Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

...are generated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. These single stranded nucleic acid aptamers can acquire various secondary and tertiary structures to bind their cognate targets with high affinity and specificity. The ease in synthesis and modification makes them an attractive candidate for a variety of applications. Since the last decade, aptamers have been regarded as an emerging player in biology. They have found applications not only in bio...

Maureen McKeague1, Maria C. DeRosa2*

...are generated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. The selection of aptamers with optimal specificity and high affinity remains a challenge, leading to the recent emergence of elegant new approaches and tools for SELEX. In this commentary, we discuss recent advancements in the selection of aptamers.

...

Nicola J. Stonehouse

... nucleic acids, selected in vitro to specifically bind target molecules. They can therefore be useful as molecular tools and also as novel therapeutic agents. This commentary describes RNA aptamers selected to bind to the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus. The aptamers are able to inhibit the function of the enzyme both in vitro and in the context of a sub-genomic replicon and highlight the future ...

Paulo Eduardo Brandao

...intracellular cycle both in vitro and in vivo, and the high failure rate of this treatment in human patients, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) for Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing (PTGS) has witnessed an increasing interest from those concerned with a cure for rabies, inspired on the success obtained for other viral diseases. This review is intended to present the current situation of RNAi against rabies, as well as insights into the future on the field.<...

Muhammad Shah Zaman1, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Aish Muhammad1, Khalid Farooq2, Iqbal Hussain1*

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...netic transformation and in vitro regeneration offered new dimensions of research to improve important crop species including wheat. The tissue culture by itself has increased the crop improvement potential to develop new cultivars with desirable traits through somaclonal and gametoclonal selection. While successful tissue culture is critical for genetic transformation, it has been facing greater impediments in wheat and related crop specie...

Neha Singh and Anjana Pandey

...tify;"> SELEX is an in vitro selection procedure to evolve single-stranded nucleic acids known as aptamers. Aptamers are known for their high selectivity and specificity and their ability to form 3D conformations. CELL SELEX is a modification of SELEX where instead of using purified ligand molecules, whole live cells are used as targets, so the aptamers being generated could bind target molecules on live cells in their native conformation and it is possib...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

...ocytes which can promote in vitro nucleosome formation. In this study, to improve the efficiency of SCNT in Banna Mini-pig Inbred Line (BMI), we obtained the recombinant nucleoplasmin (Npm) by using a prokaryotic expression system and compared the difference on the developmental effects between exogenous Npm and its structural analog, polyglutamic acid (PGA). We chose the pMD18-T vector for Npm expression and transformed E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells to construct a...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...c structure and function in vitro and in vivo, evidence suggests that mouse models are limited and sometimes do not fully replicate the complete spectrum of neurological phenotypes seen in human diseases. On the contrary, pigs, especially mini-pigs, show exciting potential for modeling human CNS diseases due to similarities in body size, anatomy, life span, CNS structure and neurobiology. Previously, via the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique, we successf...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...H4IIE). We determined in vitro survival rate with MTT assay, the morphological changes with an inverted microscope, apoptosis using flow cytometry and statistical significance with one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test. IC50 values of licofelone were determined as 171 µM for 24 h and 140 µM for 48 h applications. Used as a positive control, 250 µM 5-Fluorouracil decreased the cell su...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...eta;-actin promoter. The in vitro expression of recombinant plasmid DNA was performed by transfection of 293T (HEK) cell line. The HA protein was analyzed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The pCAGG-optiH9 vaccine efficacy was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of SPF chickens with different concentrations of plasmid DNA and the sera were collected weekly post vaccination for antibody detection by HI test. All immunize...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...ard and rice was studied in vitro. The highest appearance of pathogens viz.,Alternaria alternata was recorded in seeds of mungbean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.), A. brassicae in mustard (Brassica campestris L.) and Drechslera oryzae in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Propineb 70WP and prochloraz 45EC considerably reduced the appearance of A. alternata and flusilazole 40EC reduced Fusarium sp.in mungbean seed than untreated control.Amarked reduction in population of A. bras...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
... dual plate culture test in vitro. All the antagonists showed reduction in root knot and root rot disease and promote plants growth as the length and weight of root and shoot in pot trials on tomato plants. Keywords: Antagonistic fungi, root knot nematode, wilt fungus, bio-management
 

 

...

Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...lonella) was found under in vitro condition. Further this isolate displayed high virulence on above insect species. This study reported occurrence of a isolate of S. carpocapsae from ginger rhizosphere from India. This indigenous isolate could be investigated further for managing insect pests of ginger.

...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...were selected for in vitro studies. Fungal isolates namely Ascochyta cypericola, Bipolaris sp., Chaetomium globosum, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata, Curvularia tuberculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium sp. and Gibbago trianthemae were isolated by inoculation of parasitized weed propagules like infected leaves, stems, root and floral parts on different fungal growth media. The diagnos...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...ic Kidney) cell line for in vitro expression of the recombinant plasmid DNA. The confirmation of H5 protein expression was performed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. The humoral immune response was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens with two different concentrations of Egy-H5 plasmid DNA 15µg and 60 µg. Results demonstrate that chickens developed detectable HI a...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...sessed in appropriate in vitro (cell culture) and animal models. Results showed the omp10 mutant was dramatically attenuated for survival in macrophages and mice than the parent strain 2308. With decrease in the spleen/body weight ratios of mice infected with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosome-Lysosome fusion was dramaticly impaired, and profound increase of apoptosis rate after exposure of RAW264.7 to omp10 mutants a...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
...ed at determining the in vitro anti- bacterial activity of Manuka honey against NDM-1 producing clinical isolates of Pakistan. A total of five carbapenem resistant bacterial species; E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, were isolated and identified using VITEK 2 compact system. Carbapenamase and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production by these isolates was confirmed by modified Hodge’s test and disc p...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...1(D1-D3)-Fc and RNV66 in in vitro functional assays. We compared the anti-tumorigenic properties of these three molecules for tumor volume reduction in xenotransplanted SCID mice and by histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Our results demonstrated that fusion protein VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc efficiently inhibited
the lung cancer growth in vivo. Although the aptamer RNV66 was not found to be as efficient in this study, the results were also not su...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...thod. MDR were tested in vitro for response against various antibiotics. A questionnaire was filled for estimation of association of assumed risk factors with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied to check significance of results. The study noted overall 33.98% (123/362) of MDR S. aureus from subclinical mastitis milk samples while 123 of 192 S. aureus isolates (64.06%) were confirmed MDR. Non-significantly higher ...

 Nasreen Sultana* and A.Ghaffar**

...bottle gourd was studied in vitro and in vivo. Carbendazim and Topsin-M completely inhibited the growth of L. theobromae in vitro at 50 ppm whereas Aliette, Benlate, Mancozeb, Ridomil and Vitavax showed complete inhibition of colony growth at 100 ppm. Invariably all fungicides at three different concentration viz., 1, 2, 3 g (a.i.) kg-1 seeds reduced the recovery of the seed borne fungi. The most effective seed treatments we...
EVALUATION OF LEGUME HERBS NUTRITIVE VALUE AS A RUMINANT FEED AND NITROGEN SUPPLY ON SOIL IN WEST TIMOR, INDONESIA
... and organic matter (OM) in vitro digestibility were statistically different among the species of legume (P<0.01). In DL the DM and OM were highest i.e., 74.84 % and 74.37%. Meanwhile, the biomass digestibility of DM and OM was affected by the -2 treatments (P<0.01), being highest in CT (2511.4 g DMm and 2172.1 g -2 -2 -2 OMm ) followed by DL (2351.8 g DMm and 2044.9 g OMm ). Based on this study, CT and DL have potential to develop high biomass productio...

 Sadia Tehrim*, M. Yasin Mirza** and G. Mustafa Sajid*

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT GROWTH REGULATORS FOR EFFICIENT PLANT REGENERATION IN GRAPES
...the best combination for in vitro morphogenesis of grapevine accessions viz., 4494(1) Kowar Sufaid, 4472(12) Harker Agoon and 4492(1) Kowar Naray. When levels of benzylaminopurine (BAP) were increased in the basal MS media for culturing the grape plantlets, there was a corresponding increase in the number of shoots and root mass. Additionally, the shoot proliferation response to increasing level of BAP was found genotype dependent. Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
..., dry matter (DM) yield, in vitro digestibility and nutrient contents. Plant height and tillage number were monitored at week 4, 6 and 8 then harvested at week 8. Results revealed that the Brachiaria mutica (8 weeks old) had highest plant height (207 cm), but lowest tillage number (64), crude protein (CP) content (8.64%), in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility (47.36%) On the other hand, B. mulato had highest tillage num...

 Muhammad Ali*, Ghulam Mustafa Sajid**, M. Faisal Anwar Malik*** and Kalimullah****

ESTABLISHMENT OF IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPES
...bsp;The establishment of in vitro culture from shoot tip explants (meristemetic tissue) of grapes was investigated through tissue culture technique. These explants were collected from gene bank of Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources (IABGR), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Fifteen accessions of grapes were surface sterilized and tested on 75% MS media for germination and initial growth parameters. Ac...
Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Mushtaq A. Saleem2,Javed Iqbal Wattoo2, Mohd Mokhtar Arshad1 and Maizan Mohamed1
...uencing analysis. The in vitro expression of the truncated protein was analyzed in E. coli with a molecular weight of 38kDa determined through SDS-PAGE and confirmed by Western blotting. The recombinant truncated protein was then purified from the culture media. The immunogenicity of the protein was studied in an animal experiment on mice, in which mice were injected subcutaneously. These findings suggest that the truncated Sf200...
María Magdalena Crosby-Galván1, Bernardino Espinoza-Velasco1 and Mónica Ramirez-Mella2,*
... gas production in an in vitro assay. Four treatments were evaluated: a control using a standard diet for ruminants elaborated with corn stover, corn grain and soybean meal, and three experimental diets with 10, 20 and 30% dry residue of chihua pumpkin instead of corn stover. Dry matter digestibility and gas production was determined at 24 h of incubation in ruminal fluid obtained from two Holstein cows with a ruminal cannula. Randomized block experimen...
Mousa O. Germoush1,*, Mohsen G. Al-Mutary2, Ahmad R. Al-himaidi3, Muath G. Al-Ghadi3, Daisaku Iwamoto3,4, Yousef Al-anazi3, Aiman Ammari3, Javed Ahmad3,5, Abdulaziz Al-Khedhairy3,5
...ntation on the oocyte in vitro maturation and early embryonic development after in vitro fertilization. Sheep follicular fluid (SFF) was collected from different ovaries and supplemented to the in vitro maturation (IVM) media with proportions 0%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Oocyte maturation was assessed in different treatments and then cumulus-oocyte complexes were used for ...

Nashwa Mohamed Eid1, Al-Hussien Mohamed Dahshan1, El-Shayma El-Nahass2, Basma Shalaby3 and Ahmed Ali1* 

... both EOs was determined in vitro using the agar dilution test. Concentration as low as 0.25% and 0.125% of thyme and clove oils, respectively, were able to completely inhibit the growth of CP. An in vivo study was conducted in commercial broiler chickens, where, 2 groups of 10 day-old broilers were fed a balanced ration with addition of thyme (0.25%) or clove (0.125%). Birds were then challenged with CP (1×108 CFU) together with another 2 groups without...
Tengfei Lu1, Wenhua Pei1, Shuang Zhang2, Yangnan Wu1, Fenghao Chen2, Xiao Han2 and Weijun Guan1,*
...ultured to passage 25 in vitro. The gene of Oct-4, Rex-1, CD29, CD44, CD71, and CD73 were identified by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence technique. The results showed that they were positive in AMSCs. The growth of different passages cells typically appeared in S curve. Furthermore, AMSCs successfully differentiated into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and hepatocyte-like cells after procedure induction. The results showed that the AMSCs obtained from sheep demon...
Mingming Ning1,2, Yanjie Zheng1, Yuanyuan Dun1, Weijun Guan2 and Xiuxia Li1,*
...d stem cells (CAFSCs) in vitro, characterizing CAFSCs and inducing CAFSCs to differentiate into three layers. Methods and results include that more CAFSCs are gained via thermoelectric method with lower cost. Groping and optimizing culture system abiding by the idea of simulating the chicken body environment, involving adding proportion of chicken serum and some growth factors. CAFSCs can be transferred to 34 passages nowadays. Surface marker Oct4, CD10...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...a isolates showed in vitro resistance against 11 of 14 antibodies tested. The isolates were highly susceptible to meropenem, piperacillin, and amoxicillin. It was also observed that the growth of these resistant P. aeruginosa strains was significantly inhibited in the presence of Lactobacilli spp. and nanoparticles of silver, zinc and ferric oxide at a concentration of 12, 200 and 1µg/ml, respectively. This study may help in the ...
Muhammad Mobashar1, Muhammad Tahir1, Shahbaz Javaid2,*, Muhammad I. Anjum2, Insha Gul3, Nazir Ahmad1 andAbdul Sami1
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
...he PPRV was investigated in vitro. Vero cell lines infected with PPRV were treated with six dilutions alcoholic extracts of N. sativa (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 µg/mL). The antiviral effects were judged by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide colorimetric (MTT) assay. Plaque reduction assay was used to test the mode of action. Out of six dilutions, three dilutions (50, 25, 12.5 µg/ml) showed significant antiv...

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

...ilt. Based on its higher in vitro antifungal activity, in vivo screen house experiments were conducted. Plants given the treatment as Penicillium + Fusarium showed slight yellowing of the leaves after 60th days of cultivation. Present results may help in exploiting the Penicillium sp. extract for isolation and structural characterization of its antifungal compounds. 

...

Nadia Khan1*, Abdul Waheed1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Naveed Ahmed1, Zafar Iqbal2, Seemab Ali1, Madiha Bashir1 and Hina Gul3  

...atile phytochemicals and in vitro antibacterial activity against two phytopathogenic bacterial species (Clavibacter sp. and Xanthomonas sp.) and a human pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) in 2016. Experiment was carried out by using complete randomized design with three replications in vitro. Phytochemical analysis reveals that the methanolic fraction of oil possesses metabolites like carbohydrates, amino acids, alkaloi...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ammarah Hasnain2, Ateeq ur Rehman1 and Rashida Perveen1 

...ous concentrations under in vitro conditions by poison food and disk diffusion techniques while best effective seven were trialed in glass house and field experiments to determine their efficacy against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. In vitro and in vivo studies under different conditions showed significant response of Mentha piperita, Azadirachta indica and Aloe vera either tested individually or in combination of two or mo...
Nizam Uddin Jamali1, Asmatullah Kaka1,*, Pershotam Khatri1, Moolchand Malhi2, Muhammad Naeem3, Akeel Ahmed Memon1, Rameez Raja Kaleri4, Habibullah Janyaro5 and Dildar Hussain Kalhoro
... determine the effect of in vitro selenium addition to the semen extender on chilled and frozen thawed quality of Kundhi buffalo bull semen. After collection ejaculate was brought in Semen Production Unit. Semen was evaluated as fresh for volume, colour, motility, morphology, live dead ratio, membrane integrity and sperm concentration, post chilling for motility, morphology, live dead ratio, membrane integrity and frozen thawed for motility, morphology, live d...

 Muhammad Akram and Faheem Aftab

THIDIAZURON INDUCES IN VITRO BUD BREAK AND SHOOT DEVELOPMENT FROM NODAL EXPLANTS OF ORTHOTROPIC SHOOTS OF MAIDENHAIR TREE (GINKGO BILOBA L.)
...liferated with TDZ under in vitro conditions.

...
Atiq-ur-Rehman1,2,*, Abida Latif1,*, Rukhsana Anwar1, Nasir Abbas1, Sajid Nawaz2 and Hamid Turab Mirza3
... the investigation of in vitro, in vivo anti-diabetic potential and mode of action of various fractions of methanolic extract of the aerial parts of this plant. Various fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) from the most active methanolic extract were prepared. Hypoglycemic potential was investigated by α-amylase inhibitory assay. Different concentrations of fractions (20-100 µg/ml) were subjected to

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...inensis L. showed in vitro anthelmintic activity against H. contortus at concentrations tested.
...

 Xu Lijie, Obaid Ullah, Liu Haixing, Ihsan Ali, Zhongshu Li* and Nan-Zhu Fang*

... oxidative stress during in vitro development by promoting the expression of antioxidant genes and suppressing the expression of NADPH oxidant genes.

...

 Ping Zhang1,2, Yabin Pu1, Yu Zhang2, Jia Chen2, Kunfu Wang3, Qian Li3, Yujiao Sun3, Yuehui Ma1, Shuqing Jiao2,* and Weijun Guan1,*

... medium. To conclude, in vitro high purity MDSCs have multiple differentiation potential, and can play an important role in muscle tissue repair, and provide seed cells for tissue engineering research and clinical applications.

...
Hong Ma*, Bo Fu, Liang Wang, Zhong-qiu Li and Di Liu*

 

...opment of HMC embryos in vitro viathe regulation of mRNA expression of several proto-oncogenes.
...
Wafaa M. Hikal1,2,* and Hussein A.H. Said-Al Ahl3
...i> oil was determined in vitro. Out of T. ammi oil showed that, higher concentrations (90 μg/mL after 72 and 96 hrs and 100 μg/mL after 24 and 48 h) was more active, being able to kill 100% of the Acanthamoeba cysts.The results showed the cysticidal activity of T. ammi essential oil, LC50 values estimated to be 73.31, 61.69, 57.21 and 53.01 μg/mL with 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. This is the first re...

Abdul A. Mirani1,2*, Chee H. Teo2, Adel A. Abul-Soad3, Ghulam S. Markhand1, Tahira Jatt1, Ameer A. Mirbahar1,4, Najamuddin Solangi

...nd Gulistan derived from in vitro subculture 1-10 (block I) and 11-25 (block II) in multiplication stage were screened for type and nature of phenotypic abnormalities. Six phenotypic abnormalities were detected: 1) dwarfism, 2) excessive vegetative growth, 3) production of deformed offshoots and twisted inflorescence, 4) abnormal frond growth, 5) low levels of fruit setting and 6) inflorescence absent. Among the six different variant phenotypes, complete rever...
Asima Azam1, Asma-Ul-Husna2, Saima Qadeer3, Qaisar Shahzad4, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah5, Tasneem Akhtar4 and Shamim Akhter2,*
...ned culture media, on in vitro development of Nili Ravi buffalo embryos. Oocytes were obtained from the ovaries of slaughtered buffaloes within two hours after slaughter and brought to laboratory. After in vitro maturation (IVM) in Tissue Culture Medium-199 (TCM199) for 24 h and fertilization (IVF) in Tyrode’s Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (TALP) medium for about 20 h, the presumptive zygotes were randomly dis...
Unal Kilic1*, Abdiwali Mohamoud Abdi1 and Deniz Ekinci2
...e (LiP) enzyme on the in vitro gas production and methane production of some straws. The study involved 8 groups for each forage, 3 different straws (wheat straw, soybean straw, sorghum straw), which comprise of 2 different LiP enzyme treatments (Available –Not Available) and 4 different treatment groups (control, 4% urea, 10% molasses and 14% urea+molasses (4% urea, 10% molasses). Hohenheim gas test was used in in vitr...
Adel E.M. Mahmoud1, AdamCieślak2, Paulina Szulc2, Anna Łukomska3 and Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel2,*

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 51, Iss. 5, Pages 1599-1997

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