Gregg D. Caruso

Science, Religion and Culture
... as the ancient Greeks, when Thales of Miletus and other pre-Socratic philosophers began to offer scientific explanations of the natural world, questions about the relationship between science and religion began to emerge. Given that science and religion are two great manifestations of human culture, and that the scientific and religious worldviews dominate our understanding of the cosmos and our place in it, it is no surprise that these issues are of profound...

Keith Ward

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...ooks, London, 2010), Stephen Hawking agrees that we should attempt to answer the questions ‘Why is there something rather than nothing? Why do we exist?’ and ‘Why this particular set of laws and not some other?’ (p. 19). In his book he proposes to answer those questions, from a purely scientific point of view (‘Philosophy is dead’, he announces on p. 13, even though the whole book is an exercise in scientifically informed ph...

Ruse, Michael, The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet, The University of Chicago Press, 2013, 251 pp, $26.00, ISBN 978-0-226-73170-4

 

Science, Religion and Culture

Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
...ity of such criticisms. Then, I offer two examples of alternatives to objectifying ethnography before tracing developments in anthropological method in the last decades that have greatly improved the lens used for the anthropological gaze. Finally, I conclude by suggesting the collaboration between anthropology and theology in the restoration of a world capable of supporting life in more than a mere physical sense.

...

El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...ultry since 2008. Since then, these viruses continue to evolve. In 2006-2008, outbreaks were reported mostly during the winter season, but in 2009-2012 they occurred year round. H5N1 AIV succeeded in infecting not only domesticated birds but also many other avian species and mammals. Infections of humans were accompanied by mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein which improved the binding affinity to human receptors but simultaneously retained its specifi...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
... manifestation (Kantian phenomena) via tentative hypotheses subject to empirical verification. In the humanities, there is deep suspicion of so-called “meta-narratives” that offer a comprehensive vision of reality on the grounds that their authors are consciously or unconsciously trying to control the thinking and behavior of others. Yet, as Colin Gunton points out, human beings, thus faced with an enormous diver...

Stephen Kershnar

...pic. It includes a comprehensive and in-depth study of the literature, devastating criticisms of rival theories, and a restructuring of the issues in a way that will shape future discussions of the field. It is also well-written, including interesting-and-enjoyable references to historical figures (for example, Mother Theresa, Adolf Hitler, and Paul Gauguin), artists (for example, Aldous Huxley and Woody Allen), and works of art (for example, Groundhog Day and...

Stephen Kershnar

...ere is meaning in life, then Metz’s theory does not capture it because it is an overly intellectual account.

...

Justin P. McBrayer

...ces our personal goals. When it comes to belief in God, the most famous formulation of a prudential reason for belief is Pascal’s Wager. And although Pascal’s Wager fails, its failure is instructive. Pascal’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to those who believe in God verses those who do not. A renewed wager can avoid this difficulty by relying solely on well-documented differences ...

Justin P. McBrayer

...ces our personal goals. When it comes to belief in God, the most famous formulation of a prudential reason for belief is Pascal’s Wager. And although Pascal’s Wager fails, its failure is instructive. Pascal’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to those who believe in God verses those who do not. A renewed wager can avoid this difficulty by relying solely on well-documented differences ...

Bruce L. Gordon

... their faith altogether when its falsity is discovered. With a view toward encouraging a culture of biblical and scientific literacy and overcoming the anti-intellectual legacy of fundamentalism that sustains this particular “scandal of the evangelical mind”, we offer a synoptic critique of young-earth creationism while developing and defending an evangelically acceptable alternative for understanding the relationship between God’s works and ...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

... has a higher frequency when compared with other continents. It is important to reinforce that currently Brazil has no official control program for BVDV. The significance of cattle production losses or the potential implementations of commercial barrier by other countries can possibly reason the placement of governmental veterinary measures in the near future.

...

Gregg D. Caruso

...he most lively and comprehensive defense of free will skepticism in the literature. It contains a reworked and expanded version of the view he first developed in Living without Free Will (2001). Important objections to the early book are answered, some slight modifications are introduced, and the overall account is significantly embellished—for example, Pereboom proposes a new account of rational deliberation consistent with the belief that one’s a...

John Martin Fischer

...is a masterful and comprehensive articulation of Derk Pereboom’s very important and original theory of free will and moral responsibility. Throughout his career, and especially here in this book, Pereboom has developed and defended one of the real “contenders” as a comprehensive theory of freedom and responsibility. This is a huge, and admirable, intellectual achievement.

...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

... temperature (20oC) and then applied to appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, compost @ 0.7 t ha-1 and poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 were applied with half of the recommended dose of NPK @ (75:60:30 kg ha-1) with or without EM. In 2009-10, the application of EM with Press mud @ 20 t ha-1 significantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm), number of leaves (16.4)...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

... eggs treated at x dose when parasitoid was during egg, larval, and pupal stages were 21.6, 26.5, and 25.1%, respectively; the 2x dose resulted in parasitism (mean) of 23.1, 27.6, and 26.1 when parasitoids were treated in egg, larval, and pupal stages, respectively, while, 0.5x dose led to 21.0, 25.9, 27.7, mean parasitism, respectively. The percent reduction in both emergence (mean) and parasitism (mean) relative to the con...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

... efficient counterpart, then the average farmer could increase wheat yield by 30 per cent. Similarly the most technically inefficient farmer could enhance wheat yield by 61 per cent. Results further showed that one percent increase in value of land under wheat crop, labour, chemical fertilizer and tractor plough would raise the wheat yield by 0.052, 0.566, 0.130 and 0.438 percent, respectively and were found statistically significant. Farmers’ education ...

John Teehan

...re always complex, even when facile “explanations” are readily available, i.e. the violent nature of Islam, their hatred of Western freedom, etc. A consistent element in many such explanations is a pronouncement on the nature of religion, in general, with some, predictably, placing the blame for such hate-filled acts squarely on religion.

...

Frank Griffel

...derstand so quickly and when a journalist of Slate.com asked him to explain, Luz said that the drawing is a callback to an earlier 2011 cover showing the Prophet Muhammad with the words: “100 lashes if you don’t die of laughter.” On the day that cover appeared, the offices of Charlie Hebdo were attacked by a firebomb. Luz explained Charlie Hebdo’s motivation for the most recent cover as, “to show that at any given moment, we have ...

Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
...a panoramic lens, which then zooms in to focus on specific individuals. Thus we meet Free Masons, missionaries, colonial agents, officials of the fledging Ottoman Empire, Arab propagators of a new science, and religious scholars (‘Ulama) who are not ready to deal with a science that attempts to extract God from the explanatory hypothesis.

 

...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Salman2, Shah Alam Khan2, Alamzeb1, Inamullah Khan1

 

...flat-headed borer, Sphenoptera dadkhani (Oben.) is the major insect-pest of stone fruit orchards. Survey of three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa revealed the highest mean infestation in plum orchards of district Peshawar (89.60%), followed by Nowshera (75.79%) and Swat (45.42%). In peach orchards, highest mean infestation was recorded in Peshawar (88.33%), followed by Nowshera (72.77%) and Swat (53.72%). The mean infestation of 70.86% was recorded in...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...ity to undergo dramatic phenotypic changes in response to physical demands, age and disease. The contributions of skeletal muscle to immune response and virus pathogenesis are increasingly recognized. Recent evidence strongly indicated that skeletal muscle cells fully support productive replication of influenza A virus (IAV) and could play an important role in disease outcome. We are of the opinion that skeletal muscle could be a key innate immune tissue/orga...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...ges in lymphoid tissues when compared with virulent viruses of other genotypes. Therefore, severe pathology in immune organs, caused by genotype VIId of NDV, is associated with high levels of virus replication and an intense innate immune response.

...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...ost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was found best compromise between forage yield and quality for maize cultivar Kissan under the agro-climatic conditions of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The study also indicates that crude protein and mineral content in fodder maize can be improved through N application and complete reliance on protein and mineral supplements for farm livestock can be reduced.

 

...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...re manually sown in polythene lined pots. Five water stress treatments were created by withholding the irrigation for specified time at critical growth stages viz. tillering, booting, anthesis and milking (grain filling), whereas a well-watered treatment was also included during whole plant growth and development period. The results showed that water stress significantly reduced plant height, number of total tillers per plant, number of fertile tillers per pla...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

...rom available stock and then placed into 108 experimental units (replicates comprising 20 chicks each). Growth parameters i.e. weekly body weight (g), weight gain (g), times of weight gain, feed intake (g) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) were calculated during the study period. Data were analysed by ANOVA technique and means were compared by using DMR test. The results of the present study showed that the weekly mean body weight (g) of Japanese quail birds obt...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

... returns than mung bean when grown after lentil. The studies showed that partial budget analysis was a reliable technique for farmers to optimize fertilizer recommendations and harvest maximum returns from their investment in agricultural business.

 

...

Hayat Badshah1*, Farman Ullah1, Abid Farid2, Ahmad-U-Rahman Saljoqi1, Sajjad Ahmad3

...of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), on different host plants. Such studies would identify the best host plant for its efficient rearing. The present study investigated some basic life table parameters i.e. female life span, adult female weight, longevity and reproductive potential of P. solenopsis on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.), brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.), potato (Solanum tuberosum Linn.), Chi...

David Kyle Johnson

...ct) criterion regarding when belief in the miraculous is justified; I will then show why it is impossible to fulfill this criterion. I will conclude by considering objections.

...

Thomas J. Coleman III1*, Ralph W. Hood Jr.1 and John R. Shook2

...cantly. Moreover, these phenomena have been researched, studied and documented by multiple disciplines ranging from cognitive science to religious studies, and from anthropology to sociology. The study of atheism and secularity is of high interest to not only scholars, but also the public in general. In this special issue of Science, Religion & Culture, Guest Edited by John R. Shook, Ralph W. Hood Jr., and Thomas J. Coleman III, we present 8 articles, 2 re...

Jonathan Jong

...n religion (and related phenomena, including nonreligion, atheism, and secularity) is invariably prefaced by sheepish attempts to define these terms, followed by apologies for the inevitable inadequacy of the proposed definitions. This paper argues that scholars of religion and nonreligion should accept the fact that “religion” and “nonreligion” are, like all social scientific concepts (and some biological ones), fuzzy categories. There...

Ethan G. Quillen

...ding about what we mean when we discuss Atheism. On the other, this myriad of voices has equally led to an ever-broadening discordancy, an equivocal discourse that makes it all the more difficult to identify any sort of common or universal definition. This latter issue is, as this paper will argue, the result of a theoretical abstraction, a scholarly attempt at theorizing a general interpretation. This is evinced not just by the way the term has been contrar...

Gareth Longden

...presented the most comprehensive study of the members of the organisation then published. The current research builds on Campbell’s work and offers a detailed profile of the membership of the British Humanist Association at the start of the 21st century. The results of a survey conducted in 2014 of 1,097 humanists are presented and compared with Campbell’s original 1967 data and against data derived from the 2011...

 David F. Bradley*, Julie J. Exline, Alex Uzdavines

...s suggest nonbelievers, when prompted to imagine a hypothetical god, do not uniformly imagine cruel gods, but a diverse array of deities based partly on prior experiences with gods and current interactions with nonbelief.

...

Liz Goodnick

...ent evil, but not able? then is he impotent. Is he able, but not willing? then is he malevolent. Is he both able and willing? whence then is evil?” (Hume 1993, 100).

...

Marcus Mann

...y critic Christopher Hitchens concluded the movement’s must-read canon with God is Not Great. While these four polemics are indicative of each author’s expertise, they are united in their claim that organized religion is an affront to reason and that we ignore its potential to inspire destruction in this technological age at our peril.

...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...on of olive fruit. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins which are the major components of olive fruits degrades significantly during four weeks of treatment process. Results showed that during brine treatment, fermentation take place which significantly convert the oleourepean into simple sugar and decreased during treatment process. Lye solution penetrates inside the msesocarp and than endocarp during four weeks of treatmen...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...net income was recorded when sorghum water extract was applied in integration with Dual Gold. The combined application of sunflower with Dual Gold ranked second in monetary benefits. Interculturing twice was found less economical due to higher costs of labour. Hence, it can be inferred from the above results that Dual Gold dose can be reduced up to 50% in combination with sorghum or sunflower water extrac...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...d S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these treatments. Results revealed that levels of citric and lactic acid concentrations effect were maximum for 5.0%, followed by 3.0% and least for 1.0% on E. coli and Salmonella load on beef surfaces. In addition, citric acid was more effective than lactic acid at all concentrations (1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%) in reducing E. coli and Salmonella growth. The citric acid at 5.0% was found significantly effective treatment in redu...

Rick Repetti

...uences of prior events, then they are unfree; Derk Pereboom’s two arguments for hard incompatibilism: the manipulation argument, which asserts that manipulated choices are unfree, determinism is functionally equivalent to manipulation, and thus determined choices are unfree; and the randomness argument, which asserts that we cannot claim authorship
over random neural events; and Galen Strawson’s impossibility argument, which a...

Muhammad Zubair, Sajid Mahmood Sajid

...nt of semen.

...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...reactivity in silico or when tested with a panel of bacterial isolates. The limit of detection was determined to 4x103 bacteria per mL of nasal swab sample and less than 10 copies of target DNA per PCR reaction. Out of 23 isolates of B. bronchiseptica tested, one isolate from a hedgehog was not amplified. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA showed that the isolate was similar to strains of both B. bronchiseptica and...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...ovoked oxidative stress when applied at high dosages. Therefore, pesticide application at high concentrations can be considered as a kind of stress, similarly to other stresses such as salt, drought and low or high temperatures.

...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

....05) in treatment MLM4. When compared among treatments, the value of crude protein (CP) digestibility coefficient was high (P<0.05) in treatment MLM4 as compared to MLM1. Similar trend was also observed in case NDF among treatments. Daily milk yield and 4 % FCM has increased (P<0.05) in buffaloes fed treatment MLM3 and MLM4 as compared to other treatments. While there was no significant (P>0.05) difference of percentage of fat, protein, lactose, ash, ...

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

...s. Exploitation of this phenom- enon of superior performance of F1 progeny over their parents not only trans gured maize breeding schemes but also constituted the foundation of maize seed industry. Evaluation of per se performance of parental lines and estimation of heterosis and inbreeding depression are prerequisites to start hybrid development program. In this context, we explored heterosis and inbreeding depression in indigenous maize germplasm comprising ...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Mohammad Tariq Jan2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3 and Abdul Bari4

...Millable canes excelled when top portion from standing source was planted at triple setts. Stripped cane length and yield excelled when top cane portions were planted as triple setts. Over all it was concluded that planting fresh cane top portions with double and triple setts placement methods were found better than trenched planting for cane yield and yield attributing traits.

...

Kang-Seuk Choi

...aive configuration of authentic IBD virus particles. The VLPs show intrinsic immunogenicity and a high safety profile.  Thus, VLPs are considered one of the most promising approaches to vaccine development and are an alternative to inactivated IBD vaccines. In addition, VLP technology has many applications. This paper reviews the potential of VLPs as an alternative to IBD vaccines, along with their specific applications in the field.

...

Monireh Ahmadi Bani1*, Mostafa Kamali2, Iman Borji3, Soheyla Aslani3, Francis Fatoye4

...force plate for one and then five minutes, respectively. Their stability parameters were evaluated based on the old and new methods. Paired sample t-test was used for comparison between two methods and different conditions (eyes open and eyes closed). Traditional method for stability analysis showed no difference between two conditions in one minute standing (p ≥ 0.05). However, the new method confirmed that stability parameters significantly decreased in f...

John G. Bruno1*, Chien-Chung Chao2,3, Zhiwen Zhang3, Wei-Mei Ching2,3, Taylor Phillips1, Allison Edge1, Jeffery C. Sivils1

...candidate aptamers were then paired in a matrix of all possible capture and reporter aptamer combinations and tested in a fluorescent peroxidase-linked Amplex® UltraRed (AUR; a resazurin-like substrate) version of a rapid (< 1 h) aptamer magnetic bead sandwich assay. The optimal sandwich aptamer combination utilized the same aptamer sequence (designated Rt-18R) for both capture and reporter functions while producing a signal to noise ratio of > 4.0 f...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...an disease virus (ADV). When evaluated in the short term, i.e. between consecutive days and weeks, the estimated antibody levels were comparable and did not exceed the predefined equivalence interval based on the methodological variance for the VP2 ELISA. This confirms that the VP2 ELISA can be used for quantitatively estimating the ADV antibody levels even when the screening extends over a couple of weeks. For the long term...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

... camels at Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples (n=400), collected during 2012–2013 from sick and clinically healthy herds, were subjected to antibodies detection using c-ELISA. Out of examined animals, 83 (62.9%) goats and 70 (33.2%) sheep were detected positive against PPRV antibodies, whereas camels appeared to be seronegative. Based upon the seasonal variations in the antibodies detection, environment appeared to be a signifi...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...f PPR. This review comprehend the current scenario of recombinant technology based vaccines and diagnostics, virus like particles (VLPs), reverse genetics approach etc., in the development of diagnostics and vaccines against PPR.

...

Neil Levy

...ulture is more powerful when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Neil Levy

...ulture is more powerful when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...etter than other blends when mixed together that will achieve better strength as well as financial system phase.

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 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...weeks before sowing and then were incorporated to plots at sowing both the years. All treatments including control were either supplemented with half of the recommended dose (75 kg N ha-1) of Urea-N or no Urea-N. Compost, its composition, mineral N and their interactions significantly affected maize yield and yield components over two years average data. Compost application produced more maize ears m-2 (13%), grains ear-1 (28%), 1000 grains weight (14%), biolo...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

...ed yield (2589 kg ha-1) when compared with 0.0 and 10 kg K2O ha-1. Interestingly, Sel-449 was the most responsive genotype to K nutrition which resulted in higher branches per plant (5.3), pods per plant (29.7), seeds per pod (4.5), seed index (87.3 g) and seed yield (2504 kg ha-1) as compared to its counterparts. The genotype Sel-1785 was much closer to Sel-449 for its growth and yield traits. We conclude from the results of this study that a dose of 20 kg K2...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

 Ian von Hegner

...universally applicable, then the concept of hypothetical gods’ right to rule results in dictatorship. Whereas the concepts of dictator and tyrant originally had a more positive meaning, those meanings have changed. However, the concept of the gods in the philosophical debate has avoided a similar redefinition in light of democracy, despite the fact, that it involves the same negation of modern fundamental rights. The basic democratic idea posits that all...

Muhammad Ibrahim, Jawaria Ali Khan, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Avais, Ali Husnain, Naimatullah Khan, Muhammad Kamran Ameen and Abdullah Iqbal

...0 % recovery percentage when treated with lemon for five days and 33 percent cows recovered from subclinical mastitis when treated with Black Pepper for five days. Udder health status and milk quality can be enhanced with use of Garlic and Vitamin E + Se combination in cows.

...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...starch and flocculation phenomenon. Chitosan starch based polymer composites can be used as an efficient and cost effective method to treat waste water polluted with carcinogenic dyes by coagulation-flocculation. Moreover this method is beneficial over other methods that employ toxic polymers or mineral coagulants.

...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...a-1. Red leaves reduced when soil was fertilized with N, P and K @ 120-70-40 kg ha-1; and plots without application of K (120-70-0 kg ha-1) and PK (120-0-0 kg N ha-1) increased number of red leaves. In case of micronutrients, Zn @ 4 kg and B @ 1.5 kg ha-1 were highly effective to control reddening of leaves, respectively. Interactive effect of NP @ 120-70 kg ha-1 × Zn @ 4 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum reduction of red leaves. Regardless the application of ...

Usman Ijaz1, Muhammad Sajid Tahir2, Khalid Abdul Majeed3*, Shahid Iqbal4, Iffat Huma5, S. Firyal6, Ijaz Ahmed7, Shahid Chohan8 and Aamir Riaz Khan9 

...cted to sequencing, and then observed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs were observed on three loci of the COI gene as compared to reference sequence of Panthera pardus pardus. The specimens found in Pakistan were found to be closely related to Panthera pardus orientalis (Amur Leopard in South eastern Russia) and Panthera pardus japonensis (North Chinese Leopard), with all of these three speculated to be evolved from Pant...

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

... body fat accumulation, when compared with control group. Taken together, these data indicate that DDGS can be utilized as a feed additive and has beneficial effects on unsaturated fatty acid formation in pork without deleterious effect on growth performance.

...

Paul I. Ankeli, Mashood A. Raji, Haruna M. Kazeem, Moses O. Odugbo, Nendir J. Umaru, Idowu O. Fagbamila, Livinus T. Ikpa, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Issa A. Muraina, Pam D. Luka and Nicholas D. Nwankpa

...ear canal be considered when Mmm isolation is intended so as to improve the chance of recovery. 

...

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...MB and NB respectively, when compared with FB. The irrigation water saving was 36%, 40% on WB, 34%, 31% on MB and 7%, 8% on NB, for wheat and maize crops respectively, when compared with FB. The crop yields were higher by 14%, 25% on WB, 12%, 10% on MB and 3%, 13% on NB, respectively, compared with FB. Consequently, the water productivity was also increased by 43%, 71% on WB, 30%, 30% on MB and 4%, 18% on NB for wheat and ma...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

...viridis vs M. leschenaulti based on Cyt b gene. Morphology, geographical distribution and genetic data suggest the elevation of M. v. americanus to a full species Rufous-crowned Bee-eater M. americanus, supporting the latest taxonomic arrangement by IUCN.

...

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...ign: justify;">Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose depleted glutathione (GSH) which lead to liver dysfunction and hence hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the best antidote for APAP but may induce a variety of side effects. This study was designed to compare the potential impact of NAC with that of Thymoquinone (THQ), and/or Curcumin (CUR) either alone or in combination on liver injury induced by inflammation, oxidative str...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

...ttern of the people, and hence result in the food demand shifts. The current study estimates for the presence of structural shifts in the demand for food in Pakistan for the selected food groups from the Household Integrated Economic Survey for the years1985-86, 1993-94, 2001-02 and 2007-08. Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) is employed to estimate the budget shares and test for these shifts. The results confirm for the significance of the quadrati...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...erviewed through a comprehensive questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions. Data regarding key factors such as age and ethnicity, communal domain, education level, employment status and demographic factors (drug route, drug dose) have bearing upon heroin addiction was collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Early age of addiction onset, low literacy rate, peer pressure, occupation type, and stress are am...

Abida Saleem, Sajida Parveen and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...oils they were fit only when adsorption values for initial IZnA were disregarded. The adsorption, as indicated by b and K values was higher for BC followed by FYM but MCB and 1/n value that reflects the buffering capacity was higher for FYM than BC or PM. The lower adsorption of Zn at lower IZnA below 20 mg Zn L-1 and higher for higher IZnA for amended soil over non-treated soil suggesting its contrasting effect at different IZnA levels.

...

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

... of Hy-line white laying hens as a commercial type through two-way ANOVA, to estimate the Pearson correlation between pairs of egg external and internal characteristics and to predict each of egg internal characteristics from egg external characteristics, treatment and week through CHAID analysis. A total number of eighty, 56 weeks old Hy-Line White laying hens (commercial type) of nearly similar initial body weight (1360.6&...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...d the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the field. The results showed that fire ant invasion significantly suppressed honeydew exploitation by ghost ant. Fire ant suppression markedly increased the ghost ant foraging activity both on plants and the ground. Ant diversity in fire ant-infested plots was significantly reduced compared with in fire ant-free plots. Compared with in the no-ant plots, the colony growth rate of mea...

Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar*

...wo new species, Oxyopes chenabensis new species, and Oxyopes bidentata new species are being reported from Punjab.

...

Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

...akistan exports got smoothened after WTO’s implementation in the world arena, perhaps due to less restrictions on trade after WTO’s arrival, relative to pre-WTO period. Compared to exports, Pakistan imports’ coefficient of variation does not show significant declines; rather it appears largely static, suggesting Pakistan imports trade could not be benefited much by reductions in trade restrictions associated with the implementation of WTO in ...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...tart of experiment, and then these acclimatized on leaf discs. Thiacloprid having lowest LC50 value 295 and proved toxic for the predator while diafenthiuron and pyriproxyfen have higher values. The findings of the study revealed that among five tested pesticides chlorfenapyr and thiacloprid proved moderately harmful for N.barkeri, hence cannot be recommended in IPM module.

...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...at 4°C. Straws were then kept over liquid nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Thawing was performed after 24 h of storage, at 37°C for 30 seconds and post-thaw sperm quality parameters were assessed. Sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, viability and chromatin integrity was higher (P<0.05) in extender containing melatonin 0.1 mM and 0.5 mM compared to control. In conclusion, ...

Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

...t beetles, respectively when compared with susceptible population. Lipid contents of 4th and 6th instar larvae and adult beetles also depleted in Gujranwala (54, 65 and 65%), Okara (16, 21 and 25%) and D.G khan (36, 35 and 50%) populations, respectively as compared to susceptible population. To deal with stressful condition of exposure to deltamethrin, the insect utilizes its energy reserves to meet the energy requirement of enhanced metabolic activity.

...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...substituted serine with phenylalanine at 34th position of extracellular domain of GNRHR. The Ser34Phe mutation was manifested in phenotypic traits such as low concentrations of FSH, LH and T and delayed puberty. In conclusion, mutations in GNRHR may cause delay in male puberty in Pakistani population.

...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

... the dose of 200 IJ and then increased with 400 IJ dose. The minimum number of juveniles emerged at the dose of 200 IJ. The relationship between inoculation dose and emergence of IJ by using both methods was non-significant. Similarly, with an increase in inoculum dose and time, invasion of host was significantly increased. There was little invasion at the 800 IJ dose even after 4 days whereas with the commercial dose (8,000), nematodes did migrate to the larv...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...ing. The study is strengthened by the pseudo-longitudinal design whose findings are expected to inform public health decision-making. Going forward, it will be possible to parameterize complex realistic Leptospira transmission models for understanding urban Leptospirosis dynamics.

...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

...ion performance-related phenotypes in local chicken breeds need to be further verified.

...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...nt developmental stages then increased gradually from the stage of midgastrula onward. This study provides some basic evidence that SS1 may play a role in growth, development and metabolism in C. nasus, and provides a basis for further study of SS neuropeptide family in C. nasus.

...

Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

...ethod and the total polyphenolic and flavonoids contents were determined using a spectrophotometric method. The antiradical scavenging property and the maximum nontoxic concentration of the extract was determined using DPPH assay and MTT method, respectively. Serial concentrations of the extract not exceed the maximum nontoxic concentration were used against Vero cells for anti-HSV-1 and ant-HSV-2 effects by plaque assay. The results of the phytochemical ...

Sania Subhan Qureshi, Mian Saeed Sarwar and Zahir Shah

...ugh entrepreneurship. A hen with the complaint of swelling on abdominal region, came to Veterinary Teaching Hospital, The University of Agriculture Peshawar. Physical examination was performed and it was diagnosed a case of muscle tumor (myoma). A skin incision was given to expose and to remove tumor mass from the surrounding tissues. Peritoneum, muscle and subcutaneous tissues were sutured with absorbable suture (vicryl; polyglactin 910) and skin with a non-...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...e system. A better comprehension of this behaviour could lead the global strategy for the control and eradicaton of PPR, initiated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on 2015.

...

Sabri Unal1, ASır Er2, Erol Akkuzu1* and Lubomir Salek3

... order to determine the phenology of the predator Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and to evaluate its efficacy on Macrosiphum rosae (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Kastamonu, Turkey. Rearing of C. septempunctata was carried out at 21.3±4.00ºC and 78.8±9.44% relative humidity. The first, second, third and fourth larval instars of C. septempunctata consumed 20.3, 54.3, 108.2, and 232.7 M. rosea, respectively...

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...stocked in duplicate earthen ponds (90×70×4ft) and fed on 40%, 35% and 30% protein diet @5% of their live body weight. In 40% protein diet treatment, male fish was injected 1st dose with ovaprim + HCG (0.3+0.3ml) and female fish was given 2nd dose after 24 hrs of intervals with ovaprim (0.2ml), while 1st dose ovaprim (0.7ml)+HCG (1.0ml) and 2nd dose ovaprim (0.7ml) was given to the females. The treatment which was given 35% protein diet received 1s...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

... especially significant when they are incorporated into sacred texts. This would seem to be the case not only for Judaism, Islam, and mainline Christianity, but also for Mormonism, a distinctive branch of Christianity. Officially known as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), Mormonism shares some root metaphors with other Christians but differs in important ways in its development and use of these metaphors. In this paper we discuss the journ...

Imed Ben Salem*, Aymen Ben Ibrahim, M’barek Chetoui and Said Nouira

...he tpsDig software, and then analyzing them through the program MorphoJ. Our results show that L. griselda has the largest skull, whereas L. zebra has the smallest. L. griselda and L. rosalia have greater breadth of the braincase, length of the nasals and length of the tympanic bulla, than the other species. This is probably related to a phenotypic evolution due to selective pressure, as is also the case in the genus Gerbill...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...ysimi) cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis), grain moth eggs (Sitotroga cerealella) and honey. Results revealed complete development of all larval stages on all diets with maximum survival of lady bird beetle larvae on mustard aphid (76.6%) followed by on grain moth’s eggs (20%), immature mealybugs (6%) and the least survival on honey. These findings can lead to the discovery of new artificial diets for the C. undecimpunctata for the mass release in ...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

...r Beta 1 injection, and then skin punch excision on rabbit ear. In the present follow-up study consisting of eight refind techniques, best Keloid was produced by the technique where Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 injection was followed by ventral skin, ventral perichondrium, cartilage, and dorsal perichondrium punch excision, leaving behind only dorsal skin.

...

John G. Bruno

...he ELASA screening were then attached to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads (SAv-MBs) and used to capture their cognate and related E. coli serovars. Capture was assessed by fluorescence microplate assessment following acridine orange staining. While there was significant cross-reactivity between the various captured serotypes, each of the anti-LPS aptamer candidates showed a preference for its cognate E. coli serotype. Results suggest that these aptamers may ...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

... exhibits auto-toxicity when grown in association with wheat crop.

...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...PER (36.36±1.83) when compared to other dietary treatment groups. The addition of 4TX clay in the diets at both 2 and 4 ppm AFB1 concentrations have almost the same effect on the growth parameters tested except in the case of PER. T3 (0.5% 4TX+2 ppm AFB1) showed better PER (31.42±1.74) when compared to T4 (0.5% 4TX+ 4 ppm AFB1) group (27.76±0.67). Interaction between different growth parameters of tilapi...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

...uch as a decrease in Hb when compared to the control; reduction of MCV, MCH and MCHC to all exposed concentration of aluminium phosphide, significant increase in neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil and monocytes throughout the duration of exposure and decrease in the lymphocytes . The results on gill and liver tissues sampled showed concentration and time dependent significant increase (p < 0.005) in the values of malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutas...

Jixue Hou1,2, Xueling Chen3, Jing Wang4, Hongwei Zhang2, Yu Xi2, Jie Xia2, Xinyu Peng2,* and Xiangwei Wu2,5*

...an be showed about some phenomenon quickly, also more easy to form model of atherosclerosis. Thus, a mouse model of vascular injury is vitally important for researching the pathophysiological mechanisms to restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) as well as translational approaches. In this Experiment, we established a unique murine model of femoral artery injury through a home-made wire. The mouse model of vascular injury may be ...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

...pectrum of neurological phenotypes seen in human diseases. On the contrary, pigs, especially mini-pigs, show exciting potential for modeling human CNS diseases due to similarities in body size, anatomy, life span, CNS structure and neurobiology. Previously, via the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique, we successfully generated transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs carrying a fluorescent protein (DsRed) reporter gene regulated by the 2.2-kb human glial fibrilla...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

...ix hours post infection when applied at and MOI of 100.

...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...Forty fish farmers were then randomly selected from the fish farmers’ association chapter present in each selected Local Government Area. Interview-schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The findings revealed that the fish farmers were economically active with a mean age of 42.5 years, majority (73.1%) were males, married (74.4%) and had one level of formal education or the other (82.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant ...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

... resistance is emerging, hence leading to serious health issues. Among 24 strains isolated from Shaukat Banaspati Ghee industry (Grw) and Shezan foods (pvt) Ltd, Lahore, Pakistan food industry, 10 highly antibiotic resistant strains were subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to identify three highly resistant strains at species level. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic plant e...

Bin Wang, Bo Zhang, Nan Yang, Liang Dou and Jianghong Ran*

...tridge (Tetraophasis szechenyii) is endemic to western China and is known to cooperatively breed in a population habituated to supplemental feeding by humans. The social structure and demography of this species, however, have not been examined in natural populations. To determine if cooperative breeding occurs in populations unassociated with humans, we surveyed two natural populations in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in western China. We compared th...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...l study in Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah. Saudi Arabia. The seroprevalece was determined by NP-epitopes based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegative. The prevalence of PPR was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 to 77.3% in 2016. Seropositivity was higher in wet seasons (60.9 to 61.4%) to 56.7% in dry hot season. Species,...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...tive for education, polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemical, irrigation and labour days. Under utilization of resources was found for polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemicals, irrigation and labour days. Over utilization of resources was observed for seed quantity and use of tractor. There exist decreasing return to scale (87.7%) but its value will surely increase after efficient use of inputs. A little adjustment is required ...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...bed within each year and hence, are suitable for areas of prolonged drought. Some lines of synthetic derived wheat especially those carrying blood from T. tauschii germplasm were equivalent in performance to superior cultivars used in the study, thus can be utilized in breeding for drought stress by wheat breeders.

...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...nd consistent yield and then obtaining high technical efficiency in study area can be used effectively to demonstrate the benefits of good farming practices for reduction of gap between the most technical efficient and the inefficient farmers. Empirical results illustrate that there exist opportunity to increase yield at present level of inputs use and technology.

...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...rphological evaluation, phenotypic diversity analysis and their flowering behavior sugarcane under local conditions. Two year data revealed that genotype HSF-242 showed maximum mean values for, internodes length, brix percentage and reducing sugar while S-08-FSD-19 showed maximum values for number of tillers and stem girth, whereas S-05-FSD-307 revealed maximum values for plant height and number of nodes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differ...

Muhammad Aslam Shahid, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Niamatullah

...7, 68.20) were recorded when pollinated with M2. Highest TSS % (35.81, 36.28) reducing sugars % (5.15, 5.11), non reducing sugars % (13.82, 13.44) and total sugars % (18.97, 18.55) were recorded in M6 during both years of investigation. These results suggest that for maximum fruit set, yield and quality, the Dhakki date should be pollinated with pollens of M2 and M6.

...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

... source was significant, hence data was further subjected to combining ability analysis. For the inheritance of the studied trait (seed yield plant-1), additive as well as non-additive genetic mechanisms were found important due to significant effects for both components i.e. General Combining Ability (GCA) and Specific Combining Ability (SCA) effects. Maximum GCA was shown by L-7 and T-1; whereas high SCA was noted for L-6 and L-7 with good ability to combine...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...ll death in tumor cells when produced endogenously in the cells or applied exogenously. Ceramidases, which are main component of ceramide pathway catalyze metabolism of proapoptotic ceramide to anti-apoptotic sphingosine and other fatty acids. In this study we have evaluated the pro-apoptotic effect of ceranib-2, a human ceramidase inhibitor and of a short-chain C2 ceramide on human lung adenocarcinoma cells, A549 by determining cytotoxicity of these agents by...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
...bs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and not enough to identify most yeast species. . Molecular biological techniques provide a useful alternative approach. Concerning with genotypic identification, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied for identification of Candida species, Cryptococcus albidus, Saccharomyces, Tri...
Wan-Long Zhu1 and Guang Yang2,*
...nt photoperiods in Eothenomys miletus, body mass, food intake, serum leptin levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti related peptide (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) expressions were measured. The results showed that short photoperiod reduced body mass and body fat mass, and increased food intake. But serum leptin levels showed no significant differences between short photo...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Ghulam Sarwar1, Waqar Ahmad1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1, Ammara Balouch1 and Muhammad Khalid Rafique1
...tion of 1200-1400 hours when foraging ratio was 58.24 ± 3.03 and pollen collection was 134.4±5.49 and during 0800 – 1000 hours when foraging ratio was 48.36 ± 2.84 and pollen collection was 121.8±6.73, whereas, the lowest values were found during 1400-1600 hours when foraging ratio was 44.36 ± 3.36 and pollen collection was 117±3.77. It can b...
Arif Jan,* Abdul Rab, Rooh Ullah, Haroon and Ikram Ullah
...once in March-April and then in October-November.
...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
... and functional domains when compared to the representative strains of each genotype including the vaccine strains (genotype II and III). Interestingly, some of these mutations were found exclusive to the study isolate. Not only do these prime findings improve our understanding about currently circulating strains of NDVs but they also help us to envisage potential efforts to avoid future outbreaks in wild birds, as well as in commercial and backyard poultry.
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...ne-tolerant populations when compared with phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher esterase activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations of T. granarium. The increased level of esterases in phosphine tolerant populations as compared to susceptible population has pointed some correlation between esterase activities and phosphine tolerance.
...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...illin, azlocine, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive. Piperacillin, Tazabactam and cinxacin were moderately effective against Staph. aureus. The concluded remarks of research staged Staph. aureus to the most obvious pathogen and widely resistant to antimicrobials camel ma...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...g) in brackish water earthen ponds.
...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...vity and reproducibility hence, can be adopted for routine detection of ToLCNDV from plant extracts.
...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

... methoxazole and Chloramphenicol) and showed dissimilar pattern of resistance to critical important antibiotic group. Salmonella isolates showed antibiotic resistance to Nalidixic acid (100%) and Nitrofurantoin (42.9%). Strict biosecurity measures are required to reduce the incidence of mixed bacterial infection and subsequently reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance genes between bacterial spp.

...

 Abdul Wajid Khalil and Zafar Iqbal

...49±0.08 g/100g), Phenylalanine (1.77±0.08 g/100g) were recorded higher in roots as compared to the aerial parts of B. procumbens. It is concluded that aerial parts may serve as a supplement for human diet as well as fodder for livestock. Detailed studies on amino acid of roots are recommended to determine and isolate compounds responsible for the specific therapeutic properties.

...

 Sheraz Ahmed and Fida Mohammad

...ssociated with yield at phenotypic level only. Yield exhibited significantly negative phenotypic correlation with days to flowering. Similarly, yield was positively correlated with leaves per plant, green leaves weight per plot, cured leaves weight per plot and grade index at both phenotypic and genotypic level. Based on findings of the present study, selection among RILs would be more eff...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...decreased significantly when salinity levels were increased above 25‰. Water quality parameters remained as temperature (28.1±0.2°C), dissolved oxygen (6.10±0.1 ml/l), pH (6.6±0.1 ml/l) and ammonia (0.02±0.004 ml/l) throughout the study period. Taking into consideration the number of fertilized eggs and survival of fry data attained in the present study, a salinity level of 20% is suggested for red tilapia breeding in con...
Cansu Akbulut1,*, Tuğba Kotil2, Burcu Öztürk1 and Nazan Deniz Yön1
...2 for 5 days, and then their ovaries were evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopy. Numerous degenerated follicles with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitotic catastrophe in mitochondria , chromatin condensation, mitochondrial vesiculation and dispersion at ooplasm were observed. In mitochondria, mitotic catastrophe , vesiculation, swelling and loss of organization of cristae were detected.Here we showed that TiO2 exposure trigge...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...S.litura 0.50 mm when 4 eggs were placed on each host larvae, whereas mean head width of developing wasp adults were reduced when 20 eggs had been placed. It may be speculated that due to less availability of nutrient resources, head size of the developing wasp was reduced. It may be concluded that intensity of competition among larvae of B. hebetor affects adult size and development that is directly proportion...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...aimed to conduct a comprehensive study at molecular level to determine the main causative serotype of 2013 DENV outbreak in Pakistan. Overall 703 serologically positive suspected patients from different major health centers of Pakistan were registered in present study of which 214 were females and 489 were male. Overall weighted prevalence of PCR positivity was 38% (268). Of the total 268 PCR positive subjects, 0.74%, 56.71%, 15.67% were positive for serotype ...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...nd in the control group when challenged with IBDV, IBD vaccines in the presence of specific maternally antibodies of IBD could no induce antibodies titer 1500 with live vaccines were protective against the IBDV. Based on the findings of present study, it can be concluded that all vaccinated group displayed similar antibody response irrespective of the types of vaccines administration to the chicks.

...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1

Muhammad Waqas1*, Anwar Ali Shad1, Omaira Bashir2 and Mohsin Iqbal3

...imat’s test and diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by using 50 to 200 mg/kg carotenoids in sunflower oil and spaghetti. The sunflower oil containing 50 to 200 mg/kg carotenoids showed higher antioxidant activity in comparison to 200 mg/kg Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Optimum cooking time, its weight and swelling index were remained same at different level of oil carotenoids tomato peel powder when compared with contro...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...nt, branch development, phenology, yield components, yield and fiber quality attributes of cotton. Yield and quality of cotton were significantly higher when crop was grown from seeds stored in polythene bag as compared to cloth bag. Interaction of genotypes and seed sources indicated that highest sympodial branches plant-1 (19.11), days to 50% flowering and boll splitting (72.00 and 156.3...

John G. Bruno

...heir cognate antibodies when captured by their Fc tails on the surface of Protein A-conjugated magnetic beads. While no clear similarities in the partial or complete primary DNA sequences or secondary stem-loop structures of these aptamers were observed, 3-dimensional computer models of these top ten anti-idiotypic aptamer candidates showed some topological similarities which suggest common binding motifs. Unfortunately, without knowledge of the hypervariable ...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...dose. The chickens were then challenged using homogenous AI H9N2 strain. During the course of infections, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from all chickens at 3, 5 and 7 days post-challenge (p.c.) for virus titration in eggs. Data indicated that all chickens vaccinated with pCA-Egy-H9 were fully protected without clinical signs and virus shedding. Our results revealed that the pCA-Egy-H9 plasmid DNA vaccine could induce complete protection in ch...

Muhammad Asif Zahoor1, Zeeshan Nawaz1, Abu Baker Siddique1, Sajjad ur Rahman2 and Shahid Ali1*

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...ext-align: justify;">Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is an annual, herbaceous invasive weed but it is perennial in Pakistan. Parthenium weed is a weed of a national significance in Pakistan. Although, parthenium weed is infesting many parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, but more affected regions are Peshawar valley and Hazara division whe...
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
...we found an interesting phenomenon, that is, the dead state of mites treated with stigmasterol was similar to that of mites of the positive control group treated with fenvalerate. Furthermore, the dead state of mites treated with stigmasterol was different from that of mites of the negative control group. This result confirmed the insecticidal activity of stigmasterol. We conducted a thorough research on the insecticidal molecular mechanism of stigmasterol to ...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...e stages, beta-esterase phenotype and amplification of rDNA and partial sequence homology of ITS-1and ITS-2. Host differential tests confirmed the race 2 of M. incognita infecting passion fruit. Pathogenic relationship with the passion fruit was proved through inoculation studies and inoculated plants also produced almost similar above-ground symptoms and profuse root galling. The pathogenic potential of M. incognita on passion fruit was determin...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
...uce acute senility, and then injecting them with β amyloid fragment 1-42 and ibotenic acid into the bilateral hippocampus led to significant learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze test. Pathology analysis of treated animals showed obvious gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral hippocampal area. These results suggest that the tree shrew can recapitulate the major features of AD pathogenesis. To provide the basis for further stud...

Muhammad Noor, Hidayat ur Rahman and Muhammad Iqbal

...ly of genetic nature and hence, could be effectively utilized in maize breeding programs for developing popcorn varieties having early maturity and accompanied with other desirable attributes.

...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...ificantly maximum 1000 achene weight, achene yield, biological yield, harvest index and protein content were recorded where seed inoculation with PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and full dose of recommended chemical was applied during both the growing seasons. Overall the performance of sunflower was better in spring as compared to autumn season. However, it was also noted that the combination of PGPR-1 + PGPR-2 and half recommended doses o...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...f chlorogenic acid were then applied against different bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of isolated compound was also measured. Two antibiotics were used as references compounds for antibacterial activities. The aqueous ethanolic extract having 968.125 µg/ml of chlorogenic acid inhibited significantly the growth of tested bacterial strains. Among the bacterial strain tested Salmonella entritidis an...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
..., showed better results when compared to Group 5, given EA after D-GaIN, in terms of histopathological and biochemical values. In conclusion, EA might play an important role in repairing D-GaIN-induced liver damage both as a protective and a therapeutic agent.
...

 Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Evaluation of shelf life of some value added organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum
...eased up to 60 days and then gradually declined. Among the four organic media, vermicompost retained 21.3 x 10 c.f.u./g at 120 days where as leaf mold,FYMand rice bran retained 20.1 x 10 c.f.u./g, 17.3 x 10 c.f.u./g and 15.1 x 10 c.f.u. /g of substrate respectively at 120 days of incubation. When oilcake was amended with organic material, vermicompost + mustard cake produced high population of the antagonist upto 60 days.

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
... was affected the least when sown in January or March by fruit fly. Considering earliness, total number of fruits per plant and moderately lower fruit fly incidence,BCSM-4 andBCSM- 8 may possibly perform better than the other genotypes in the lower Gangetic plain if sown during end of January.
 

 

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1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...have the extra-ordinary phenomena of making fungus combs inside the termitophiles. Considering the consistency of fungus-bed in the termitophiles, an attempt has been made to observe the morphological changes of nymphs while they stayed within the fungus comb. Biological attributes indicated that Odontotermes proformosanus are polymorphic in nature and have exopterygote post-metamorphic development. During the period of study, eggs and nymphs were collected in...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
....; NaOCl, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and GR24-a strigol analogue) and growth of the parasite on excised root pieces of prevalent crop cultivars including sugarcane, were evaluated in A. pedunculata infested sugarcane field for their (crops) efficacy to deplete or recharge the parasite seeds in soil. Rice (Oryza sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides Staph. & Hubbard.), italian millet (Setaria italica (L.) Breauv...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
... and bacterial CF in earthen pots filled with amended soil. Seven days after transplanting, the seedlings were inoculated with second stage juveniles of M. incognita @ 2J2/g soil. The exposure of M. incognita eggs and juveniles to the culture filtrates showed high inhibition in egg hatching and caused high mortality of juveniles than the control (P< 0.05). The microorganisms which caused high nematicidal activity also showed antifungal activity in dual plat...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
... The females develop parthenogenetically. It is a sucking pest and mainly feeds on citrus. Its secondary hosts include fig, apple, almond, guava etc. Due to severe infestation, premature falling of leaves occurs. The ber or plum scale, Aonidia ziziphi Rah. was recorded from Rajshahi, Bangladesh as a serious pest of ber or plum plant damaging the leaves and immature fruits during December-January, 2007. The female reproduces parthen

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...fected with rot disease when it grows older. Phellinus contigus (under Polyporaceae), a white rot fungus, causes heart rot disease and Biscogniauxia mediterranea (= Hypoxylon mediterranea) (under Xylariaceae) causes canker rot disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of rotting pathogens on Som plants at Regional Muga Research Station (RMRS), Boko, Assam, India with during 2004-06. The disease incidence (DI %) caused by B. mediterran...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Population proliferation and spread of Trichoderma spp. in soil under two different delivery systems
...antagonists were faster when they were applied through organic based inoculums over that of seed based inoculums from the point of application. Similarly population proliferation and spread of the antagonist was more rapid in sterilized soil followed by solarised soil and natural soil respectively. Among the two species of Trichoderma, T. harzianum have spread faster than T. viride.

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SK Fashi Alam, Atanu Seni and Ajoy K Sahoo

Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on sprouted potato and brinjal plant
...ology of the mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley was studied on brinjal plant and sprouted potato tubers in the laboratory. The female nymphs moulted three times for becoming adults while the male took four moultings. The female and male nymphs completed development in 14.45± 0.96 days and 19.53±1 days, respectively on brinjal plant at 20-36.2° C temperature and 15.1±1 days and 18±0.82 days respectively on sprouted potato....

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...not give relief. Later, when the exotic parasitoid was imported by NBAII, Bangalore, the papain industry wholeheartedly supported the training programmes by deploying its field staff in release and multiplication of the parasitoid. For enabling initial multiplication of the released parasitoids, farmers of heavily infested papaya fields were compensated for the yield loss to serve as field-mass-multiplication-strategy. Further, the farmers of neighbouring fiel...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...se incidence is recoded when compared to untreated control. In pot experiments, there is an increase in height and weight of the plants by 22% and 44% respectively in seeds treated with C. aromaticus when compared to chemical fungicide Bavistin and also 13% reduction in disease incidence is observed when compared to untreated control. From the results it is evident that C. aromaticus were ...

Md Riton Choudhury, Koushik Brahmachari, Sudeshna Kar and Rupayan Deb

Integration of weed management practices in rice-potato-groundnut cropping sequence
...bited the maximum yield when treated with two hand weedings, but it may be profitably replaced by the application of herbicides. From the point of eco-safety measures and economy, combination of hand weeding and mulching can be judiciously recommended in potato and groundnut.


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Biswajit Pramanick, Sruti Karmakar, Koushik Brahmachari, Rupayan Deb 

An integration of weed management practices in potato un-der New Alluvial soil
...o was Cyperus rotundas, Chenopodium album, Anagallis arvensis and Fumaria purviflora. The results revealed that the maximum tuber yield and return per rupee invested vis-à-vis the maximum N, P, K uptake by potato and the minimum uptake of N, P and K by weeds emerged in the potato field were recorded under the treatment T3 (hand weeding at 20 DAP along with mulching) which was closely followed by the treatment T9 (Pendimethalin @1kg a.i. ha-1 along with ...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...n. Two isoforms of poly phenol oxidase, PPO 1 and PPO 3 were observed to be induced only in Ganosol 10EC sprayed plants and were absent in control. The formulation was tested to have good emulsion stability. The antifungal activity of the formulation persisted up to seven days after spraying the formulation on rice plants. The formulation retained its 100% antifungal efficacy up to three months of storage. Surprisingly, spraying cowpea plants with the formulat...

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik, Pronobesh Halder and M. L. Chatterjee

Determination of relative toxicity and base line data of dif-ferent insecticides against cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley)
...phs of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis in the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Mohanpur during 2012. Both treated food untreated insect and treated food treated insect methods were followed. The lowest LC50 values through treated food untreated insect method were recorded in chlorpyriphos 20 EC (226 ppm) and dichlorvos 75 EC (282 ppm) in treated food treated insect method, which was 8.89 and 7.13 times...

Goutam Samui and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal incidence and management of Apsylla cistellata Bucton. on mango in West Bengal
...from midrib of leaf and then entered into the gall which they formed on the emerging vegetative buds resulting in total failure of such buds to put forth inflorescence properly. Repeated spraying without proper knowledge on the life cycle did not give good result in managing the pest. Hence, application of insecticides had to be synchronized with the emergence of nymphs. To manage the shoot gall psylla, mechanical control (P...

Someshwar Bhagat and Sitansu Pan

Comparative ecological behaviour of some pre- and post-tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from Andaman & Nicobar Islands
...hizosphere colonization when the competition of other organisms withdrawn compared to natural and sun dried soil. Both competitive parasitic behaviour and rhizosphere colonization was low in post-Tsunami isolates of Trichoderma. The chlamydospore inoculum was found best in percentage colonization of sclerotia of boh R. solani and S. rolfsii, followed by mycelial and conidial inoculum. The isolate ThrAN-5 (T. harzianum) was most efficient in parasitizing the sc...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...n a row, were the best. When information on the detailed soil survey, RS (Remote Sensing) generated geo informatics (Global Positioning System, GPS; Geographical Information System, GIS) including geo-referenced thematic maps, image analysis, geostatistics for spatial analysis, land, soil and physiography, farmers’ socio-economic status, meteorological data, crop suitability, crop and pest management, processing strategy and transport, market arrival, de...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...ppears in one case, and when some intensity has been achieved in all other cases. Where validated this approach may be a useful tool in plant protection, especially supervisory management and appropriate IPM.
 

 

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Sujoy Mondal and S. S. Ghatak

Bioefficacy of some indigenous plant extracts against epilachna beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr.) infesting cucumber
Bao-Ming Ge* Dai-Zhen Zhang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Sen-Hao Jiang, Jun Cui, Chun-Lin Zhou and Bo-Ping Tang
...a reclaimed coast in Yancheng, China. The aggregated distribution of A. vulgare population was found by Taylor’s power law and Iowa’s patchiness regression methods in each season (P< 0.001). The abundances were markedly affected by habitat type (F5,120 = 49.409, P < 0.001) and season (F3,120 = 13.577, P < 0.001), however, there was no significant interaction of habitat type and season (F15,120 = 0.52...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
... week of February when crops were at booting stage (crop 1), at flag leaf stage (crop 2) and at 2nd node stage (crop 3). Decline of aphid population was observed in mid March. The highest aphid population was recorded in mid-Dec sown crop followed by end-Nov and mid-Nov sown crops. Two applications of insecticide were used to control aphids during the season. Aphid infestations were higher in untreated plots of mid-Dec sown crop followed by en...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...on of 15 g/day (T3) and then dropped. The yield of milk protein, fat, solids not fat and lactose were not affected (P>0.05). Milk fat, solids not fat and lactose concentrations differed (P<0.001) among the treatments but did not show (P>0.05) any linear or quadratic trends with increasing level of enzyme in the diet. Milk protein concentration linearly (P<0.001) increased with increasing level of enzyme in the diets. It is concluded that fibrolytic...
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
...rantraniliprole granule when applied in seedbed followed by spraying of chlorantraniliprole in the main-field or chlorantraniliprole granule application. Chlorantraniliprole granule application along with spraying of same chemical provided the best result against white heads due to stem borer followed by chlorantraniliprole granule application in seedbed or the same granular application in the main-field along with spraying of chlorantraniliprole/flubendiamide...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...oute. Birds (n=20) were then either challenged with 106 EID50 using Egyptian avian influenza H5N1 and Newcastle disease genotype VII. Comparative blood profiling in vaccinated and challenged, non-vaccinated and non-challenged and non-vaccinated and challenged indicated that MDA for H5N1 gradually decreased from 5.1 to 0.4 log2 and disappeared with in a month. While MDA for NDV remained 2.1 log2 until 28th day of age, the Geometric mean titers (GMT) for H5 were...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
...ntly (P<0.05) higher when compared with the control. In conclusion, trace mineral boluses supplementation to pregnant ewes at late gestation improved minerals status of the ewes and their newborns at parturition and consequently enhanced body weight.
...
Wenqiao Hui1, Jishun Tang1, Dejian Zhu1, Qian Ban2* and Sheng Chen1*
...et stages of goats, and then determined the role of leptin to activate signaling pathways which modulate the expression of hypothalamic genes involved in reproduction and metabolism. We found that leptin significantly upregulated the LEPR in the adipose tissue of goat at the puberty onset stage. Moreover, we observed that LEPR, JAK2, STAT3 (P<0.05), KISS1 (P<0.05) were also upregulated in the hypothalamic tissue, except NPY, which was downregulated. Take...
Muzammil Sattar
...ysoperla carnea (Stephens). Results show that proteins play a vital role in the fecundity, fertility and all the biological parameters of F1 for mass rearing. The tested proteins were: Casein, Protein hydrolysate, Torula yeast and Nu lure. Al these proteins were tested in laboratory at four concentrations, i.e., 1, 3, 5 and 7 mg/ml in diet. Significantly higher fecundity 785.12±25.7, fertility 89.23±0.36 % of eggs and longer...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...ug. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive and major pest on cotton. Aenasius bambawalei (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an effective parasitoid of mealybug and has been the backbone of the biological control program of cotton mealybug in Pakistan, but its multiplication for inundative releases has been impacted by a hyperparasitoid, Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: E...
Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
...hemicals e.g. bisphenol-A can alter fish reproduction. Vitellogenin (vtg) is the egg yolk precursor and used as a biomarker for estrogenic endocrine disruption. To elucidate the endocrine-disrupting effect of bisphenol-A, juvenile Catla catla was exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol-A (10,100,1000μg/l) for 14 days. BPA exposure strongly elevates vtg ...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...nctata was observed when host plants were added with aphids. But was no significant difference in most of the combinations except wheat with aphids (3.8889±0.4554). The fresh leaves of rose, citrus, brassica and wheat (1.2±0.2006, 1.3556±0.1416, 1.5778±0.1829, 2.1444±0.2027, respectively) attracted significantly more numbers of C. septempunctata as compared to control and aphids alone (0.7667±0.1204 and 0.83...

Khurram Shahzad and Mohammad Akmal*

...d traits at 140 kg ha-1 when NAR was applied as treatment NAT2 and NAT3 as compared to any other application timings. Treatment 140 kg N ha-1 showed the highest grain and biomass yield of wheat in a cereal based cropping system i.e. maize-wheat in rotation. The results concluded that wheat crop fertilized with 140 kg ha-1 preferably in three splits for sustainable farming system for Peshawar climate and surroundings.

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Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...Centre, NIH, Islamabad. Then samples were analysed at the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore during the study period expanded from August 2014 to February 2015 for the presence of HLA-DRB1*11 and HLA-DRB1*12 allele using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). While total level of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all serum samples. This study indicated th...
Muhammad Imran Shabbir
...and their genotypic and phenotypic outcomes in offspring. In this way, simple illustrations incorporate a considerable amount of information that provides the opportunity to determine genotype and phenotype probabilities for monogenic Mendelian traits without the need to draw Punnett square for every parental genotype combination. These illustrations provide information for both forward (phen<...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

...ring and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield. The results further illustrated that, genotype DNH-105 ranked first for plant population, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, weight per boll and seed cotton yield when sown on April 01. CIM-616 was the 2nd suitable variety under April 01 sowing. Earlier and later planting produced lower cotton yields due to unfavorable environment ...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...urred after 14:00 hours when the frequency was the highest. Moving behaviour was split into a non-behaviour period, fluctuation period, low-ebb period, and peak period. Vigilant behaviour was influenced by external factors, and peaks appeared suddenly after the disturbance occurred. Resting behaviour occupied most of the daytime hours during the adaptive phase, and the proportion was higher than other behavioural types except two times, resting behaviour decre...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
... knot pathogen enhanced when it was integrated with bio-products. It was hypothesized that direct antagonism and defense by bio-product enhance the resistance in chili cultivars. So, T. harzianum is an efficient biological control for integrated management of chili plants under controlled condition cultivation. To explore the nature of resistance response of C-33 to M. incognita and S. rolfsii further research is needed. 
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Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...eceptors. The receptors when compared with T. rubripes, there was 99.2% identity in two kinds ORF sequences, with only 7 bases different, and there were 5 amino acids different between speculated fusion proteins. Under bioinformatics analysis, the T2R1 gene without introns was consistent with the structural domains characteristics of this family genes. The translation protein of T2R1 gene displayed with corresponding signal loci and functi...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...ement in crop stand and phenological occurrence is not well understood. Therefore field studies were conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan to quantify the effects of mulching techniques and nitrogen management on maize (Zea mays L) phenology and crop stand in 2013 and 2014. Treatments included mulching techniques (i.e. no-mulch, residue, transparent and blue colour plastic) and ...
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...say were positive (n=6) when ovine sera were tested. The study revealed that PPR-FMD viruses were circulating in the region and warrants proper control measures. 
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Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...n be overcome by a comprehensive program focusing on the provision of low cost inputs, pesticides/insecticides, modern techniques and trainings, and value chain market facilities at the local and regional level. 

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Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...mn;1.11 %) was observed when larvae were treated with NPV (1x107 POB/ml) against 2nd and 4th instar larvae. This study would be helpful to use NPV and flubendiamide in IPM under field conditions to control S. litura on cauliflower.
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Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

...-harvest contractor who then harvest the orchard, pack the produce and transport it to the market where the produce is handed to wholesalers. Wholesalers then channel the produce to retailer from where the ultimately consumers buy the product. It was also observed that considerable marketing margins were taken by the marketing intermediaries in the citrus value chain. It is recommended that the post-harvest management/market...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

... in season for Peshawar when sowing was postponed from December 5. Early planting delayed days to anthesis and maturity, which otherwise extended grain development phase of the crop. Among varieties, Ghanemat-2015 showed better grain yield for a relatively longer duration i.e. December 5-15 over the others varieties. Atta-Habib also performed relatively better for sowing made on November 25 and Chakwal-50 on November 15. Overall GY reduced w
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...bles on larger areas and hence achieved significant yield of these selected vegetables in the study area. It is suggested that steps should be taken so that the participation of farmers in general body meetings and elections of FSC should be enhanced so that the trust of farmers be developed and they would be able to reach the solution of their problems. Timely availability of vegetable seeds along with subsidy should be ensured so that farmers can avail this ...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
...te methods, weighed and then oven dried at 60 oC to find out the dry weight for above pytomass carbon Mg C ha-1 (Brown and Lugo, 1982). Similarly, the same 1 m2 quadrate area was dug up to the depth of root zone for each grass and the root portion was separated, weighed, oven dried at 60 Co for estimating below ground pytomass carbon Mg C ha-1. Carbon pool in above ground phtyomass was 0.08 MgCha-1

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

...elative humidity of 50%, hence recommended for the grower of Peshawar valley.  

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Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...of recombinant phytase, when the recombinant cells were induced with 1.4 mM IPTG with the post induction time of 6 hours. PHYTN showed maximal activity at 80°C in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 6. Presence of Fe3+ or Cu2+ showed an enhancing effect on the PHYTN activity. Thermostability studies demonstrated that PHYTN retains 88% residual activity when the protein wa...
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
...=41). GDM was diagnosed when fasting blood sugar levels were 95 mg/dL or above. The levels were compared using Mann Whitney U test. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association of cobalamin with fasting blood sugar level after adjusting for gestational age and gravidity. ROC curve analysis was conducted to assess the suitability cobalamin as a predictive biomarker for GDM. Median cobalamin were significantly reduced in cases (108.95&plusm...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

...ad differentiation, and then to reveal the molecular mechanism.

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Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...ainst viral infections. When specific cellular receptors recognize a virus they trigger the translation of inflammatory cytokine and chemokines leading to establishment of an antiviral state of the host. In this review, we discuss the recent understanding in host responses to avian viral infection and their impact in health and disease. 

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Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...ral analysis, total polyphenol content and mineral analysis of basil seeds was conducted. Result revealed that basil seeds are not only good source of fiber and protein but they provide appreciable amount of minerals and phenolic compounds. Swollen basil seeds were used to prepare beverage at three supplementation levels i.e. 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%. Sensory evaluation of basil seed drink revealed that 0.3% basil seeds supplemente...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

...mulsions are overlooked when compared to antigenic properties. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different commercial inactivated water-in-oil multivalent vaccines; vaccine A contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and D274 strains), NDV (Clone 30), aMPV (BUT 8544) and IBDV (classic strain) whereas vaccine B contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and a Brazil type strain), NDV (LaSota strain), aMPV (TRT strain) and IBDV (GP82 strain). Viscosity values for v...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

...tratable acidity, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid) and organoleptic characteristics (flavor, color, texture and overall acceptability). The results revealed decrease (P<0.05) in pH, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity while increase in acidity, total soluble solids during six months storage. Decrease in score of organoleptic attributes was recorded during the storage. ...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...n (58.33%) was observed when embryogenic calli were placed on N6 medium supplemented with 60 gL-1 sucrose and 1 mgL-1 NAA for one week initially in dark and then three weeks on MS medium augmented with 2 gL-1 myo-inositol and 20 gL-1 sucrose under 16/8 hours light/dark photoperiod. The study confirmed that embryogenic type II calli obtained from half of coleoptilar node of maize seedling is fully capable to regenerate into w...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
...s at 5oC and then packaged in 0.25ml straws and stored into liquid nitrogen for 24 hours. Successively, thawing and evaluation was performed for sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, morphology, malondialdehyde (MDA), fatty acid composition and super oxide dismutase (SOD). Sperm characteristics such as sperm motility, viability, morphology, membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were decreased in treated groups. DHA concentration was in...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
... in first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT zones. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature, while chicks in HAT zone were kept at high ambient temperature. Chicks in each group were further divided into four sub groups. Each sub group was further subdivided into four replicates having ten chicks per replicate. Blood was collected on weekly basis from day 21 to 42. Mean serum antibody titer against Newca...

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

... 76.5, respectively) and hence proved to be the earliest maturing hybrid. It also had desirable plant and ear height of 148.80 cm and 70.00 cm, respectively. The present study revealed considerable amount of variation among the tested hybrids that may be exploited in future breeding programs for developing early maturing maize hybrids accompanied with other desirable attributes.  

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Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...products can also strengthen the cooperation. Moreover, complementarity is increasing, through the calculation, Sino-Vietnam trade complementarity index showed an upward trend, which indicates Sino-Vietnam have a potential trade cooperation 

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Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
...an YN response (19.4%). When the YN effect had a fixed accumulated value, the value reflected its compensatory like growth degree, i.e., no catch-up like growth in one group means no YN effect in one group can be detected. Heilongjiang carp ♂ × Jian carp ♀ (Yj) combination had the highest catch-up like growth degree and the Heilongjiang carp ♂ × Heilongjiang carp ♀ (Yy) combination had no compensatory like growth. Reference ...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...he aphids gave birth parthenogenetically to three generations of fundatrigenous. In July, the winged form migrated to the secondary host, where successive generations have been born through parthenogenetic reproduction. Gynopara in October return to the primary host and give birth to wingless oviparae that mate with males and lay winter eggs. The biometrical measurements of Aphis nasturtii help to complete knowledge o...

Amjad Ali1*, Sher Aslam Khan2, Abid Farid2, Ayub khan2, Shah Masaud Khan2 and Naushad Ali2 

... yield at genotypic and phenotypic levels. 

...

Arshad Iqbal1*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1 and Muhammad Sharif Kakar

...eld had strong positive phenotypic and genetic correlation with heading, maturity, flag leaf area and biological yield. Spring wheat genotype SM12 had best performance for grains spike-1 and grain weight spike-1 should be further tested at different location of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for possible release as a new cultivar.  

...

Sikandar Hayat, Khalid Usman* and Muhammad Tahir Amin 

...at yield (5352 kg ha-1) when grown at 30 cm row spacing and fertilized with N placement method. The overall results indicated that N placement method along with 30 cm row spacing is quite feasible in zero tillage wheat having no clogging problem to wheat seeder besides higher yield (5352 kg ha-1) and economic return as evident from the BCR data (3.80). 

...
Jiandong Wu, Miao Ye and Zaigui Wang*
... ethanol ratio of 1:30. Then, the AB-8 resin was selected for the purification of flavonoids due to the higher static adsorption and adsorption capacity than other resins. The optimum conditions for purifying flavonoids as follows: for adsorption, sample concentration was 2.542 mg·mL-1, pH was 3.7, processing volume was 4 BV; flow rate was 2 BV·h-1; temperature was 25°C. For desorption, elution solvent ethanol-water (95%...
Müge Aliye Hekimoğlu*, Cüneyt Süzer,Şahin Saka andKürşat Firat
...ifferent anaesthetics 2-phenoxyethanol and clove oil on the sedation of some aquarium fish species. The induction and recovery times were determined at five stages of melanistic and not melanistic clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) and different sexes of Swordfish (Xiphophorus helleri). Clownfish were tested with 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 ml/l phenoxyethanol and 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/l clove oil. Swordfish were tested with 1,...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
... (1:9.2) in NW-1-8183-8 when treated against aphids. Wheat varieties, Galaxy-13 and Faisalabad-08 were found tolerant against aphid damage. Wheat variety Lasani-08 should be avoided because it was found susceptible to aphid infestations, and give low net yield. It is inferred that infestation of aphids significantly reduced the grain yield when not protected by insecticide. Insecticide protected crops give maximum net return...
Tahira*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan and Mubashar Ahmad Khan
...yielding. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations studies revealed that number of pods per plant had highly significant positive correlation with seed yield. The results of path coefficient analysis indicated that in both years, the direct effects of pod length and number of pods per plant on grain yield were positive and of high magnitude. Finally, it was concluded that the trait pods per plant can be exploited for the improvement of seed yield in rapeseed.
Liushuai Hua1,3, Shiping Gong1,*, Xiangjing Zhong2, Jun Tao2, Yu Chen2 and Jieming Deng2 
...nce (P< 0.01) when the ambient temperature is not cold enough for normal hibernation. These findings can provide technical guidance for safe overwintering of big-headed turtles in captivity, and will help facilitate conservation of this endangered freshwater turtle species.
...
Zhenyu Chang1, Hui Zhang1, Khalid Mehmood1,2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman1, Xiaodan Yuan1, Zhaoyang Li1, Fazul Nabi1, Xiaoxing Wu1, Xinxin Tian1, Xueting Liu1, Jingen Xu3 and Donghai Zhou1,*
...elial cells of piglets. Then the effects of intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3) in intestinal disease was explored. Porcine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant human (rh) TFF3. Cell proliferation and TFF3 mRNA expression were examined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. The results showed t...
Boran Karataş, Muhammed Arabaci and Şükrü Önalan*
...e study lasted 80 days. When the growth parameters in polycultures of rainbow trout and brown trout are considered, it was determined that the growth rates were not statistically different between rainbow trout monoculture and rainbow trout G75K25 and G50K50 groups, however rainbow trout in G66K34 experienced statistically significantly less growth when compared to others (p<0.05). Growth parameters of brown trout ...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
... incubated at 25°C. Then, 90 days later, the fermentation quality of tested silages was analyzed. No significant difference was found between the control and treated groups in term of dry matter (DM), neutral determgent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Acetic acid was significantly (P<0.05) low in G2 and G3, while propionic acid and yeast was significantly (P<0.05) low in LAB2. Gas production (GP 72) was s...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...as compared to controls when placental lactogen was applied. Increase weight gain for visceral tissues like kidney, liver, muscle and lungs was also observed, as compared to control subjects. It was also recorded that the exogenous supply of bubaline PL reduces fat cells in the hypodermal layer of skin.
...
Karim El-Sabrout* and Mohamed H. Khalil
...12 h of light (natural) then 12 h of complete darkness (G1); and 12 h of light (natural) then 12 h of LED lighting (G2). From the obtained results, there were no significant effects of complement LED lighting” after effect on hatchability percent and dead embryos. There were differences observed in chick performance between the two groups, chick weight at hatch was significantly heavier in group of eggs exposed to comp...

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

...d significantly higher achene yield than rest of the planting patterns under study. As regard sunflower-mungbean intercropping system all intercrops gave more economic returns than sole cropping of sunflower and mungbean and planting 6 sunflower plants + 30 mungbean plants m-2 proved to be superior with respect to grain yield and net economic return per unit area. Sunflower appeared to be dominant crop as was indicated by its higher values of competitive ratio...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
... disease than Landrace. When Rongchang pig and Landrace were 0 day old, the expression level of BPI of Rongchang pig was higher than Landrace in heart, liver, spleen, kidney, small intestine, lower than Landrace in lung. When Rongchang pig and Landrace were 28 day old, the expression level of BPI of Rongchang pig was higher than Landrace in spleen (p<0.05), kidney (p<0.05), small intestine (p<0....

Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar1*, Amir Shakeel1, Muhammad Amir Maqbool1, Muhammad Waheed Anwar1, Zoraiz Tanveer1 and Muhammad Fahad Irfan2 

...ance suggested vigorous phenotypic selection in breeding population for the improvement of crop traits. The correlation coefficient depicted that seed cotton yield is positively associated with other yield contributing traits suggesting that more than one trait can be used as indirect selection criteria in segregating populations.  

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Semra Benzer1,* and Recep Benzer2
... results were compared. Then, the estimated values found via both examined methods. Coefficient correlation (r2), sum square error (SSE), mean absolute percentage error performance criteria (MAPE) were used for comparison of artificial neural network and linear regression models goodness of fit. The results of the current study show that ANNs can be a superior estimation tool compared to LWR equation. Thus, as an outcome of the present study, ANNs c...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
Sana Imran1*, Sarwat Jahan2 and Mohammad Sair3
...es of psoriasisvulgaris when compared to topically applied Betamethasone valerate ointment.
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Riaz Alam* and Muhammad Sajid 

... of lengthy re-sprouts, when air-layered during mid August while Ottobratica and Picual, layered during mid and late July respectively, responded well to all these attributed. 

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Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
...ective caesareansection when given along with conventional treatment as compared to conventional treatment alone.
...
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
... raw measured data were then subjected to allometric equation to remove size-dependent variation prior further statistical analyses. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated highly significant differences in morphometric characters between populations (p <0.01). The first three principal axes of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 49.29% of total variance. The PCA also revealed that morphological variations related to the charact...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Munir3 and Muhammad Sohail Khan

...se parameters decreased when pollination was carried out after spathe opening. Late pollination after 12 days of spathe opening reduced fruit set and yield but improved the overall fruit physico-chemical quality characteristics with maximum fruit length (4.15, 4.22 cm), fruit weight (14.23, 14.44 g), pulp weight (13.45, 13.33 g), reducing sugars (21.25, 21.18% ) and total sugars (29.36, 28.85 %). This study proved that pollination at spath opening day was mor...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

...ted in sand culture and then three weeks old seedlings (7.5 cm) were transferred to water tubs containing Hoagland solution without P. The treatments included 0, 18, 36, 72, 144 and 216 mM as KH2PO4 solution foliarly applied three times with one week intervals starting after two weeks of seedlings transplantation. Each treatment unit consisted of 10 seedlings arranged in CR design with three replications. Plant height, shoot and root dry biomass of 6 weeks old...
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...rotein efficiency rates when were directly compared with mock-treated fish control. However, there was no statistically supported level of significance was observed for growth rates and feed conversion rates among groups. Improved live weight and protein efficiency rates reflected positively on the survival rate in MOS-fed fish. Interestingly, the whole body and fillet fatty acid composition shown no-correlation between treated and control groups (p>0.05). ...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*
...ns in the oviduct of the hen, which provides an important basis for the regulation of the physiological activities of poultry oviduct and the molecular mechanism of sperm storage.
...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...ing districts of Punjab; hence strict control measures should be adopted to minimize its damage. Some cultivars were found resistant to the borer infestation and are recommended for cultivation.
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SHARIF UDDIN, MD. HASIBUL HASAN, MOHAMMED MAHBUB IQBAL, MOHAMMAD AMZAD HOSSAIN

...se Climbing Perch in earthen pond. The female fish elucidates rounded, swollen abdomen and reddish pelvic fin while the male fish also possess a reddish pelvis fins but generally smaller, narrower. The surfaces of male’s pectoral were little rough during the breeding season. The Gonado-somatic index (GSI) value of female Anabus testudineus was ranged from 12.71±0.73 (July) to 1.13±0.10 (October) while hepato-somatic index (HSI) value of fem...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...div>Nesting is a common phenomenon in reproductive behavior of birds that plays an important role during their different life stages. Nest composition and location are important factors in studying utility of plant material by avifauna. The current study investigated nesting use of tree species by avifauna at Pabbi Range Forest Kharian (32.811°N and 73.865°E), District Gujrat, from September 2013 to June 2015. Data were collected from five selected sam...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...>in a static system and then four sub-lethal concentrations viz. 1/3rd of LC50, 1/4th of LC50, 1/5th of LC50 and 1/6th of LC50 were calculated and fish were exposed to these concentrations, separately in glass aquaria for 70 days at constant laboratory conditions. Peripheral blood erythrocytes were taken on 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 day of exposure for the DNA damage ass...

Naila Riaz1 , Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2* , Khizar Samiullah3

...d at 8 hr posttreatment when applied topically. Similarly, oral administration of 1µl and 0.5µl venom caused 100% mortality at 8 hr post-treatment compared to 10 hr and 12 hr post-treatment of topical application, respectively. It is concluded that oral treatment of venom was more efficient compared to its topical treatment with same doses of treatment.

 

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Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...a and ALP were higher in hens’ serum. However, non-significant variations were recorded for total protein and AST among both the genders. It can be concluded from the present study that age, gender and rearing systems strongly influence blood biochemical profile in M. gallopavo.

 

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Sidra Iqbal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabbsum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
... pretreated through Box-Bhenken design of response surface methodology using three variables with three levels such as NaOH concentration (0.6, 0.8, 1.0%), substrate concentration (5, 10, 15%) and residence time (4, 6, 8h) with and without steam (autoclaving at 121oC for 15min and 15psi). After pretreatment, cellulase production was conducted in 250ml Erlenmeyer flask at 50 ºC, pH 5 with shaking speed of 120 rpm using 2% pretreated eucalyptus leaves as ca...

Manzoor Hussaina,b

...ious problem especially when victims of rape cases provide vaginal swabs after several days of the incidence. The study was designed to find the time interval at which autosomal STR system fails to generate the DNA profile the semen donor in the post-coital vaginal swabs. Sixty two post coital vaginal swabs (x3) were collected from six volunteers at different TSI (time since intercourse). Out of these, 42 post coital vaginal swabs (up to TSI 5 days) were used ...

Fatima Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3, Fouzia Tabbsum3, Javed Iqbal Qazi3
 

...lulose enzyme using Box-Bhenken design of Response Surface Methodology. The pretreatment of substrate was conducted through Box- Bhenken design of Response Surface Methodology. Three factors with three levels such as H2SO4 conc. (0.6, 0.8, 1%), substrate conc. (5, 10, 15%) and residence time (4, 6, 8h) were employed for pretreatment with and without autoclaving at 121oC for 15 min. The enzyme production was carried out in an...

 Maryum Fakhar, Iqra Jabbar, Anjum Nasim Sabri*

...="text-align: justify;">When exposed to heavy metals or toxic compounds, bacteria have multiple survival strategies involving several mechanisms of resistance and tolerance. Biofilm formation is one such resistance mechanism for bacterial survival. This paper provides the basis for use of bacteria isolated from saline environment and to check their biofilm forming ability under nickel stress. Our previous results showed that these bacteria are capable of produ...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...279% (1f) and 150% (2b) when ompared to the respective control indicating the ability to tolerate tellurite tress. Differential pattern of bacterial proteins in tellurite stress was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Both bacterial strains can be utilized to convert toxic tellurite into its elemental form from the contaminated sites.

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 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

... production of vanillin when inoculated in waste residues of rice bran based media. E. hormaechei produced 5.2 g/l of vanillin in culture media containing ferulic acid as a substrate. Optimum pH for E. hormaechei was 7 and the temperature was 30°C. Using optimum growth conditions and suitable fermentation medium, E. hormaechei can be used at an industrial level as producer of vanillin. Bioconversion of waste residues of rice bran oil to vanillin by bacteri...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
...-N [1-(S)-(3,4- dichlorophenyl) ethyl] amino-2-(S)- hydroxypropyl-P-benzyl-phosphinic acid), intraperitoneally injected for 12 days, on hematological and serum biochemical profile of 6 week old male albino mice. Blood samples from male albino mice (CGP55845 treated N = 14 and saline treated N = 16) were collected directly by cardiac puncture and used for estimation of hematological and some serum biochemical parameters. The hematological parameters did not sho...

Malak Atiq Ullah Khan* and Fida Mohammad 

... E on the expression of phenotype for all traits. Average over nine environments, genotype G-79 exhibited maximum values for tillers m-2 (181 tillers); grains spike-1 (71 grains); grain yield (4862 kg ha-1) and thus appeared as leading genotype for yield and production traits. Similarly, G-79 had higher grain yield in all test environments except E-03 i.e. E-01 (4537 kg ha-1); E-02 (4840 kg ha-1); E-04 (5035 kg ha-1); E-05 (4976 kg ha-1); E-06 (4797 kg ha-1); ...
Zia ur Rehman1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3
...the first two weeks and then chicks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature (25ºC ± 2ºC and RH 65 ±5%) while chicks in HAT group were kept at high ambient temperature. In the TN zone, significantly (P< 0.05) higher feed intake and weight gain were recorded on day 21, 28, 35 and 42. Feed intake in TN zone was 3.02, 9.79, 9.74 and 12.14 % higher than feed intake recorded on ...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...uent exacerbator’ phenotype and determine the risk factors for increased frequency of acute exacerbations in local chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in a cross sectional analytical study design. For this purpose 137 patients were included in the study after obtaining necessary permissions from the ethical board of the hospital. COPD was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and a post bronchodilator values of FEV1/FVC<0.70 on...

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

...rieties only. Both crop phenology (i.e. days to tasseling, silking & maturity) as well as morphology (i.e. plant height, ear height, including ear length) was affected (p<0.05)by sowing dates. Likewise, yield traits (i.e. rows per ear, grains per ear, thousand grain weight) were also adversely affected by sowing dates, which decreases both biomass and grain yield. Varieties did differ in phenology (i.e. emergence, sil...
Jo Ik-Hwan1, Choi Kwang-Won1 and Muhammad Fiaz2,*
...ittle different pattern when rye was mixed sown with pea that DM and TDN yield was not different (P>0.05) when compared with rye monoculture, whereas CP yield was higher in mixed forage than control but carrying capacity was higher (P<0.05) at all manure levels except 150 kg N/ha. It was concluded from findings of present study that mixed growing strategy of rye with local hairy vetch didn’t need any manure appli...

Syed Asif Imran Shah1*, Shah Jehan Khan2, Kalim Ullah1 and Obaid Ullah Sayal

... close symmetry between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variances while lower values of environmental coefficient variance were observed for all the studied attributes which reflected that these traits were genetically controlled and under less influence of environment. Higher broad sense heritability and expected genetic advance reflected that all attributes were governed by additive genes and early phenotypic selec...
Meghan Griffith
...out the book, typically when Fischer is defending incompatibilist arguments regarding foreknowledge and freedom to do otherwise (i.e., alternatives). But in an intriguing discussion in the introductory chapter, Fischer draws a comparison between determinism and foreknowledge with respect to moral responsibility, arguing that, like determinism, foreknowledge is compatible with our having it. Thus, he offers a parallel to one of his landmark views, namely...
Katherin Rogers
...s you will choose. How, then, can you choose freely? John Martin Fischer, in his chapter, “Engaging with Pike: God, Freedom,and Time” (with Patrick Todd and Neal A. Tognazzini – I shall refer to the three as “Fischer”) in Our Fate: Essays on God and Free Will, briefly mentions a solution which is somewhat similar to the one I take to be the most successful way of dealing with the dilemma of human freedom and divine foreknow...

Arooj Fatima1* and Ashfaq Ahmed

...0.001) and DASH (0.000) when repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied comparing four sub groups. Eccentric exercises give better results in reducing pain intensity and gaining functional outcome with routine physiotherapy maneuvers in subjects having rotator cuff tendinopathy. Eccentric loading training for the cure of shoulder pain due to rotator cuff tendinopathy has confirmed to be more helpful in aiding pain, and fixing functional impairme...
Michael Almeida
...reedom to do otherwise, then God’s foreknowledge undermines our freedom. Divine foreknowledge that we will perform some action makes alternative actions unavailable to us. 
...

Bashir Ahmad1*, Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Hayad Zada2, Shahid Sattar1, Toheed Iqbal3, Saddam Hussain1 and Muhammad Saeed4 

... and 2013 respectively. Then population declined from September to November 3.5 and 3.1 larvae and pupae was recorded per plant in both years as the lowest number. In the year 2012, mean maximum and minimum temp showed non- significant negative and positive association (r=-0.32 and 0.07) with population of P. xylostella respectively. Similarly R.H (r=0.89) exhibited positive highly significant whereas RF (r=-0.96) showed negative highly significant relationshi...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

...rarily stocked in 12 earthen ponds (90 ft × 70 ft × 4 ft) @ 20 fish per pond. Fish were fed at 5% of their wet body weight two times per day. The net weight gained of broodstock was 103.65 g, 401.25 g, 484.85 g and 565.24 g in control, T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Fish in T3 yielded the highest weight, which was significantly higher than T1,T2 and control. Specific growth rates were...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...n were > 90%, Chloramphenicol >69%, and Gentamycin 61-67.3%, Streptomicin 61-73.07% and Oxytetracycline 69-71.15%, Enoxacin 45.07 and 53.84% and Amikacin 43.6 and 51.92 effective against MDR. Older age of animals, higher California mastitis score, weak body condition, higher milk yield, early lactation, teat injury, higher parity number, tick infestation, self-treatment and higher use of penicillin in general ailments had positive association with MDR pr...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
...ellow color shade which when applied on candies increased the attractiveness. The spectrophotometric analysis at 474nm of extracted color both in crude form and in candies was found to be stable at 4oC and showed decay in mean lutein concentration at higher temperatures i.e. 25oC and 45oC. The microbiological study of the extracted color and candies prepared in laboratory and dyed with T. erecta extract color showed that...

Noreen Rasul1*, Madeeha Rashid2, Aqeela Abbas1 and Rubina Sohail

...t is essential to strengthen KMC services in healthcare facilities as it significantly reduces neonatal mortality. 

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Bashir Ahmad1, Muhammad Idrees1,*, Kafeel Ahmad1, Dawood Ahmad2, Sajid Ali3 and Shumaila Bashir4
...iated the strains and authenticated the high molecular diversity. PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) profiles of all isolates and reference strains were found to be the same. PRA is a valid alternative to phenotypic identification in a routine diagnostic laboratory. High diversity values were found in the studied area implying high population diversity of M. tuberculosis that’s being prevalent in Khyber Pakht...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...einernematid species and hence can be used for the management of insect pests.
...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...stic anemia was labeled when Macrocytic Hypochromic cells seen. Obstetric outcome in terms of Preterm delivery defined as delivery at <37 weeks of gestation (36 +6 weeks) and birth weight <2500g mand a need for operative delivery. Patients fulfilling the selection criteria as per operational definition were included in the study after taking informed consent using non probability consecutive sampling technique. Data was collected on a pre-designed questi...

S. M. I. Hossain*, S. U. K. Eusufzai and M. A. Rahman**

...ays after transplanting when soil bed settlings are used as planting material.

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Golam Moula* and Sayedur Rahman**

... 2003) along with other phenological features. The total length (mean ± SD) of vetiver culms was 206.32 ± 42.43 cm. The root and shoot lengths (mean ± SD) of 8 weeks old seedlings were 3.93 ± 0.25 cm and 4.79 ± 1.29 cm, respectively. The fitted regression line equation for the root and shoot length was found as Y = 0.074 + 1.20 X, where X and Y are root and shoot length, respectively. The calculated value of ‘t’ (...

Zaheer Ahmad, M. Yaqub Mujahid, M. Anwar Khan, Shaheena Yasmin, M. Asif and Maqsood Qamar*

...rial conducted at NARC, then in Micro Yield Trials conducted at nine locations by BARI, Chakwal and finally it was evaluated in National Uniform Yield Trials conducted in rainfed ecology of Pakistan for two consecutive years. The NR-268 performed better than all other lines including local check and gave 21.5% higher grain yield than check in Punjab and 8.3% higher yield on overall country basis during 2005-06; whereas, during 2006-07 it gave 26% higher grain ...

Sidra Majeed, Shahid Ahmad*, Asif Ali Bhatti** and Ghazanfar Abbas***

...were almost three years when the yield was higher than the mean yield and three years when yield was lower than the mean yield by around 1.0 t ha- 1. Economic analysis revealed that the average net return was Rs. 6744 ha-1 with minimum loss of Rs. 7674 ha-1 during 2000-01 to a gain of Rs. 20822 ha-1 during 2004-05. The analysis of cost of production indicated that the increase was largely in the cost of tillage and harvestin...

 Z. A. Soomro, M.B. Kumbhar, A.S. Larik*, M. Imran** and S.A. Brohi***

...(b.s), genetic advance, phenotypic and genotypic variance for different quantitative traits is important in determining the effectiveness of selection. In this study the potential effectiveness of selection in parents and their F2 and F3 progenies of Gossypium hirsutum for plant height, sympodia/ plant, bolls/plant, boll weight, seed index and seed cotton yield/plant was determined. It was found that all the populations alongwith parents differed significantly...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...rotein content in VW+VC when compared with those grown with chemical fertilizers by 23.86% and 19.86%, respectively. The combination treatment [VW+VC] also have a significant influence on the biochemical characteristics of the soil with marked improvement in soil micronutrients. The combination treatment [VW+VC] was found better suggesting qualitative improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil, which is substantiated by ANOVA and composite...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...t in general the months when minimum supplements were given are the better ones in terms of feed availability because majority of feed intake comes from grazing. Moreover, supplementation of goats can be improved by educating local communities about the proper supplementation and by planting palatable shrubs and fodder trees.

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 Ghulam Shabbir*, Muhammad Aftab, Abid Mahmood** Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah* and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

... Based on the desirable phenotypic traits and superior seed yield, SPS-5 was approved as a rapeseed variety “Chakwal Sarson” by the Punjab Seed Council in 2002 for general cultivation in the Punjab barani tract.

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 M. Yasin Mirza, Mubashir A. Khan, M. Akmal, Akbar S. Mohmand, Malik S. Nawaz, Nazakat Nawaz and Najeeb Ullah*

...5. Pooled genotypic and phenotypic variances were maximum for seed yield and minimum for 1000-seed weight. Genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient of variation were observed maximum for seed yield and minimum for plant height. Broad sense heritability estimates were high for all the traits during three years ranging from 63% for plant height and 97% for seed yield. High heritability pooled estimates of ...

 Ashiq Saleem, Habib Iqbal Javed, Rashid Saleem,* Muhammad Ansar** and M. Amir Zia*

...ntly affected by potash when compared with control treatment, but there was no significant effect between single, two and three splits. The grain yields of these two crops increased significantly at K2O level of 120 kgha-1 with three splits. Level of 120 kgha-1 with three splits is recommended for potash application in maize and sorghum.

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 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

... and compared for their phenotypic (qualitative and quantitative) and biochemical trait. Comparatively high variation was seen for seed germination, canopy and spikes/plant, florets/spike and leaf area. A UPGMA cluster, grouped the 9 Ocimum genotypes into two major clusters on the basis of total seed protein and phenotypic characters, except Siam Queen and Lime basil stand alone, respectively. Euclidian distance for morpholo...

Mian Sajjad Ahmad1, Somia Iqtadar1, Sami Ullah Mumtaz1*, Zafar Niaz1, Iqra Waheed2 and Sajid Abaidullah

...asting sample was taken then 75g oral glucose was given. Sample after two hours was sent to KEMU clinical lab. A positive result of the patient was labeled as IGT. The patients mean age was 46.3±13.4 years. Out of 160 patients, 78 (48.8%) were males and 82 (51.2%) females.116 (72.5%) patients were obese grade 1 and 44 (27.5%) patients were obese grade 2. The mean BMI (Normal BMI=18.5-22.9kg/m2) of the patients came out to be 29.1±13.6 kg/m2.There...

Sana Qanber Abbasi1*, Ejaz Ahmed2 and Rabia Sattar1 

...eparated. The serum was then centrifuged andpro BNP levels were estimated by ELISA using Human pro BNP kit. Patients’ history and recorded blood pressure was documented on a questionnaire. The results were analyzed using SPSS 21. One way ANOVA and Independent sample T test were applied to compare the proBNP levels. A P-value of < 0.05 was taken as significant. Serum pro BNP levels were raised in migraine patients and also in hypertensive patients with...
Irfan1,*, Arshad Javid7, Muhammad Ashraf2, Athar Mahmud3, Muhammad Altaf4, Syed Makhdoom Hussain5, Muhammad Shahbaz4 and Khalid Javed Iqbal6
...artificially inseminated hens were assessed. To study the effect of natural mating on hatchability 15 (3♂, 12♀) M. gallopavo were randomly selected, were kept separately and were allowed to mate through stud mating. For artificial insemination, male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) birds were kept separately. Semen of the male birds was collected on weekly basis to record morphological characteristics and to inseminate the female birds. Mean abno...
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
...s-bred beef cattle, and then the heterorhabditid nematodes assayed against these ticks using the Petri dish assay. Concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 IJs were applied in 1 mL of sterile distilled water dispensed on the surface of a couple of moistened filter papers. For each treatment concentration, 10 adult engorged ticks were placed in the Petri dishes, and each treatment was replicated four times; the experiment was replicated two times. Ti...
Muhammad Kashif Maan1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Muhammad Ijaz2, Hamid Akbar1, Sajid Umar 3 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*
...rdiovascular parameters when compared to inhalation, so, it is a less safe choice during lengthy surgical procedures like ovariohysterectomy.
...
Qin Liu1,2, Feiwei Liu1, Xiuyue Zhang1, Nan Yang1 and Jianghong Ran1,*
...dge (Tetraophasis szechenyii) is an endemic species which is protected in first-grade state in China. Here, 22 polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers were isolated from T. szechenyii using a next-generation sequencing technology. The allele number of these loci ranged from two to six in genotyped 35 individuals. Polymorphism information content ranged from 0.2735 to 0.7717 with an average of 0.5149....

 Nazakat Nawaz, Malik Shah Nawaz*, Nasir M. Cheema** and Mubashir A. Khan*

Corresponding author:nazakat_nawaz@yahoo.com

ZINC AND IRON APPLICATION TO OPTIMIZE SEED YIELD OF MUSTARD
...d response was recorded when 5 kg ha-1 -1 Zn and 1.5 kg ha Fe were applied. Beyond this level, no further increase in yield was recorded in any mustard traits. A positive correlation was recorded between seed yield -1 -1 and 1000-seed weight with the application of 5 kg Zn ha and 1.5 kg Fe ha in combination at the time of sowing. It can therefore be concluded that 100 % -1 seed yield of mustard variety BARD-1 increased at 5 Zn: 1.5 Fe kg ha as a -1 -1 result o...

  Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan and Zaibunnisa Abdullah*

Corresponding author: farhatkhan7@gmail.com (This is part of Ph.D. work of senior author)

IMPACT OFKINNOW (MANDARIN) YIELD LOSSES ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING COMMUNITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...r production of kinnow. Then ten growers from each union council were chosen randomly. Total 200 respondents were interviewed through interview schedule. Simple percentage and chi-square techniques were used for analysis. According to analysis 91.5% respondents reported that yield losses of kinnow fruits have negative impact on socio-economic conditions of the majority respondents of the project area. Chi-square test also shows negative link of the kinnow frui...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...cal loss of wheat yield when planted after maize fodder. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer -1 along with FYM @ 5 tha will enhance the yield of wheat and maize fodder. The improved cropping system of wheat-maize fodder-wheat will help the farmers to sustain productivity of these crops, stable economic benefits and improvement in soil nutrients and organic matter over time.

...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS

 Saima Rani and Irum Raza*

COMPARISON OF TREND ANALYSIS AND DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING METHODS FOR PRICE ESTIMATION OF MAJOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...h rates remain the same then prices of these pulses in Pakistan would be Rs.37.64, Rs.120.26, Rs.89.55 and Rs.55.03 per kg, respectively in 2015- 16. An increasing trend in the estimated prices will turn down the demand of these pulses and consequently poor class of the economy who do not have enough resources to buy expensive livestock-based protein-rich food will be badly affected.

...

 Munir Ahmad* and Asif Ali Mirani**

HEATED AIR DRYING OF GROUNDNUT
...r-November in Pakistan, when the weather is cold, and it is not possible to dry it down to a safe moisture level by sun drying. Therefore, the chance for developing aflatoxins in it is high. To solve this problem of the groundnut growers, a low cost mobile flat-bed dryer designed and developed at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute (ABEI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad was evaluated for drying groundnut. The dryer had been foun...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...7%. A detailed and comprehensive questionnaire was used for measuring the effectiveness of extension activities performed by public and private sector extension field staff. The results revealed that a number of farmers received visits from private extension field staff on a fortnightly, monthly and quarterly basis, but not from public extension staff during these periods. When public field staff did visit, the favored metho...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-din*, Syed Haider Abbas*, Maqsood Qamar* and Muhammad Noman*

EFFECT OF SPLIT N FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON PHYSIOAGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
....20 t ha ) was achieved when N was applied @120 kg ha in three equal split doses at planting, tiller formation and stem elongation stages. N application in 2 and 3 split doses resulted in 25 - 50% grain yield advantage at all N rates as compared to single basal N dose. Split N application was -2 associated with significant increase (P<0.05) in spikes m , 1000 grain weight and dry matter production. Split N application was also linked with better flag leaf c...

 Waqar Akhtar*, Nadeem Akmal*, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Ayesha Tahir*

EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS OF PAKISTANI HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS
... There is need to strengthen comparative and competitive advantage in horticulture sector by policy support and facilitating role by all stakeholders.

...

 Sara Khalid*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz*, Khalid Saifullah Khan* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH, FRUIT AND YIELD QUALITY OF STRAWBERRY

 Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Amjad* and Malik Shah Nawaz*

STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR ECONOMIC TRAITS IN SESAME ( L.)
...er than unit regression; hence were suitable for favourable environments for yield. Whereas, V-III and SangharI were with b-values less than unity indicating their below average response. For branches per plant, Sanghar-1 and S-17 had regression coefficients less than one with negative sign making them suitable only for poor environment. Four genotypes namely, Sanghar-I, S-17, PR-19-9-S, and Rattodero-1 had greater than unity and non-significant regression coe...

 Sadia Tehrim*, M. Yasin Mirza** and G. Mustafa Sajid*

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT GROWTH REGULATORS FOR EFFICIENT PLANT REGENERATION IN GRAPES
...nd 4492(1) Kowar Naray. When levels of benzylaminopurine (BAP) were increased in the basal MS media for culturing the grape plantlets, there was a corresponding increase in the number of shoots and root mass. Additionally, the shoot proliferation response to increasing level of BAP was found genotype dependent. Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) also showed a positive effect on in vitro growth responses (shoot proliferation and root induction) w

 Shahida Khalid*and Shahida Nasreen Khokhar*

INTERACTION OF HERBICIDES AND BIO-INOCULANTS WITH AGRICULTURAL CROPS AND WEEDS
...ry effect of residues , when inoculated with Azospirillum A4. In second experiment two Azospirillum (B2 and B3) and two Azorhizobium (3.6ksk and srsn2k4) isolates reduced seed germination of Phalaris minor by 95%. The results imply that biofertilizer microbes can mitigate the carryover effect of the two sulfonylureas; they can also inhibit Phalaris minor. Therefore, the use of bio-inoculants, weed seed germination and residual effect of weedicide can be manipu...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...ella eggs and 1.793g of Phenacoccus solenopsis crawlers. Adult emergence rate was significantly higher when provided with S. cerealella eggs, which was more economical than that of P. solenopsis crawlers. For efficient and quality production of C. carnea in laboratory using available and inexpensive equipment to produce the healthy surplus of this predator for experiment and small holding field releases, S. cereallela is rec...

 Javed Khan*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Tariq Mahmood*,
Awais Rasool*, Naheed Akhtar and Saleem Abid**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
... Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) aphid were carried out in Insecatry- Bio control Laboratories, Insect Pest Management Programme, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results indicate that incubation period was 3.8±0.08 days with 87.0% hatchability. The developmental duration of first, second and third instar larvae were 3.2 ± 0.13, 4.0&plu...

 Said Salman*, Shah Jehan Khan*, Javed Khan**, Rehmat Ullah Khan*** and Imran Khan****

GENETIC VARIABILITY STUDIES IN BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) ACCESSIONS
...rait. The genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation estimates were higher for all the traits except chlorophyll concentration index and days to physiological maturity. Highest heritability estimates and expected genetic advance were found for all the traits except chlorophyll concentration index, spike length and number of -1 spikelet spike which exhibited moderate heritability. Based on Euclidian dissimilarity distance, 65 wheat accessions were classi...

Tanzila Kazmi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan**

FARMERS BELIEFS ABOUT INDIGENOUS FARMING PRACTICES AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
...itutes need to be strengthened so that the transitional lag may be bridged and farmers may also get required production.

...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
...ored at week 4, 6 and 8 then harvested at week 8. Results revealed that the Brachiaria mutica (8 weeks old) had highest plant height (207 cm), but lowest tillage number (64), crude protein (CP) content (8.64%), in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility (47.36%) On the other hand, B. mulato had highest tillage number (117) and DM yield (0.79 kg -2 DMm ). Legume herb species affected significantly (P<0.05) plant height, yield, in vitro digestibility. At 8 we...

 Md. Nazirul Islam*, M. Z. Rahman**, R. Ali***, A. K. Azad**** and M. K. Sultan**

DIVERSITY ANALYSIS AND ESTABLISHMENT OF CORE SUBSETS OF HYACINTH BEAN COLLECTION OF BANGLADESH
...ndex also revealed high phenotypic diversity in vine and pod characters. High diversities were estimated in quantitative characters of inflorescence and pod characters. Considering a core collection strategy, the accessions were stratified into two groups based on vine colors: green and purple. Maximum genotypes of the collection were of green vine. Each of two subgroups were divided into three groups according to colors of pod i.e., green, white and red. Each...

 Saima Rani*, Hassnain Shah*, Umar Farooq** and Bushra Rehman**

SUPPLY, DEMAND, AND POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Abdul Jabbar** and Sajida Taj*** 

FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY OF WHITE SUGAR PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...es can improve yield and hence higher financial profitability.

...

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL
...oil. All the amendments when used alone or in combination with each other improved the chemical parameters of soil. All levels of gypsum (100%, 75% and 50% G.R) proved effective in lowering pH, EC, SAR and ESP of saline sodic soil. Similar trend was observed with the use of all levels of potassium -1 silicate (225, 150 and 75mg kg soil) of soil. Combinations of gypsum and potassium silicate also remained better in this regard. The most effective treatment was ...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

INOCULATION AND INTER-CROPPING OF LEGUMES IN ESTABLISHED GRASS FOR INCREASING BIOMASS OF FODDER
...8, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes.

...

 Anum Fatima*, Saleem Abid* and Sobia Naheed* 

TRENDS IN WHOLESALE PRICES OF ONION AND POTATO IN MAJOR MARKETS OF PAKISTAN: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
...The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline and centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses. Results showed differences in the activities of enzymes and quantities of total protein, soluble protein and FAA between strains and among concentrations. Abamectin, at LC and LC , changed the activities 10 20 /levels of TE, CE, AcP, total protein and FAA in the larvae of both the strains. The activities of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and AkP remained non-signific...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

ECONOMICS OF MILK PRODUCTION OF MAJOR DAIRY BUFFALO BREEDS BY AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN PAKISTAN

 Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*, Ayesha Tahir**, Irum Raza* Saleem Abid* and Muhammad Nisar Khan*

TREND ANALYSIS AND FORECASTING OF WHEAT AND RICE IN PAKISTAN
... have been acquired and then the forecasting was made for the best fitted model with minimum error. Five year average prices for the individual crop(s) were also calculated to observe the past trend. The study demonstrates that for wheat and rice (Basmati and IRRI); S-Curve model is recommended for forecasting price. The study presents an insight to national policy makers regarding the essential crops and provides them with a reference range of price in future...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...le i.e., 1.90 (Ep>1), hence economies of scale exists. The variance parameter lambda (λ) and gamma (Γ) both were significant indicating the good fitness of model and inefficiency impact, respectively. The estimated value for Γ was 0.77 underscores that 77% variation in the production frontier was explained by technical inefficiency effect. The inefficiency indices showed that farmers with more schooling years and more number of contacts w...

 Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Adnan Shakeel**, Muhammad Abdullah***, Muhammad Islam**, Sadiq Muhammad*, Ghulam Murtaza* and Mushtaq Ahmad**

EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND WATER STRESS ON PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENTS IN COTTON (GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.)
...is of total protein and phenolic compounds, respectively. Proteins were greatly affected by fertilizer treatment and water stress, but phenolic compounds remained unchanged upon fertilizer treatment. However, they were greatly affected by irrigation and water -1 stress. Crop treated with 100 kg ha P O under water stress maintained high 2 5 protein content as compared to unfertilized and no water stress treatments. However, p...

 Ali Raza Shah**, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat**, Abdul Quadir Mughal***, Inayatullah Rajper** and Asif Ali Mirani****

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS IN A CLAY LOAM SOIL*
...had higher working depth hence, more soil volume was disturbed under this treatment. 

...

 Doulat Baig*, Fida Mohammad Abbasi*, Habib Ahmed*, Maqsood Qamar** and Muhammad Ayub Khan**

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
...tivated which give low achene and fodder yields. The issue related with these hybrids ascribed to lack of information about use of inputs and cultural practices. Judicious nitrogen use and suitable high yielding hybrid play key role in increasing sunflower productivity. Protein is the basic requirement of the metabolic processes for the vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilizat...

  Sohaib Arshad*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar** and Maqbool Shahbaz**

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC RHODES GRASS ACCESSIONS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

MARKETING SYSTEM OF LIVE CAMELS IN THE DESERT ECOLOGIES OF PAKISTAN
...n Pakistan are not comprehensive and do not cover all the aspects necessary for the markets to function efficiently. It is, therefore, recommended that the proper marketing system and physical infrastructure for live camels should be developed to benefit the poor camel farmers.

...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON
...ximum seed cotton yield when supplied with 150 kg N ha ; 120 cm tall -1 plants gave maximum seed cotton with 200 kg N ha while 150 cm tall cotton plants -1 needed 250 kg N ha for highest seed cotton production. In conclusion, cotton growth can be manipulated successfully for better performance by topping provided N dose is monitored.

...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Nawal Zafar* 

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF RABI CEREALS SOWN ALONE AND IN BLENDED POPULATION AT VARIABLE SEED RATIOS
... percentage was highest when oat was blended together with barley at 75% + 25% seed ratios.

...

 Muhammad Mansoor*, Noman Latif*, Zafar Islam**, Sher Muhammad**, Amanullah* and Muhammad Umair***

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AMENDMENTS ON SOIL CAPPING IN MUNGBEAN PRODUCTION USING CENTRAL PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN CLAYEY SOILS
....754 g cm to 1.123 g cm when pure sand and FYM was -1 applied @ 60:60 kg plot .

...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS

 Abdul Haq*, Anjum Shehzad**, Muhammad Ilyas**, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**, Abdul Rauf Bhatti** and Mian Inayatullah*

DIVERSITY AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF CITRUS POLLINATORS IN DISTRICT HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
...s most diverse locality then Nikrian B with relative values of 2.213 and 1.136.

...

 Mubbashira Nazir*, Saira Batool*, Sultan Ali Tariq**, Abid Hussain** and Ya Sakina**

INTERDECADAL GROWTH VARIABILITY AND DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF FRUIT CROPS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...rom 1970s to 1990s) and then declined in 2000s. During the study period, fruit production varied due to area, though productivity altered considerably. The results of decomposition analysis indicated a relatively stronger stimulus of area expansion in production of citrus. While yield affect remained dominant in production of mango, guava and minor fruits across decades as well as during the study period. Chances of expansion in area of fruit crops are limited...

 Hina Fatima** and Bushra Yasmin**

EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN'S FARM SECTOR: A META-ANALYSIS*

 Ummad-ud-Din Umar*, Muhammad Aslam Khan**, *Ateeq-urRehman*, Abdul Hannan***, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi*, Azhar Ali Khan****, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar****

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF POTATO LEAF ROLL VIRUS DISEASE PREDICTION MODEL BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS FOR FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN
...disease development and when validated on an independent dataset, the model explained 67.5% of the variability in disease incidence. This prediction model can be used for the management of PLRV in this region.

...

  Mohammad Umar Farooq* , Sarfraz Ahmad ** , Mohammad Islam and Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar ***

ASSESSING THE STATUS OF CARBON POOL IN TWO RANGELAND GRASSES ( ) IN POTHWAR, REGION, PAKISTAN
...rat method, weighed and then oven dried at 60 C to find out the dry weight for above phytomass carbon Mg C ha . Similarly, the one m quadrats were dig out up to the root level for each grass and separated the root portion and weighed, oven dried at 60 C for below ground phytomass carbon Mg C ha estimation. Carbon pool in above ground phytomass was 1.16 Mg C ha while below ground phytomass, 0.29 Mg C ha was recorded. The carbon sequestration in below ground and...

 Raza Ullah*, Mariam Rehman*, Maria Anjum*, Muhammad Asif
Kamran**, Khuda Bakhsh***, Abdul Saboor****

NAVIGATING FARMING RISKS BY SIMULTANEOUS DIVERSIFICATION AND CREDIT THROUGH FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
...on network can be strengthened through its institutional linkage with metrology department and information communication technologies to further inform and train the farmers about disasters and disaster associated risks.

...

 Nusrat Habib*

RELATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUNFLOWER IN DISTRICT SWABI AND MARDAN
...ear 1990 to 1999. Since then a continuous decreasing trend in adoption of sunflower has been observed. The present research work was planned to estimate the relative cost effectiveness of sunflower with competing crops like sugarcane and tobacco to find out the major factors which caused the decreasing trend of sunflower in the area. Primary data of 100 respondents was collected and analyzed in SPSS (Special Package for Social Scientists) software. Estimated r...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
... J. curcas J. curcas Parthenium hysterophorus J. curcas P. hysterophorus L. ( ) is gaining interest as biodiesel plant in Pakistan. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the interaction of not only with crop plants but also with weed species before its introduction into agroforestry systems. During present investigation, allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous extract was investigated on seed germination and seedling development of L. Extracts were applied ...

Samina Ashraf1*, Ghulam Haider2 and Maimoona Ashraf

...ualitative interpretive phenomenological research methodology has been used to explore, interpret, and evaluate the personal narratives of women with disabilities about their experiences with violence and abuse. The phenomenology approach was used to study the phenomena. A number of 05 women with disabilities who had physical disability or sensory impairment (visual and hearing) were purpo...

Mohammad Nazeer* and Safdar Hussain Shah 

...followed by Kaghani and then Surguli. The body size of Damani was the smallest compared to the other breeds; however, statistically it was similar to Surguli. Kaghani is the highest ranking along with similarities to Gaddi breed and also recommended for management to achieve the utmost benefits within goat breeds. 

...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...05) prevalence (31.18%) then males (22.98%). This study addresses the prevalence of infection in lambs, responsible for the spread of etiological agent in environment.
...
Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2 and Saleh S. Alhewairini1,*
...romising safety profile when compared to other acaricides, as it spared predatory mites at concentrations which had a high lethality to tomato russet mites. Hence, Huwa-San TR50 can be utilized in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program as an acaricide agent.
...
Filiz Kutluyer* 
...gered trout Salmo coruhensis, Anatolian trout Salmo rizeensis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Different activation media (NaCl, 0.3%; NaHCO3, 1%) were supplemented with L-tryptophan [Control (0), 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mM] for assessing sperm motility and its duration, fertility and hatching rate of eggs. The results from the present study indicated that addition of L-tryptophan increased the motility rate and duration in ...
Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2,*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza2, Muhammad Afzal2,Hafiz Salah-ud-Din2, Imtiaz Sarwar2, Muhammad Yahya2 and Khurram Shehzad3
...bundant and more active, hence, were more captured in pitfall traps in summer season. Termites (isopteran) and earthworms were more captured in monoliths. By and large, macroinvertebrate fauna was lower in the soils studied as compared to other tropical and subtropical regions reported elsewhere. Therefore, keeping in view the key role of soil invertebrates in soil sustainability, it is recommended to mitigate the deleterious effects of land-management practic...
Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Mushtaq A. Saleem2,Javed Iqbal Wattoo2, Mohd Mokhtar Arshad1 and Maizan Mohamed1
...t truncated protein was then purified from the culture media. The immunogenicity of the protein was studied in an animal experiment on mice, in which mice were injected subcutaneously. These findings suggest that the truncated Sf200 expressed in the pET-32a (+) prokaryotic vector can be used as antigen to detect antibodies against IBV.
...
Aqsa Gulzar1, Tariq Mahmud1,*, Rubina Munir2 and Asma Anjum3
...>-[4-(hydrazinecarbonyl)phenyl]acetamide with 3-nitro and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Characterization of the synthesized compounds was done by using various spectroscopic techniques namely FTIR, proton and carbon-13 NMR, Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The results were in great consistency with the structures of the synthesized compounds and confirmed the formation of the targeted compounds. It was found that the compound 4a was potentially anti-inflammato...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

April

Vol. 50, Iss. 2, Pages 401-797

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