunji2

...nia boonei (Apocynaceae) leaves were extracted cold in ethyl acetate. This yielded crude extract that was subjected to column chromatography (silica gel 100-120 mesh grade), which afforded fractions that were analysed with GCMS and FTIR for constituent identification. The result shows octanoic acid; hexanoic acid methyl ester; ethyl octanoate; 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester; dodecanoic acid; octadecanoic acid methyl ester; decanoic acid; octadecanoic ...

W. M. El-Nagdi,1†, Z. , E. Ghareeb2 and E. M. Zayed3

...t, gall index, number of leaves per plant and dry weight per plant were the most important contributing traits to root yield (R2= 94.76%). Hence, the selection among these traits would be accompanied by high yielding and more effective for the improvement of fodder root yield in the same conditions.

...
A.M. El-Baha1, A. A. El-Sherbiny2†, M. Z. M. Salem1, N. Shaarawy3 and N. H. Mohamed3
...ptus camaldulensis fresh leaves and tested
for their nematicidal activity at four different concentrations viz., 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/l against root-knot
nematode, Meloidogyne incognita under laboratory conditions. All concentrations significantly inhibited egg
hatching (31.24–66.35%) and mortality of second stage juvenile. Inhibition of egg hatching (%) and mortality (%) of
J2 were increased linearly ...

M. M. A. Youssef1†, Wafaa M. A. El-Nagdi1, and Mona G. Dawood2

... residues, fresh and dry leaves and mashed storage roots of sugar beet @20 and 10g were tested
for controlling root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on cowpea in screen house. On the basis of the average
percentages nematode reduction, mashed storage roots at the highest rate (20g) achieved 85.1% increase followed by
dry leaves at the same rate caused the reduction 81.6%. Average nemat...

Farwa Batool1*, Riaz ur Rehman1, Samia Ikram2 and Maham Zahara3

...eaf area (cm), number of leaves (cm), stem diameter (mm) and survival (%). The pH, EC, potassium (K), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and organic matter of different ratios of SGS were also observed prior to utilization. The maximum plant height of A. commutatum (46cm), D. deremensis (159cm), A. elatiors (66cm) was recorded in SGS of leaf compost + silt + sawdust + sand (2:1:1:1). While combination of peat moss + soil + silt + sand (2:2:1:1) SGS showed increased ...
A.A. Tanimola and B. Fawole1
...nd water extract (WE) of leaves and roots of Aloe schweinfurthii
(ASF), Aloe succrotina (AST), Aloe vera (AVR), Aloe chinensis (ACS), Aloe arborescens (AAR), Aloe keayi
(AKY), Aloe macrocarpa (AMC) and Aloe schweinfurthii x Aloe vera (ASV) on egg-hatching and mortality of
second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita was investigated in vitro. Extracts were tested at
concentrations of 50,000 mg/kg and 25,0...

N. Hajra

.../div>
reflected in leaves of treated plants as compared with mycorrhizal treated plants. The decrease in shoot length,
number of leaves and leaf area were observed in non mycorrhizal and plant treated with other biotic and
abiotic stresses. Higher amount of proline was produced in non mycorrhizal and stressed plants in result of
reduced availability of water and dry matter translocat...

A.W. Amin† and A.W. Mona*

...ved in
plant leaves compared with infested cucumber. Consequently, the shoot macro and micro-elements were increased
compared with infested cucumber. The macro and micro-elements and chlorophyll contents were recorded but the
variation between them were non-significant.
...

O. A. Fabiyi

...tial of Daniella oliveri leaves. The leaves
of D. oliveri were air dried and extracted with n-hexane, there after acetone. The concentrated extracts were
subjected to chromatography on a silica gel packed column. The nematicidal activity of the fractions were
evaluated in the laboratory using a 4x4x3 factorial experiment, while the crude extracts were tested on
Meloidogyne inco...

Belema Robert1, Favour Welenya1, Deborah Achi1, Cynthia Onyeagwara1, Soala Obie Minimah2, Ebele Anulika Obichi2, Chidinma Charity Amuzie1* 

...getables (fluted pumpkin leaves, waterleaves, bitter leaves and scent leaves) were purchased and harvested from selected markets (Creek Road, Mile 1, Mile 3, Timber, Rumuokoro, and Rumuokuta Markets) and farms (Rivers State University Agricultural Demonstration Farm, a farm at Nkpolu-Oroworukwo and another at Rumuolumeni) in Port Harcourt metropolis in N...

Nuzhat Munawar1, Abrar Hussain1, Imran Sajid2, Zahra Noreen1, Muhammad Aslam3*, Zeeshan Rehman1 and Aamir Ali3,4

...unds present in it. Neem leaves of the plant were collected, dried, powdered, and extracted by using ethyl acetate, chloroform, and acetone as solvents. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of active compounds. The antibacterial potential of various plant extracts was evaluated using well diffusion and disc diffusion assay against various disease-causing microorganisms. In the case of well diffusion assay, the plant exhibited a maximum 16mm i...

Kalsoom1, Nasir Shah2, Muhammad Ibrahim3*, Tahira Bibi1, Kazim Ali4 and Zahir Shah2

...ots, number of nodes and leaves, root and shoot lengths (cm), fresh as well as dry root and shoot weights (g). In contrast, proline, Na+ and K+ (mg g-1 FW) contents increased, while total chlorophyll (mg g-1 FW) content in all the variants reduced in salt stress. Overall, maximum salt tolerance was exhibited by Sante 8 event at (50 mM) in in vitro condition, as compared to other potato varieties. Furthermore, Sante 2 showed slight resistance to salt stress and...

Zubair Aslam1, Ali Ahmad1*, Korkmaz Bellitürk2, Hira Kanwal1, Muhammad Asif1 and Ehsan Ullah1

...elative water content of leaves, total carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll (a+b) contents, SPAD value of chlorophyll and photosynthetic rate). The obtained results indicated that treatment T5 had significantly (p<0.05) higher fruit yield (1.50 kg/plant, 15.5 kg/plot and 13657 kg/ha) while treatment T0 had significantly lower fruit yield (0.87 kg/plant, 8.33 kg/plot, and 7900 kg/ha) as compared to all other treatments.

...

Muhammad Furqan1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad2, Rida Ahmad1, Haqnawaz Yousaf3 and Imad Ul Din Zangi4

...e made up of grasses and leaves of cheer pine. The clutch size of seven eggs was recorded from two nests. The eggs shell was buffy white or creamy, oval shaped, elongated and pointed towards one end. Camera trap recorded the hatching activities on 15th July 2020. It was observed that incubation period varied from 22-25 days. Hatching rate was 100% and 85.71% while survival rates 57.41% and 49.98 % were recorded for two nests, respectively.
...

Owolabi Olutunmise Victoria1*, Saka Olusola Stephen2, Olashinde Oluwaseun Ruth1, Alli Smith Yemisi Rufina3

... of young Cola acuminata leaves aqueous extract. Diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate.5 ml of normal saline was given to group I , group 2 received 5 mg/kg/ body weight of the standard drug glibenclamide, group 3 was given 140 mg/kg of alloxan while groups Young C. acuminata leaves aqueous extract was administered orally in graded doses to the diabetic animals (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg bodyweight) a...

Raad Hamad Mahmood Al-Badrany1* and Aamer Mohsen Mahmood Al-Ma’thidy2

...e characteristics of the leaves (length and width of leaf blade, length and diameter of the leaf petiole, shape of the apex, base and margin of the leaf blade, number of lobes and colour of leaf bade), and fruit characteristics (length, diameter, size, ostiole diameter, peduncle length, fruit shape, and color). It was found that most of the leaf and fruit characteristics have taxonomic importance in distinguishing and diagnosing the cultivars of the studied cu...

Aiman Al-Mufarji, Shaker Al-Suwaiegh, Abd El-Nasser Mohammed*

...ects of Moringa oleifera leaves given to ewes during prepartum and postpartum periods on thermo-tolerance responses, body weight gain, ovarian structures growth, blood and metabolic profiles of ewes and resulting lambs in subtropics. Fifteen ewes of body weight 49.1 ± 1.86 kg/head and 2.50 years old were allotted using complete random design to control and two M. oleifera groups (50.0 and 100.0 g/day). Relative humidity and ambient temperature were reco...

Muhammad Adeel Qureshi1*, Raza Ahmad2, Bilal Ahmed1, Tanzim Ullah Khan1 and Muhammad Yasin3

...callus was observed from leaves on CIM1 and CIM2. After callus induction, four different types of media were used for plant regeneration, having different concentrations of cytokinin (BAP and Zeatin) i.e. RZ1.5, RZ2, RB1 and RB2. The most efficient regeneration media was RZ2, having Zeatin 2mg/lit showed early and maximum shoot formation. On average, 05 shoots per explant were observed on RZ2. No shoot formation was observed with regeneration media having BAP,...

O. A. Fabiyi, G. A. Olatunji and O. Atolani

...rgb(255, 255, 255);">The leaves of Alstonia boonei (de Wild) and 
Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1*, Iqra Javed1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Shaukat Ali3, Muhammad Khan1, Farah Rauf Shakoori1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1 and Muhammad Abrar Yousaf1
...F) using corn (Zea mays) leaves as substrate to reduce its production cost. The maximum tannase production was obtained with 60% initial substrate moisture contents, tap water as enzyme extraction medium with 2 mL volume, 45°C incubation temperature, pH 7, 300 µL inoculum size, 24 h incubation period in agitated condition with substrate particle size of 4mm during one factor at a time optimization. Concentrations of medium components (3.75% tannic ac...

Rahmat Ullah Khan1*, Karim Gabol1, Asif Sadam2, Waheed Ali Panhwar3, Hamidullah4 and Abdul Rahim1

...s (48%) followed by crop leaves (35%), plastic string (10%), and unidentified materials (7%). The average outer diameter of the nest 12.00±1.1 cm, inner diameter 9.13±2.3 cm and inner cup depth was 4.99±2.1 cm. This bird has one brood per season. Overall breeding cycle lasted for 90 days. The shape of the eggs was oblong and white pinkish, with darker red spots. The average incubation and nestling periods were 12.03±1.3 and 13.21&pl...

Ambrin Rajput1* and Mehrunisa Memon2

...kg ha-1), protein (22%), leaves P (0.46 %) content, P uptake (11.49 kg ha-1) and P utilization efficiency (10.3 %) were noted by P application with N and K applied treatment. However, the lowest values were recorded where no P was applied. The highest yield had 100% increase in mungbean yield with combined nutrient application of N:P: K (15:75:15 kg ha-1) compared the control plot through this study. Increasing the P application levels from 100 to 150 P2O5 kg ...

Arief1, Roni Pazla2*, Rizqan1, Novirman Jamarun2 

...folia plants and cassava leaves have the potential to be used as a substitute for field grass. Palm kernel cake is a waste of the palm oil processing industry and can be used as a concentrated alternative. This study aims to determine the impact of giving Tithonia diversifolia plants, cassava leaves, and palm concentrates on the milk production and quality (fat and lactose), intake, and digestibility of Etawa Crossbred Goat....

Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

April

Vol. 11, Iss. 4, Pages 517-694

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