Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...+ 100 kg N ha-1 at first irrigation (T1); 50 kg N at first irrigation + 100 kg N ha-1 at second irrigation (T2); 50 kg N at sowing + 50 kg N at first irrigation + 50 kg N ha-1 at second irrigation (T3); and 50 kg N at first + 50 kg N at second + 50 kg N ha-1 at third irrigation (T4)]...

Raja Waqar Ahmed Azad, Tahir Sarwar

...ercourse maintenance and irrigation management practices were found in watercourse Sarai, whereas, watercourse Derkot had poor watercourse maintenance and field practices. Results showed that crop yields were higher in watercourses having good water management practices. It can be concluded that aging of watercourses increase conveyance losses, which can be offset by regular repair and maintenance of watercourses.

...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...eated by withholding the irrigation for specified time at critical growth stages viz. tillering, booting, anthesis and milking (grain filling), whereas a well-watered treatment was also included during whole plant growth and development period. The results showed that water stress significantly reduced plant height, number of total tillers per plant, number of fertile tillers per plant, number of nodes per plant, spikelet per spike, number of grains per spike,...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...lic and civil canal irrigation systems in Peshawar Valley. For this purpose, 18 farms were selected under public canal system and 13 under civil canal systems. Results revealed that average CWP of wheat, maize, sugarcane and tomato was 0.96, 1.11, 3.31, 3.61 kg m-3 under public and 0.90, 0.77, 2.36, 2.98 kg m-3, under civil system, respectively. In public canal system, the average CWP of the selected crops was 7, 40, 44 and 21% higher ...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Mohammad Tariq Jan2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3 and Abdul Bari4

...turing, earthing up, and irrigation) were performed. The objectives were to find best planting source, cane portions, setts placement methods and interaction for maximum emergence, visible crop stand leading to yield and yield components. Significant differences were observed among cane portions and setts placement methods for all the traits except emergence %. Planting sources exhibited significant differences for emergence percentage. The interaction of cane...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...lished higher yield from irrigation practice. The study concludes that irrigation system is a catalyst for appreciable rice yield in this area. However, proper application of fertilizer and expansion of existing farmland should be adopted among the rice farmers in the study area and other related environment.

...

Muhammad Aslam

...aints include agronomic, irrigation management, environmental, technological, institutional and socio-economic constraints. Future prospects include upscaling of modern technology, enhanced seed production, improved inputs availability and use, improved irrigation, improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recomm...

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...ign: justify;">Excessive irrigation application and intensive tillage is the norm on Pakistani farms, which exacerbate water logging and salinity and reduce the water productivity of major crops. Addressing these issues, a long term experiment (2000 to 2009) under wheat-maize (9 seasons each) cropping pattern was conducted on raised beds (with furrow spacing of 65 cm (Narrow Bed-NB), 130 cm (Medium Bed- MB) and 180 cm (Wide Bed-WB)), with controlled traffic re...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

..., fertilizers, chemical, irrigation and labour days. Under utilization of resources was found for polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemicals, irrigation and labour days. Over utilization of resources was observed for seed quantity and use of tractor. There exist decreasing return to scale (87.7%) but its value will surely increase after efficient use of inputs. A little adjustment is required in the use of inputs for receiving ...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...d manure, tractor hours, irrigation, pesticides used and labour days would rise sugarcane yield by 0.053, 0.103, 0.068, 0.020, 0.024, 0.111, 0.118, 0.005 and 0.121% respectively. All inputs except DAP, farmyard manure and pesticides were found significant at 5% significance level. In inefficiency model grower age, experience and contact with extension workers has significant contribution in decreasing farm inefficiency. However, grower’s family size, his...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...y;">Palai dam is a small irrigation dam located on the northern border of district Charsadda, adjacent to Mohmand agency. The construction of dam was started in 2009 and was completed in 2011. It is claimed that dam will irrigate 5000 acre of land in four mouza’s of district Charsadda. Present study is an attempt to determine the impact of Palai dam on the land use and cropping pattern, crop production and revenue of mouza Qilla, Tehsil Tangi, district C...

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

...cess to cultivable land, irrigation facilities, and input and output markets which resulted in increased cost of production and decreased farm productivity of tomato. This further resulted in decreased net income of farmers from tomato crop. The study concludes that poverty in these areas can be alleviated if the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play their role in promoting social cohesion and management of any conflict in future.

...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

...usambi) grown under drip irrigation at Postgraduate Agriculture Research Station (PARS) Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Plants were grown at three planting distances as T1 (11 x 22ft), T2 (11 x 11ft) and T3 (22 x 22ft). T1 (11x22ft) was optimum plantation and showed best results for yield. Maximum fruit yield per plant (3.6373 kg) was observed from the same plants. T2 (11 x 11ft) was close plantation and had more tota...

Manidipa Chowdhury 

Incidence of saw fly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug. as influenced by level of irrigation and fertilizers on mustard
...s influenced by level of irrigation and fertilizers on mustard c.v. NC-1 (Jhumka) of Brassica campestris var. yellow sarson. Highest saw fly population (0.26 larvae/plant) was recorded on the crop grown without irrigation and medium level of fertilizers (60:30:30 Kg NPK ha-1) while lowest population level (0.10 larvae/plant) was observed at highest level of irrigation (three) coupled with ...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
... kg per ha through every irrigation.
...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...antity, labor, number of irrigation, chemicals spray and fertilizers have positive significant effects on tomato yield. Allocative efficiency analysis reveals that machinery, seed quantity, number of irrigation, fertilizers and chemicals are underutilized, while labor and FYM are over utilized for tomato production in the study area. The study recommends training for growers and field labors, provision of short-term formal c...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
... adoption of recommended irrigation practices however postulate positive and significant impact of citrus producing experience and family income on adoption of recommended number of irrigation and hoeing practices whereas age has significant negative impact on the adoption of hoeing practice and fertilizer applications. Positive and significant impact of family income is influencing the adoption of every recommended practice...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...K ratio, Seed, number of irrigation hour, weedicides, insecticides and pesticide variable would significantly contributes to improve the rice production. On average technical efficiency of sample rice farmers is 86 percent, which indicates that rice farmers in selected areas can increase the production of rice 14 percent only by managing efficiency level, without increasing input quantities. Hence, it is possible for rice farmers to increase rice output withou...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

... polluted wastewater for irrigation by local farmers since long has contaminated the soil and now the pollution is being transferred to our food chain. An investigation has been done to ascertain toxic heavy metal concentration in the wastewater, irrigated soil, their accumulation in vegetables, and potential human health risks. The results reveal that Cr concentration in the wastewater, Cd and Zn in soil and in vegetables have been found well above the permis...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...and sufficient water for irrigation would be helpful in reducing future potential losses to wheat growers.  

...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...justify;">The suboptimal irrigation management on small raised beds farms in the Indus Basin is considered to reduce irrigation efficiency and exacerbates waterlogging and salinity. Addressing this issue, farmer managed irrigations on commonly used Narrow Bed (NB) with furrow spacings 66 cm and newly introduced Wide Bed (WB) with furrow spacing 130 cm on sandy clay loam, were investigated...
Muhammad Imran Mahmood* and Muhammad Zubair
... the effect of different irrigation sources and growth parameters of forest trees Shisham, Neem, Siri and Sufeda. The effect of different irrigation levels exhibited the highest plant height in Sufeda under flooding which were 135 and 125cm after and before the experiment. However, Neem showed maximum plant height after experiment (103 cm) under drought condition. But, the minimum plant height (57 cm) before experiment was o...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...ion by adding the to the irrigation water. After 2 days of applications, daily monitoring was conducted for 10 days to record any dead or paralyzed adults and/or larvae. Dead and paralyzed adults or larvae were found particularly in foliar application compared with the control. Furthermore, females egg-laying defect with serious reduction in their movement was recorded especially in foliar application. Egg hatching was not affected with minimal activity in bot...

Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani2, Sami Ullah2, Najeeb Ullah2, Abdur Rauf3 and Inam Ullah2

...r plant population, save irrigation water, cut cultivation costs and increases cotton yield and quality on sustainable basis. Field trial was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to study the effect of tillage systems [ridge tillage (RT) and flat tillage (FT)] and 5 nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kgN.ha-1) on cotton lint yields, quality and earliness. Experiment was laid out in a RCB desig...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...of soil conditioning and irrigation regimes on the performance of maize crop during 2011 and 2012. Four irrigation regimes ranging from 3-6 irrigation in relation to the critical stages of maize crop were applied. Irrigation consisted of 93 mm water. Three organic soil conditioners viz., farmyard manure (10000 kg ha-1), wheat straw as crop residue (10000...

S. M. I. Hossain*, S. U. K. Eusufzai and M. A. Rahman**

... the effect of different irrigation levels on growth and yield parameters of six sugarcane varieties (Isd 16, Isd 30, Isd 31, Isd 32, Isd 33 and Isd 34). The experiment was laid up in two factors split-plot design with five irrigation levels in main plots and six varieties in subplots. Irrigations at 21, 28, 35 or 42 days interval in addition to two live irrigation...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

...cold spells, shortage of irrigation water over normal supplies, imbalanced use of fertilizers particularly of DAP fertilizer below the recommended doses, higher prices of inputs such as seed, fertilizer, diesel, electricity and less wheat prices during 2006-07 and late announcement of the minimum guaranteed wheat price for 2007-08 were the main reasons of lower wheat production in 2007-08. To enhance the wheat yield, farmers were of the view that the timely av...

 Badaruddin Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain** and Zafar Khokhar*

...mine effect of different irrigation levels on growth and yield of different wheat genotypes in the province of Sindh. The trial was laid out in split block design at Wheat Research Institute, Sindh, Sakrand, in which four irrigation treatments I3 (irrigation at crown root, booting and soft dough stage), I4 (irrigation at crown root, tillering, booting an...

 Sumia Bint Zaman, Sidra Majeed and Shahid Ahmad*

...o 12.75 t ha-1 with full irrigation in favorable environments. Benefit-cost analysis shows that break-even point can be achieved in fourth year of plantation of Jatropha. The projected consumption in Pakistan for petro-fuel for 2025 is 35.1 mt, which is almost double of the current consumption. Thus, the target projections for replacement of petro-fuel with bio-diesel will be 3.51 mt for which 3.5 mha of land is required, as Jatropha has to be grown in margina...
Umair Riaz*1, Zafar Abbas1, Qamar uz Zaman2, Muhammad Mubashir1, Mahwish Jabeen2, Syed Ali Zulqadar1, Zeenat Javeed1, Saeed-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Muhammad Javid Qamar1
...uate its suitability for irrigation use. Water samples from different areas of the tehsil were collected and analysed for various physic-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), sulfates (SO4-), carbonates (CO3-), bicarbonates (HCO3-), sodium (Na+),...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...regarding application of irrigation and private extension field staff provided advice for the use of plant protection measures. Significant differences were observed between public and private extension field staff on various statements regarding competency level and agronomic practices.

...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...armers' skills in furrow irrigation was ranked at the top with mean value 3.32 followed by flood, border and basin irrigation techniques with mean values 2.98, 2.85 and 2.76, respectively. Hence, it can be concluded that farmers' skills in all the selected aspects were improved as a result of their participation in FFS' sessions. 

...

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

RAISED BED TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT CROP IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...raw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek S...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Nouman Badar*

YIELD GAP DETERMINANTS FOR WHEAT PRODUCTION IN MAJOR IRRIGATED CROPPING ZONES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...veals that the number of irrigations, usage of farm yard manure and fertilizers contribute positively and significantly to wheat crop production. Coefficients of dummy variables for cropping zones indicate that farmers in the mixed cropping zone are obtaining better yield of the wheat crop as compared to their counterparts in other selected cropping zones. These results suggested that farmers can increase wheat productivity by increasing the use of factor inpu...

 Naheed Zahra*, Hassnain Shah*, M. Azeem Khan* and M. Zubair Anwar* 

LIVELIHOOD ASSETS AND POVERTY NEXUS: A CASE STUDY FROM RAINFED POTHWAR AREA OF PAKISTAN
..., water availability for irrigation(P<0.10) and tenancy status (P<0.05). The results regarding poverty revealed that 2.50% of the sampled households were chronically poor, 5.0% transitory poor, 37.5% transitory vulnerable, 32.5% transitory non- poor and 22.5% was non-poor. Most of the sampled households fall along the transition line which implies their vulnerability to be trapped in poverty due to any shock. Beside other assets, even small scale

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...reeding habitats such as irrigation channels, irrigation water leakages, pots, vase, tyres, temporary containers stagnant flood waters, etc. Ovitraps were used as monitoring tools in urban areas of the selected sites. Results showed that mosquitoes are active throughout the year with their most active season during May, September and October. The mean relative abundance of Culex species in different districts were: Peshawar ...

 Hassnain Shah*, Nadeem Akmal*, Waqas Farooq*, Muhammad Azeem Khan* and Shahid Munir**

SHIFT FROM SITE DEVELOPMENT TO SKILL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF WATER HARVESTING THROUGH MICRO CATCHMENTS
...nance was recovered from irrigation cost saved from single rainfall at the demonstration site. One of the important implications drawn in this regard was the need of a shift from site development to skill development. The same was derived as an important recommendation during assessment and evaluation of different demonstration and dissemination activities being conducted under Watershed Project. This shift could catalyze the technology adoption. 

...

 Nusrat Habib*, Saima Rani*, Sabeen Siddiqui*, Shah Zaman** and Muhammad Zubair Anwar*

IMPACT OF MAJOR FARM INPUTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGARCANE: A CASE STUDY IN TEHSIL KOT ADDU, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... preparation, DAP, urea, irrigation, FYM, seed and labor for harvesting were the significant factors which affect on the proceeds of sugarcane growers. The results revealed that costs of land preparation, DAP and urea were highly significant at 1% level with positive coefficients 0.94, 0.23 and 0.76, respectively. The cost of FYM was significant at 1% level with negative impact on sugarcane productivity (-0.07). The coefficient 2 of multiple determinations R w...

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

ECONOMICS OF PERI-URBAN RADISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN FAISALABAD
...d rate, fertilizers, and irrigations. Majority of respondents (94.2%) reported the local Meno as the best yielding variety. Imported and 40 day varieties were not popular as only 5.8% farmers were cultivating these varieties in the study area. On the basis of survey data, benefit cost and total factor productivity analyses depict that radish cultivation is a profitable enterprise in the study area. Productivity gap between current and potential yield of radish...

 Amjad Pervez*, Syed Muzaffar Ahmed*, Akhlaq Ahmad** and Qazi Mehmood Ali**

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FOOD GRAINS AS BAITS FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYSTRIX INDICA
...griculture, forestry and irrigation network in Pakistan.

...

 Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Adnan Shakeel**, Muhammad Abdullah***, Muhammad Islam**, Sadiq Muhammad*, Ghulam Murtaza* and Mushtaq Ahmad**

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND WATER STRESS ON PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
...were greatly affected by irrigation and water -1 stress. Crop treated with 100 kg ha P O under water stress maintained high 2 5 protein content as compared to unfertilized and no water stress treatments. However, phenolic compounds were found higher in fully irrigated plants as compared to water stress ones. Fertilizer treatments had no considerable effect on phenolic compounds.

...

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ologies as solar powered irrigation system, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, micro catchment, rooftop rainwater harvesting and irrigation scheduling. Therefore, the project activities also include the training of the professionals from the line departments for the demonstrated technologies to foster the process of adoption. For this purpose Climate...

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION

 Muhammad Mansoor*, Noman Latif*, Zafar Islam**, Sher Muhammad**, Amanullah* and Muhammad Umair***

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AMENDMENTS ON SOIL CAPPING IN MUNGBEAN PRODUCTION USING CENTRAL PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN CLAYEY SOILS
...blem under central pivot irrigation system using different soil amendments. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design, replicated thrice. Mungbean (Vigna radiata L ) variety “Dera Mung” was used as test crop. Soil amendments were carried out through pure sand and farm yard manure (FYM) in equal proportions and in three different application rates viz., 60:60, -1 45:45 and 30:30 kg plot and an un-amended soil plot was kept as c...

 Nisar Ahmed Soomro*, Abdul Fatah Soomro**, Hamz Ali Samo* and
Muhammad Siddique Depar***

GROWTH AND YIELD COMPARISONS OF FOUR COMMERCIAL WHEAT VARIETIES TO IRRIGATION FREQUENCIES
...t varieties to different irrigation regimes, four varieties namely, Kiran, Imdad-2005, TJ-83 and T.D-1 were supplied with 3 (IR ), 4 (IR ) and 5 (IR ) irrigations during the entire cropping season. The crop given 5 irrigations resulted in 88.71% germination, 82.77 cm plant height, 10.88 tillers plant , 266.74 tillers m , 59.41 grains spike , 60.50 g 1000-seed weight and 5862.25 kg grain yi...

 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**

EFFECT OF DEFICIT IRRIGATION, SOWING METHODS AND MULCHING ON WHEAT YIELD AND NITROGEN UPTAKE
...stify;">To determine the irrigation water scarcity, inefficient irrigation supplies to farm lands, increasing temperature with high evaporation rate and poor sowing, an experiment was conducted at the research farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2011-12. In the study three factors were studied i.e., sowing methods, mulching and deficit irrigation with four levels viz: fu...

 Zafar Islam*, Abdul Ghafoor Mangrio*, Muhammad Munir Ahmad*, Ghani Akber*, Sher Muhammad**, Muhammad Umair*** and Yaskina****

APPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF IRRIGATION WATER UNDER VARIOUS SIZES OF CENTER PIVOT SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
... central pivot sprinkler irrigation systems for their water distribution, uniformity and tendency to recommend changes in system maintenance or repair. The main objective of this study was to evaluate existing central pivot sprinkler irrigation systems under field conditions at different locations in the country. The study was carried out to evaluate water distribution under central pivot irrigation<...
Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Farkhanda Khan2, Muhammad Kashan3, Qadir Ullah4 and Abdur Rauf5
...red surface, followed by irrigation, was low (<2 kg ha−1) regardless of time of urea application. N treatments significantly affected the N uptake, N use efficiencies, lint yield and fiber quality traits. Drilling of 24 kg N ha−1 as DAP into soil at cotton seeding followed by three top-dressing of 42 kg N ha−1 each just prior to first, second and third irrigations signifi...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...) ratios for labor days, irrigation, urea, FYM and pesticides are more than unity indicate underutilization of these resources which underlines scope of expansion in these resources. Study results illustrate that land, seed quantity, tractor hours and DAP are over utilized which need readjustment. Study recommends improvement in extension services to guide farmers on proper inputs utilization, low interest rate crop based loans and comprehensive policy of sett...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...) ratios for labor days, irrigation, urea, FYM and pesticides are more than unity indicate underutilization of these resources which underlines scope of expansion in these resources. Study results illustrate that land, seed quantity, tractor hours and DAP are over utilized which need readjustment. Study recommends improvement in extension services to guide farmers on proper inputs utilization, low interest rate crop based loans and comprehensive policy of sett...

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

...ility of groundwater for irrigation purposes was evaluated following various classification schemes. The results show that in most part of the study area, water table is showing slightly rising trend, except Sur Dag, Narre Khawar and Takht-e-Nasrati areas, where the water table is declining. On other hand, the numbers of tube wells extracting ground water are increasing rapidly. The wells discharges of the sampled tube wells varied from 2 to 14 l/s and the hor...

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

...house and comprised of 2 irrigations (irrigated and water stress) and three concentrations of CaCl2 (5, 10 and 15 mM CaCl2.2H2O) as foliar spray on maize seedlings 20 days after emergence (DAE). Water was sprayed as untreated control on maize seedlings 20 DAE. After foliar application, the plants were regularly irrigated upto one week and water stress was imposed by withholding water from half of the pots for 20 days. Data were recorded on the relative water c...

Najeeb Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Niamat Ullah Khan2*, Muhammad Safdar Baloch1 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan

...three replications. Four irrigation intervals namely I1 (10 days interval), I2 (15 days interval), I3 (20 days interval) and I4 (25 days interval) were allotted to main plots while cotton genotypes (CIM-602 and CIM-616) were assigned to subplots having 10 m×3 m. Results revealed that cotton crop irrigated at 20 days interval showed greater bolls per plant; weight per boll; seed cotton yield and ginning out-turn (GOT %). The results further showed that th...

Feroza Haider1,2, Shamim Gul2,3*, Javaid Hussain4, Sadaf Asalam Ghori5, Muhammad Naeem Shahwani6, Muhammad Murad6 and Abdul Manan Kakar

...oundwater and wastewater irrigation. Biochars were applied at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kg m-2 to soil. Amendment of biochar increased significantly the aboveground plant biomass by 28% - 34.3% under groundwater and 18.3% - 30.4% under wastewater irrigation. Dry weight of root biomass increased by 16.1% - 20.2% under groundwater and by 21% - 31.2% under wastewater irrigation in response to biochar a...

Muhammad Rehan Aslam1, Muhammad Maqsood1, Zahoor Ahmad2*, Sajjad Akhtar3, Muhammad Rizwan4 and Muhammad Usama Hameed

...d magnesium sulphate and irrigation scheduling on the quality and yield of maize (Zea mays). Maximum cob weight without sheath (253.38 g), number of grains per cob (472.49), 1000-grains weight (265.99 g), biological yield (13.08 t ha-1), grain yield (5.05 t ha-1), harvest index (38.43%), grain protein contents (8.09%) and grain oil contents (4.76%) were obtained when two foliar sprays of 0.5% MgSO4 (T2) were applied. Similarly, highest cob weight without sheat...

Ansaar Ahmed1, Imtiaz Hussain2*, Ibni Amin Khalil3, Subhanulla3, Gulzar Ahmed3, Imtiaz Ahmad3 and Muhammad Imtiaz2  

...rface coupled with flood irrigation are used in irrigated maize–wheat system of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province that requires skilled labor, intensive tillage and more water for irrigation. In this study, zero tillage and bed planting effect in comparison with farmer practice on maize-wheat system productivity was evaluated at five sites in district of Nowshera, KP province during 2014-2016. Maize grain yield with bed...

Sadiqa Begum1, Murad Khan2* and Noor Pao Khan

...e inputs including seed, irrigation, labor, fertilizer, pesticides and tractor used in production of wheat were having positive relationship with the production. District Peshawar is more efficient in production of wheat which can be raised further by proper utilization of all the inputs. 

...

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Muhammad Zeshan1,2, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahmed1 and Sabir Hussain Shah3 

...(T2) and ½ at 1st irrigation + ½ at flowering (T3) were included in the experiment. Treatments were replicated thrice. Data were collected for growth parameters and yield contributing traits. It was observed that source of nitrogen has no significant difference on growth or yield while the N placement timing significantly affects these traits. Results showed that most efficient N placement timing is split dose of fertilizer at T3 (½ at 1s...

Safina Naz1, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Saeed Akhtar2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3* and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar

...nal, tubewell and sewage irrigation water, were assessed for their proximate (moisture, ash, protein and fiber) and heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe and Cr) contents. Significant differences were found for proximate composition of canal, tubewell and sewage water irrigated vegetables. The vegetables grown with tubewell water had higher moisture, ash and fiber contents compared with those grown with canal and sewage water; whereas protein content detected was hi...

Qaisar Mehmood1*, Muhammad Riaz2, Maqbol Hussain Sail1 and Muhammad Moeen1 

...tilizer, DAP fertilizer, irrigation mode, numbers of irrigations and number of weedisides sprays are chosen as input factors. Descriptive statistics, multiple linear regression model and analysis of variance techniques are used which show that variety, sowing mode, nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorous fertilizer have significant effect on the wheat yield. Irrigation mode and weedisides spra...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

...10%, 20% and 30% reduced irrigation water), three chemicals (salicylic acid 0.5mM, potassium nitrate KNO3 1% and methanol 20% v/v basis) applied at three different stages (bud formation, 20% flowering and 20% pod formation). The experiment was laid out in RCB design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Moisture levels were allotted to main plot while treatments (application of chemicals at different growth stages and water spray) to sub plot....

Amar Razzaq1, Abdur Rehman4*, Abdul Hassan Qureshi2, Iqbal Javed3, Raheel Saqib5 and Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal6 

... through high-efficiency irrigation systems (HEIs). The present study aimed to conduct the economic analysis of high efficiency irrigation systems in Punjab province of Pakistan. We also measured and compared the water productivity of modern and conventional-irrigated farms. We used primary data collected from 120 farmers located in Nurpur Thal, Bhalwal, Sargodha and Lodhran districts of Punjab province. These areas were pur...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...vation along Indus river irrigation system across nearly three million/ha and recognized as the backbone of the economy for the country. Despite the fact that Pakistan is overwhelmingly an agricultural based economy. Cotton cultivation is mainly focused on its fiber but cotton seed oil is significantly used as a comestible vegetable oil and makes major contribute in the national oil industry. According to an estimate per capita usage of edible oil in the count...

Aneel Salman1, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Muhammad Ashfaq2, Mudassar Rashid1 and Usman Shakoor1 

... tree planting, and drip irrigation methods are prevalent in the research area. The major hurdles that farmers perceived in adaptation are limited access to credit, lack of access to information, and institutional support. As expected, no significant variations were found across districts in the characteristics of respondents (age and income) that can affect their perceptions, their adaptation strategies, and obstacles faced in adaptation. The results of the s...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

...ed, seed, tractor hours, irrigation, Urea, DAP, FYM and pesticides) were considered determinants for cost function. Respondent age, farming experience, education, family size, off-farm income, farm to home distance, tenancy and extension contacts are determinants in allocative inefficiency model. Results of the study revealed that except farmyard manure and pesticides all other explanatory variables are significant influencing factors in total cost of sugarcan...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*
...er table and if used for irrigation purpose represents a major health risk not only to humans but also to local flora and fauna. The purpose of current research work was to analyze the toxicity of leachate in Wistar rats. Wistar rats of about 250g were selected and divided into three groups namely Control, Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 was given 4ml/kg leachate while Group 2 received 4ml/kg of 1:10 diluted leachate intra-peritoneally. After 24 hours of the inje...

Imran Khan1*, Muhammad Iqbal1 and Malik Muhammad Hashim2 

... beet crop, amongst them irrigation intervals play an important role. The farmers do not have sufficient knowledge about the suitable irrigation time (interval). The aim of study was to explore the best irrigation time for sugar beet crop. Hence, this study examines the physiological response of sugar beet cv. California-kws with different irrigation int...

Muhammad Tahir Amin, Khalid Usman*, Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik and Nishter Ali

...per phosphorus level and irrigation interval which enhances cotton production and lint quality was the basis of this research. A field study was conducted in Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during 2016 to assess the impact of irrigation interval and phosphorus rates on cotton grown under reduced tillage system (one tiller followed by one rotavator at 7–10 cm depth). Five irrigation interv...

Masaud Khan1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Tahir Sarwar1 and Muhammad Jamal Khan2 

...rtilizer. To fulfill the irrigation water demand, the growers use surface and ground water resources, which are declining day-by-day. Realizing the importance of water, tomato yield was studied under deficit irrigation regimes and different Nitrogen (N) levels during 2015 and 2016 at the research farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement was...

Salman Ali*, Inamullah, Muhammad Arif, Mehran Ali, Muhammad Owais Iqbal, Fazal Munsif and Arsalan Khan 

...nt K levels under varied irrigation frequencies, during Autumn, 2015. Randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement was used with a subplot size of 3m × 2m. Treatments consisted of six irrigation frequencies; I0 (no irrigation), I1 (irrigation at V1 stage), I2 (two irrigations; each at V1 and V7 st...

Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik1, Khalid Usman1*, Tahir Amin1, Muhammad Riaz2, Zafar Iqbal3 and Fiaz Hussain

...in 2016 using treatments irrigation intervals (10, 15, 20 and 25 days) and Bt cotton varieties (MNH-886, CRIS-342, and CRIS-134) as main- and sub-plots treatments, respectively. Total irrigation water used in irrigation treatments, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days intervals were 1125, 750, 560, and 450 mm, respectively. Each experimental unit was 10 × 3 m2. Results showed that all the paramet...

Aisha Siddiqua1*, Munir Ahmad1 and Nusrat Habib2 

...ic fertilizer, change in irrigation, and varietal change. Change in irrigation practice gave rise to the highest yield suggesting that this might be the necessary requirement to sustain wheat growth in Pakistan in future. Farmers are expected to receive significant positive benefits from the adaptation of the combination of strategies. Farmer’s adaptive capacity, farm size, access to credit and sources of information o...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

..., Fertilizers, Number of irrigations, Farmer’s education were found significant at 5% level while , Seed Variety, Pesticides, Farming experience, Number of labors were found non-significant at 5% level. The R-Square value was 0.92 which means that 92% variation is explained by the independent variables on the dependent variable in the model. It seems very good fitted model as R-Square is much high for it. The F-statistic value was found 113.97 which show...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Irshad Abbasi2, Himayatullah Khan1, Arjumand Nizami3, Abdul Hakeem4, Jawad Ali3 and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...ter is available to meet irrigation needs. Based on crop water requirement; severe water shortage estimated during the months of March and April to the extent of 3.12 and 6.87 cfs respectively for irrigating the existing cultivated area. These results show that agriculture in Burgay watershed is highly dependent on snow/glacier melt. The study concludes that agrarian economy of the Burgay watershed is highly dependent on glacier/snow and farmers face sever wat...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

...d, labor, fertilizer and irrigation were the significant variable of increasing cotton production of Bt farmers while pesticides, irrigation and extension services more significant in increasing the Non-Bt cotton farmers production. Age of farmers, educational status, credit access and agriculture extension services access have significantly and positively impacted while the shortage of irrigation

Arjumand Nizami1, Jawad Ali1 and Muhammad Zulfiqar2* 

...r improved governance of irrigation water management, channel management and effective management techniques for on-farm water. 

...

Muhammad Adnan Islam1,2*, Muhammad Iqbal2, Zia-ul-Haq2,3, Muhammad Mohsin Ali1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1, Shabbir Ahmed Kalwar1, Liaqat Ali Shahid1, Badar Munir Khan Niazi1 and Muzammil Husain1 

...il reduced labour, fuel, irrigation and machinery costs. Zone disk tiller was tested for its field performance with three different types of furrow openers viz; disk furrow opener, reverse hoe furrow opener and hoe furrow opener. Statistical design, RCBD, was employed to evaluate the machine performance in comparison with conventional method of wheat sowing in cotton harvested field. In this study, moisture content (15.72 %), bulk density (1.41 g/cm3) and pene...

Arshad Farooq* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

...ntity, sowing practices, irrigation application, stoppage of irrigation before harvesting and cane cutting whereas farmers of district Mardan had low knowledge gap in length of cane setts, sowing practices, irrigation and cane cutting techniques. Medium knowledge gap (21 to 50%) was observed in length of cane setts, row to ro...

Hafiz Umar Farid1, Muhammad Zubair2, Zahid Mahmood Khan1, Aamir Shakoor1*, Behzad Mustafa1, Aftab Ahmad Khan3, Muhamad Naveed Anjum4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Mubeen

...ustify;">High efficiency irrigations systems (HEIS) are considered the most efficient technologies to apply water to the crops because these technologies use less irrigation water and produce more yield as compared to conventional irrigation methods. However, the most burning issue of these systems is their non-adoptability or low adoptability by the farming communities, despite their prov...

Shahid Ali1*, Asim Khan1, Aftab Khan1 and Bakhtawar Riaz

...tor hours, urea, DAP and irrigation increases output by 0.81, 0.02, 0.28, 0.14, 0.25 and 0.02 percent, respectively. Mean technical efficiency score was found 95% ranges from 86% to 99%. This means an average farmer can increase tomato output by 4% with available resources and technology. Results of inefficiency effect model indicated that farmers’ experience has negative and significant relationship with technical inefficiency. Efforts should be made to...

Asad Ullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad1*, Amir Raza2, Farmanullah Khan3 and Muhammad Sharif3 

...and solution was used as irrigation and plant nutrition applied at 3 days interval. Environmental variation was minimized through constant shuffling of pots every 7th day. The genotype FS-99 showed significantly (p<0.01) higher plant height, chlorophyll content, root length, biological yield, grain N, K and Zn uptake, straw N and P accumulation compared to the rest. For root N, Pirsabak 2015 was similar to FS-99 (7.2, 7.1 mg pot-1) whilst being significantl...

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3* and Balach Rasheed

...ction of dams and proper irrigation system may be managed on new footings to irrigate more lands to achieve the ultimate objectives of economic growth in Pakistan.

...

Rashid Iqbal1,2, Mathias Neumann Andersen1*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza2, Muhammad Adil Rashid1 and Salman Ahmad2 

...e the effects of various irrigation strategies i.e. Full (FI), deficit (DI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD) on physiological, water relations, water use efficiency (WUE), and yield related attributes of wheat. These irrigation treatments were started at anthesis stage and maintained for 30 days. For FI and DI, 100 and 50% of evapotranspiration (ET) was replaced by irrigating the entire pot surface every 4-5 days. For PRD,...

Rizwan Ahmad and Muhammad Zulfiqar* 

...ures for high efficiency irrigation and further research to estimate range of temperature and precipitation within which crops under study perform better. 

...

Sanaullah and Urooba Pervaiz* 

...lant spacing, seed rate, irrigation interval, and use of pesticide before and after training were computed with the help of paired sample t-test. Results revealed that in maize there is a significant decrease for seed rate (-11.6743 kg/acre) and irrigation interval (-16.03 days) after training, while significant increase in mean difference was recorded for row-to-row distance (38.7 cm), plant-to-plant distance (8.22 cm), use...

Zara Ahmad1*, Fazli Rabbi2, Muhammad Zamin3, Bushra Kiran2, Tariq Shah2 and Shahzad Kouser4 

...he contrary, the cost of irrigation was 71% higher during on-season than the cost of irrigation in the off-season. Similarly, the cost of seed for on-season bitter guard production is 10% higher than the cost of seed for the off-season. It is concluded that off-season vegetable production is more profitable than on-season vegetable production in Punjab, Pakistan. It is recommended that farmers may be facilitated by the relev...

Muhammad Waqas, Shahid Ali*, Syed Attaullah Shah and Ghaffar Ali 

...store rainfall water for irrigation of unirrigated land for higher wheat production.

...

Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad2 

...ow in the root zone when irrigation water is saline. In this experiment three types of water (canal, EC = 2 and 3 dS m-1) were used as such and with leaching fraction of 10 and 20 %. This experiment was conducted in the field and RCBD design was used to make its layout. All the treatments were replicated four times. Sorghum was used as test crop. Pre and post-harvest soil analysis was carried out for different physical and chemical characteristics. Sorghum bio...

Wajid Shah Yousafzai1, Irfan Ullah1*, Amjad Ali1, Mahmood Iqbal2 and Salman Khan1 

...cide/weedicide (ml), and irrigation numbers have positive effects on onion production in the research area. Allocative efficiency estimates showed that tractor hours, FYM, chemical fertilizer, and pesticide/weedicide are under-utilized having ratios of 22.15, 8.65, 5.49 and 34.69 respectively. Similarly, seed rate and irrigation numbers are over utilized having values of 0.14 and 0.76 respectively. The allocative efficiency ...

Hina Fatima1*, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khurram Nawaz3 

...ate of sowing, number of irrigations, tractors and tubewell’s ownership, tenancy status, farmer’s education and experience. The result of the study reported that farmers of wheat crop have the potential to produce the maximum level of wheat production provided that the farmers should improve their management skills. It is prerequisite in farm sector that farmers should use their managerial ability, knowledge, and technical skills in order to obtain...

Muhammad Abdul Qayyum1*, Farhat Bashir2, Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool3, Anser Ali3, Saqib Bashir1 and Qaiser Abbas4 

...: justify;">Saline water irrigation is considered a severe threat for plants seed germination because it has highest concentration of soluble salts. This study aims to examine the effect of NaCl salt at 100 mM and 200 mM concentrations on linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) germination, plant growth, nutrients and soluble salts uptake. The results revealed that tested four linseed genotypes showed an overall germination rate of 86-94% at 100 mM NaCl (T2) and 78-8...

Manzoor1*, Ahmad Khan1, Amir Sohail2, Shahzad Ali1, Fawad Ali Shah3, Junaid Iqbal3, Muhammad Owais Khan4 and Sultan Nawaz4 

...gulations have decreased irrigation water supplies in KPK and some other semi-arid areas of the Pakistan. When available water is not enough to meet crop water requirements during the entire growing cycle, it becomes critical to know the proper irrigation timing that would maximize yields and profits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of water stress imposed at low and high sensitive growth stages (six ...

Ghulam Murtaza1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Fakhar Mujeeb2, Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1 and Ayesha Zafar1  

...tify;">The use of saline irrigation water leads to the buildup of salts in root zone, resulting in decreased yield and deterioration in soil resource. Continues use of organic manures, help in the reduction of salt concentration in the root zone. Organic matter was used to mitigate the negative effects of saline water irrigation using sorghum as test crop during summer, 2018. In this experiment water of 3 different types was...

Muhammad Sohail Memon1*, Khadim Ullah1, Altaf Ali Siyal1,2, Naimatullah Leghari1, Ahmed Ali Tagar1, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto1, Syed Tahir Ata-ul-karim3, Muhammad Tahir4 and Noreena Memon1 

...use of raised bed-furrow irrigation method has increased in due to its capability of saving massive amounts of irrigation water. Knowing the importance of raised bed-furrow irrigation (RBFI) in water conservation and salt distribution in profile with three testing treatments viz. T1 with raised bed size = 0.6 m, T2 with raised bed size = 0.8 m and T3 with raised bed size = 1.0 m. The soil ...

Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,2*, Muhammad Ajmal2, Taj Ali Khan2, Zia Ul Haq2, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2 and Abdul Malik2 

...align: justify;">In drip irrigation system, emitters are the key system components. The hydraulic performance of these drip emitters may affect the efficiency of irrigation schemes if not conforming to specified standards. The main objective of this study was to investigate the hydraulic characteristics including average flow rate, emitter exponent, distribution uniformity, emitter discharge coefficient of variation, and sta...

Dilawar Khan1*, Arif Ullah2, Zainab Bibi1, Ihsan Ullah1, Muhammad Zulfiqar4 and Zafir Ullah Khan

...vars, improved system of irrigation and adequate cultural practices. Strategy should be adopted to bring more barren land under guava cultivation. This would help to increase guava production in future. 

...

Muhammad Ilyas1, Sardar Ali Khan1, Shahid Iqbal Awan1, Shafiq-ur-Rehman1, Waqar Ahmed1, Muhammad Riaz Khan2, Raja Mohib Muazzam Naz2, Muhammad Mohib Ullah Khan3 and Sumaira Hafeez1* 

...water deficit and normal irrigation conditions in the experimental field of Department of Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics. Selection of parents for further study was done with regards to grain yield and its component traits. Broad range of genetic diversity was shown by the inbred lines and displayed different levels of drought tolerance. Four inbred lines were selected i.e., VDR-51, DR3-126, DR-37 and 5CDR-53. Crosses were attempted between the selected...

Masaud Khan1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Shahab Ahmad2, Asad Ali3, Numan Khan3 and Muhammad Adnan Fahad

...rtilizer inputs. To meet irrigation water demand, growers use surface and ground water resources. These resources are in decline. Realizing the importance of water and fertilizer, tomato yield under deficit irrigation regimes, and different Nitrogen (N) levels were studied during 2015 and 2016 at the research farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan, using factorial arrangement of randomized complete block de...

Muhammad Ilyas1*, Sardar Ali Khan1, Shahid Iqbal Awan1, Shafiq-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Riaz Khan2 and Sumaira Hafeez1 

...rate trials under normal irrigation and water stress conditions. Parental selection for further study was done with regards to grain yield and its related traits. Inbred lines explained a broad range of genetic variability and displayed different levels of drought tolerance. Four inbred lines were selected i.e. VDR-51, DR3-126, DR-37 and 5CDR-53. Crosses were done among the selected inbred lines. Six generations as P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 were prepared for...

Sanaullah1*, Urooba Pervaiz1, Shahid Ali2, Mohammad Fayaz2 and Aftab Khan

...ended farming practices, irrigation and HYVs had significant effect, while disease, fertilizer and pesticide had non-significant effect on maize yield. Nevertheless, adoption of recommended technologies were low due to some constraints in the study area out of which low income of the families and lack of required technical knowledge were of major concerns. The results of t-test indicated that higher maize yield was obtained for the respondents who irrigated th...

Arjumand Nizami1, Muhammad Zulfiqar2*, Jawad Ali1, Naushad Khan2 and Imran Sheikh

...nt to address increasing irrigation water demand and declining water resources. One of such technology known as laser land leveling was introduced in Pakistan in 1980s. More recent introduction is of another water efficient technique known as The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) technology evolved by International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). AWD intervention in conjunction with laser land leveling is made through Water Productivity (WAPRO) project in Mur...

Amjad Ali1*, Lal Almas2, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Hina Fatima3 and Asim Khan1  

...eed rate, tractor hours, irrigation and urea were found statistically significant. Therefore, based on findings, it is recommended that in order to encourage growers to apply optimal amount of these inputs and avoid uncertainty in returns, an effective system need to be put in place where cost of production might be considered while fixing sugarcane price. Also, there is need to keep experienced farmers involved in sugarcane production, because of positive rel...
Quratulain1, Ata-ul-Mohsin1, Muhammad Naeem1, Ghulam Shabir1, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2 and Rashid Mahmood2*
...ch ridge. Fertilization, irrigation, weeding and all other agronomic practices were carried out in onion experimental fields except thrips management practices. Results revealed that thrips incidence occur after 6th week of transplantation. Saryab red found relatively susceptible against thrips with maximum mean population of 52.41±15.42 individuals per plant while Red imposta was relatively resistant with 37.02±9.97 individuals per pl...
Saeed Fatima1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Usman Atique2,3*, Arshad Javid4, Noor Khan2, Sonia Iqbal2, Hamid Majeed5, Hamda Azmat2, Bakhat Yawar Ali Khan6, Irfan7, Muhammad Tausif Shahid1, Gulnaz Afzal1
...mergent prominence as an irrigation hub and holidaymakers spot largely for angling and feasting. The investigated five fish species are Ctenopharyngodon idella, Oreochromis niloticus, Eutropiichthys vacha, Rita rita and Sperata sarwari. The results divulged the pattern of metals concentration in fish in the order of Cd > As > Hg. However, R. rita, O. niloticus and C. idella showed higher accumulatio...

Muhammad Safdar Hussain1*, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz2, Muhammad Ayyoub Tanvir2 and Noor-E-Hira

...respectively) at control irrigation while minimum height was found (17.1 and 24.9 cm, respectively) at 50% drought. So, the reduction in plant height of E. camaldulensis was more (55.6%) as compared to T. aphylla (28.1%). The reduction in root length of both species was 19% and 9% respectively at 50 % drought. High drought stress (50%) resulted in a reduction of 49% and 38% dry matter in E. camaldulensis and T. aphylla respectively. The relative water contents...

Muhammad Usman Saleem, Nadeem Iqbal, Shawaiz Iqbal*, Usama Bin Khalid, Adila Iram, Muhammad Akhter, Tahir Latif and Tahir Hussain Awan 

...emergence weedicide. The irrigation was repeated about 4-5 days after pre-emergence weedicide application and afterwards about 3-5 days interval till tillering phase and then 5-7 days interval till crop maturity. The overall results indicated that paddy yield was 20% higher under DSR as compared to TPR. Moreover, during 2017 in Punjab Province, Pakistan, more than 2500 farmers cultivated rice using DSR on an area of about 10000 ha and found it more cost effect...

Filza Fatima Rizvi1, Muhammad Umair1, Muhammad Kahlid Jamil2*, Masooma Hassan2, Komal Qayyum1 and Syed Mohsin Raza Kazmi

...his region has no proper irrigation system due to its topography. Additionally, potential of renewable energy in Pothohar region that includes solar, wind and biogas has been calculated from the data, taken from different sources. Based on the analysis, it is estimated that the solar energy potential in Pothohar region is ~ 97321 MW, only ~ 126 MW (0.12 %) is used in Agriculture sector for different farm operations. Likewise, only 51 MW of wind energy is explo...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Sami Ul-Allah2*, Muhammad Naeem1, Muhammad Ijaz2 and Muhammad Qadir Ahmad3 

...studied at two levels of irrigation during 2014-15. Results showed highly significant (p≤0.05) genotypic differences for seed and root‒shoot traits. Reduction in fresh weight of different cultivars due to water stress ranged 14.74 to 29.81% and reduction in dry weight due to water stress range 12.52 to 43.30%. Whereas increase in root-shoot ratio was observed due to water stress and it ranged from 11.19 to 54.05% for different genotypes. Cultivar into

Ghani Akbar 

...d Kuhl (gravity channel) irrigation system, low productivity of crops and horticulture, less productive livestock, large postharvest losses and lack of value addition facilities are the main hurdles in utilizing the full potential of agriculture for achieving improved food security and better livelihood in this region. Lack of government spending and less available research facilities are considered the main hindrance in agricultural development in this region...

Filza Fatima Rizvi1*, Waqar khan2, Syed Mohsin Raza Kazmi3 and Muhammad Umer

...e water. High-efficiency irrigation systems are the most efficient way of water supply to agriculture which can provide better yield with minimum loss of water supply. The current study consists of a design simulation of a High-efficiency center pivot irrigation system on MATLAB. It is the most widely used software for simulation and design purpose which gives a more appropriate, simple and effective representation of result...

Wajiha Anum1*, Liaquat Ali1, Umair Riaz2*, Abid Ali1, Nadia Manzoor3, Laal Hussain Akhter4, Asad Ur Rahman5, Naeem Maan6 and Ijaz Ahmad

...pplication of P at first irrigation. Yield and yield determining parameters were measured along with phosphorus stress factor, agronomic P use efficiency, and economic analysis. The results revealed that the band placement method gave the highest yield in comparison to the broadcast at sowing and broadcast at first irrigation. The best P fertilizer rate was identified as 150-120-60 NPK kg/ha. It has been recommended that whe...

Ghani Akbar*, Muhammad Asif, Zafar Islam and Shahid Hameed 

...ient traditional surface irrigation method, but has been shown inefficient under actual farm condition in Pakistan. The main reasons being attributed to lack of knowledge of furrow bed design, installation and management. Therefore, this study is aimed to illustrate appropriate installation and management of furrow bed irrigation method for enhancing decision support on farms. Pakistan is a major irrigated agricultural count...

Amjad Ali1, Awais Salman1, Gul Daraz Khan1, Aftab Ahmad Khan2, Sher Shah Hassan2*, Muhammad Arif Goheer2, Mahmood Alam Khan3 and Sajjad Ahmed

...dequate water supply for irrigation will be the usual rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed. This field experiment was carried out to assess growth and yield responses of turnip to different deficit irrigation levels and sowing dates at Research Farm situated at ...

Daulat Khan1*, Khizar Azam2, Noor Muhammad Khan1, Muhammad Israr1, Naeem Ejaz3 

ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER FOR DISPOSAL IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEQS CRITERIA AND ITS REUSE FOR IRRIGATION WITH DILUTION
...stewater can be used for irrigation purpose if it fulfills FAO irrigation water criteria. For this
purpose, important properties like SAR, Sodium ratio, Salt Index, Residual Sodium Carbonate, Permeability Index,
Magnesium Adsorption Ratio, Sulfate ion and Boron were analyzed having result of 9.36 √(meq/L), 5.64, 75 ppm,
4.66 meq/L, 110.46, 0.42, 6.07 meq/L, 1.386 mg/L mean concentrations respective...

Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar1, Zulfiqar Ali Chaudary2, M.Tousif Bhatti3, Daulat Khan 

EVALUATION OF AIR VENTS AND RAMP ANGLES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ORIFICE SPILLWAY AERATORS

Ghani Akbar1, Muhammad Munir Ahmad1, Abdul Ghafoor1, Matiullah Khan1, Zafar Islam1 

IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES POTENTIAL UNDER SURFACE IRRIGATED FARMS IN PAKISTAN
...The conventional surface irrigation systems, border, level basin and furrow bed, are inherently inefficient in Pakistan,
while the suboptimal field sizes (length and width) are considered as one of the main reasons of poor performance.
Addressing these issues, the three surface irrigation systems were evaluated on thirteen fields under routine farmer
management in Pakistan. Irrig...

Farid Ullah Khan*, Adeel Ahmed*, Uzair Khan Jadoon*, Fahim Haider* 

MODELING, SIMULATION AND FABRICATION OF AN UNDERSHOT FLOATING WATERWHEEL
...flowing at 1.2 m/s in an irrigation channel. 

...

Imran Shehzad1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1, Sher Muhammad2 and Ghulam Murtaza

... that accumulated during irrigation with saline water. In this manner, salt accumulation does not rise beyond critical limit of the crop. The experiment consisted of 4 treatments replicated four times and randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used to make layout. Treatments were; T1 = canal water, T2 = water of EC 2.0 dS m-1, T3 = water of EC 3.0 dS m-1 and T4 = water of EC 4.0 dS m-1. Maize was sown as test crop. Pre and post-harvest soil analysis was c...

Inamullah Khan1*, Amjad Usman2  and Rahamdad Khan2

The Mortality Rate of Pupae and Adult of Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) Affected by Different Submerging Time and Soil Types under the Laboratory Treatment
...n the soil. Intermittent irrigation of fruit fly host plants standing in clay loam or silt clay loam soil texture may help in controlling the overwintering pupae in the orchards.

...

 Abdul Malik*, Abdul Sattar Shakir**, Muhammad Jamal Khan***, Muhammad Latif**, Zia-ul-Haq*

YIELD RESPONSE AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF SUGAR BEET IN SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT UNDER DIFFERENT DEFICIT IRRIGATION REGIMES
...nd the effect of deficit irrigation regimes on yield and water use efficiency ofsugar beet under furrow irrigation system during the cropping season of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 at Sugar Crops Research Institute Mardan, Khyber Pakhtun Khawa, Pakistan. Randomized Complete Block Design was used to conduct the experiment and three replic...

Gul Rukh*, Iftikhar Khan* M. Naeem Arbab*, Uzma Nawaz*

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN EFFICIENT MICRO-HYDROELECTRIC SCHEME FOR LOW HEADS
...ainable from streams and irrigation channels. The low efficiency in already existing hydroelectric scheme used is addressed and compared with the existing scheme. Using the standard equations, trash rack, penstock and turbine is designed thus keeping the power losses as low as 4%. Hence finally an electrical power of 25kW is produced, suitable to run a farm in villages where electricity supply is not available and where cost of transmission and distribution is...

M A Khalid*, A R Ghumman**, H. N. Hashmi**, E. Tanveer*

INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT OF LOWER BARI DOAB CANAL
...ture. The performance of irrigation system having large network of canals fed from rivers is influenced by many parameters. Inequitable water distribution, Shortage of water during peak crop water requirements, tempering of insufficient funds for proper maintenance and high sediment loads in canals are worth mentioning issues. In this paper the performance of Lower Bari Doab Canal with emphasis on sediment transport analysis has been investigated using field d...
Zarish Yaqoob1, Saleema Bashir Shams2, Gaitee Joshua2 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza2,3*
...afe for aquatic life and irrigation. Metal concentration in the fish meat is higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) parameters indicating a serious health threat to both, the fish and human population.
...

Shahida Nasreen Zakir*, Samina Siddiqui*, Nasreen Ghaffar* and Zia Ul Haq**

WATER QUALITY INDEX OF SHALLOW AND DEEP GROUNDWATER DURING WET AND DRY SEASON OF PESHAWARBASIN
... water quality index for irrigation and drinking purpose. A total of 95 groundwater samples at 1.5 to 30 m depths were collected in triplicate during wet and dry seasons. All samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, SO4 2-, HCO3 -1, CO3 -2,Cl-1, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ , Fe+3 and K+ The result of this study showed that according to water quality index (WQI) of WHO all groundwater samples were categorized as good water and considered suitable for drinking ...

 Saman Shahid1, Shahid Ali1, Muhammad Abdullah Ahmad1, Sarfraz Munir2

RE-DESIGNING AND OPERATIONAL ANALYSES OF THE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT CONTROL IN IRRIGATION CANAL NETWORK
...e existing design of the irrigation canals in Punjab. The design of an entire canal network is a tiresome and laborious work, where engineers spend months to design canals. Over the years, engineers and agriculturists in the Punjab have been trying to find a solution to the sediment transport problem which occurs in existing irrigation system. To address these problems, the canals can be analyzed to point out the flaws in de...

Ghulam Murtaza1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Ashraf Malik2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad3 

...ting crop growth. Saline irrigation has drastic effects, limiting normal physiological activity and productive capacity of crops. The saline water irrigation leads to salt accumulation in the vicinity of roots which results in reduced yield along with soil deterioration. Organic matter application can prove helpful in keeping the salt level low in root rhizosphere. To check the efficacy of organic matter in mitigating the ha...

Haiyan Yang1, Hongxia Liu1, Wenlong Wu1*, Weilin Li2 and Lianfei Lyu

...ht stress by withholding irrigation, followed by re-watering for 5 days. The changes in leaf water content (LWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, protein, soluble sugar, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in leaves of ‘Hull Thornless’ were investigated. In the treatment group, water stress s...

Murtaza1, Syed Attaullah Shah1*, Shahid Ali1, Amjad Ali1 and Asia Baig2

Economic Analysis of Maize Production in Central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...hybrid seed cultivation, irrigation, organic and inorganic fertilizers application. The model predicted mean technical efficiency of 85% with a maximum possible of 97%. This indicates that 12% increase in yield is possible with the existing production technology. Results for the Stochastic Frontier Model-2 identified head’s formal education, farming experience and level of involvement in agriculture and combined family structure as important factors sign...

Safina Naz1*, Muhammad Akbar Anjum1, Bushra Siddique2, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3*, Sajid Ali1, Hassan Sardar1, Sakeena Tul Ain Haider1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4, Hajra Azeem3, Sibghat Ullah5, Shah Pasand6 and Zehri Khan5

Effect of Sewage Water Irrigation Frequency on Growth, Yield and Heavy Metals Accumulation of Tomato and Okra
...f different sewage water irrigation frequency treatments on growth, yield and heavy metals accumulation of tomato and okra during 2012 and 2013. A statistical randomized complete block design was applied in the field to perform experiments having three replicates while 03 sewage water irrigation frequency treatments i.e., 5, 10 and 15-days interval. The tomato yield, their growth along with the production of the plant biomas...

Inam Ullah1, Mahfooz Khan2*, Munir Khan2, Himayatullah Khan2 and Azra3

Factors Affecting Different Wheat Varieties Yield in District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A Comparative Analysis
...irsabaaq-8 wheat variety irrigation was found insignificant and for Pirsabaaq-13, wheat variety the effect of seed was insignificant. It was observed that majority of the farmers were illiterate and do not apply the recommended amount of inputs due to its high prices/lack of availability of irrigation water. It is recommended that respondents should be encouraged to get training from the concerned Agricultural Research Centr...

Yasir Arafat1*, Syeda Nabahat2, Hafiz Ullah3, Afaq Ali Muluk4 and Azra5

An Analysis of Energy Supply and Oil Price Shocks on Agricultural Productivity of Pakistan
...to run the tube well for irrigation, increase in the prices of both electricity and oil affect crop productivity negatively. Consequently, government should provide electricity and oil in subsidized rates to the farmers at the time of cultivation and irrigation.

...

Asif Ali Abro1* and Iqbal Ahmed Panhwar2

Impact of Various Factors on Crop Diversification Towards High Value Crops in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis by using THI
...r availability (MAF) for irrigation purposes, which demonstrated a positive and significant association with crop diversification. To determine the effects of climate, rainfall was adopted in the model and showed a negative and significant relationship with crop diversification. It was found that development of infrastructure received a low priority in rural areas and it is recommended that cold storage in relevant areas, vibrant roads net work and consistency...

Muhammad Siyar1, Anwar Saeed Khan2*, Fazlur Rahman2 and Muhammad Jamal Nasir2

Spatio-temporal Assessment of Reliability in Pehur Main Canal System, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...l system. Reliability of irrigation service is a pre-requisite for higher productivity of irrigated agriculture. Both primary and secondary sources were tapped for data acquisition. An extensive field survey was undertaken in Rabi 2012-13 and Kharif Miana 2013 to acquire actual flow data of individual outlets. The reliability is measured on a scale of 0-1, 1 for complete reliable and 0 for unreliable services. The analysis shows the majority of reliability val...

Muhammad Javaid1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1, Waheed S. Khan2, Shafqat Saeed1, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1 and Muhammad Arslan Khan1

Role of Nanotechnology in Crop Protection and Production: A Review
...ustainable water use and irrigation water filtration. It also plays an important role in pollution reduction. Green revolution of any developing countries can be achieved by adopting nanotechnology.

...

Muhammad Abdullah1, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai1, Jahangir Khan1*, Mohammad Fayaz1, Irfan Ullah1* and Sabeeh Ullah2

Analysis of Agricultural Land Price Determinants and Policy Implications for Controlling Residential and Commercial Encroachments: Facts from District Swabi (Pakistan)
...ch as land fertility and irrigation water availability, were the significant determinates and have positive effects on land prices. Location characteristics, such as road distance, city distance, distance to nearby houses and distance to agricultural market are the important determinants of land prices. These findings imply that agricultural land prices depends on agricultural and location attributes and this is consistent with the Ricardian’s Land &lsqu...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Atiq Ur Rahman and Anwar Saeed Khan

Assessment of Irrigation Development in the Small Dams Command Area: A Case Study of Palai Dam, District Charsadda
...ependent on rainfall for irrigation. The development and management of water resources are of extreme importance for the sustainable development of agriculture specifically in rain-fed areas. Palai dam is a small irrigation dam, constructed on River Jindi, some 40 km north of Charsadda town. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of the Palai dam on the irrigation system of...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1*, Zulfiqar Ali Abbasi1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Naimatullah Leghari2, Muhammad Ibrahim Keerio3, Ahmed Naqi Shah1, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro4, Nadia Mangrio1 and Shazia Parveen Tunio5

Evaluation of Irrigation Frequencies and Seed Priming with Plant Nutrients on Growth and Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genotypes
...ify;">The role of proper irrigation frequency is very essential to obtain optimum yield potentials. Seed priming by water and different nutrients enhances the germination, establishment of seedling, growth and ultimately yield of crop. The experiment was conducted at Students’ Experimental Farm, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam during autumn 2017 and 2018 for two consecutive years. Split plot design was used and the treatments were replicated thric...

Iqtidar Hussain*, Muzafar Ali, Imam Bakhsh and Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik

Effect of Different Levels of Naphthalene Acetic Acid at Various Phenological Stages of Hybrid Sorghum to Enhance Fodder Productivity
...drill. The crop received irrigation at interval of 15 days whilst fertilizer was applied @ 120-90-60 kg NPK ha-1. Results revealed that levels of NAA affected significantly all parameters under study. Maximum number of leaves (16.70 plant-1), leaf area (411.98 cm2), chlorophyll contents (46.84 and 53.50 µg cm-2) at 30 and 60 DAS and fodder yield (35550 kg ha-1) were higher with L4 (120 ml) followed by L3 (80 ml). While L5 (160 ml) and L2 (40 ml ha-1 NAA)...
Ayesha Alam1,* and Labeeb Ali2
...nt on recycled water for irrigation purposes due to the shortage of fresh water resources. In this study viruses in untreated and treatedwastewater has been reviewed to evaluate the health threats to the people. It has been cited that viruses such as Rotavirus, Norwalk virus, adenovirus, and Hepatitis A virus, are common mediators of the diseases in human beings. Including respiratory disorders, bronchiolitis, digestive tract disorders, pneumonia and conjuncti...
Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,2*, Muhammad Ajmal3, Iftikhar Zeb1,4 and Muhammad Azeem Khan1,5
 
 
...: normal;">Limited fresh irrigation water is a resource constraint to agricultural productivity enhancement in water scarce areas of the globe. The farmers in these areas especially in the developing countries are using saline water for irrigation. This laboratory scale study was aimed to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on development of total water potential within coar...
Muhammad Rashid, Mahmood Ahmad Sajid, Nosheen Noor Elahi, Sibgha Noreen and Kausar Hussain Shah*
 
...ought stress by skipping irrigation. After the drought stress of two weeks, plants were subjected to morphological, biochemical and physiological investigations. Drought stress reduced the biomass and enhanced the root length in all three wheat varieties. However, growth reduction due to drought stress was relatively lower in variety F23. While the shoot length of all three wheat varieties was decreased because of drought stress, whereas the root/shoot ratio w...

Saleem Maseeh Bhatti1*, Aslam Khan Gadehi1, Inayatullah Rajpar1, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro2, Mukesh Kumar Soothar1 and Zohaib Ur Rehman Bughio1

 

 

...increase in EC levels of irrigation water. The plants irrigated with EC 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 had less fresh weight of leaves (> 30%) than the plants that were irrigated with canal water. English spinach significantly produced more fresh weight of leaves (20.86±0.50 grams) than Sindhi spinach (18.82±0.27 grams). The concentration of Na+ increased up to 3.4 times and Cl- concentration enhanced up to 2.7 times in le...
Sadaqat Khan1,Saleem Ullah1* and Muhammad Sajid2
... selenium application in irrigation water and foliar spray on physicochemical parameters of tomato hybrid Salar F1 grown in simple plastic tunnels using randomized complete block design. The data showed that plant height in centimeter, buds, flower, leaves and leaflets in numbers per plants with a range of 131.33 to 176.67 cm, 60 to 105, 41.5 to 60.0, 50.66 to 77.167 and 7.607 to 15.33, 30.33 to 82.0, respectively were significantly affected (P<0.05) by the...
Ahmad Abrar Khan* and Muhammad Idrees
...emical fertilizers, FYM, irrigation in drought periods, pruning, winter oil and Bordeaux mixture application were positively and significantly related to apricot production while simultaneously flat-headed borer and brown rot were found inversely but significantly related. The study recommends special attention to improve stone fruit production through increased contacts with agricultural extension and research. Moreover,proper use and availability of chemical...
Kamran Baksh Soomro1*, Sina Alaghmand2, Sanyogita Andriyas3, Muhammad Rehmatullah Khan4, Naveedullah5 and Amin Talei6
 
 
...s an alternate source of irrigation. However, one hardly knows the economic implications of such recommendations. In this regard, the effect of saline irrigation on the economics of crop yield deserves scientific inquiry. A field experiment was conducted during 2018-19 to study the impact of saline water on the economics of bitter gourd yield and soil salinity after the end of the crop. Two irrigatio...

Faheem Aslam1,*, Aneel Salman2, Inayatullah Jan3 and Sarah Siddiq Aneel4

...ral in terms of focus on irrigation, agriculture, climate change, research and development, inland navigation and the importance of the Indus River. Pakistan’s water policy does, however, fall short in terms of lack of attention given to water sensitive urban designs, risk management against natural hazards and mapping of water-sector development in line with the Sustainable Development Goals; and trade in water-intensive crops. Both governments can lear...

Safdar Hussain1, Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq5, Ali Bakhsh3, Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Muhammad Sarwar1, Muhammad Jan4*, Muhammad Abdul Qayyum2 and Arif Husain2

...s were exposed to normal irrigation, application of bio stimulants like 2µM ABA, 10 mM SA, 15% MLE and 10% MBLE were applied at grain filling stage but skipping irrigation. Maximum growth related parameters were observed by applying full irrigation. Comparing the bio stimulants application, the application of ABA significantly increased the plants population (95.55 m-2), plant height...

Talat Farid Ahmed1*, Shamim-ul-Sibtain Shah1, Ashfaq Ahmed Sheikh2, Hashim Nisar Hashmi3, Muhammad Atiqullah Khan1 and Muhammad Azeem Afzal1

...and will ensure improved irrigation supplies in the Koh e Suleman (Pachad) area, enhancement in economic condition of the area, stable farming in the Pachad area and providing maximum use of flood water for agriculture to increase production and ultimately for socio-economic uplift of the area. The data regarding flood levels and topographic maps have collected from Irrigation and NESPAK departments. It is concluded that by ...

Muhammad Adnan Fahad1, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Imtiaz Ali2

...ed significant effect on irrigation water and it is therefore justified from economic perspectives.

...

Taqi Raza1*, Kashif Nazir Qureshi2, Shakeel Imran2, Neal Samuel Eash3 and Imma Bortone4

...al use of this water for irrigation has caused environmental and health issues. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the treated effluents of textile, ghee and chemical industries for major heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Fe) and other basic analysis (pH, EC, TSS and TDS). Effluent samples were collected from the discharge of industries entering into main wastewater collecting channel located in Faisalabad city. Heavy metals contents were determi...

Fazal Subhan1,2, Abdul Malik1, Zia Ul Haq1 and Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,3*

...ctual crop requirements, irrigation techniques need improvement to get maximum yield with reduced irrigation. A field experiment was performed at Mardan region, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during 2018-19 with the objectives to evaluate the effect of different furrow irrigation techniques and deficit irrigation on cauliflower yield and water use efficie...

Amar Iqbal Saqib, Khalil Ahmed*, Muhammad Khalid Bhatti, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Abdul Rasul Naseem, Aftab Ahmad Sheikh and Belqees Akhter

...r (continuous), 3) three irrigations of tube well water and two of canal water in a cyclic manner (short cyclic use), 4) tube well water + gypsum @ RSC of water, 5) tube well water+ canal water in 1:1 ratio (conjunctive use). Data showed that the highest biomass and paddy/grain yield were produced by canal water (T1) followed by (T3) where three irrigations of tube well water and two of canal water were used in a short cycli...

Muhammad Sarfraz1*, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi2, Muhammad Arshad Ullah3, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi4, Abdul Rasool Naseem1, Sarfraz Hussain1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1 and Muhammad Rizwan1

...ater with GR of soil and irrigation water. Soil analysis at harvest showed that soil was improved with canal water with GR of soil trailed by saline water with GR of soil and irrigation water. The least variations in soil pH, EC and SAR were observed in control where nothing was applied. Comprehensive studies in different ecological zones with salt affected soils with variety of saline water may be grown to confer these appr...

Syed Muhammad Sulaiman, Nazir Ahmad and Nazir Ahmad Khan*

...iform field preparation, irrigation, weeds control and standard agronomic practices were applied to all plots. For forage yield, morphological and quality evaluation, samples were collected from randomly selected one-meter long strip of two consecutive rows of each plot at feekes stages 7 to 8, when the second last leaf was visible. The collected samples were immediately weighed, and 10 plants were subsampled from each sample for morphological evaluation. Ten ...

Iftikhar ud Din* and Yousaf Hayat

...r the two levels of each irrigation, varieties, and five types of nitrogen sources, all combination of their levels are considered to measure two linear related responses yield and plant height. Data on two parameters (say plant height and yield) are simulated with varying magnitude (low, moderate, and high) of correlation coefficient between the two response variables. The comparative analysis of MANOVA and ANOVA reveals that even a small amount of correlatio...

Muhammad Jan1*, Muhammad Ashraf Sumrah1, Shoaib Akhtar1, Inam Ul Haq2, Muhammad Ramzan Anser1 and Iqra Yasmin1 

...February and March. Drip irrigation is suitable during December and May.

...

Ghulam Muhiyuddin Kaloi1* and Mehrunisa Memon

...nded NPK). A total of 12 irrigations of wastewater were applied after two months of planting up to harvest of sugarcane (CPF-237). Application of 10% wastewater did not show any adverse effect on sugarcane quality and soil health rather improved juice quality and soil fertility. It gave maximum sugar recovery (12.27%) and sugar yield (11.25 t ha-1). Whereas, integration of 10% wastewater × 2/3rd inorganic fertilizers gave 12.30% sugar recovery and 12.70 ...

Shahid Hameed Khan Khalil1, Adnan Shakeel1, Ghani Akbar1, Muhammad Asif2, Ashraf Khan3* and Zafar Islam1

...ugh bioremediation. Four irrigation treatments were applied by using potable and wastewater in different ratios. These treatments were T1, T2, T3 and T4 (100% treated wastewater, 66% treated wastewater and 34% potable water, 34% treated wastewater and 66% potable water and 100% potable water respectively). In treatment T1, the highest yields and crop water productivities of capsicum were 46.43 tons/ha and 9.43 Kg/m3 in 2017 while 46.56 tons/ha and 9.49 Kg/m3 w...

Muhammad Yaseen*, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Luqman, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed and Muhammad Umer Mehmood

...ation, sowing practices, irrigation, harvesting and storage obtaining a percentage of 80.2%, 77.6%, 79.3%, 90%, and 75.8% respectively. Lack of basic farming knowledge and skills is the topmost factor hindering youth involvement in agricultural activities with a mean value of 4.63 and S.D. value of 0.522. The government should give loans to youth for establishing their agriculture business ranked at 1st with a mean value of 4.72 for youth priorities in agricul...

Hasnain Raza1*, Maryam Maqsood2, Muhammad Muzamil Nazir1, Iqra Tariq1, Kaynat Ahmed1, Qurat-ul-Ain1, Ali Raza2, Huda Bilal3, Muhammad Bilal Shoukat1, Attiq ur Rehman1, Awais Rasheed1 and Muhammad Zeshan Gulzar1

...;">Currently, wastewater irrigation is increasing to combat the depletion of freshwater resources and the water stress caused by climate change. In many countries, wastewater irrigation has been highlighted as a serious environmental concern due to heavy metal buildup in soils and food crops, as well as potential health hazards to humans from ingesting these foods.  Human health hazards are becoming more crucial as wast...

Shahid Ali1*, Murtaza1, Waqas Ahmad1, Muhammad Israr2, Aftab Khan3, Hamdullah1 and Syed Attaullah Shah1

...nt increase in number of irrigation and tractor hours increased yield by 0.110% and 0.044%, respectively, at 0.05 level of α while chemicals increased yield by only 0.029% but was statistically insignificant. Summing up all the estimated coefficients of the regressed model resulted a value of 0.8266, implying that rice growers in the study area were operating with decreasing returns to scale. Findings of this endeavor revealed that a percent increase in ...

Mubeen Zahra1,2, Muhammad Nawaz3, Muhammad Umer Chattha4, Imran Khan4, Muhammad Bilal Chattha5*, Muhammad Ashraf Bhatti6, Abdul Rehman4, Faryal Ahmed4, Faran Muhammad4, Mina Kharal7 and Muhammad Umair Hassan4

...s I0 (control), I1 (fist irrigation 30 days after sowing), I2 (first irrigation 45 days after sowing) and I3 (first irrigation 60 days after sowing) and wheat cultivars Faisalabad-2008 (standard height and low tillering), Td-1 (low height and low tillering) and Galaxy-2013 (standard height and high tillering). The results indicated that maximum leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR)...

Ayesha Khan1*, Asmatullah2, Urooba Perviaz1, Khalid Nawab1 and Mahmood Iqbal1

...on fertilizers usage and irrigation of selected crops. Organic farming is the dire need of the day; to overcome the excessive use of chemical fertilizers alternative methods are adopted to decrease use of fertilizers. One of the techniques for organic farming is EM-Technology. EM-Technology is used in addition with animal manure and other organic wastes effectively in agriculture. The universe of the study was Malakand division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The EM-Te...

Aftab Ahmad Sheikh1, Khalil Ahmed1*, Belqees Akhter1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Hafeezullah Rafa1, Abdul Wakeel1, Abdul Manan Saeed2

Noha M. El-Shabrawy1, Atef M. Kamel2, Aza S. Goda1, Gehad R. Donia1, Ahmed M. Salah-Eldein2* 

...source of water for land irrigation and drinking of livestock in north Sinai, Egypt. A total of 58 wild birds belonging to 4 different species; Egyptian barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), house sparrow (Passer domestics), great white egret (Ardea alba) and striated heron (Butorides striata) were hunted by a net trap to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) in their muscle, liver, kidney and feather. Also...

Arshad Farooq1, Abdul Hassan1, Muhammad Ishaq2, Asif Nawaz3*, Iltaf Ullah4 and Hidayatullah5

...lack of financial power, irrigation problems and high cost of inputs were the most important problems faced by the farmers. Agricultural departments need to develop and disseminate climate smart recommended agricultural production technologies. The government and private organizations should arrange trainings and awareness programs regarding climate change to overcome the effect on agriculture. 

...

Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Umbreen Shahzad2, Azhar Abbas Khan2, Sami Ullah2, Muhammad Arshad Farooq2, Muhammad Kashan2 and Shitab Khan2

...ng operations)] and five irrigation intervals (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days) on cotton yield and lint percentage. Total irrigation water used in irrigation treatments, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days intervals were 1125, 750, 560, 450 and 360 mm, respectively. Results indicated that reduced tillage had higher plant population (32454), plant height (114.8cm), bolls per plants (18.9), bolls weight ...

Ijaz Rasool Noorka1,2*, Bilal Ahmad Khan3*, Kafeel Ahmad4, Zafar Iqbal Khan4, Muhammad Ather Nadeem3, Amer Nawaz2, Tasneem Ahmad5 and Humayun Bashir4

...sed down as supplemental irrigation source to irrigate field crops including fodder and forages. The studies showed the provisions of Iron (Fe) in feces, forages, soil, fodder and grazing animal’s blood data collect from the Sargodha, Jhang, Layyah and Bhakkar districts of the Punjab. Five sites, three animal’s (Cow, Sheep and Goat) and two origins (Blood and Feces) were selected. Standard samples preparation methods were worker to check occurrence...

Imran Ali Chandio1, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1*, Qamaruddin Jogi1, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro2 and Siraj Ahmed Channa3

...ecially nitrogen through irrigation for correcting nutrient deficiencies of plants. A field study was conducted in Tandojam for two consecutive years in autumn 2018 and 2019. The experiment was replicated thrice in randomized complete block design. Different doses of nitrogen as broadcasting and fertigation (0, 75, 100, 125 kg N ha-1 in two and three equal splits given at sowing time, 1st, 2nd and 3rd irrigations, respective...

Muhammad Niamatullah1, Abdur Rehman1* and Raheel Saqib2

...te the role of tube well irrigation on overall agriculture production in District D.I. Khan during 2018. In this respect, only 100  sampled farmers were interviewed with the assistance of a well-designed structured questionnaire using simple random sampling procedure. Regression analysis as a statistical method was used to assess the impact of tube well irrigation on agriculture production, household annual income, pove...

Tahir Munir Butt1*, Azra2, Muhammad Luqman3, Naveed Farah4 and Muhammad Yaseen3

...nsequences of wastewater irrigation in vegetables in the central Punjab. Two highly populated districts of the Punjab (Lahore & Faisalabad) were purposively selected as the targeted research area. Data were collected from randomly selected 120 vegetable growers from each district who used to do vegetable farming using wastewater. Total sample size of the study was 240 vegetable growers. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by conducting researc...

Hafeez-ur-Rehman1*, Umar Farooq1, Muhammad Asim Bhutta2, Saghir Ahmad2, Muhammad Akram2, Muhammad Rafiq Shahid2, Hammad Hussnain2, Muhammad Shahid2, Muhammad Mehmood Iqbal2, Ali Raza2 and Muhammad Iqbal2

... study with natural full irrigation condition. For the purpose, seven cotton genotypes along with a drought tolerant check (FH-142) were evaluated for two cotton growing seasons (2018 and 2019) to study their performance in terms of yield, drought response indices along with other agro-morphological and fiber quality traits in both irrigation regimes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed existence of considerable genotypic va...

Hosny Kesba1, Ashraf Suloma2, Samy Sayed3*, Abdullah Abdel-Rahman1 and Shaimaa Diab1

...examine the influence of irrigation with different effluent water sources, including semi-intensive tilapia pond (STP), intensive tilapia biofloc (ITB) systems, and well water (WW), on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita infecting eggplants7 or 45 days after planting in sandy loam or sandy soils. Each irrigation source was applied daily at 150 mL/pot. The STP source was more suppressive to nematode development than ITB...
Sajad Ali1*, Naeem Ur Rehman Khatak1, Shahab E. Saqib2 and Saleem ur Rehman1
...tilizers, chemicals, and irrigation were significant factors influencing wheat productivity for owner cultivators, whereas age, household size, land preparation, fertilizers, chemicals, and irrigation were significant factors influencing wheat productivity for tenant wheat growers. The statistical value of the dummy variable revealed that the owner wheat growers had higher productivity (almost 10%) than tenant wheat growers....

Arshad Farooq1, Muhammad Ishaq2, Abdul Hassan1, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan3 and Asif Nawaz3*

...cides application (79%), irrigation (76%) and weedicide (71%). Moreover, the knowledge level of beneficiary farmers also enhanced regarding post-harvest losses (57%), weather information (78%) and market information (79%) in the research area. Overall knowledge level of beneficiary farmers increased 77 percent in the study area. The study suggested that agricultural advisory services through mobile phones should be restarted and extended to other districts of ...

Junaid Ali1, Muhammad Nawaz2, Muhammad Ilyas3, Muhammad Umer Chattha1, Imran Khan1, Muhammad Bilal Chattha4*, Muhammad Arshad5, Muhammad Akram6, Mina Kharal7, Ehsan Ullah1, Muhammad Talha Aslam1, Fareeha Athar1, Ayesha Mustafa1 and Muhammad Umair Hassan1

...tein. Sowing methods and irrigation application are an important agronomic consideration to get maximum production of lentil crop. Therefore, this study was conducted in RCBD with a two-factor split plot to determine the impact of various levels of irrigation and sowing methods on the growth and yield of lentil. Crop was sown by three sowing methods; flat, bed and ridge and with four different irriga...

Adil Ali Gadahi1, Wajid Ali Jatoi1, Saima Mir Arain2, Jay Kumar Sootaher1*, Piar Ali Shar1, Sadaf Memon1, Muhammad Saleem Chang3, Zeeshan Majeed Kumbhar1 and Kirshan Kumar Menghwar1

...treatments i.e. T1 (zero irrigation), T2 (two irrigations), T3 (four irrigations) during Rabi season, 2016-2017. The ANOVA results exposed significant differences among genotypes as well as treatments for most of the attributes, however genotypes x treatment was also significant for several characters. Among the treatments, T3 (four irrigation) recorded ...

Noor Muhammad Khan1,2, Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,3*, Rashid Rehan2 and Iftikhar Zeb4

...atabad Peshawar used for irrigation downstream. The wastewater analysis showed that HM concentration exceeds the limits of thresholds values. For phytoremediation the T.l was tested in both on-site (in-situ) and laboratory conditions (ex-situ) while A.d was applied only in an ex-situ setup. For T.l, the average uptake of copper (Cu) was 5.40 and 6.46 mg kg-1, similarly for the lead (Pb) average uptake was 4.55 and 4.55mg kg-1, while for nickel (Ni) the average...

Abid Ali1*, Safia Naureen Malik3, Muhammad Akmal2, Hafeez Ullah Rafa2 and Abid Subhani3

... of such groundwater for irrigation may be a cause of salinity as well as sodicity for soils of the district. The ‘maximum values’ of Cl ion and ‘mean values’ of Na ion were observed higher than their permissible values (4 me L-1 and 3 me L-1 respectively) in all the four tehsils, indicating that groundwater is toxic to crop growth at certain locations of the district. The data manifested that the quality deciding parameters i.e., EC, S...

Shahbaz Ahmed1, Mubeen Ahmad1, Muhammad Razaq1* and Farhan Mahmood Shah1,2*

.... This research explores irrigation stress impacts on wheat aphids, predators, and yield characteristics under field conditions. The wheat crop was stressed at any of the tillering, booting, heading or grain formation stages by skipping irrigation during entire length of each stage. Unstressed wheat enjoyed irrigation at all four stages. Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) was the most abundant ...

Muhammad Jan1*, Muhammad Ashraf Sumrah1, Javed Iqbal2, Muhammad Aslam3, Rizwan Latif4, Muhammad Arif5, Muhammad Tahir Akbar6 and Hafiz Husnain Nawaz1

... be controlled by proper irrigation scheduling, proper pruning and proper dose and source of fertilizer application at a proper growth stage. As a result, OFF season crop in once year and followed by ON year crop. Alternate bearing cannot be completely controlled but it can be minimized by adopting different approaches like mechanical pruning, pruning through use of growth inhibitors, use of bio stimulants, and proper use of mineral nutrients at proper nutrien...

Shahid Ali1*, Murtaza2, Waqas Ahmad1, Nargis Bibi3, Aftab Khan2 and Jahangir Khan

...ll the regressors except irrigation numbers were highly significant with the estimated coefficients of 0.369, 0.047, 0.060, 0.246 and 0.098 for labor hours, tractor hours, chemicals, urea and irrigation numbers respectively. Results of inefficiency’s model exposed that education and farming experience had a significant and adverse influence on technical inefficiency, age had a positive significant effect on farmers&rsq...

Arshad Mahmood Malik1*, Nigah Hussain1 and Nasim Akhter2

...nt cropping patterns and irrigation systems of the study area. Multivariate model was developed to ascertain the various socio-economic factors i.e., off-farm work, farm size, farming experience and family size, on changing dynamics of agriculture labour. Results indicated that socio-economic factors significantly affect the agriculture labour dynamics in irrigated areas. Off-farm work has inverse relationship with agriculture labour supply indicating inter-se...

Hafiz Qaisar Yasin1*, Dora Marinova2 and Muhammad Naveed Tahir3

...;">Economic valuation of irrigation water is one of most critical water governance issues in Pakistan. In the agriculture‑dominant province of Punjab, low irrigation water charging rates lead to its inefficient use by farmers. Under the rapidly increasing water scarcity and climate change issues, it is inevitable to assess the actual economic value of canal irrigation water in Punjab. Th...

Habib Ullah Habib1, Malik Muhammad Akram2, Mujahid Ali1*, Tahir Mehmood3, Muhammad Manzoor4, Maqsood Ahmad3, Hasseb Ahsan1, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal3, Malik Abdul Rehman5, Muhammad Mohsan1 and Ahsan Mohyo ud Din6 

...was applied through drip irrigation according to the schedule derived through Crop Watt. Kinnow plants showed significant results regarding plant canopy, plant height, the average weight of fruits, the weight of large size fruits, the weight of medium size, the weight of small size fruits, number of fruits per plant, number of small fruits per plant, number of medium-size fruits per plant, and number of large size fruits per plant. The maximum number of medium...
Azra Kalhoro1, Abdul Aziz Mirani2, Fozia Khan Siyal1, Tahira Jatt2*, Abdul Razak Mahar1, Sadia Iram3 and Muhammad Abbas Bhutto4
...city where the source of irrigation water is only sewage water.

...

Ghani Akbar*, Zafar Islam, Muhammad Umar and Shahi Salam

...sin (FB) as control. The irrigation was scheduled at above field capacity (30kPa matric potential). The calibrated Aqua Crop FAO model was used for evaluating the root zone and atmospheric water balance and water productivity based on evapotranspiration (WPET). The field results indicated, comparable yield for the NB treatment but increased (2.4%) the water productivity based on irrigation input (WPi), saved (3%)

Muhammad Mansoor1, 2, Sheheryar1 and Shahid Ali Khan1*

...for the second and third irrigation is uncertain for farmers. In addition, through adding nitrogen via nodulation, it can also be intercropped with cotton as it can give fair yield without presenting any competition with cotton crop.

...

Muhammad Mansoor1, 2, Sheheryar1 and Shahid Ali Khan1*

...for the second and third irrigation is uncertain for farmers. In addition, through adding nitrogen via nodulation, it can also be intercropped with cotton as it can give fair yield without presenting any competition with cotton crop.

...

Olatokunbo Hammed Osinowo1*, Maria Gbemisola Ogunnaike1 and Esther Toluwatope Tolorunju

...gricultural expenditure, irrigation, human capital, and telecommunications technology. The results of this study show that, despite an increasing trend in agricultural technology improvements, poverty is still a regional problem in West Africa. It was noted that the value added by agriculture (as a percentage of GDP) was increasing at a decreasing rate. Additionally, the findings demonstrate that West Africa’s high rate of poverty has a significant linea...

Phan Truong Khanh* and Tran Thi Hong Ngoc

...the study is planning of irrigation scheduling, it requires information of precise quantity of water needed by crop in a certain set of meteorological condition of the region. Moreover, determination of water requirement for crop is a first stage in the design, operation and planning of irrigation schemes to ensure adequate water is available to meet agricultural needs. In this work we use the FAO-Penman-Monteith Evapotransp...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

December

Vol. 38, Iss. 4, Pages 1160-1546

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