Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...dquo; that offer a comprehensive vision of reality on the grounds that their authors are consciously or unconsciously trying to control the thinking and behavior of others. Yet, as Colin Gunton points out, human beings, thus faced with an enormous diversity of options in virtually every area of human life, end up making important decisions simply on the basis of momentary personal preference. In this article, I first review the classical philosophical understa...

Stephen Kershnar

...pic. It includes a comprehensive and in-depth study of the literature, devastating criticisms of rival theories, and a restructuring of the issues in a way that will shape future discussions of the field. It is also well-written, including interesting-and-enjoyable references to historical figures (for example, Mother Theresa, Adolf Hitler, and Paul Gauguin), artists (for example, Aldous Huxley and Woody Allen), and works of art (for example, Groundhog Day and...

Gregg D. Caruso

...he most lively and comprehensive defense of free will skepticism in the literature. It contains a reworked and expanded version of the view he first developed in Living without Free Will (2001). Important objections to the early book are answered, some slight modifications are introduced, and the overall account is significantly embellished—for example, Pereboom proposes a new account of rational deliberation consistent with the belief that one’s a...

John Martin Fischer

...is a masterful and comprehensive articulation of Derk Pereboom’s very important and original theory of free will and moral responsibility. Throughout his career, and especially here in this book, Pereboom has developed and defended one of the real “contenders” as a comprehensive theory of freedom and responsibility. This is a huge, and admirable, intellectual achievement.

...

Gareth Longden

...presented the most comprehensive study of the members of the organisation then published. The current research builds on Campbell’s work and offers a detailed profile of the membership of the British Humanist Association at the start of the 21st century. The results of a survey conducted in 2014 of 1,097 humanists are presented and compared with Campbell’s original 1967 data and against data derived from the 2011 United Kingdom Census. Particular a...

Marcus Mann

...y critic Christopher Hitchens concluded the movement’s must-read canon with God is Not Great. While these four polemics are indicative of each author’s expertise, they are united in their claim that organized religion is an affront to reason and that we ignore its potential to inspire destruction in this technological age at our peril.

...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...erviewed through a comprehensive questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions. Data regarding key factors such as age and ethnicity, communal domain, education level, employment status and demographic factors (drug route, drug dose) have bearing upon heroin addiction was collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Early age of addiction onset, low literacy rate, peer pressure, occupation type, and stress are am...

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

... of Hy-line white laying hens as a commercial type through two-way ANOVA, to estimate the Pearson correlation between pairs of egg external and internal characteristics and to predict each of egg internal characteristics from egg external characteristics, treatment and week through CHAID analysis. A total number of eighty, 56 weeks old Hy-Line White laying hens (commercial type) of nearly similar initial body weight (1360.6&...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...e system. A better comprehension of this behaviour could lead the global strategy for the control and eradicaton of PPR, initiated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on 2015.

...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...ing more output. A comprehensive agricultural policy is required based on support price of vegetables; subsidize the input resources, improvement in vegetable markets and provision of extension services.

...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...aimed to conduct a comprehensive study at molecular level to determine the main causative serotype of 2013 DENV outbreak in Pakistan. Overall 703 serologically positive suspected patients from different major health centers of Pakistan were registered in present study of which 214 were females and 489 were male. Overall weighted prevalence of PCR positivity was 38% (268). Of the total 268 PCR positive subjects, 0.74%, 56.71%, 15.67% were positive for serotype ...
Muzammil Sattar
...ysoperla carnea (Stephens). Results show that proteins play a vital role in the fecundity, fertility and all the biological parameters of F1 for mass rearing. The tested proteins were: Casein, Protein hydrolysate, Torula yeast and Nu lure. Al these proteins were tested in laboratory at four concentrations, i.e., 1, 3, 5 and 7 mg/ml in diet. Significantly higher fecundity 785.12±25.7, fertility 89.23±0.36 % of eggs and longer...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...n be overcome by a comprehensive program focusing on the provision of low cost inputs, pesticides/insecticides, modern techniques and trainings, and value chain market facilities at the local and regional level. 

...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...a and ALP were higher in hens’ serum. However, non-significant variations were recorded for total protein and AST among both the genders. It can be concluded from the present study that age, gender and rearing systems strongly influence blood biochemical profile in M. gallopavo.

 

...
Irfan1,*, Arshad Javid7, Muhammad Ashraf2, Athar Mahmud3, Muhammad Altaf4, Syed Makhdoom Hussain5, Muhammad Shahbaz4 and Khalid Javed Iqbal6
...artificially inseminated hens were assessed. To study the effect of natural mating on hatchability 15 (3♂, 12♀) M. gallopavo were randomly selected, were kept separately and were allowed to mate through stud mating. For artificial insemination, male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) birds were kept separately. Semen of the male birds was collected on weekly basis to record morphological characteristics and to inseminate the female birds. Mean abno...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...7%. A detailed and comprehensive questionnaire was used for measuring the effectiveness of extension activities performed by public and private sector extension field staff. The results revealed that a number of farmers received visits from private extension field staff on a fortnightly, monthly and quarterly basis, but not from public extension staff during these periods. When public field staff did visit, the favored method of extension was by exhibition and...

 Javed Khan*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Tariq Mahmood*,
Awais Rasool*, Naheed Akhtar and Saleem Abid**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
... Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) aphid were carried out in Insecatry- Bio control Laboratories, Insect Pest Management Programme, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results indicate that incubation period was 3.8±0.08 days with 87.0% hatchability. The developmental duration of first, second and third instar larvae were 3.2 ± 0.13, 4.0&plu...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

MARKETING SYSTEM OF LIVE CAMELS IN THE DESERT ECOLOGIES OF PAKISTAN
...n Pakistan are not comprehensive and do not cover all the aspects necessary for the markets to function efficiently. It is, therefore, recommended that the proper marketing system and physical infrastructure for live camels should be developed to benefit the poor camel farmers.

...
Filiz Kutluyer* 
...gered trout Salmo coruhensis, Anatolian trout Salmo rizeensis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Different activation media (NaCl, 0.3%; NaHCO3, 1%) were supplemented with L-tryptophan [Control (0), 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mM] for assessing sperm motility and its duration, fertility and hatching rate of eggs. The results from the present study indicated that addition of L-tryptophan increased the motility rate and duration in ...
Nasir Abbas1, Muhammad Suleman1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,*, Ijaz Ali3, Mubashir Rauf1,5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman4,*
...gest to initiate a comprehensive effective surveillance programme.
...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...op based loans and comprehensive policy of setting right price for output to increase net return and per unit yield. 

...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...op based loans and comprehensive policy of setting right price for output to increase net return and per unit yield. 

...
Yan Li1, Kai Zhan1,*, Junying Li1, Wei Liu1, Ruiyu Ma1, Shengnan Liu1, Tao Han2, Shaoquan Li2, Shaolin Wang2 and Yang Hu2
...hering Huainan partridge hens and 40 roosters were randomly divided into two equal groups. For NM, 4 mating cages were maintained each with 5 roosters and 45 laying hens. The other birds were reared in 3-layer complete ladder cages for AI, for which 180 hens were maintained in 60 cages with 3 hens/cage and 20 roosters in 20 cages. Laying performances, mo...
Muhammad Tariq Zahid1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2, Soumble Zulfiqar3, Khalid A. Al-Ghanim4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3,4*
...liate Tetrahymena farahensis. The ciliate showed optimum growth at 27±1°C and pH 7.0 to 7.5. The maximum resistance dose of copper for T. farahensis was found to be 8, 9 and 80 µg/ml in wheat grain medium, Bold-basal salt medium and modified Neff’s medium, respectively. T. farahensis exhibited significant copper storage ability removing 54.9 % co...
Yan Li1, Kai Zhan1,*, Junying Li1, Wei Liu1, Ruiyu Ma1, Shengnan Liu1, Haijun Cui1 and Xin Zhang2
...me batch of non-declawed hens. Compared with intact control, laying rate was significantly increased in groups 3 and 4, while percentage of defective eggs was visibly decreased in group 3. Hatching experiment showed a considerable depression in egg fertility and hatchability of setting eggs in group 4. Egg quality analysis demonstrated the significant increases in shell thickness among declawed treatments and yolk color in group 2. Overall feather score of lay...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
...n and therefore, a comprehensive country wide surveillance should further investigate the overall prevalence of members of MM cluster in suspected cases of CCPP in small ruminants.
...

Irfan Ali Sabir1, Saeed Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees2, Ahmad Sattar Khan1, Maryam3 and Ishtiaq Ahmad

... the country and a comprehensive research studies were executed to investigate the yield potential, fruit physico-chemical characters and sensorial aspects. Diverse seventeen commercial and noncommercial indigenous and exotic mango varieties were selected to collect and analyze fruit morphological data under randomized complete block design (RCBD). There was significantly high fruit weight and pulp contents in ‘Kensington Pride’. Total soluble soli...
Binbin Shan, Yan Liu, Changping Yang, Shengnan Liu and Dianrong Sun*
...i> and can provide comprehensively understanding and further characterizations of transcriptomes of non-model organisms.
...
Li Lv1, Liuan Li1,*, Ruibo Zhang1, Zhichao Deng1, Tianming Jin1 and Gaimei Du2
...on of North China laying hens. Healthy 60-week-old hens (n = 160) were randomly divided into four experimental groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with selenium enriched yeast at differing levels: 0.0 mg/kg (control group), 0.3 mg/kg (low-dose group), 0.6 mg/kg (medium-dose group) and 1.2 mg/kg (high-dose group). Each experimental group had four cohorts and each cohort had 10 hens<...

 Halil Erhan Eroğlu

The comparison of the Felidae species with karyotype symmetry/asymmetry index (S/AI)
...e species. After a comprehensive literature search,
karyotype formulae, S/AI values and karyotype types of 23 species were
determined. According to the S/AI values, a phylogenetic tree was drawn showing
relationships among the species.

...

 Şaban Çelebi

... thigh tissues of laying hens were determined in present study. A total of 96 White Lohman laying hens, aged 24 weeks, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=24), each of which was composed of 6 subgroups. The control group received the basal diet (T-1), treatment groups were fed on the the basal diet plus the three experimental diets included one of the followings: 125 mg/kg vitamin E + basal diet (T-2); 0.5 mg/kg Selenium ...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...reas. This article comprehensively reviews the etiology, symptomatology, pathogen biology, disease development, disease cycle, epidemics and epidemiology, geographical distribution and strategies for the disease management viz., exploitation of host plant resistance, cultural, physical, chemical and biological control. Studies on pathogen variation have revealed that breeding with single major gene for resistance may be unsuccessful due to breakdown in resista...

Abdur Rehman1*, Iqbal Javed2, Zhang Nannan3, Muhammad Niamatullah1, Raheel Saqib4 and Allah Bakhsh

...tands first in the comprehensive level of ranking for the development of agricultural informatisation and remained first in the ranked of index popularisation and application of agricultural informatisation. The Tangshan city ranked first for the infrastructure of agricultural information, the capital city Shijiazhuang in Hebei province as ranked first in the agricultural informatisation and human resources index. The Hengshui city ranked first in the agricult...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Mehmood Shah2, Adiqa Kiani3 and Farhat Parveen4 

...nsignificant. This comprehensive research will support the govt. in formulating policies on livestock to labour productivity of the economy.  

...
Jun Yan Bai*, Shuai Yang, You Zhi Pang, Xiao Hong Wu and Guang Lu Li
...lt;0.05). Based on comprehensive evaluation, the egg quality of Korea quail is better than those of other two species, egg production and laying rate of China yellow quail are significantly higher than those of Korea quail and Beijing white quail (P<0.05). The average egg weight of Korea quail is significantly higher than those of China yellow quail and Beijing white quail (P<0.05). The egg laying capacity of China yellow quail is better compared to othe...

Shaikh Abdul Lateef, Zhou Lin, Wu Jian, Junjie Qian, Jonathan Hartanto Tan and Zheng Shusen*
 

...icle, we present a comprehensive review characterizing the viral architecture, life cycle, infectivity mechanisms, immune escape strategies, disease epidemiology and preventive measures associated with HBV. The current antiviral therapeutics are not providing adequate protection against HBV. It is mandatory to characterize and devise novel antiviral therapies to control the spread of hepatitis  

...
Wen-Feng Li1, Rong-Yue Zhang1, Chun-Hua Pu2, Jiong Yin1, Zhi-Ming Luo1, Xiao-Yan Wang1, Xiao-Yan Cang1, Hong-Li Shan1 and Ying-Kun Huang1,*
..., through enhanced comprehensive pest control, sustainable development of the sugar industry will be promoted.

 

...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1, Samia Afzal1,*, Zareen Fatima1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...an. We conducted a comprehensive study and compared the immunological and genomic status of dengue outbreak in Pakistan through ELISA and PCR. In this study 720 samples were collected from different diagnostic centre’s/laboratories of Pakistan for ELISA and PCR tests. Out of 703 dengue positive samples, 93.5% were anti-dengue IgM positive, 71.5% were anti-dengue IgG positive and 81.3% were anti-dengue NS1 positive. Among these seropositive samples, 39.66...
Xiaopeng Tang1,2, Rejun Fang3,4,*, Guochang Pan1,2 and Kangning Xiong1,2,*
...oss intestinal mucosa of hens using the Ussing chamber system. First, four Loman laying hens with similar weight (1.25±0.13 kg) were sacrificed to detect the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity of isolated small intestine at time on 0 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min, to provide a appropriate operation time for Ussing chamber test. Then, a total of 20 Loman laying hens ...

Muhammad Amin1,2*, Khalid Mahmood2 and Imran Bodlah3 

...879) and Pterocomma beulahense (Cockerell, 1904) are new records for Pakistan. Astegopteryx bambusae (Buckton, 1893) is also represented as new record for the country. Data also have 3 second-finding, 6 third-finding, 11 new host plants and 71 new locality records in Pakistan. Aphis gossypii and Aphis craccivora were found infesting 8 tree species in 8 genera and 6 in 6 genera respectively. Rosaceae with 5 species in 4 genera carrying 9 aphid species in 5 gen...
Mubasshir Sohail1,2,*, Raza Muhammad1 and Qadeer Ahmed Soomro1
...rysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) has a key role in integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for many crop pests. The influence of different prey types has been studied to strengthen the C. carnea. Current in-vitro study was made to figure out the effects of different prey on mortality and certain biological characteristics of C. carnea. The highest mortality rate (66.43±2.13%) was for larvae, which fed upon...
Shad Mahfuz1,2, Shuyuan Wang1, Mo Chen1, Fei Zao1, Dong Zhen1
Zhongjun Liu4 and Hui Song1,3*
...FVW) inclusion in laying hens diet on production performance, egg quality and serum metabolic profile during the early phase of production.A total of 105 ISA Brown 18 wk old laying hens were grouped into 5 treatments with 7 replications of 3 hens each. Dietary treatments included a basal diet as control; antibiotic (0.05% flavomycin); 2% FVW; 4% FVW; and 6% FVW for 8 wk. Data were subjecte...
Zhijun Zhong1, Rui Tu1, Xichun Wang2, Yi Geng1, Qicheng Xiao1, Yinan Tian1, Bin Wei1, Jiaming Dan1, Ya Wang1 and Guangneng Peng1,*
...dy, we conducted a comprehensive molecular, pathological, and immunohistochemical analysis to detect this pathogen in pet dogs. Molecular methods, combining three types of PCR assays, identified two strains isolated from two pet dogs as Brucella canis. Histopathological changes revealed extensive inflammation and necrosis in the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, testicle, and lymph nodes, among which changes in the spleen were the most serious. Immunohistoch...
Mo Chen1, Shad Mahfuz1, 2, Yan Cui1, Liying Jia1, Zhongjun Liu3 and Hui Song1, 4*
... yolk in ISA Brown layer hens fed with mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) stembase (FVS). A total 150 hens of 30 wk old were grouped into 5 equal treatments with 5 replications of 6 hens each. Dietary treatments included basal diet as a control group; control diet including antibiotic (0.05% flavomycin) as an antibiotic group; 2% FVS fed group; 4% FVS fed group and 6%FVS fed group. The experi...

Turab Ali Kaurajo1*, Huma Rizwana1, Gulbahar Khaskheli2, Muhammad Haroon Baloch1, Muhammad Naeem Rajput1, Asad Ali Khaskheli3 and Mohsin Solangi

... interviewed using comprehensive Questionnaire. Survey indicated that the Sakrai breed is prominent in number followed by Dhatti, Larri/Sindhi. Camel herders were almost uneducated except small proportions that were primary passed. Among the land holders, each sedentary and household camel herders possessed 1 to 5 acres land where they grew Rabbi and Kharif crops. The production systems were 45% of sedentary, 26.6% transhumant, 18.3% nomadic and 10% house hold...
Qamar Zeb1*, Silvia I. Rondon2, Hayat Badshah,1 and Arsalan Khan1
...hryoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysomelidae), and several species of Hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) were the most common predators. In general, aphids were reported in all wheat cultivars. Cultivar Saleem-2000 presented the highest number of aphids per tiller (9.1), while Gomal-2008 presented the lowest (1.9). Based on aphid presence per tiller, no cultivar was found to be Susceptible or Highly Susceptible, but 1 cultivar was found to be Moderat...
Zekeriya Demir1 and Hatice Kaya2*
...ood parameters of laying hens. A total of 96 Lohmann layers, 28 weeks of age, were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments and fed a control diet (Pol-0), basal diet plus 0.5% (Pol-1), 1.0% (Pol-2) and 1.5% (Pol-3) bee pollen. The present study lasted for twelve weeks. During the experimental period, the hens were fed ad-libitum and water was available all the times. The hen house was lit for 17 h. The layers fe...
Hu Liu1,2, Qifang Yu1,2, Xiaopeng Tang1,2, Chengkun Fang1,2, Sijia Chen1,2 and Rejun Fang1,2,*
...idant capacity in laying hens. Seven-hundred and twenty 21-week-old healthy Roman laying hens with a similar laying rate were randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 replicates of 24 hens. The experiment was designed by 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two sources of Se and two levels of Se. The hens in control group were fed a basal diet without add...
Ramazan İlgün1*, Nilgün Kuru2, Ferhan Bölükbaş3 and Fatih Mehmet Gür4
...s (6-7 weeks), six layer hens (9-13 weeks) and six studs guinea fowl were used to study and determine the histological features of the tongue of the guinea fowl. Histological structures were examined using a light microscope the tissues and papillae of the tongue were examined with a the scanning electron microscope, and photos of the general histologic structures were taken. The tongue was triangular shaped, and consisted of apex, corpus, and radix sections. ...
Abdüssamet Aydın1 and Ş. Canan Bölükbaşı2*
...le) into diets of laying hens on performance, egg quality traits, thiobarbituric acid reactive substans (TBARS) of yolk, the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismütase (SOD) and glutation peroxidas (GSHPx) in serum. Sixty Lohman LSL white layers, 40 weeks of age, kept in individual cages were assigned randomly to five treatment groups, each group included 12 hens. The hens
Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Gul Bahar Khaskheli3, Allah Jurio Khaskheli2 and Arshad Ali Khaskheli1
...ts) were included. Comprehensive survey indicated year round availability of 19 different vegetations at study areas whereby dry matter contents in Calligonum polygonoides (93.63%) recorded significantly high, and in Trifolium alexandrinum it was low, while moisture content appeared vice versa to dry matter. Organic matter contents in Senegalia senegal (94.05%) followed by Calligonum polygonoides (93.80%) and Acacia jacquemontii<...
Waqas Ahmad Shams1*, Gauhar Rehman1, Khurshaid Khan1, Ibrar Ahmad1, Saima Bibi1, Saif Ul Islam2, Dawood Safi1, Saba Gul Ayaz1
...ab life. To have a comprehensive study of the crab fauna of Buner District, nine different localities were selected for conduction of survey. The results showed that there were two crab species yawi and Smalley. These species belong to Allacanthos. They have gonopod with a distal portion of mesio laterally flattened. They have a cephalic sub distal portion which is concave. There is a narrow marginal process with an almost straight distal end and a sharp tip l...

Cornelius Arome Omatola*, Samson Daniel Iyeh, Shedrach James Abuh, Charles Kehinde Mofolorunsho, Martin-Luther Oseni Okolo and Phoebe Queen Akoh 

...programs including comprehensive screening of pregnant women with increased access to health care and treatment of confirmed cases at an affordable cost should be promoted to reduce STIs thereby reducing associated morbidities and mortalities.  

...

Hosts and Viruses

December

Vol. 6, Iss. 6, Pages 130-146

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