Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...lways provide conclusive information on the overall and complex genetic makeup of RVAs, as the remaining 9 RVA gene segments are also susceptible to the forces governing RVA genetic diversity. Whole genomic analysis of RVAs has revolutionized the study of RVA genomics, providing a plethora of conclusive and vital data on the overall genetic diversity, true origin and complex evolutionary patterns of human RVA strains. In this review, we have summarized and dis...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

...le was used in eliciting information from 195 farmers in rural communities across the four agro-ecological zones in the study area using a two-stage random sampling technique. Data used for the study were analysed using descriptive statistics, Likert scale and the regression analysis. The study revealed that farmers perceived the level of accountability of extension to farmers in the study area as poor. Level of education, access to training and membership of ...

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...his issue in detail. The information synthesized would be important to select and manipulate appropriate factor(s) for successful wheat tissue culture and regeneration that in turn
would help its improvement.

...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

...screen for the available information on knee implant system and to propose a suitable remedy for effective management of such ailments. Out of the available and applied implants, none of them was evaluated by motion analysis system. It has been shown that severity of pain and overall function of knee joint were improved following the use of this implant. Although it has been mentioned that KineSpring knee implant is an effective method...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...st source of agriculture information was input dealers followed by Model Farm Services Center. The top learned skills by respondents in MFSC were the agronomic practices whereas there was big gap in horticultural practices. Major constraints identified were less machinery utilization duration, complication in machinery booking process, costly rental prices, out-dated machinery, preference of progressive farmers, no timely availability of Inputs, unviability of...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

...ry proof and significant information for future taxon studies.

...

Syeda Farzana Bibi*, Lal Badshah and Siraj-ud-Din

...his study not only gives information about the flora of motorway but can provide a baseline for future studies and plantation of this area. It is suggested that plantation of invasive species should be discouraged which might become problematic in future for the indigenous flora.

...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...tion. As there is little information regarding relationship between nematode dosage and production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies investigations were done on these aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria mellonella was observed with White traps than with modified Baermann trays. Maximum juveniles of S. feltiae emerged at 50 IJ dose followed b...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...city of population-based information on the distribution of the infection and transmission determinants for urban Leptospirosis in developing countries. This study aims to source dynamic ecological and epidemiological field parameters to describe a slum household-based pathogenic Leptospira population dynamics simulation model. The model will be analyzed to assess the role of slum-based biotic (human and animal) and abiotic (soil, water and weather) habitats i...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...edule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The findings revealed that the fish farmers were economically active with a mean age of 42.5 years, majority (73.1%) were males, married (74.4%) and had one level of formal education or the other (82.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between the respondents’ training needs on value addition initiatives and their age, educational level, years of experience and fish farm ...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...d plant growth. However, information regarding its co-application with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on enhancing spinach yield is scarce. A pot experiment was conducted at Gomal University D.I. Khan, Pakistan, during 2009-10 to study the changes in soil fertility and spinach growth after the application of EM with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. The six treatments were; control (T0), 10 tons (t) ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM) (T1), 20 t ha-1 p...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...nflower, access to price information of market, distance from input shop and more profit from competing crops indicating that the 1 percent increase in these parameters will decrease the probability to adopt sunflower. Whereas supporting parameters were highest educations level in the family, total operational holding, last year yield of sunflower, access to extension services and share of non-agricultural income. By increasing 1 percent in these parameters wi...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...ARC GIS 10.1. Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based set of procedures used to store and analyze geographically-referenced data. Primary data about crop yield and per acre production, new seed and crop varieties etc. was collected with the help of a questionnaire survey. A total of 50 household were surveyed which make 45 percent of the total (114 households). The analysis of acquired data reveals that in 2008-09 tube well irrigated land accou...
Irshad Ahmad
...nt study offers valuable information through IPM, which appears to be a promising approach for the control of walnut borer. Collectively this strategy has resulted in significant reduction of the pest population in the target area of district Dir, Pakistan.
...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
.... It has provided useful information for the mass rearing of this potential biocontrol agent which may be used in the successful implementation of biocontrol program for the suppression of pyralid pest insects damaging different agricultural crops of economic importance.
...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

... really useful firsthand information.
...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...udgets provide important information for the study of animal behavior. The present study analyzed the daily travel distance, home range and group characteristics of scaly-sided merganser Mergus squamatus in Yihuang and Wuyuan counties, Jiangxi Province, China, from December 2012 to March 2013 and December 2015 to March 2016. Results showed that the daily travel distance of scaly-sided merganser was 3100 ± 1313 m; the daily home range was 122,460 ...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...yptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health. A total one hundred swabs and 500 organ samples were collected from apparently healthy and freshly dead quails respectively. Bacterial isolation and characterization were performed in accordance with the clinical laboratory standards and confirmed by PCR. In...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...dustry. However, limited information on the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus-infected pigs is available. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify transcriptomes with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) of piglets, Large White x Landrace crossbreds, infected with live strain PED virus (PEDV). Several gene ontology (GO) and differentially expressed gene (DEG) are also identified by RNA-seq. The analyzed transcriptome pr...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...ammes. Till date, scanty information is available on the source of tolerance, if any, against betelvine blackfly. The reaction of some betelvine cultivars to A. rugosa was evaluated in the boroja with different varietal collections from different parts of India. None of the entries under the purview was completely free from infestation. A few cultivars [CARI- 2 (AN), CARI-6(AN) and Bilhari] exhibited moderate resistant reaction against A. rugosa. Awani Pan (Pi...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...ry to get the first hand information on the extent of mealy bug incidence. Secondly, it facilitated select cluster of papaya growers to meet the concerned authorities and scientists of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore to appraise them of the gravity of the situation and the need for getting effective biocontrol agent [Acerophagus papayae (Noyes and Schauff)] through ICAR-NBAII (National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects)-TNAU was ...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...ing, and other essential information provided through a decision support system (DSS), in an agriinformatics networking such that is not ordinarily available to Indian farmers in general. Due to Precision Farming (PF), production increased by 40 to 60 percent farmers’ margins of the produce and reduction of the commission charged by the middlemen to 7-10 percent. Further, bargaining power, capacity building, optimal crop protection and produce quality we...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...r source of agricultural information followed by agriculture extension department. More than half of the respondents (i.e. 60%) reported that FSC arranged trainings for them regarding their capacity building. Fertilizer application was the major skill stated by overwhelming majority of (95%) respondents followed by improved agricultural technology (94%) and sowing methods (93%) learned through FSC. Mass contact method was rarely used in the study area as only ...
Muhammad Imran Shabbir
...a considerable amount of information that provides the opportunity to determine genotype and phenotype probabilities for monogenic Mendelian traits without the need to draw Punnett square for every parental genotype combination. These illustrations provide information for both forward (phenotype to genotype) as well as reverse genetics (genotype to phenotype) approaches.
...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
... districts to gather the information about the awareness and adoption of recommended production practices of citrus. The study sample was consisted of 140 respondents. The binary regression model has been used to evaluate the effect of different socio-economic variables on the adoption response of different recommended production practice for citrus. Average age, education and experience of the citrus growers were estimated 43.92 years, 9.74 schooling years an...
Muhammad Hanif1,*, Naureen Rana1, Muhammad Akbar Khan2, Muhammad Javed1 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1
...imens provide additional information about the recorded species and contribute to recent work of Perissodactyla from the Middle Siwalik Hills of Pakistan.
...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

... is important to provide information about any serious threat to the health of the local population. 

...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
... collect the preliminary information about habitat requirements and different breeding aspects of Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). The fieldwork was performed for two years (2012, 2013) at three different stations in the surrounding area of Faisalabad. Based on results it was concluded that Cattle egrets are colonial breeders and colonies were monospecific with no other ardeidae members nesting in the neighborhood. They prefer sites for nest building, whic...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
...ctively. The polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.181 to 0.573. Null allele frequency varied from -0.0548 to 0.0563. The sets of loci proved to correctly discriminate populations using Principal Coordinate analysis. These polymorphic markers will be useful tools for investigating genetic diversity and population structure of this species.
...
Umair Talib1*, Ijaz Ashraf1, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhary1, Riaz Ahmad2
...ery poor in provision of information about innovative technologies to farmers. Analysis of satisfaction of farmers with public and private sectors show that farmers are not completely satisfied with extension package of either sector. Therefore, the new strategy proposes changes in working order of both sectors in order to enhance the extension work in the Punjab.
...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...istants (FA) provide new information (75 respondents). It was observed that FAs were available at their offices (70) and farmers were satisfied from the solution of problems they reported (92). Correlation coefficients demonstrate that education, frequency of FAs visits, accessibility of FAs office and establishment of demonstration have highly significant association with provision of new knowledge at (P≤0.01) level of probability. Analysis of variance con...
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...resent study provide new information into camelid evolution and give further insights into the diversity and complex enzymatic functions of GST superfamily.
...
Sher Khan Panhwar1,2,3, Zhou Yong Dong1,4,*, Gao Tianxiang1,3, Wang Ping5, Han Zhiqiang1, Wang Zhongming1,4 and Wang Yang1,4
...the gap between data and information, allowing resource managers to determine management priorities for this economically and ecologically important species in the ECS.
...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...roteins provide valuable information to further study the pathogenesis of popcorn disease and disease-resistant molecular breeding in mulberry.
...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...ent of this pest. As the information regarding resistant cultivars is lacking, therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify resistant sources from among the available commercial okra cultivars. Okra cultivars showed significant variations from comparative susceptibility to comparative resistance. On the basis of fruit and shoot infestation caused by H. armigera,Manchali, RK-516, OH-152 and Tarnab Nargis were found comparatively suscepti...
Quang Minh Dinh
...m to provide fundamental information on the population biology of T. vagina based on length-frequency distribution analysis of 1,527 individuals. The male to female T. vagina ratio was not significantly different within and between seasons, and the parameters of the von Bertalanffy curve of this fish were given as L= 24.15 cm, K = 0.53 yr-1 and t0 = –0.03 yr-1. The long...
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
...tation, providing useful information for the sustainable conservation of this fish.
...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...ngle calf. The following information was taken from each animal: age at first insemination, age at first calving, number of semen portions attributable to successful insemination, length of pregnancy and periods of: insemination service, postpartum resting period, interpregnancy period and intercalving period. The study also determined weight of the cow and weight of the calf at calving (including gender). Statistical calculations were performed using the stat...
Muhammad Siraj-ud-Din1,2, Riaz Aziz Minhas1, Usman Ali3,*, Mayoor Khan2, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Nuzhat Shafi1 and Basharat Ahmad1
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...ughout the world. As the information regarding its distribution is lacking therefore, its incidence and prevalence was determined in seven major maize growing districts of Punjab during 2016. The maximum overall incidence of maize borer (12%) was recorded in Khanewal district followed by Multan (6%) while it was the minimum (1%) in district Okara. On the other hand, maximum prevalence of maize borer was observed in district Vehari (100%) followed by districts ...

Phong Huy Pham1 and Hoa Thi Dang2

...na of Vietnam. The first information on nesting biology, description, and distributional notes are also provided.

...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...nalysis displayed visual information about the relations among predictor variables. As a result, decision tree analysis is necessary to provide preliminary information in breeding programs to be performed. 
...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...I is performed, also the information regarding the epidemiology and occurrence of EI is lacking in Pakistan. We hereby attempted to determine the seroprevalence, investigating the EI outbreak 2015-16, and describing the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/69...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...In order to collect this information an interview schedule was prepared and respondents (150 growers of farmer field school) were interviewed personally by the author. The findings revealed 98.7%, 100% and 98% cotton growers were aware of hoeing, leaf curl virus and biological control of insects-pests. Before integrated pest management all the farmers used pesticides haphazardly while 1.3% used after it. 90.7%, 86.7% and 97.3% farmers were aware of economic th...

Muhammad Luqman1,3, Raheel Saqib2*, Xu Shiwei3 and Yu Wen3 

...dvisory and agricultural information services and credit facilities. This is due to the existing social, cultural and religious norms in the society of Pakistan. The results of the t-test statistics showed that there is highly significant difference in opinion of male family heads and their spouses (female respondents) regarding barriers to gender equality in agricultural extension in Pakistan 

...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...n. This review discusses information regarding rust disease and resistance in wheat to tackle the disease through resistance breeding. 

...

Zehra Mohsin1*, Sarah Shahed2 and Talat Sohail

... completed a demographic information form, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Supportand Professional Quality of Life Scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Two demographic variables, age and experience had significant positive correlation with compassion fatigue, r =.252, n=160, p <.01 and r =.256, n=160, p <.01 respectively. Other demographic variables i.e. working hours and monthly income had no significant relationship with the ...

Muhammad Yahya Noori1*, Saharish Rizwan2, Zaheer Ali3 and Shaheen Sharafat4 

... assessing their contact information. Data were obtained and analyzed from 164 individuals suffering from MDR TB. Records were scanned to evaluate the presence of a close contact with known history of Tuberculosis. Tabulations and analysis were performed in Microsoft Excel® and online calculators. Analysis of contact data showed that only 36% of the patients had a close contact with a known Tuberculosis patient. Chi-square test did not show any association...
Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Idrees1,*, Kafeel Ahmad1, Dawood Ahmad2, Sajid Ali3 and Shumaila Bashir4
...However, there is little information about the molecular characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strains predominant in the province. Therefore, this study was planned to study the genetic diversity in the M. tuberculosis isolates isolated from clinical samples. In the current study total 794 patients were tested for suspected tuberculosis by fluorescence microscopy and GeneXpert system during the study period (2015-2016) ...

 Babar Hussain*, Muhammad Ashfaq**, Mazher Abbas***, Khalid Mahmood**** and M. Ather Mahmood***

...studies provide valuable information about the dynamics of market adjustment, and whether there exist market imperfection, which may justify government intervention. This study used the monthly wholesale price (Rs. / 40 kg) data from January 1991 to December 2006 of gram, in logarithmic form and empirically estimated the degree of integration in gram markets of Pakistan using co-integration analysis. Co-integration results show that all gram markets are highly...

 Zaheeruddin Mirani*and Aslam Memon**

...ceiving new agricultural information from agricultural extension as most of the farmers were not visited. This entails the fact that farmers are not alone responsible for non-adoption of improved practices. Pesticide/fertilizer agents were viewed as effective in transferring messages, however, they were limited to their product sales since they have the task to achieve targets rather farmers’ development. Agricultural suppliers/ dealers of the pesticide/...

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...owever, there is limited information on the molecular diversity of CCoV in many parts of the world. In this study, canine fecal samples from diverse States of Brazil were screened by PCRs for CCoV and positive samples were subjected to partial sequencing for the membrane (M), spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein 3b genes. Out of the samples collected, 40.17% were positive for CCoV; 57.45% of CCoV-infected animals showed enteritis and most of ...
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...eline population genetic information supplied in this study will be vital for the protection and restoration of this endangered species.
...
Lin Wang1,2, Ye Gong3, Kelin Chen1, Haitao Wang3 and Xianguo Lyu1,*
....827 and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.373 to 0.775. Significant linkage disequilibrium was found only between two markers. These microsatellites could be used to enhance our understanding of genetic information and breeding biology of Relict Gull.
...
Qin Liu1,2, Feiwei Liu1, Xiuyue Zhang1, Nan Yang1 and Jianghong Ran1,*
...ndividuals. Polymorphism information content ranged from 0.2735 to 0.7717 with an average of 0.5149. Observed and expected heterozygosities at each locus ranged from 0 to 0.879 and 0.332 to 0.814, respectively. These markers could be used to better understand the breeding system and protection manage of this species.
...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah and Shahid Masood**

Corresponding author: shazia_rm@yahoo.com

PHENOTYPIC VARIATION AMONG MENTHA SPP.
...in the industry and this information will be helpful for exploitation and development of natural agricultural resources on scientific grounds.

...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...sion field staff provide information regarding application of irrigation and private extension field staff provided advice for the use of plant protection measures. Significant differences were observed between public and private extension field staff on various statements regarding competency level and agronomic practices.

...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad, and Ijaz Ashraf**

ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL CONTACT METHODS IN DISSEMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES
...tively, for diffusion of information regarding latest agricultural technologies. However, awareness regarding personal letters as an extension method among the farming community was proved as the lowest (18.93%) entity in the study area. The extent of the use of individual contact methods namely farm visits, demonstrations, home visits and office call bearing mean st nd rd values 2.85, 2.81, 2.79 and 2.68 , respectively were ranked as 1 , 2 , 3 and th 4 , resp...

 Hafiz Sultan Mahmood*, Munir Ahmad**, Tanveer Ahmad*, Muhammad Azhar Saeed* and Muhammad Iqbal***

POTENTIALS AND PROSPECTS OF PRECISION AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN - A REVIEW
...d convergence of several informationbased technologies for enhancing profit and reducing environmental risks. These technologies have demonstrated to provide benefits to farmers as well as reduced environmental stresses in the developed world. Present paper provides an overview of precision agriculture and examines the potentials, prospects, implications, issues and relevance of precision agricultural applications in Pakistani agricultural system. There is a s...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad**, Badar Naseem Siddiqui***, Muhammad Zakaria Yousuf Hassan****, Ijaz Ashraf**, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan***** and Aijaz Kuharoo******

COMMUNICATION OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION THROUGH GROUP CONTACT METHODS IN PAKISTAN
...nication of agricultural information through group contact methods in Pakistan. Data were collected from 280 randomly selected farmers of four districts and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Survey method was used for data collection by researchers using a pre-tested research instrument. The results of the study show that sources of agricultural information used by the farmer respondents were seed/ fertilizer dealers, w...

 Naveed Jehan*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla**, Muhammad Shahzad*, Abid Hussain**, Muhammad Zahoor*, Majid Khan* and Ahmed Bilal*

USE OF MOBILE PHONES BY FARMING COMMUNITY AND ITS IMPACT ON VEGETABLE PRODUCTIVITY
...helps farmers in getting information about commodity prices in different markets. The farmers can get up-to-date information about various markets in different regions and can accordingly arrange transportation and labor services in time. The study was conducted to see the effect of timely information availability with mobile on productivity. The data was collected through well structured ...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...efore the paper fills an information gap regarding factors affecting the supply and demand of pulses in Pakistan. The present study focuses on two important pulses grown in the country namely gram (chickpea) and mung (mungbean). Using Nerlove's adjustment lag model as the basic framework supply and demand aspect has been studied at the national level, based on the time series data from 1974-75 to 2010-11. Acreage response results revealed that farm harvest pri...

 Muhammad Asif Jamil*, Nowshad Khan*, FarhatUllah Khan* and Muhammad Zakria*

EFFECTIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION TO THE FARMING COMMUNITY OF DISTRICT BHIMBER, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR
...ed that other sources of information i.e., relatives, friends were more influential in bringing changes in the behavior of the respondents and solving the problems of farm related issues. It was found that 38% of the aware respondents yield was 50% greater than unaware farmers. It was also concluded that 80% of the respondents had increased the production of wheat while 80.67% had increased the production of maize and 68% had increased the production of millet...

 Anwar Hussain* and Muhammad Rahman**

ROLE OF TRAININGS ON FARMERS' PROFITABILITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA

 Doulat Baig*, Fida Mohammad Abbasi*, Habib Ahmed*, Maqsood Qamar** and Muhammad Ayub Khan**

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
...rids ascribed to lack of information about use of inputs and cultural practices. Judicious nitrogen use and suitable high yielding hybrid play key role in increasing sunflower productivity. Protein is the basic requirement of the metabolic processes for the vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available in soil for the plant use. A two year study was conducted in 2012 a...

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION
...art of the activity. The information for paper is collected from opinions of the participants before and after the training. Descriptive analysis alongwith paired 't' test was used to measure the effectiveness of training. Results indicated higher satisfactory level as majority of the participants were strongly agreed (73%) and agreed (23%) that trainings were participatory and skill development oriented and as 96% agreed or strongly agreed that these were hel...

 Ghulam Sadiq Afridi*, Abdul Saboor**, Zahoor-ul-Haq***, Sultan Ali
Tariq**** and Muhammad Ishaq*****

EXPLORING POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PAKISTAN'S COTTON EXPORT
...study provide the policy information that countries of Latin America, Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Northern Africa are virgin for export. Therefore, Pakistan should penetrate in these markets for export of cotton and other agricultural products. Cognizant to new trade theories, Pakistan should focus on quality to gain maximum trade volume in the markets of high-income countries. Pakistan may develop trade agreement with ASEAN, SAFTA, and EU-27for export of...

 Hina Fatima** and Bushra Yasmin**

EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN'S FARM SECTOR: A META-ANALYSIS*
...s as well as statistical information regarding methodological, regional and crop specific influences on farm sector of Pakistan. The data rely on the published research papers on efficiency analysis of Pakistan's farm sector from 1971 to 2014. Three models separately estimated included methodological model, crop specific model and provincial model. These models incorporated the impact of methodological variables, crop specific variables and regional variables ...

 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM TO FACILITATE FARMERS IN WHEAT, SUGARCANE AND OTHER CROP DISEASES IDENTIFICATION
...d rural development with information communication technology (ICT). In developing countries such as Pakistan, economy largely depends on agriculture. Therefore, the need to move from conventional ways of farming to easy, effective and efficient smart solutions are required to minimize yield losses in crop plants. An integrated application to facilitate farmers to communicate their crop related issues directly to agriculture scientists is proposed. This 'AXPER...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...te the role of access to information on farmers' risk management adoption decisions keeping in view the potential correlation between these risk management adoption decisions. Bivariate and multinomial probit models are used to assess the impact of access to information on farmers' risk management adoption decisions using data collected from 330 randomly selected respondents from four districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province...
Dachuan Cheng1,2, Md Mahbubul Hassan3, Zhenhua Ma1, 2, 3,*, Qibin Yang1 and Jian G. Qin3
...culture but very limited information exists on skeletal ontogeny and anomalies among species of the family Lutjanidae. This study describes the skeletal ontogeny and anomalies of crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus larvae and juveniles from hatching to 36 day-post hatching (DPH). Mandible, ceratobranchial, cleithrum and gill arches were the initial skeletal structures appeared at 3 DPH that supported the vital life functions such as feeding and respi...
Abdul Majid Ujjal2, Sharmin Akter1* and Suman Paul1 
...pidemic curves using the information of weekly occurrence of FMD showed consistent occurrence of this disease round the year with peaks during winter season. Similar analysis was also done for HS and like FMD, highest prevalence (16.14%) found in Jaintapur upazila. HS prevalence also found significantly higher in young buffalos (18.56%). HS prevalence was significantly higher in male (12.73%) than female. Epidemic curves of HS showed a clear year round occurre...
Archana Naithani, Pongthep Suwanwaree* and Bartosz Nadolski
...uld provide the baseline information about the composition of the avian community and its distribution in the Suranaree University of Technology, which is an important ecosystem for the conservation of avian biodiversity. Many other areas adjacent to the campus also require attention for the inventory of avian communities. Therefore, a long-term database on exhaustive and intensive study of the North East Thailand is required.
...
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1,*, Waseem Akram2, Sumi Lee3, Shakir Manzoor1, Syed Rajab Ayub1, Khalil Ur Rehman1, Shinawar Waseem Ali1, Muhammad Bilal Chattha1 and Sumaira Maqsood1
...ever, there is a lack of information in Pakistan. In the present study, one laboratory reference strain and five field strains each of, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum, were collected from Punjab, and assessed for their susceptibility to spinosad via diet incorporation bioassays. Based on median lethal concentration (LC50) values, all the strains of S. oryzae and R. dominica were mor...
Hongqun Li1, Xiaoli Liu2,*, Zhenmin Lian3,RenheWang4, Yongbin Wang4, Yongyao Fu1 andDingyi Wang5
Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2,*, Khizar Samiullah3
...bility. However, limited information is available on these animals especially in Punjab province of Pakistan. Furthermore, distributional pattern and habitat structure of known species is also ambiguous. In this study, we report the scorpion Androctonus finitimus (Pocock, 1897) from several areas of Punjab, Pakistan. This scorpion species has not been previously documented from this part of the country, highlighting the wide distribution of this specie ...
Muhammad Adeeb Babar1,*, Sayyad Ghyour Abbas1, Muhammad Akbar Khan1, Kiran Aftab2, Muhammad Hanif1, Muhammad Asim1 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...imens provide additional information about the recorded cervid species and contribute to recent work from the Middle Siwalik Hills of Pakistan.
...

Saima Rani*, Hassnian Shah, Nusrat Habib and Muhammad Azeem Khan 

... The model contains the information of socioeconomic characteristics, awareness and preferences of organic vegetables and product attributes. The empirical findings indicate that age, employment status, income, education, number of children, taste, no chemical residual, high nutritional value, freshness and colour of the vegetables have positive effects on consumer to pay a high price. While in case of product size and shape has a adverse effect on consumer. ...
Zeqin Fu, Yunfang Tian, Yingying Ye*, Pengzhi Qi and Changwen Wu
... 0.05). The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.340 to 0.921 with an average of 0.751. These markers will help the further studies, provide more useful tools to choose for researching genetic diversity and population structure and provide more in-depth understanding of Mytilus coruscus.
...

Xiangbin Meng1,Tianxiang Gao2, Chunhou Li3, Na Song1, Lu Liu1, Liqin Liu2 and Xiumei Zhang1,*

 

...tively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.566 to 0.823. These markers will be useful in further studies and will give new insight into conservation and efficient management of this species.
...
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
...is was supplemented with information collected through questionnaire survey. Results confirmed the occurrence of leopard at six out of twelve sampling sites surveyed, in the form of evidences including pug marks, cave/ den, and dead bodies (two carcasses and one skin) of the animal. Moreover, three kill records of the animal in a short duration of six months are indicative of its illegal hunting for its skin or in self-defense. Therefore, immediate conservatio...
Danyu Zhang1, Ying Liu1, Qinxin Shi1, Zhiwei Peng1, Yan Hua1 and Zhijun Hou1,2,*
...Japan. There have little information about gastrointestinal parasite and bacterium of the sable, but it was important for its health. Five parasitic species and two hundreds thirty four gut bacteria (genus) of the sable were detected by the saturated NaCl floating and next sequencing methods. The parasites were Capillaria sp., Baylisascaris devosi, Echinochasmus sp., and two Coccidianspecies. The Echinochasmu...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*and Tariq Mukhtar2
...vars. As there is meager information on the reproductive potential of Meloidogyne incognita on different cucumber cultivars commonly cultivated in Pakistan, therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductivity of M. incognita on fifteen cucumber cultivars with varying levels of resistance and susceptibility. Significant differences were found among all the cucumber cultivars regarding formation of galls, egg masses, fe...

Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Muhammad Rizwan2*, Muhammad Akram1, Jaffar Hussain1 and Fiaz Ahmad1 

...high seed yield requires information on genetic variability and correlation of traits. For this purpose, fifty eight exotic and indigenous diverse mungbean genotypes were evaluated for seed yield and other related traits. The genetic analysis of mungbean germplasm revealed high genotypic (GCV) and phenotypic (PCV) coefficients of variability for biological yield (GCV% = 31.70, PCV% = 33.58), harvest index (GCV% = 27.80, PCV% = 30.16) and seed yield (GCV% = 25....
Ayesha Iftikhar1,*, Muhammad Asif Aziz1, Muhammad Naeem1, Munir Ahmad1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
... provides detailed basic information for successful rearing of M. sexmaculatus in the laboratory and use as a bio-control agent against cotton mealy bug in the field at different temperature conditions.
...
Muhammad Nusrullah*1, Muhammad Younus2 and Yasir Nasir3
...as taken and demographic information was obtained. Blood sample was obtained anaerobically from the radial artery and from a dorsal hand vein using 2 separate 5cc BD heparinized syringes with needle size 22G for each patientand pH, PCO2, and HCO3 were analyzed. All the collected data was entered and analyzed on SPSS version 21. 
Results: The mean age of the patients was 52.68±10.51 years. Strong relationship was found between the...
Muhammad Younus1*, Sabah Usman2 and Samia Jawed3
...ubjects. The demographic information of these subjects such as name, age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were recorded. Spirometry of all the subjects was performed on Spirolab iii. Correlation between FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC ratio and body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio was measured by Pearson coefficient. A p value <0.05 was considered as significant. 
Results:
Xia Lin Zheng1, Zhen Hua Xian1, Zhen De Yang2, Xiu Hao Yang3 and Wen Lu1,*
...s will provide essential information to develop strategies that can be used for their control.
...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabayasachi Pal2, Amit Singh2, Ashok Dhananjaybhai Patel3, Bhagubhai Ambaram Patel3Tushar Manohar Ghule2 and Victor Phani1
...present study elucidated information on M. indica for its easy detection, diagnosis, dimension of damages on citrus, and Bt-cotton under Indian conditions.
...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
... along with contemporary information about antibiotic resistances that are present in isolates from different environments. In the present study 72 samples from blood, 43 from sputum, and 19 were obtained from tracheal aspirates patients suffering from chronic and acute lung infections admitted to a local hospital in Lahore. Susceptibility of 134 isolates of P. aeruginosa was tested against selected antibiotics (meropenem, imipenem, piperacillin, amoxic...
Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3,*
...ry proof and significant information for future taxon studies.
...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...in mungbean, but no such information seems to be available for mung × mash interspecific recombinants. In this study, 72 mung × mash interspecific recombinant genotypes and a susceptible mungbean variety Mung Kabuli were screened against Yellow Mosaic Disease (YMD) using disease severity ratings by visual scoring of symptoms to calculate percent disease index (PDI). Tested recombinants responded differently to the disease. None of the tested genoty...
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
... results may be baseline information about global irradiation parameters at location of migratory birds in Iğdir, Turkey for next studies with the scope of global warming.
...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Mujahid Iqbal3  

...ogy for dissemination of information regarding Macrosiphum miscanthi, attack on wheat crop by mobile phone. A sample size of 60 farmers was selected by systematic sampling technique using the available list of the farmers provided by Agricultural Extension Department. The respondents were than randomly assigned into two groups, one group was comprised of experimental group (to whom a set of advisory instructions were sent by mobile phone) and other was control...
Qiang Li1,2, Guo Qiao2, Li Wang1, Jipeng Zhang1, Ruijun Li1, Ping Ni1, Yi Guo1 and Shigen Ye1,*
...lts would provide useful information for disease prevention in T. rubripes culture.
...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

Aneel Salman1, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Muhammad Ashfaq2, Mudassar Rashid1 and Usman Shakoor1 

...redit, lack of access to information, and institutional support. As expected, no significant variations were found across districts in the characteristics of respondents (age and income) that can affect their perceptions, their adaptation strategies, and obstacles faced in adaptation. The results of the study need to be interpreted with caution, as we did not focus on other determinants like education, role of media, and government policies that can affect far...

Mushtaq Hussain Lashari1*, Fozia Afzal1 and Umer Farooq

.... In literature a little information is present regarding the hematological changes due to T.gondii in chickens of Cholistan, Bahwalpur, Pakistan.This is pilot study one of a kind and need for further studies with larger populations and samples across the country 

...

 Mian Azhar Ahmad1†*, Nawab Mohammad Khan2, Asmatullah3

Anatomical variations of hepatobiliary triangle in patients operated laparoscopically for gallbladder diseases from Lahore and Sahiwal
...d to record the relevant information data. During the course of this study evaluation of 2500 patients, including 2350 women and 150 men, who underwent exploration of hepatobiliary triangle during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for different gallbladder diseases was performed. Total of 63.6% of patients expressed cystic duct, cystic lymph nodes and cystic artery variations. Among them 12% depicted cystic duct variations, 32.2% of patients demonstrated cystic lym...

Riffat Mehboob1*, Sami Ullah Mumtaz2, Zoya Manzoor3, Sajid Abaidullah2, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad1

Deranged biochemical and hematological profile of septicemia patients in Mayo hospital, Lahore
...Other biomarkers gave no information regarding septicemia diagnosis. This demands the use of improved diagnostic biomarkers in developing countries.

...

 Haji Muhammad1, Zafar Iqbal1, Tanveer Akhlaq2

Length-weight, length-length relationships and condition factor of fishes of family cyprindae from the Indus River, Pakistan
...to incorporate some more information in the aquaculture sector of the country to depict the population conditions of
fish species in the Indus River.

...

Nabila Roohi, Mehjabeen, Samina Ashraf*

Effects of cigarette smoking on serum proteins profile in male active and passive smokers
...findings provide primary information about fractions and
total serum proteins of cigarette smokers. The decrease in albumin justifies the
reduction in total serum proteins and elevation in globulins. Smoking cessation
plays a significant role in recovery of these proteins.

...
Faiz Muhammad1,2, Canfeng Dou1, Zhen-ming Lü1,*, Li Gong1, Xun Du1 and Muhammad Shafi3
...provide species specific information on its genetic structure and population variability in Chinese waters.
...
Farhat Iqbal1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Ecevit Eyduran3, Zil-e-Huma4, Abdul Waheed5, Farhat Abbas2, Muhammad Ali2, Nadeem Rashid2, Majed Rafeeq2, Asadullah2 and Zahid Mustafa2
Jair Millán-Orozco1,*, Jersson Millán-Orozco2 and Luz María Tejada-Ugarte3
... breeds. However, scarce information has been generated on this topic, thus the present study was conducted to analyze the grazing behavior of Saint Croix sheep at 18º N in Mexico. The present study was carried out using ten adult ewes, 32.8±5.1 kg, stocked on a Taiwan grass (Pennisetum purpurem) pasture maintained at a sward surface height of 30 cm. Observations were conducted during daylight hours (06:00-18:00) from May to April of the nex...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...r, mainly due to lack of information on the prevalence across Pakistan. Surveillance for powdery mildew status assessment was conducted across Pakistan during three wheat crop seasons i.e., 2015-2016 to 2017-2018. A total of 437 fields (from 63 districts) were surveyed in 2016, 480 fields (from 69 districts) in 2017 and 294 fields (from 34 districts) in 2018, revealing a high prevalence of powdery mildew in the northern Himalayan parts of Pakistan. Powdery mil...
Syeda Beenish Bukhari1, Sidra Khalid1*, Shahid Bashir1, Riffat Mehboob2, Humaira Waseem2
...tion course were lack of information, myths, un-availability, non-affordability, fear of side effects and fear of lack of safety of vaccination procedure/ dirty needles. Analysis revealed a significant association between maternal education and barriers to complete vaccination course.
...

Aisha Siddiqua1*, Munir Ahmad1 and Nusrat Habib2 

...to credit and sources of information on climate change are significant drivers of adaptation to climate change. 

...

Omer Baris Ince* 

...k of infection and given information on the immune ratio of the animals. As a result, prevalence was observed to be 6.6% for breeding enterprises, 13.3% in bovine animals and 1% in ovine animals individually. Prevalence was found 13.3% throughout Konya. Generic immune ratio in bovine animals was found 58.8% for serotype O and 61.1% for serotype A; and in sheep, 51% for serotype O and 55% for serotype A. Difference was detected to be significant (p<0.001) in...

Naseer Ahmed Abbasi1, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1*, Bilawal Abbasi2, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1, Najeeb Ahmed Khan Nangraj1, Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahto1 and Sajjad Ahmed Morio1 

... method equally provides information on the degree of belonging of the land unit to each of the suitability classes discerned. The good results obtained by using the fuzzy set method are helpful further development and application of the land evaluation field. 

...
Liqin Liu, Maoting Wang, Zhenming Lü, Li Gong*, ChangWen Wu, Baoying Guo and Lihua Jiang
...spectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) showed that six loci were highly informative (PIC > 0.5). Five loci (CL1142, CL1770, CL2683, CL3494, CL 3674) significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after a Bonferroni correction (P < 0.05), and none of the loci showed linkage disequilibrium. In addition, these loci were cross-amplified in three closelyrelated species. Nineteen, fifteen, and thirteen loci were amplified in Sepia ly...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...cs of the plants. As the information about the relationship between physico-morphic characteristics of commercially grown okra cultivars and resistance or susceptibility to Helicoverpa armigera is lacking, therefore, in the present study relationship between physico-morphic characteristics and resistance or susceptibility of okra cultivars to H. armigera was evaluated. The heights and stem girths of comparatively resistant varieties were statisti...
Shahid Yousaf1*, Salman Khurshid1, Saqib Arif1, Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal1, Qurrat ul Ain Akbar1, Najmus Sahar1 and Ghulam Rasul2
..., 1.5% respectively. The information is useful for maintaining the quality of wheat intended for milling and ultimate products.
...

Ayesha Khan*, Zubair Ahmad Khan, Urooba Pervaiz And Mehmood Iqbal 

...ctive to investigate the information sources of extension agents, views of extension agents on adoption constraints and the extension methods used by them. All agricultural officers and 40% of field assistants were interviewed making a sample of 81 extension agents; 10 agricultural officers and 71 field assistants. The study results indicate that 77% field assistants were educated up to Matric with two years diploma while 10% agricultural officers had M.Sc. (H...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

...i> spp.). As very little information is available on the distribution of root-knot nematodes in okra plantations, therefore, in the present studies surveys were conducted to record incidence, prevalence, and severity of root-knot nematode species associated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, prevalence of 85% and severity of 4.1 in terms of the galling index was recorded througho...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

.... However, only a little information is available about bacterial profile of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 120 quarter samples were collected from suspected buffaloes in selected areas of Peshawar, Charsadda, Mohmand Agency, and Dara Adam Khel. Initially, California Mastitis Test was performed for screening of posit...
Farhat Iqbal1, Abdul Waheed2,*, Zil-e-Huma3 and Asim Faraz2
...lculated; namely, Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). Deviance information criterion (DIC) and the square of correlation (R2) between observed body weight and the predicted value’s marginal density means and RMSE were used as evaluation measures in the Baye...
Senol Celik
...o;s and corrected Akaike information criterion (AIC and AICc), root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean absolute deviation (MAD), standard deviation ratio (SDratio), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were estimated. According to these criteria, MARS produced better predictive accuracy in explaining the variability in LBW compared with others. MARS produced the best fit for 3rd interaction order on the basis of the smallest generalized cross valid...
Shengjie Zhou1,2, Pengfei Wang1,2, Chao Zhao1,2, Mingjun Fu3, Jian G. Qin4, Lihua Qiu1, Zhenhua Ma1, 4,* and Maoshang Lin1
...is study provides useful information on the functional mechanism of L-FABP gene in the ontogenetic development of golden pompano.
...

Abdur Rehman1*, Iqbal Javed2, Zhang Nannan3, Muhammad Niamatullah1, Raheel Saqib4 and Allah Bakhsh

...es on the perspective of information to explore the development of agricultural modernisation and to provide the theoretical reference for the development of agricultural informatisation in Hebei province China. The relevant literature and the results of the research have been collected to understand the agricultural informatisation in Hebei province and adopted the system analysis method to focus on the existing problems and to put forward the significant and...

Iftikhar Ud Din* and Qamruz Zaman 

...to be estimated, and the information whether the design is balance or unbalance play a significant role and discussed in the present study. 

...
Hayat Zada1, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1,*, Ijaz Ali2, Bashir Ahmad1, Abdul Waheed Khan2 and Shabeer Ahmad2
... (I) and Shannon’s information index (h) for three populations were 1.336, 0.304 and 0.437, respectively. Nei’s unbiased measures of genetic identity and genetic distance revealed that higher genetic distance was observed among the isolates from Kalam and Madyan (97.87 %) whereas low genetic distance (35.58%) was calculated for C. pomonella isolates from Matta and Madyan. These results revealed that molecular variations among the population ...
Pin Lyu1, Xiangxian Chen2* andQinlong Liu3*
...udies could provide more information for effective treatment of this pathological condition. In this study, adult rats were divided into four groups namely natural healing (control), exercise and massage, massage only and exercise only and received acute skeletal contusion to the right tibialis anterior, followed by corresponding rehabilitation methods. The injured muscular tissues and blood samples were collected pre-injury and post-injury on day 1, 2, 4, 6, ...
Muamber Shah1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1, Rifat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mobashar1, Mubashar Ali Khalique2, Irfan Khattak3, Ambrina Tariq4, Ijaz Ahmad1 and Shabana Naz5,*
...e results give important information regarding the semen quality of different breeds of bulls under heat stress condition.
...

Muhammad Yasin1, Romana Shahzadi1, Muhammad Riaz2, Mahideen Afridi2, Wajya Ajmal3, Obaid Ur Rehman2, Nazia Rehman3, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1,3, Muhammad Ramzan Khan1,2,3* 

...nt basic gene expression information about shattering genes for developing genome edited plants to prevent yield losses in canola in future. 

...
Jie Zhang1,2,*, Baradi Waryani3,4 and Qihai Zhou2,*
...oreover, the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.869 to 0.949. The cross-species amplification and applicability were also evaluated on Protosalanx chinensis, Neosalanx anderssoni, Neosalanx argentea and Neosalanx oligodontis, and 6-7 loci were amplified in these species. The outcome of the present investigation would be useful in understanding genetic diversity, gene flow and the population structure of this ...
Jing Hu1,2, Yan Liu2,3, Gang Yu1,2, Changping Yang2,3, Binbin Shan2,3, Shengnan Liu2,4 and Dianrong Sun2,3,*
...ich provides fundamental information for future artificial breeding and taxonomy of A. schlegelii and other relative species.
...
Arif Jan*, Abdul Rab, Haroon, Rooh Ullah, Tauheed Ullah and Ikram Ullah
...The study provides basic information about the reproductive potential and behavior of S. plagiostomus which will be handy towards its culture.
...

Rizwan Ahmad and Muhammad Zulfiqar* 

...s, making meteorological information available to farmers, Design research plans to evolve wheat varieties addressing changing climatic challenges, construct water harvesting structures for high efficiency irrigation and further research to estimate range of temperature and precipitation within which crops under study perform better. 

...

 Aftab Khan1, Shahid Ali1, Murtaza1, Sufyan Ullah Khan2 and Syed Attaullah Shah1

...led respondents, lack of information regarding application of such inputs and lack of availability of credit to them to use the appropriate and recommended dose of these inputs. Allocative efficiencies of tractor hours, FYM and labour were 1.16, 1.02 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting that these inputs were efficiently utilized. Facilitation of maize growers with subsidized and timely availability of inputs, provision of agriculture credit with reasonable inte...

Naveed Afsar* and Muhammad Idrees 

...source of climate change information of the majority of farmers was electronic media and the overall regression analysis of the climate change perceptions reveal that climate change is happening and long-term mean temperatures have been increased with a significant decrease in the long-term mean rainfall over the past decades. The study recommends that farmers should be trained well to more appropriately tackle the menace of climate change, extension workers s...
Muhammad Saleem Hanif1, Khalid Javed Iqbal1,*, Arshad Javid3, Noor Khan2, Irfan4, Hamid Majeed5, Muhammad Altaf3
...s study sites to collect information from fishermen through well prepared questionnaire. It was observed fishermen in both study sites were of 20 -55 year of age having maximum family size of 7-10 individuals. Illiterate fishermen were recorded to be 50 and 40 % at head Punjnad and Taunsa, respectively. Fishermen maximum yearly income at both study sites were in the range of 70,000 - 80,000 PKR (Pakistan rupees). The study had confirmed most of the fishermen w...

Sajjad Ali1, Atta-ur-Rahman1 and Sher Ali2* 

...chniques like Geographic information system and remote sensing are used to detect land use changes. This study is carried out at three levels; initially the whole tehsil is studied for land use change analysis by comparing 1985 and 2015 Landsat images. Secondly, four sample union councils were targeted for medium level analysis. Thirdly, seven sample villages are targeted for micro level. The Landsat images of 1985 and 2015 are obtained from the open source Gl...

Wajid Khan* and Raziuddin 

...gor and segregation. The information generated from this study could be useful for breeders to develop hybrids with better seed yield and oil quality traits through heterosis breeding. 

...
Huaisheng Zhang1, Pengfei Li2, Huajun Wen2, Guangming Tian1, Hui Chen1, Lu Zhang1 and Jianqiang Zhu1,*
... of the precision of the information on the Milu in biology and population history, the research on Milu has developed rapidly in recent years. In this paper, the authors summarize the principal research work of 30 years on the population development, habitat, disease dynamics, and biological or genetic characteristics of Père David’s deer in detail, review the research status and progress and examine the trends in the development and direction of...
Yacheng Hu1,2, Xueqing Liu1,2, Jing Yang1,2, Kan Xiao1,2, Binzhong Wang1,2 and Hejun Du1,2,*
...2 to 0.427), polymorphic information content (PIC, 0.482 to 0.753) and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Indices (H’, 0.827 to 1.565) of all the 17 polymorphic loci indicated a high level of informativeness. Those markers will be useful tool to study the genetic diversity of Dabry’s sturgeon.
...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...study concludes that new information regarding the efficacy of these two insecticides which can be used to replace the conventional, over-aged and less effective insecticides that have been extensively used in controlling RPW.  
...

Shaikh Abdul Lateef, Zhou Lin, Wu Jian, Junjie Qian and Zheng Shusen* 

Himanshu Mishra, Vikas Kumar and Ashish Kumar*
...udy provide the baseline information about the population of migratory birds and the rate of habitat utilization at the Bakhira bird sanctuary. 
...
Zhijun Zhong1, Rui Tu1, Xichun Wang2, Yi Geng1, Qicheng Xiao1, Yinan Tian1, Bin Wei1, Jiaming Dan1, Ya Wang1 and Guangneng Peng1,*
.... However, in China, information regarding brucellosis in pet dogs caused by B. canis is limited. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive molecular, pathological, and immunohistochemical analysis to detect this pathogen in pet dogs. Molecular methods, combining three types of PCR assays, identified two strains isolated from two pet dogs as Brucella canis. Histopathological changes revealed extensive inflammation and necrosis in the...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Rehan Khalid1, Muhammad Yahya1 and Khurram Shehzad2
...ies can provide valuable information about the prevailing status of soil quality. The present study was aimed to evaluate the population abundance and diversity of edaphic arthropod groups in different land-use types and categories in different localities of District Sargodha (Punjab, Pakistan). Moreover, the quality status of soils under these land-use types or categories was also determined by working out the soil biological quality (QBS) index. Extensive so...

Ahmed Zia1*, Iqtidar Hussain2, Sardar Azhar Mehmood2, Shabir Ahmad2, Muzaffar Shah3 and Abdul Rauf Bhatti1 

... bring forward important information for the migratory species between Afghanistan and Pakistan. 

...

Riaz Hussain Pasha1*, Muhammad Zubair Anjum2, Imran Ullah2, Muhammad Akram Khan3, Adnan Ali4, Saif-Ur-Rehman5, Sana Batool2 and Arslan Emmanuel

...g summer season and this information will be helpful in culturing of this economically important catfish in Pakistan. 

...

Ahmed Zia* 

...wn. To date, there is no information available for its male and immature stages. It is second species for the genus to be recorded from Pakistan. Distributional details along with important taxonomic characters and habitat information is discussed in detail to facilitate readers of this document. A key to the known species of Coeliccia from Pakistan is also provided. A need to conduct further surveys in whole hill belt is hi...

Saifullah* and Ihsan Mabood Qazi 

...justify;">Due to lake of information regarding the wheat varieties grown in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, this study was design to investigate the chemical composition, functional properties and microstructure of fine wheat flour (FWF) and whole wheat flour (WWF) of the selected varieties. These varieties were collected from different research stations located in the province. The grains were milled using laboratory scale flour mill. Part of the flour of each variety wa...
Muhammad Asghar Hassan1, Imran Bodlah1*, Ayesha Aihetasham2,Muhammad Adnan Bodlah3, Khadim Hussain4
...ary photographs, habitat information, previous distribution and remarks are provided. 
...

Sanaullah1, Fazli Rabbi2*, Shahid Ali2, Zeeshan Khan3 and Muhammad Zamin4 

...ructure, tourists’ information facilities, telecommunication, affordable public transport system, and comfortable accommodation for the tourists. In the past few years, the development of this tourists’ spot has been neglected in the public development budget. Moreover, due to the war against militancy in Swat, the frequency of tourists was declined in the valley. As a consequence, the livelihoods of the local population were adversely affected. As...
Yanyan Yu1,2,3, Yizhong Hu1, Qipeng Zhang1, Rongquan Zheng1,4,*, Bing Shen1, Shenshen Kong1 and Ke Li1
...lts may provide acoustic information of the spiny frog to further develop effective conservation recommendations for this economically important but threatened animal.
...

Gulfam Hassan1*, Ijaz Ashraf2, Muhammad Qavi Irshad3, Shafiq-ur-Rehman Zia2 and Muhammad Idrees

... and provision of timely information in case of strengths of training programs. While looking into weaknesses of trainings, vegetable growers disclosed the unavailability of literature and bad condition of training equipment the top most weaknesses of trainings. On basis of results it is recommended that Extension Field Staff (EFS) should organize more trainings equipped with appropriate literature and skilled trainers for the enhanced awareness. 

...
Muhammad Asif Gondal, Qazal Waheed, Sana Tariq, Waseem Haider, Aisha Khan, Qudsia Rasib and Haroon Ahmed*
...freshwater malacological information is sparse within Pakistan specifically in the foothills of Margalla hills. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the habitat preference of freshwater snails to environmental factors. However, only 3 species of snail were found from the 13 sites of Islamabad during the period of study. The presence of the snails like Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exustus and Gyraulus convexiusculus belon...

Sanaullah1*, Urooba Pervaiz1, Shahid Ali2, Mohammad Fayaz2 and Aftab Khan

... of technical and timely information to the farming community and organizing local trainings and learning workshops. It is recommended that farm inputs i.e. fertilizers, seed and pesticides needs to be subsidized to enable farmers apply recommended quantities of these inputs for getting the optimum yield. Extension department needs to introduce improved farming practices among farming community to achieve higher maize yields. 

...
Meriem Msaad Guerfali1,*, Heitham Hamden1, Salma Fadhl1, Wafa Djobbi1, Lotfi Sillini1, Wafa Marzouki1 and Mohammed Ammar2
...mers and to give precise informations about treatment management state. Surveys and sampling of the wild strain of Ceratitis capitata were conducted in several regions to learn about the nature and number of treatments. The samples were subjected to ingestion toxicity bioassays of malathion and spinosad at different concentrations. Histopathological effects of spinosa...
Yunfang Tian, Zeqin Fu, Jiantong Feng, Yahong Guo, Yingying Ye*, Jiji Li and Baoying Guo
...vious studies of genetic information about M. meretrix were vague. None integrated research to reveal the population genetic and structure of M. meretrix in China from north to south. In this study, we investigated the genetic variation of seven location samples distributing the China coastline from north to south by mitochondrial DNA (COI and Cytb genes). The genetic diversity of seven samples was in a high level (h = 0.879-...

Ihsanullah Kakr1, Sarwar Khan2, Khalid Khan3* and Sajjad Ahmed

...vey of Camel farmers and information regarding the age of respondent, experience, type of community, feeding/watering pattern of camels, prevailing camel diseases in the area, treatment facilities, traditional remedies used by them against various diseases in camels and economic losses were collected. A total of one thousand and forty (n=1040) camel owners/respondents from three groups viz settled, transhumants and nomads were interviewed in Districts, Musa Kh...

Muhammad Ramzan, Unsar Naeem-Ullah*, Mahreen Hanif, Muhammad Nadeem, Mirza Abdul Qayyum, Muhammad Javaid 

...ory conditions to elicit information about every stage like egg, larva, pupa and adult of Plutella xylostella on natural diet. The study revealed that incubation period of eggs varies from 3.2-4.3 hours. There are four larval instars of Plutella xylostella. The first, second, third and fourth instar larva survived for 3-5,3,1-4 and 2-3 days respectively while pupal and prepupal period lasted for 5-3 days, respectively. Adults lived for 4 to 5 days and life per...
Ali Asghar1*, Tariq Mukhtar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Asim Gulzar2
...="font-size: small;">The information on the interaction between root-knot nematodes and bacterial wilt is lacking in chili, therefore, in the present study, effects of Meloidogyne javanica and Ralstonia solanacearum were studied on chili singly and in combinations. Significant effects of M. javanica and R. solanacearum and their interaction were observed in case of shoot and root lengths and weights of chili. The mean lengths and we...
Gong Ga1,2 and SuoLang Sizhu2,*
...demic in China. However, information is lacking on the prevalence of HEV infection in swine in Tibet of China, where raw pork and mixed farming of different species of domestic animals are consumed traditionally. In this study, 173 serum samples of Tibetan swine were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies by the ELISA. HEV RNA were measured in feces (n=173), serum (n=173) and tissue ((including liver, spleen, kidney and intestine, n=21) by n...
Maria Khalid1, Tanveer Hussain1*, Zahid Farooq2, Kamran Abbas1 and Masroor Ellahi Babar1  
...y gave us useful genomic information about genetic diversity in A. chukar and its phylogenetic relationships with related taxa, emphasizing on need of execution of conservation strategies to protect this unique genetic resource of Pakistan.
...
Qingzhan Ma1, Bo Wu1, Jianping Jiang2 and Zhaobin Song1,3*
... The average polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.525 (POPD) to 0.733 (POPA) indicating high polymorphism (PIC > 0.5). The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) in the eight populations ranged from 0.504 (POPH) to 0.767 (POPG) and from 0.6 (POPD) to 0.781 (POPA), respectively. The results showed that the eight populations possess considerable genetic diversity. The largest genetic differentiation ...

Muhammad Shakeel1,2*, Salik Nawaz2, Yasar Saleem3, Shazia Shafique2, Ateeq Tahir2 and Muhammad Riaz2

Cornelius Arome Omatola*, Samson Daniel Iyeh, Shedrach James Abuh, Charles Kehinde Mofolorunsho, Martin-Luther Oseni Okolo and Phoebe Queen Akoh 

...th consequences of STIs, information is lacking regarding the magnitude of the disease in the study setting. This study investigated the prevalence of five major STIs (HIV, HBV, HCV, HSV-2 and syphilis) in asymptomatic women in Anyigba. Sera samples from a cross-section of 250 consenting pregnant women on antenatal visits to five health facilities were screened for HIV, HBV, HCV and HSV-2 using commercially available immunochromatographic based kits and for sy...
Lei Wang1, Lu Yang2, Lei Luo1, Yaqi Gao1*, Jian Gao1 and Ping Liu1
...ng, enriches the genetic information of A. cinerarius, and accelerates research aimed at addressing the regularity of genetic variations.
...

Riffat Sultana*, Nuzhat Soomro and Muhammad Saeed Wagan

... first time. Comparative information on the female genitalia of both species is provided. Further, a note on the ecology and distribution of both species is given. With the addition of O. kashmorensis and the new record of O. nitidula, the numbers of known species in genus Oxya is raised to 9 for Pakistan and 5 for Sindh. We further provide a key to the Oxya species from Sindh.
...
Yue Qin Song, Hui Zhong Sun* and Jun Feng Dong
...ides valuable biological information for studying the olfactory communication system of Y. signatus.
...
Xiuqing Hao1, Zhe Hong2, Huili Gao1, Fumin Tian1, Hongke Zhang3, Yu Zhou3, Yuming Guo3, Guang Yang1,* and Bingyao Chen1,*
...ze: small;">The baseline information of density, distribution pattern of seabird community, and seabird-fishery interactions in the oceans are still relatively rare in China. From November 2013 to January 2014, we utilized line-transect method to investigate the bird community and fishery vessel in Beihai and Shatian, northern Beibu Gulf, China, for obtaining the baseline knowledge. The best model generated the seabirds’ density of 11.47 (95% confidence ...
Muhammad Tahir Waseem1, Abdul Majid Khan1*, Saliha Khalid1, Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Ayesha Iqbal1, Muhammad Ameen1
...ortax. The available information on both taxa is scanty and only few specimens are known for both genera especially Pachyportax. The members of both genera have medium to large sized body with strong hypsodonty of teeth representing grazing on coarse grasses and shrubs in the Late Miocene Siwalik habitats of Potwar Plateau. At the apex of molar, crown is narrow and represents selenodonty in Selenoportax, while a broader crown in Pachyporta...

Arshad Farooq1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan2, Abdul Hassan1, Muhammad Ishaq3 and Asif Nawaz

...ide training and special information about sugarcane recommended management practices in the research area. 

...

Shah Nawaz Khuhro1*, Irshad Ali Junejo1, Muhammad Haroon Hullio1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan2, Sultan Ahmed Maitlo3 and Mukhtiar Ahmed Shaikh

...interview for background information about the growers’ status on pesticide application. The results show that the majority of the growers did not get any kind of trainings on sustainable use of pesticides. Results indicated that, 46.96% vegetable growers belong to middle age groups between 29-38 years. Most of them 40.90% possess low literacy up to primary and 27.27% farmers were middle pass. Most growers performed cultural practices, majority of farmer...
Muhammad Mohibullah1*, Mehran1, Sundas Batool1, Muhammad Amin1, Zakiullah1, Muhammad Ilyas2, Irfanullah1, Abdur Rehman1 and Sardar Ali3
...riability and sufficient information in further breeding programs to introduce ideotype chickpea genotypes.
...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
... is endemic in Pakistan, information on disease serosurveillance of prevailing strains in Gilgit-Balitistan (GB) territory is scarce. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the seroprevalence of PPRV and to evaluate potential risk factors involved in the transmission of PPR disease in four distinct locations of GB province. We reported occurrence and risk factor analysis of PPR in small ruminants (n=1000) originating from different places in distr...

Olotu Titilayo Mabel*, Adeosun Idowu Jesulayomi, Kaka Mary Oluwatosin and Oladipo Elijah Kolawole 

... which will provide more information on its sensitivity and resistivity to each antiviral drug. Seventeen partial genome sequences of HIV-1 Pol gene from some West African countries were retrieved from NCBI database. Evolutionary relationship was determined by Multiple sequence alignment using Clusta W and the sequences were further analyzed using MEGA 6 for phylogenetic tree. The sensitivity to antiviral drugs was analyzed using the Stanford University HIV Dr...

 Abdus Salam* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...eptions regarding use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in agriculture extension at three selected districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Based on the multi-stage sampling technique, population for the current study, 3 zones from 5 were purposively selected on the basis of their different agricultural condition. Selection of sample size was made using Yamane formula. The number of respondents as per formula was confined to 188 respondents in distri...

 Gulzar Mehmood1*, M. Zahid Khan1, Haseeb Ur Rahman1, and Sohail Abbas2

AN EFFICIENT AND SECURE SESSION KEY ESTABLISHMENT SCHEME FOR HEALTH-CARE APPLICATIONS IN WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS
...rity and patients’ information privacy. In such applications ensuring human
vital sign privacy and security is very important. To address this important issue, in this paper we propose a novel
secure session key establishment scheme for WBAN in health-care domain to ensure security and privacy of vital
sign related to human body. In the proposed scheme, session key is established for a specific period of time in order
to commu...

Sahib Khan1, Muhammad Naeem2, Tawab Khan3, Nasir Ahmad4* 

4LSB BASED DATA HIDING IN COMPLEX REGION OF DIGITAL IMAGES AND ITS EFFECTS ON EDGES AND HISTOGRAM
...municating secret
information. The complex region in a digital image is the least sensitive to human visual system (HVS) in term of
changes than smooth region. The data hiding in the complex regions affect the edges and the histogram of the image.
These two may cause the existence of hidden information to be detected. In this paper, the effect on image edges
and histogram is investigated when subj...

Naseem Ahmad1, Sahar Noor1, Rehman Akhtar1*, Misbah Ullah1, Khizar Azam2 

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF COMPRESSOR TO RECOVER FLARE GAS USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT TECHNIQUES
...ategorized and pertinent information is togethered from various resources. The information is
thoroughly studied to enhance factors performance and the factors were set up according to the modified compressor
compression system. The suggested equipped factors guide to enhance the recuperate of low pressure burn gas and
the proposed approach of the performance parameters guide to cost effective taking out...

Khizar Azam1*, Abdul Shakoor1, Shahid Maqsood2, Muddasar Habib3, Muhammad Fahad4, Akhtar Zaib1 

IDENTIFICATION OF SITES FOR ESTABLISHING PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR FARMS IN PAKISTAN USING SOLAR GEOMETRY
...le Earth, a geographical information program to identify optimal sites for Pakistan. These sites should
also include basic requirements for a PV plant such as availability of local grid, barren land, roads, water, and good
climatic conditions. The Average solar intensity (I) was calculated by using solar geometry on a daily basis, which
served as the basis for annual projections. It has been found that the best location for building a sola...

Rahim Haider*, Al Mustaan Kakar*, Sikandar Bilal Khattak*, Safi ur Rahman**, Shahid Maqsood*, Misbah Ullah*, Rehman Akhtar*, Aamir Sikandar* 

DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMIZED MAINTENANCE SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE FLEET
...rates the
flow of information by incorporating different maintenance strategies. The analysis is carried out on the basis of
likelihood of the failures. Five Why Analysis is used to identify the root cause. The model incorporates the inspection
method by using checklists and maintenance schedules. The system is capable to provide the basis for an advance
system development. 

...

Muhammad Naveed Anjum1, Abdur Rehman1*, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan1, Raheel Saqib2, Mohammad Fayaz3 and Iqbal Javed4

Impact of Microfinance on Socioeconomic Status of Farmers in District Dera Ismail Khan
...s high interest rate, no information about microfinance institutions, the complicated loans procedures, not believing on microfinance, small loan amount and not availability of loan at proper time. The farmers contacted the local agricultural credit officers, with governmental and non-governmental organizations and with different friends and relatives. The overall study concluded that the socioeconomic status of the farmers had been improved due to microcredit...

Shaukat Ali*, Shah Khusro*, Laiq Hasan**, Asif Ali Khan**

A SURVEY OF MOBILE PHONES CONTEXT-AWARENESS USING SENSING COMPUTING RESEARCH
...ture peoples' contextual information, paving the way for the development of cutting-edge context-aware applications. Mobile phone sensing is old wine in a new bottle, having its roots extended from context-aware mobile computing. Mobile phones sensing capabilities can be exploited for developing context-aware applications to answer a number of real-world problems belonging to different sectors including automatic road condition detection and tra...

Muhammad Imran Ahmad*, Nan Zhang**, Megan Jobson**, Muhammad Younas*, Kamran Ghani***

DELUMPING PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTION OF DISTRIBUTION OF PRODUCTS IN DISTILLATION USING A SHORT-CUT MODEL
...ps retain molecular information of composition of petroleum fractions and may help extend the premise of molecular components-based modeling to separation processes such as distillation.
...

Inayat Ullah*, Shah Khusro**, Saeed Mahfooz**, Azhar Rauf**

IMPACT OF NETWORK SCALABILITY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF RIP AND IGRP FOR EMAIL SERVICES

Muhammad Tahir Manzoor*, Javed Iqbal*, Mohammad Inayatullah Babar*, Zeeshan Sabir* Khizar Azam*

MULTI HOP CLUSTER DESIGN IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
... networks used to gather information from different environment factors. It is a promising technology which is composed of tiny sensing objects called sensors that are wirelessly distributed in the environment of interest in the form of clusters. Consumption of energy of sensor nodes depends on the size of the cluster and the amount of information send over the network. An inherent problem with the WSN is...

Asif Nawaz*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Rehmat Ullah, Khalid Nawab and Urooba Pervaiz

Investigation of Professional Competency Level and Training Needs of Field Assistants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Fazli Rabbi1*, Muhammad Idrees2, Shahid Ali1, Muhammad Zamin3 and Hazrat Bilal4

Farmers Perceptions and Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Production and Marketing
...ir access to markets and information. While others 78.6 % opinioned that ICTs have reduced the influence of the middle man in peach (P. persica L.) marketing. The findings further show a positive association between ICTs use and farmers’ socioeconomic and farm-level characteristics. More educated farmers and those who receive foreign remittances are more likely to use ICTs. Farmers’ awareness level is a significant determinant of the adoption of th...

Syed Mufeed Hadi Naqvi1*, Badar Naseem Siddiqui1, Waqar-Ul-Hassan Tareen1, Muhammad Ameer Qarib Naqvi2 and Naseeb Hussain3

Usage of Mobile Phone by Vegetable Growers and its Impact on Vegetable Production
...hone by this they obtain information regarding vegetables. The results of the study disclosed it a positive correlation (0.163) among mobile phone usage (Time) and production of vegetables. Results of the t-statistics in this study showed that maximum mobile usage group had higher yield than minimum mobile usage group. The study recommend that government should plan capacity building programme for the vegetable growers with the collaboration of telecommunicati...
Sitara Nawaz1, Shamaila Irum1, Haroon Ahmed2, Shazia Shamas1, Sadia Roshan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi4, Irfan Ullah5*, Gulnaz Parveen3*
... Leishmaniasis. Clinical information of 124 patients was recorded. Observable factors of prevalence include age group, gender, financial status, clinical symptoms, and travel history. The sandflies also collected and identified. Out of 350 sandflies two genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia were reported, P. segenti was most abundant specie and a strong positive linear correlation exists between sandflies collected and the patients reported ...
Sumaira, Ali Mujtaba Shah*, Ghulam Asghar Solangi, Ifra Anwar, Qudratullah Kalwar 
... which previously little information exists. The work may be helpful in future for detailed re-search on camel milk and its uses for children. 
...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...s little or no access to information for integrated farming system. Strong association was observed between awareness for better farming choices and preferred farming practices that shows Extension intervention is required to encourage farmers choose advanced farming practices like IFS.

...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Saima Sadaf1, Adnan Ahmad1, Usman Rafique1 and Muhammad Arshad Javed1

An Assessment of Farmers’ Awareness Level Regarding Integrated Farming System in District Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
...s little or no access to information for integrated farming system. Strong association was observed between awareness for better farming choices and preferred farming practices that shows Extension intervention is required to encourage farmers choose advanced farming practices like IFS.

...

Mohammad Aslam Khan*, Samiullah* and Zulfiqar Ali*

DYNAMICS OF URBAN SPATIAL GROWTH AND PLANNING: A CASE STUDY OF PESHAWAR
...es of Pakistan. Data and information for the study were collected from historic maps, documents and satellite images. The analysis shows that the city has been growing at a rapid pace adding about 500 ha of land annually in recent years and in the absence of planning control has seen tremendous urban sprawl. The pattern of development of urban sprawl in Peshawar is typical of most Pakistani major cities, where ribbon sprawl is common along major...

Asadullah Saleem* and Nadeem Ehsan*

STATUS OF PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS IN INFRASTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION FIRMS OF PAKISTAN
...s ignore the performance information needs of critical stakeholders like employees, customers and suppliers. Further the system design is marred by short-termism and less attention is paid to non-financial
performance drivers necessary for achieving long term goals.
...
Muhammad Shaheen
APPLICATION OF LABELLED K MEANS CLUSTERING FOR GIS CONTRACT AUTOMATION

 Nashitah Alwaz1, Safdar Raza1*, Sadaqat Ali1

A COMMUNICATION-FREE SIGNAL GENERATING TECHNIQUE FOR REACTIVE POWER CORRECTION IN ISLANDED MICROGRID
...active power without the information of feeder line impedances/ This accurate reactive power sharing scheme has been started locally without the need of communication signal from the central controller. Thus, there is no delay in monitoring the notable changes in microgrid caused by DGs. The careful selection of PI & droop controller parameters through PSO makes the system more stable as compared to the conventional methods in terms of ...

Abdul Shakoor1, R.A. Sayed2, Khizar Azam2

KNOWLEDGE BASE TECHNOLOGIES AS A NEW PARADIGM IN DATA DRIVEN MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
...nt requires wide-ranging information based decision support system. The knowledge sharing framework requires an extensive research to improve inter-operatiability of cross-functional systems and subsequently provide the basis for diverse utilization of knowledge base technologies in manufacturing. The effective knowledge sharing framework in manufacturing industries is used to speed-up the New Product Development & Introduction (NPDI) p...

Farah Mahmood1, Mohammad Inayatullah Babar1, Syed Waqar Shah1, Hamid Ullah1, Riaz Akbar Syed1

GPS ASSISTED HANDOFF IN OVERLAPPING IPv6 WLAN WITH MULTIPLE CoA
...) for gathering location information and multiple care of addresses handoff assistance.
...

 Usman Ali Naeem*, Hashim Nisar*, Habib-ur-Rehman** and Naeem Ejaz*

DEVELOPMENT OF FLOOD DISCHARGE MODELS USING GIS
...nbsp;is to have accurate information of the catchment areas, so that in coordination with concerned departments, modeling and predictions of futuristic results is possible which will yield better decision making leading to fructifying outcome. Physical hydrologic models for drainage areas are significant utensils to hold water assets management and foresee diverse hydrologic contacts and risks. Indus River is considered as salvation of Paki...
Samet Hasan Abaci1,*, Hasan Onder1, Mustafa Sahin2 and Esra Yavuz3
... Durbin Watson (DW), the information criteria of Akaike (AIC) and the coefficient of determination (R2) were used as comparison criteria. Kruskal Wallis H test was used to compare comparison criteria in different models. The Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the groups in pairs. Results showed that four knots was sufficient for J breed MSE: 0.640 ± 0.0652, DW: 2.272 ± 0.0232, AIC: 16.927 ± 1.0649, R2: 0.982 &plu...

Uzma Arif1, Sadar Uddin Siddiqui2, Muhammad Fareed Khan1, Muhammad Arshad3 and Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi

...elopment from start. The information generated on seed behavior under storage conditions in this study; would be helpful to devise better strategy for short- and long-term storage of carrot seeds as well as seed of other crops of similar category. 

...

Zahid Hassan Tarar1, Muhammad Salik Ali Khan2*, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi3, Raza Salim4, Irfan Ahmad Saleem1, Saima Nazar5, Munir David2, Tahir Majeed6, Muhammad Sufyan Mughal7, Muhammad Saleem8, Umer Iqbal9, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal10 and Muhammad Khalid Shaheen

Guang-Hui Tan, Yi-Yu Zhang*, Yuan-Yu Qin, Lei Wu and Jie-Zhang Li
...tively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of CDS 216 A>G and CDS 681 T>A was 0.372 and 0.269, respectively, and both belonged to medium levels of genetic diversity. Association analysis revealed that two SNPs were significant association with at least four of seven lipid indexes. Allele A of CDS 216 A>G locus and allele T of CDS 681 T>A locus was favorable to improving meat quality, respectively. Three haplotypes and six diplotypes were id...

Zakeer Ahmed Khan Abbasi* and Allah Nawaz 

...authentic and need based information, would significantly help farmers to undertake more relevant, effective and efficient adaptation measures, thereby, contributing in increasing the agriculture yield and reduce losses. However, imprudent projection of climate change adaptation issues without proper awareness about the associated dynamics, complexities and implications may petrify the farmers thus, yielding negative ramifications with regards to the outcomes....
Faruk Çolak1 and Ferhat Matur2,3,*
... convey species-specific information. The lesser blind mole rats (Nannospalax sp.) are obligate subterranean rodents known for their remarkable chromosomal variation. In the present study, we investigated whether the structure of seismic signalling is different between the two species found in Turkey, Nannospalax leucodon and the N. xanthodon and whether it is associated with ecological, sex, temporal and chromosomal peculiarities. A cytot...
Shagufta Parveen1*, Kousar Perveen1, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Amir Gilani2, Muhammad Musadaq3

Oluwatoyin Olagunju1* and Luqman Abiodun Akinbile2

Farmers Perceptions of the Effect of Rural Transportation Systems on Farming Income in Ondo State, Nigeria
...ew was used in eliciting information from 120 farmers in rural communities across the two local governments in the study area using a two-stage random sampling technique. Data used for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as chi-square and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The study revealed that farmers perceived the quality of transportation system causes a reduction in their income. Gender (χ2=6.4...
Fei Wang1, Xianlai Zhang1, Youbao Zhong2, Xiaoen Tang3, Xiaofen Hu1
ShanShan Yang1, Shengwei Zhong1, Zuohong Zhou1, Jin Liu1, Xu Yuan1 
and Yong Li1*
...osal immune system as an information molecule due to the high expression of VIP. It will provide the basis for clarifying the biological function of VIP in pigeons.
...
Safia Arbab1, Rehana Buriro1, Shams Uddin Bhugio1, Atta Hussain Shah2,  Jamila Soomro3,Qudratullah Kalwar4, Saqib Ali Fazilani1 and Waseem Ali Vistro5*
...s. However, very limited information is documented about antibacterial activity of Aloe Vera in equines. The present study was designed to check the antibacterial activity of the Aloe Vera against most pathogens found in the wounds of donkey. For this purpose, two different concentrations 30 µl and 60 µl crude as well as ethanol extract of Aloe Vera were used. During this experiment, total 50 wound samples were collected from donkey wounds. All 50 ...
Zumama Khalid1, Muhammad Abrar Yousaf2, Abeedha Tu-Allah Khan1Farah Rauf Shakoori2, Muhammad Munir3 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori1*
... field to gather as much information about every aspect of this disease as possible. Also, a clear difference is prevalent in different regions of the world about the rate of deaths and survivals. Therefore, the current comprehensive review has been written in view of all these aspects so as to present a complete picture of where the world stands, how can the disease be coped, what myths have been developed along with this new pandemic, and what measures shoul...

Israr Yasin1, Ismail Qureshi1*, Shahjahn Qaimkhani1, Gulam Mustafa Solangi3, Ismail Qaimkhani1, Ismail Brohi1 and Abdul Ahad Soomro2

A Perspective on Household Dairy Farming in District Naushahro Feroze, Sindh, Pakistan
...conducted to collect the information on household dairy farming with special reference to management of livestock, milk production and marketing as well as role of livestock in household income in district Naushahro Feroze of Sindh-Province Pakistan. Six hundred households were selected from 40 villages in four out of nine Talukas (administrative units) using multistage clustering method. Estimates of the study revealed that 54% of the households possessed buf...

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Syed Amir Zia Abid1, Muhammad Luqman1, Syed Wasim Hasan2, Muhammad Aqeel Pitafi3, Muhammad Tariq Chaudhry4 and Muhammad Ameen5

Training Needs Assessment of Training Professionals Working in Agricultural Training Institutes in Punjab, Pakistan
...atic procedure to gather information regarding needs of employees with emphasis to gain organizational objectives. Therefore, the current study was conducted to access the training needs of training professionals working in Agricultural Training Institutes (ATIs) of Punjab. For this purpose, data were collected from all training professionals of four ATI in Punjab with the help of structured questionnaire. Different questions related to demographic attributes,...

Shereen Zulfikar1, Zulfikar Ahmed Maher2, Attaullah Khan Pathan4, Imran Ali Rajput3*, Din Muhammad Soomro1, Muhammad Akbar Lashari1, Arsalan Memon3, Sibghatullah5 and Mir Zehri Khan5

Population Fluctuation and Weight Losses Caused by Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts on Different Wheat Varieties
...be useful to provide the information for controlling T. granarium on wheat.

...

Kanwar Muhammad Raheel Mehboob1, Rashid Iqbal2*, Muhammad Israr3,4, Jaweria Shamshad5, Umair Riaz6, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman7,8, Fawad Ali9, Arif Nawaz10, Maliha Sarfraz11, Abdul Waheed12, Muhammad Tahir Khan13 and Muhammad Aslam2

 

Assessment of the Consequences of Heat Changes on Cotton Cultivars Growth, Phenology and Yield at Different Sowing Regimes
...rature sensitive. Hence, information on appropriate temperature for best yield is significant so as to get maximum production. In current examination, a field test was directed to evaluate the phenology, relative development, ideal sowing time, comparative growth just as yield execution of three cultivars of Bacillus thuringiensis Cotton (Bt. Cotton) at different sowing systems during summer 2015 at cotton research station Regional Agriculture Research Institu...

Muhammad Shakeel1*, Mudussar Nawaz1, Zahid Naseer1, Muhammad Fiaz1, Asghar Khan1, Muhammad Imran Khan1, Awais Ur Rehman1, Ahmad Yar Qamar2 and Ali Raza3

Caprine and Ovine Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Five Districts of Punjab, Pakistan
...nt data provide baseline information about prevalence of brucellosis in different sheep and goat breeds in five districts of Punjab Pakistan.

...

Mohammad Javad Golmohammadi1, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust Chamanabad1*, Bijan Yaghoubi2 and Mostafa Oveisi3

GIS Applications in Surveying and Mapping of Rice Weeds in Guilan Province, Iran
...uts is based on accurate information from the weed composition of the farms in that area, the efficiency of these inputs is improved and weed damage is reduced.

...

Joseph Anejo-Okopi1*, Obinna Oragwa Arthur2, Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1, Sarah Joseph1, Geoffrey Chibueze1, Joshua Adetunji1, Joseph Ameh Okwori3, David Ochola Amanyi4, Otobo I. Ujah5 and Onyemocho Audu6

Seroprevalence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection among Slaughtered Ruminants in Jos, North-Central, Nigeria
...e administered to obtain information on animal species, sex, and localities of origin. The blood samples were screened for RVFV antibodies using competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assays (C-ELISA) to detect anti-RVFV IgG/IgM. Eleven out of 100 samples tested positive for anti-RVFV antibodies (prevalence=11%). Seropositive cases were more among cattle (16.0%) than goats (6.0%) (P=0.001). Seropositivity was also higher among the animals from Yan-shanu marke...

Attiq ur Rehman1,2*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil3 and Ihtisham Ali4

Genetic Diversity and Traits Association in Tetraploid and Hexaploid Wheat Genotypes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan

Qurrat ul Ain Akbar*, Saqib Arif, Shahid Yousaf, Salman Khurshid and Najmus Sahar

Effects of Flour Particle Size on Farinographic Properties of Wheat Dough
...gh development time. The information generated from this study would be useful in the preparation of whole wheat flour products including traditional flat bread and fiber enriched items.

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Nadeem Abbas Shah1*, Ejaz Ashraf1, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Zaheer ud Din Mirani3, Usman Rafique1 and Raees Abbas Shah4

Assessing Perceptions of the Households-heads Regarding Food Security Status in Drought-hit Areas of District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan: A Case Study for Agricultural Extension
...ources, and insufficient information for food security were the main factors cause food insecurity in the study area. The results further described the strategies adopted by respondents in the study area to combat food insecurity were the construction of water storage facilities, reliance on animals’ food products, kitchen gardening, reuse of preserved food and other products, migration to food secure areas and reduced number of meals eaten in a day. It ...

Mehnaz Safdar and Urooba Pervaiz*

Constraints in Accessing Agricultural Extension Services by Rural Women: Evidence from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...tives to investigate the information sources of women farmers and constraints they were facing in carrying out agricultural operations, 128  women respondents from each district were randomly selected and interviewed through pre-designed interview schedule in 2018. Results indicated that 47% respondents were in middle age category (31-40 years), 59% were illiterate, 91% women respondents were married and 75% households were headed by male. It was observed...

Sehrish Ashraaf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1* and Sajida Naseem2

...1 has potentially enough information for fast and accurate identification of spiders. Although, morphological studies alone are working satisfactory for the identification of spiders, still its efficiency increased when combined with DNA ba...
Nihat Tekel1, Seyrani Koncagül2, İlkay Baritci1, Halit Deniz Şireli1, Muhittin Tutkun1, Ecevit Eyduran3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*
...rs to achieve remarkable information in practice in terms of determining managerial problems, slaughtering age, ideal feed amounts, and the studied breed’s growth standards.
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Hassam Ud Din1*, Huma Rizwana1, Rameez Raja Kaleri2, Kaleem Ullah2 and Muhammad Din2
Evaluation of Production Performance and Marketing of Small Ruminants in District Dukki, Balochistan
...uring the year 2018. The information on various aspects was collected from the small ruminants farmers of five union councils i.e. Vialla Dukki, Thal, Nana Sahib, Sadar and Nasar Abad of district Dukki of Balochistan. The sample size was composed by producer (50), wholesalers (50) and retailer (50) for convenient sampling contribution of each selected producer involved in the business area. The result showed that in the study area (60.00%, 24.00% and 16.00%) f...

Muhammad Yaseen1*, Muhammad Luqman1*, Zahoor Hussain2, Usman Saleem3, Asif Nawaz1, Tahir Munir Butt4 and Muhammad Umer Mehmood1

Assessment of Knowledge Level and Information Sources of Vegetable Growers regarding Tunnel Farming in District Sargodha
...an effort to exploit the information sources of vegetable growers in district Sargodha aside from their knowledge level about vegetable production under tunnels. Every year there is a lot paid from the national exchequer for the import of vegetables, especially from the neighboring countries. To at least minimize those expenditures tunnel farming to a maximum level can give us a way forward. This transverse study has the Sargodha district as its universe. All ...
Kui Zhang1,2, Ping Geng1, Sher Khan Panhwar3, Khadim Hussain Memon4 and Zuozhi Chen1,2,*
...cal catch data and prior information on population parameters was applied to assess the total allowable catch (TAC) and MSY values for 24 commercial marine fish groups, and thereby assess the status of the fisheries. The results showed an overall MSY of 40.53×104 tonnes and a TAC of 36.47×104 tonnes for the marine fisheries in Pakistani waters. The overall catch in 2015 was less than MSY, so it was considered that the waters w...

Tasleem Akhtar1, 2, Ghazanfar Ali1,* and Nuzhat Shafi2

... upon fish resources. No information regarding LWRs and morphometric measurements of S. progastus and S. niger was available in Fish Base.
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Muhammad Ramzan, Unsar Naeem-Ullah*, Mudssar Ali and Hasan Riaz
...ogical and morphological information of Trilocha varians described in current paper will lead to proper management practices during peak reproductive period of insect to avoid pest outbreak. 
Jianjun Fu1, Shili Liu2, 3, Wenbin Zhu1, Yongyi Jia2, 3, Lanmei Wang1, Yufen Yang4, Zhimin Gu2, 3*and Zaijie Dong1*
...informative (polymorphic information content, PIC >0.5). We detected a significant correlation between exclusion probabilities for parent pairs (E-PP) and PIC (P<0.01). Simulation analysis revealed that a high assignment rate (>95%) was achieved when the number of candidate parents was less than 200. Meanwhile, real parentage analysis revealed that almost each offspring (135/136, 99.26%) was unambiguously assigned to a pare...

Masoud Hassani1* and Omid Madadgar2,3

Serological Evidence of Bluetongue in Iran: A Meta-Analysis Study
...absence of comprehensive information on the BT status in Iran. We aimed to present the seroprevalence on BT in farm animals of Iran based-on a meta-analysis study. The meta-analysis study was conducted in national and international databases to find articles which evaluated bluetongue seroprevalence by antibody-captured ELISA test in livestock in Iran by searching terms including bluetongue, sheep, ovine, goat, caprine, cow, cattle, bovine, buffalo, camel, Ira...
Inga Kowalewska-Łuczak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
...e;0.05). In summary, the information contained in this study may be useful for further analysis to determine the effect of the analyzed polymorphisms in the NCF4 and SAA2 genes on the milk production and reproductive traits of dairy cattle. 

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 Shafii Abdullahi Mohamed1, Abdiaziz Idiris Mohamud2*, Yonis Abukar Mohamed3, Pravin Mishra4 and Osman Sheikh Ali Jama5

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Population Towards Brucellosis in Benadir Region, Somalia
...uld like to receive more information about the disease and majority of participants have good practices when they handling the domesticated animals and their secretions 96.66% (n=116). Populations who are connected with livestock management or eating livestock products are frequently aware of the disease brucellosis. Though, they do not have as considerable knowledge, what is required to help in control it. Veterinarians, health care workers and respective gov...

Imran Ahmad Rana*, Muhammad Ali Yab and Ch. Abdul Rehman

Quality Engineering Tools Implementation a Comparison of Indian and Pakistani Business Organizations
Jun Yan Bai1*, Ren Tao Di Wu2, Qiang Zhang2, Di Bao2, Le Ma Dao2 and Xing Hua Tian3
...the average polymorphism information content was 0.5602. It showed that the population of Sonid bactrian camel had high genetic diversity. Among 17 microsatellite markers, 4 microsatellites were found to be associated with body size traits of Sonid bactrian camels. The body length of AB genotype labeled LCA33 was significantly higher than that of AA genotype (P<0.05), and the chest circumference, tube circumference and body weight of AB genotype were...
Mardan Aghabey Turghan1, Roller MaMing1*, Li Weidong2, Di Jie1 and Xu Guohua1
...f China (2010-2020). The information provided is based on field observations made from 2010 to 2017. A total of 172 bird species belonging to 95 genera of 42 families of 19 orders were identified as occurring in the reserve, accounting for 37.9% of the total bird species in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Among them, 85 species are migrants, 49 species resident, 33 species summer visitors and 5 species winter visitors. Six species of birds viz., Red-rumped ...
Ayesha Alam1,* and Labeeb Ali2
...f sewage water. Based on information from cited literature it is estimated that an individual handling sewage water have approximately 1% chance of becoming infected with virus. Treated sewage effluent and reuse of sewage water for recycle purposes must be considered as it may lead to widespread of COVID 19 in coming decade. Thus, a qualitative risk assessment and disinfection of water supplies based on reported infection rates suggested that viruses in treate...
Luka Anthony*, Olugbenga Omotayo Alabi, Elizabeth Samuel Ebukiba and Vandi Gamba
...vices (P<0.01), price information (P<0.05), market information (P<0.01) and, marketing experience ((P<0.05). The value of Gini- Coefficient calculated was 0.91429. The observed inequality in income distribution among small-holder rural rice farmers was a reflection of inefficiency in the market structure for rice. The results of Double-Log Regression model revealed that quantity of rice output harvested was posit...
Ashara Sajid1, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Saeed Rauf 2, Zahoor Hussain3, Salman Ahmad1 and Yasir Iftikhar1,*
...uding Pakistan. Adequate information about disease incidence is essential for the eradication and controlling measures of disease. In this context, a survey regarding the incidence of citrus green disease (CGD) was recorded in two cultivars Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and Mosambi (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), among significant citrus-growing areas of Sargodha district based on symptoms. Random samples of tree...
Qin Liu1,2, Bin Wang1,3, Yu Xu1,4, Xiuyue Zhang1, Tao Zeng1* and Jianghong Ran1*

 

...ith the mean polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.566 and the combined probability of exclusion for the second parent (CPE2 = 99.98%) met the minimum standard of international human paternity test. Among all 18 identified birdlings and helpers, bi-parents of eight offspring were successfully inferred and single parents of seven offspring were inferred at a confidence level of 95%. Except helper H1 without valid parents detected, the remaining six helpers...
Muhammad Zubair1, Habib Ahmad2*, Brian E. Hemphill3, Muhammad Tariq4 and Muzafar Shah5
...pared with the secondary information of 3842 individuals representing 36 other ethnic groups of different parts of KP, peninsular India prehistoric samples of Indus valley Central Asia and South Asia. Inter sample affinities based upon pair wise MMD values were examined with neighbor-joining cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. The results remained highly consistent throughout different data reduction techniques. The consistency in phenetic affinitie...

Muhammad Yaseen1, Xu Shiwei2, Yu Wen2, Muhammad Luqman1*, Raheel Saqib3, Muhammad Ameen4, Sadia Hassan5 and Tahir Munir Butt6

...vity.

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Tariq Ali Mastoi1, Zulfiqar Ali Mastoi2*, Zahoor Ahmed Khetran3, Ghulam Hussain Alizai2, Binish Baig4, Mitha Khan2 and Syed Jahangir Shah1
 
 
...micro finance loans. The information of the selected districts and respondents was obtained (ZTBL). Thus, the respondents were interviewed personally and necessary data were collected through structured questionnaire. The research revealed that majority of the respondents i.e. 50% were in the age limit between 31-40 years. Almost 36.25% respondents had elementary level education. Further, it is reported that 28.75% respondents had 30 acres landholding, while 2...

Faheem Aslam1,*, Aneel Salman2, Inayatullah Jan3 and Sarah Siddiq Aneel4

...e the massive amounts of information quickly, making connections and surface important links between entities. The results show that Pakistan’s National Water Policy, 2017 is more comprehensive as compared to India’s National Water Policy, 2012. India’s water policy distinctively prioritizes industrial growth at the cost of its agriculture sector; and while it mentions inter-regional and inter-state disputes in sharing of water as detrimental...
J.Y. Bai1,*, R.T.D. Wu2,*, Q. Zhang2, D. Bao2, L.M. Dao2 and X.H. Tian3
... and average polymorphic information content were 0.6283 and 0.5546, respectively. Observational heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content of Qinghai Bactrian camel were all higher than those of the other three varieties, being 0.8922, 0.6490 and 0.5813, respectively, so Qinghai Bactrian camel was of rich genetic polymorphism. Average gene flow of the microsatellite markers was 12.3188 and a...
Khurram Goraya1,*, Qais ALRawahi1, Sultan ALBalushi1, Hani ALSaadi1, Sami ALRahbi1, Zahir ALAlawi1, Muhammad Hammad Hussain2 and Madad Hussain1
... Therefore, only limited information is available on their husbandry requirements and diseases occurring in these species. This study aimed to evaluate the causes of mortalities at WWR. During July to October 2019, fifty mortalities were observed at WWR. These mortalities consisted of 10 Arabian oryx and 40 Sand gazelles. All carcasses were subjected to the detailed post-mortem (PM) examination to find out the potential cause of death. Fatal injuries caused by...

Muhammad Yousif Jakhrai1, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio2, Ali Mujtaba Shah1*, Tarique Ahmed Khokhar1, Muhammad Mohsen Rahimoon1

...e caprine and ovine. The information was obtained from published papers of last twenty years via research gateways such as; PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar. Small ruminant anesthesia, local anesthesia in ruminants and high epidural analgesia in sheep and goats were key points for this review. However, these research papers were included in this study, were published between from 1999 to 2017. The bibliographies of these references were also used for reviewin...

Aioub Sofizadeh1, Ehsan Allah Kalteh2, Shahin Saeedi3, Mulood Mohammadi Bavani4*

...his region of Iran. This information can be very useful for the production of regional antivenom for scorpion sting treatment. 
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Md. Alal Hossen1, Mohammad Amzad Hossain1*, A.K.M. Munzurul Hasan1,2, Bipresh Das1, Sohel Mian1, Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal1
 
Suman Bhattarai1*, Subodh Raj Pandey2, Jaya Prakash Dutta3, Meghnath Timalsena4 and Rajendra Bam5
...n at Chitwan, Nepal. The information was primarily collected through 60 Apis mellifera beekeepers registered in bee zone, Chitwan. They were selected for interview by simple random sampling technique. Interview using semi-structured questionnaire schedule was carried out for primary data. Cobb Douglas production function, multiple regression, and paired t-test were used for the analysis of collected data. Multiple regression model revealed that family labor (p...

Mohammad Tariq Aziz* and Ayesha Khan

...rn techniques. Access to information in agriculture can be extended through ICTs which support and share knowledge. The research study was conducted to find out the role and utilization of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for availing agricultural information in the research area. District Charsadda was the universe of the study and Multi Stage Sampling technique was used ...

Weenghar Ali Chandio1, Tajnees Pirzada1*, Abdul Majid2 and Farzana Rashid3 

...nducted for more insight information about mechanism and effects of HA on other plants.

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Mehnaz Safdar1, Urooba Pervaiz1* and Dawood Jan2

...ah, mobility and lack of information source were ranked on top with Likert score value of 4.12, 4.00 and 3.94, respectively. Due to male dominant society, 62.8% of the decisions were taken by spouse. Results of Chi-square analysis showed a significant association for age and decision making which means with increasing age of the women, their involvement in decision making increases, majority of the rural women were either not taking interest or not given the o...

Arshad Khan1, Mohammad Ihsan1, Mohammad Nisar1, Ali Hazrat1*, Murad Ali3, Rashid Ul-Haq3, Khalid Khan2, Karishma Gul1 and Shah Faisal1 

... among the clusters. The information obtained from the study is useful in planning further crop improvement.

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Muhammad Ramzan1*, Unsar Naeem-Ullah2, Muhammad Umair Sial2, Naeem Iqbal2 and Shafqat Saeed2
... and summarize the basic information on majoraspects like distribution, biological parameters and control strategies of bombycid moth T. varians.

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Fahrauk Faramayuda1,2*, Totik Sri Mariani3, Elfahmi1,4 and Sukrasno1

...is research provides new information about secondary metabolites in callus derived from two varieties of O. aristatus on various growth media.

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Salama M. El-Saghir1, 2

...lsama(s). Due to limited information on the infection of peach with phytoplasmas in Egypt,
larger surveys should be carried out to study the occurrence of PNRSV-phytoplasma disease complex
and their corresponding insect vectors.
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Ashraf S. Khameis, lamya F. Atteya, Ayman H. Mansour, Heba A. Abdelhady, Ashraf A.
Saad
... finding may provide new information on
the epidemiology of SPV in El Menofiya governorate.
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Abdullah Sheikh1,*, Faisal Almathen1,2 and Hairul Islam Mohamed Ibrahim3,4
...Our data provides useful information to understand the camel TYR role in coat color variation which is supportive in genotyping, genetic selection, breeding and classification.
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Samah A. Mokbel, Eman A. Ahmed, Hanan F. El-Kammar, Ahmed A. Kheder

...nt study provides useful information for the cytological effects and
structural changes in sugar beet cells resulting from CMV infection.
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Gulnaz Ismaylova

...es. The article provides information on the distribution, phenology and plants affected by the pest. Both nymphs and adults of O.japonica cause serious damage to plants. When the females lay their eggs, it files the sprouts by the ovipositor and let them dry. Wintering is carried out in the egg phase. Nymphs begin to hatch from overwintered eggs in early May. The eggs of O. japonica were also photographed under a JCM-6000 electron microscope and given dimensio...

Mian Ibad Ali Shah*, Yasir Saleem Afridi and Laiq Hasan

...ight: normal;">Strategic information was requested to understand the novel coronavirus using a global call. In response to but not limited to the call and extending the work to similar global pandemics, this work has been conducted on a dataset acquired from Pakistan’s COVID data. Analysis of the statistics and trends has been carried out and recommendations regarding the precautionary measures and implementation of controlling techniques for new cases u...

Sami Ullah1, Bernhard Brümmer2 and Umar Ijaz Ahmed1*

... disseminating technical information to farmers which enhance their skills and in turn farm productivity. Livestock sector in the main sub sector of agriculture in Pakistan that contributes nearly 60% to agricultural value addition. In this study, we investigated the effects of extension services on market oriented dairy farms’ technical efficiency in Pakistan. The data was collected from 345 dairy farmers of Punjab through field survey. By employing the...

Fahrauk Faramayuda1,2*, Totik Sri Mariani3, Elfahmi1,4 and Sukrasno1

... This study provides new information regarding the secondary metabolite content of two O. aristatus from in vitro culture.

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Hina Fatima1*, Bushra Yasmin2 and Lal Khan Almas3

...ddition to the marketing information about availability of innovative inputs. This is learned from the results that multiple cropping under tunnels appeared as a cutting-edge system among the prevalent agricultural practices in Pakistan that demands modernity and challenges on the part of farmers. 

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Hui-Ming Li1, Bi-Ze Yang1, Xue-Jun Jin1,2, Lin-Miao Li1, Hai-Ying Jiang1
Xiu-Juan Zhang1 and Jin-Ping Chen1*
...The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.62. The observed (HO) and expected average heterozygosity (HE) value was 0.56 and 0.67 tested in 39 individual samples. For parentage testing, the allele frequency date-based indicated that the combined exclusion probability values were over 99.99% when 9 SSRs were used. This study demonstrated that the microsatellite-based approach could be effectively utilized for pa...
Kang Chen1,2, Dekui He1, Chengzhi Ding3,4, Yintao Jia1 and Yifeng Chen1*
...not very noteworthy. The information generated in this research can be used as a reference for stock discrimination of G. selincuoensis from the Tibetan Plateau. Further research is needed to explore the causes of shape variation.
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Zhongyong Wu1, Wenzhu Li2, Chunxia Ni1, Zhuolin He1, Xiao Hou1 and Wanxia Pu1*
...to provide science-based information for the control of cow mastitis, to understand the genetic polymorphisms of dairy-sourced Staphylococcus aureus, we conducted genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk samples collected from cows with clinical mastitis using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method with three oligonucleotide primers. In total, 177 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from dairy farms in 5 ...
Junyan Bai1*, Rentaodi Wu2*, Qihang Hu1, Lema Dao2 and Xinghua Tian3
...ygosity and polymorphism information content of 17 microsatellite markers in sunite bactrian camel were 2.8913, 0.6205 and 0.5602, respectively. The wool fineness of AB genotype of CMS36 locus was significantly higher than that of BB genotype (P<0.05). The wool fineness of AC genotype at YWLL44 locus was significantly higher than that of BD, BE and CE genotype (P<0.05). The wool fineness of AA and BC genotype at YWLL 29 locus was significan...
Romaan Hayat Khattak, Zhensheng Liu* and Liwei Teng*
...re is a lack of detailed information about the ex-situ conservation status of these species. The present study gives a piece of benchmark information on wild ungulate species, breeding practices and the challenges that exist in captive breeding in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
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Amin Arif1, Khizar Samiullah1*, Riffat Yasin2, Bilal Rasool1, Shakila Naz1, Xijun Ni3 and Saleem Akhtar1
...c site to add additional information about family Giraffidae. The fossil site has well exposed Chinji and Nagri Formation and has dated approximately 14.2-9.5 Ma. In this study, different aspects of evolution, taxonomy and biogeographic distribution as well as the relation of Giraffidae with Procerotidae have been discussed comprehensively. Palaeoenvironment, biostratigraphy and geology of the locality have also been discussed. The coexistence of Giraffoker...

Yonis Abukar Mohamed1, Shafii Abdullahi Mohamed1,2, Abdiaziz Idiris Mohamud1,3*, Abdiaziz Ahmed Mohamud1,3, Kassim Abdullahi Jimale1,2 and Said Ali Ibrahim2

...ttle or no knowledge and information on donkey’s welfare matters. Limitation of taking sick donkeys to veterinary clinics 2.0% abandon of donkeys after stopped working 96.6%, lack trimming hooves of donkeys 78.9%, and beating of donkeys 79.7%. Donkeys are beneficial to most owners, interventions should be put in place to improve their welfare and further studies were done on the best ways to improve the welfare issues faced by these working animals.

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Wei Luo 1,2,3, Yongtao Jin 1,2,3, Xuqing Li 1,2,3 and Ke Liu 1,2,3*
...CNN, following which the information of both the population number and the distribution of all kinds of large herbivores can be estimated. According to the data of domestic herbivores on hand provided by the General grassland station of Qinghai province, the difference percentage of Tibetan sheep, yak, and horse is 7.5%, 8.1%, and 18.7%, respectively.
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Shoaib ur Rehman1, Jabbar Khan2*, Raaza Malja Khan3, Maimoona Azam4 and Zeeshan Mutahir5
...y could provide valuable information regarding thalassemia prevention like prenatal diagnosis (PND), genetic counseling and carrier screening for controlling the affected births in the population. Consanguinity, lack of awareness and non-availability of health facilities have thus contributed to the high occurrence of β-thal and miserable life of the patients.
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Ayesha Khan1*, Asmatullah2, Urooba Perviaz1, Khalid Nawab1 and Mahmood Iqbal1

...face to collect accurate information of EM-Technology used through fermenter. Majority of the farmers 93.8% were provided the EM-Bioaab solution by extension department. The extension department provided training to 96.1% farmers on formation of Extended-Bioaab from Basic-Bioaab. The results of t-test show a highly significant difference in use of fertilizer and number of irrigations before and after EM technology application as P≤0.01. On average tomato cr...

Sonam Khatri1, Shaheen Faizi2, Shahina Fayyaz1 and Erum Iqbal1*

...tic chemcials. The given information in this review article highlights the importance of Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad as a promising biological and pesticidal agent useful for the treatment of various medicinal ailments as well as reducing different pests that are harmful for the crop yield and emphasize the need to utilize the useful effect of this plant against nematodes. Phytochemistry of the C. colocynthis and the secondary metabolites isolated from the...

Yaregal Tilahun1*, Benyam Tadesse1, Getachew Mekonnen2  and Tilahun Bekele3

... and secondary source of information were used from 135 tea out-growers. Based on the results,  year 2017-018 has been used as production/base year. However, the productivity of tea in the 2020 production year is increased by 41.8% as the coverage of land for tea becomes increased by 53.6%. Lack of skill and knowledge (79.2%), lack of training and extension service 90.3%), low productivity (88.1%), the occurrence of pest and disease (80.7%), climate chang...
Zahid Beg Mirza1,*, Naveed Ali Soomro2 and Farwah Shariff1
...ies. During the surveys, information on the use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, that is diclofenac and other drugs known to be harmful to vultures, were gathered through interviews. This paper suggests that the vultures and other raptors in the mountainous eco-region of Sindh are in relatively larger populations compared to the Eastern side of Sindh due to the abundance of wild ungulates in protected areas such as the Khirthar National Park. 
Teuku Fadlon Haser1*, Muh. Saleh Nurdin2, Eddy Supriyono3, Deni Radona4, Fauziah Azmi1 , Kukuh Nirmala3, Widanarni3, Tri Heru Prihadi4, Tatag Budiardi3 and Riris Yuli Valentine5
Xiaoyun He1, Yongfu La2, Jinxin Wang1, Ran Di1, Qiuyue Liu1, Xiangyu Wang1, Wenping Hu1 and Mingxing Chu1*

...lating growth biological information in animal breeding activities. In this study, we analyzed the structure of FSHR gene’s promoter, expression regulation and the correlation between polymorphism with fecundity. The results show that it is highly possible that the promoter of FSHR gene is in the region of 2045-2295bp and 2038-2288bp, TATA box was also found there. The expression differences were found in oviduct during every stage of estro...
Samaria Nisar1, Tariq Manzoor Khan1, Muhammad Ahsan Iqbal1, Rahmat Ullah2, Muhammad Asim Bhutta3*, Saghir Ahmad3, Amna Bibi3, Hafeez ur Rehman4, Umar Farooq4 and Muhammad Zubair Ishaq5
...ons may reveal important information for the development of various breeding programmes. This study was on F2 populations, derived from four parents of upland cotton, i.e. CRIS-134, VH-329, IUB-222, CIM-240 which were sown in the Plant Breeding and Genetics section, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad; Pakistan, during the normal growing season of cotton. A Randomized Complete Block design with three replications was used for the study. Plant height (PH), bo...
Ali Ikhwan1*, Dian Indratmi1, Faridlotul Hasanah1, Manar Fayiz Mousa Atoum2,3 and Irum Iqrar4,5
Tabinda Urooj1,*, Bushra Wasim1, Shamim Mushtaq2, Syed Nudrat Nawaid Shah1, Lubna Faisal3, Moazzam Ali2, Nabeela Rasheed1 and Syed Faizan Ali Rizvi4
...mparatively acquire less information associated with breast cancer risk factors. This study has analyzed the data gathered from two-renowned tertiary health care centers targeting a large subpopulation of Karachi. This will greatly help in determining the most prevalent risk factors as well as the clinical findings of breast cancer lung metastatic females among the target population. This comparative cross-sectional study which is aimed to determine the risk f...
Amjad Ali1, Muhammad Amir2*, Bilal Ur Rehman2, Zafar Khan3 and Abid Munir1
 
...ugh addition of spurious information to the originally extracted fingerprint data. The addition of spurious information is in correlation with the originally extracted features. The proposed approach is best suited for minutiae based information encryption and the proposed encryption algorithm has been tested using the standard fingerprint verification competition database (FVC-DB1-2002). ...

Keqiang Wei1*, Yue Wei2 and Changxia Song1

...served in sinusoids. The information above implied that B- and R- cells could be predominantly responsible for their function. This study will help us better understand immunity mechanisms of crustacean and promote disease control.

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I Nyoman Sulabda1*, I Nengah Wandia2, I Ketut Puja3 

...7 head. To provide basic information concerning allele and locus in BoLA gene, the BoLA microsatellite loci (DRB3 and BM1815) were used to evaluate allel diversity using 18 samples of Taro white cattle. Genetic variability was low, with observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity for locus BM1815 was 0.778 and 0.51, and for DRB3 was 0.556 and 0.478, respectively. Moreover, the polymorphic information content (PIC) f...

Irshad Ahmad1,2*

...s paper provides updated information about IPM, which look like a promising paradigm that can be adopted for the control of red palm weevil.

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Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Chinedu Ifeanyi Atama*, Fejiokwu Esther Chioma, Ifeanyi O Aguzie, Godwin I Ngwu and Christopher Didigwu Nwani

...e. Given this paucity of information, the present work is aimed at investigating gut parasites of donkeys and horses of Udenu Local Government Area (LGA), Enugu state, Nigeria. Standard procedure of parasite search in vertebrates was used. A total of 23 donkeys and 24 horses were examined for gut helminth parasites. In total, out of 47 equines examined, 43 (91.5%) were infected. Out of 24 horses, 20 (83.3%) were infected while all the donkeys were infected (10...

Masouras P.K.1, Nikolaou K.1,2, Laliotis G.P.1*, Koutsouli P.1, Bizelis I.1 

...e findings provide novel information for meat quality of commercial cuts in Greece and offer a valuable and facile tool for predicting IMF content by marbling values, enforcing the implementation of such an approach in larger data sets.

Keywords | Marbling, Intramuscular fat, Meat quality, Carcass, Beef, Cattle breeds 

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Chukwudi Njoku1*, Inyang Etim-Inyang2, Prince-Charles Itu1 and Arinze Uzoezie1

Amtul Jamil Sami*, Sehrish Bilal and Syeda Anum Zahra

...oroughly but very little information regarding Buffalo growth hormone is available in literature. Buffalo is an important source of milk in Asia and there is a need to identify variations in the genes of buffalo GH and its possible effects in milk production. The present research was carried out to explore DNA polymorphism in buffalo growth hormone gene. In this study we amplified a 5’ flanking region covering exon 1 from local specie of Bubalus bubalis....

Shoaib Hameed1, Shakeel Ahmad1, Jaffar Ud Din2 and Muhammad Ali Nawaz3*

...not been surveyed; hence information on their distribution is largely based on anecdotal information and expert judgments. The present study investigated the species’ current distribution in the Hindu Kush Range in Pakistan, gathering information on human-brown bear conflict along with other large carnivore species in the study area. Multiple survey techniques questionnaire surveys, ...

Lifang Zhang, Xiuyue Zhang and Bisong Yue*

...s 0.840. The polymorphic information content (PIC) varied between 0.602 and 0.923. The analysis of Genepop and Popgene showed that a relatively high level of genetic diversity was revealed: the observed number of alleles was 10.0781; the effective number of alleles was 5.2746. The observed heterozygosity was 0.6882, and the expected heterozygosity was 0.7791, Nei’s expected heterozygosity was 0.7661, Shannon’s information

Muhammad Tahir Jan1, Sarfraz Ali Shad2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3 and Muhammad Binyameen2,*

...for oviposition provides information that can be used to develop guidelines for E. vittella management in cotton production. 

...

G. Basana Gowda*, N.B. Patil, M. Sahu, S.R. Prabhukarthikeyan, S. Raghu, G.P. Pandi, T. Adak, C.K. Swain, S. Pokhare, S.D. Mohapatra and P.C. Rath 

...tre for Biotechnological information (NCBI), Genbank. Among different bacteria strains, two, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were reported from resistant populations. Other species belonged to Staphylococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Klebsiella pneumonia (all four from resistant populations) and Achromobacter sp (from a susceptible population). Present study provides a basis for elucidating the role of the gut bacteri...

Zahid Iqbal*, Farhat Ullah Khan and Jalal-ud-Din

...criterion (NBIC), Akaike information criterion (AIC), Hannan-Quinn and Schwarz Criterion that Autoregressive (AR) model (1,0,0) is best. The Brock, Dechert and Scheinkman (BDS) test is also applied on the residuals of model (1,0,0) for checking the linearity condition before forecasting. The forecasted values for the year 2016-17 to 2021-22 indicate an increasing trend in future of rapeseed and mustard production in Pakistan.
...

Tarık Bugra Saruhan and Alptug Sarı*

...n the jackal are lack of information about the species, poaching, predator pressure, stray dogs, roads, agricultural drugs, and environmental pollution.

...

Hilarius Yosef Sikone1*, Budi Hartono2, Suyadi2, Bambang Ali Nugroho2 

...low, financial flow, and information flow in the beef cattle supply chain in each marketing agency of beef cattle in the North Central Timor Regency. The research method used was descriptive quantitative, which was carried out by a survey method. Determination of the sample using two methods: purposive sampling (applied to farmer respondents) and snowball sampling (to collect respondents from traders and butchers). Samples used in the study were 115 respondent...

Abid Hussain1*, Saifullah Khan2, Shamas Liaqat3 and Shafiullah4 

...rature, and synthesis of information amassed from various published sources. Moreover, salient outcomes of a multi-stakeholder discussion on mountain specific innovative solutions for potential up-scaling in Pakistan have also been highlighted to cover the opinion of technical experts. The data presented herein is important for development of evidence based policy and designing development projects in agriculture and related sub-sectors in Gilgit-Baltistan and...

Ayu Cusiayuni1, Risan Khaerani Nurfatahillah1, Rakhmad Perkasa Harahap2, Komang Gede Wiryawan3, Dwierra Evvyernie3, Anuraga Jayanegara3* 

...se, consisted of various information, i.e., level of lauric acid, microbial population, rumen fermentation characteristics, total gas production, methane production, and digestibility. The data obtained were analyzed by using the mixed-model methodology. Results showed that the addition of lauric acid reduced methane production (P < 0.001). This decrease was followed by a tendency of methanogen population reduction (P < 0.10) and bacteria (P < 0.10) i...

Huapu Chen1, Zhiyuan Li1, Yaorong Wang1, Wei Yang2,*, Hongjuan Shi1, Shuisheng Li1,3, Chunhua Zhu1 and Guangli Li1,*

...vide useful and valuable information in better understanding of the differences between both sexes, relationships between morphometric traits, and selective breeding of S.argus. These models might also provide theoretical support for the indirect selection of traits that are difficult to select directly.

...

Jun Zhang1*, Xiaocao Xu2 and Min Cao2

...sectional study in which information was extracted and collected from patients’ records, including gender, age, number of blood transfusions per year, HBs-Ag, HCV-Ab and Anti-HBs. The study included 630 thalassemia major patients who received regular blood transfusions at a hospital in Bengbu, China. We found that out of 630 patients of the study, there were three HBs-Ag positive, so the prevalence of HBV in this study is 0.5%. The prevalence of HCV-Ab p...

Huahua Fang, Daquan Zhou and Xiaoyu Dong*

...his study provided basic information for fisheries management in Yellow Sea along coastal waters of Shandong province.

...

Abida Shehzadi*, Muhammad Shafique and Ahmad Ali Shahid

...rimination, polymorphism information content and gene diversity as 0.907, 0.854 and 0.807 respectively. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) and multidimensional scaling plot (MDS) were also generated by using online tools at YHRD database. The data from this study could have significant importance in forensic applications, population studies and in strengthening the Y-STR database.

...

Bridget Adah1*, Clara Kwanashie2, Haruna Kazeem2 and Samuel Mailafia1

...justify;">The paucity of information on the occurrence of porcine leptospirosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria predicated this study. The research was conducted to isolate Leptospira species from pigs. The organisms were isolated using Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) enrichment and basal medium, and identified using dark field microscopy. A total of two hundred (200) blood samples and two hundred (200) urine samples each were collected from pigs in Kad...

Arshad Farooq1, Muhammad Ishaq2, Abdul Hassan1, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan3 and Asif Nawaz3*

...st losses (57%), weather information (78%) and market information (79%) in the research area. Overall knowledge level of beneficiary farmers increased 77 percent in the study area. The study suggested that agricultural advisory services through mobile phones should be restarted and extended to other districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

...

Nkiru E. Ekechukwu, Felicia N. Ekeh, Chinenye M. Ohanu, Hope C. Ezinwa and Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie*

...as recorded in Ikpa. The information generated from this study will provide the much needed assistance in disease monitoring and guideline in health policy decision making in the study area.

...

Jae-Kang Lee, Hyun-Su Hwang, Tae-Kyung Eom, Dong-Ho Lee and Shin-Jae Rhim*

...nd shelter for wildlife, information about the effect of slope gradient on vegetation is important for managing wildlife and their habitats. We examined the effects of slope gradient on small rodent populations and their microhabitat conditions from May to November 2015 in a tree-thinned Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) plantation in South Korea. Study animals were captured using Sherman live traps. We surveyed slope gradient and microhabitat conditions at mul...

Ghassan Zahid1, 2*, Sara Iftikhar3, Muhammad Umer Farooq4 and Shakeel Ahmed Soomro5

...ng a piece of scientific information and addressing developments, notably in DNA-based molecular markers, this review paper may serve as a road map for obtaining high-yielding fruit varieties in Pakistan.

...
Mudassar Jehan1, Masroor Ahmed Bajwa2, Mohammad Masood Tariq2, Asim Faraz3*, Abdul Samaad2, Jameel Ahmad1 and Yousaf Hassan Barozai2

Asmaa A. Badr, Eman A. Abo Elfadl, Mohammed M. Fouda, Sayed M. Elsayed

...ing stationarity, Akaike information Criteria (AIC), Schwartz Bayesian Information Criteria (SBIC), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to test the reliability of the model. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was used to conduct the results. Our study forecasted milk production by using ARIMA model from 2022 to 2033. ARIMA forecasting results showed that milk ...
Neeranoot Detcharoenyos1, Nakrob Pattanapon1, Soontaree Petchdee2*
...eport provides essential information on the clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of osteochondroma in a young dog.
 
Keywords | Cartilaginous exostosis, Dog, MRI, Osteochondroma, Total resection
...

Ngoc Tan Nguyen1*, Minh Thanh Tram1, Thi Thu Pham1, Tan Loi Le1, Thi Khanh Ly Nguyen1, Tuan Thanh Hoang2, Cong Thieu Pham3, Nguyen Khang Duong4 

...tudied to provide useful information on their origin. Blood samples were taken from two local goat breeds in Ninh Thuan (De Co = CO and Bach Thao = BT, 10 samples each) and three other exotic goats including Saanen (SA; 10 samples), Red Boer (RB; 10 samples) and White Boer (WB; 9 samples) raised at An Phu Dairy Company in Cu Chi District, Ho Chi Minh City. Extracted mtDNA was used to amplify the fragment of 687 bp in the D-loop by polymerase chain reaction (PC...

Tooba Ather1, Muhammad Rafiq Shahid2*, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub3, Javed Iqbal2, Muhammad Asim Bhutta2, Muhammad Akram2, Naveeda Anjum4, Muhammad Rizwan6, Hafeezur Rehman5 and Umar Farooq5

... with Pyriproxyfen. This information is very useful when formulating management strategy of CMB in future.

...

Khalid Khan1*, Ahmed Farhan Saeed2, Sanam Wagma Khattak3 and Saima Liaqat4

...ailability of credit and information, managerial skills, low income, and market accessibility are the key impediments to the adoption of advanced technologies and standard practices in the poultry business in the district. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy to mention that once the farmer applies improved practices and technologies, then these factors may no longer be crucial to the farmer’s decision of adaptability of improved poultry practice and technolog...

Ochieng Onunga George*, Owuor Ndonga Millicent Florence, Mario Kollenberg  

...e diseases. The baseline information obtained from the results can be used by government authorities such as National Environmental Management Authority and researchers.

Keywords | Abattoirs, Abattoir wastes, Bacteria, Fungi, Parasites 

...

Ayesha Khan*, Mohammad Tariq Aziz, Urooba Pervaiz and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...e access to agricultural information which helps in knowledge sharing and creating awareness. The study focuses on farmer’s access to ICT tools for productivity enhancement in district Charsadda, the universe of the study. For selection of sample multi stage sampling method was used and respondents were selected from three villages namely Hajizai, Katozai and Batagram of tehsil Shabqadar. A sample of 112 respondents was drawn through proportional allocat...

Rahmat Ullah Khan1*, Asif Sadam2, Karim Gabol1, Waheed Ali Panhwar3, Sajid Mahmood4, Mustafa Kamal5, Hamid Ullah6, Syed Abidullah7, Muhammad Tufail8, Bashir Ahmad4, Gul Bacha Khan4 and Habib Ul Hassan1

...improve the contemporary information about morphometry and diet of Oriental skylark Alauda gulgula nestling from hatching to 8th day very carefully during the breeding season (April, May, June, and July) 2019, in district Bajaur. A total of 70 nestlings of 22 nests were studied systematically. The eggs were hatched out both from the middle point and blunt end. All the eggs were hatched asynchronously with closed eyes and a naked body. They opened their eyes on...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 54, Iss. 5, Pages 2003-2500

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