Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...s infection of sheep and goats, is widely distributed in Middle East, Central and South Asia, China and Africa. Whereas PPR antibodies were first reported in Kenyan small stock as early as 1995, the clinical disease was observed later in 2006 following dramatic and devastating PPR outbreaks in Turkana County. In this context, an outbreak of PPRV was observed in Tukana County in 2011 and the current study detail the clinical, pathological and laboratory finding...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

... the presence of PPRV in goats of southern Tanzania district of Tandahimba bordering Mozambique was reported. The aim of this study was to perform molecular typing of PPRV strains that caused outbreak in Tandahimba district in 2011. A total of 17 (sheep=0, goats=17) out of 27 (sheep=3, goats=24) were positive for PPRV N gene. The nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis clus- tered th...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...e the presence of BTV in goats and wild ruminants, and to identify serotypes present in the country.

...

Haq Aman Ullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Ijaz2 and Aqeel Javeed3

...entrate mixture of dairy goats was investigated in district Lahore of Pakistan. A total of Twenty 20 goat farms were randomly selected and out of that 40 feed samples 2 from each farm were collected in the month of April. All the samples were analysed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 by using reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Out of total samples Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 33 feed samples, wi...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...estock including cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and wild ungulates. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic losses to livestock farming and industry has increased global concern for the disease. Currently, 3 serotypes of FMD virus (O, A and SAT-2) and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, the rapid...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...ral disease of sheep and goats. PPR is enzootic in India as more number of outbreaks have occurred in the past and now occurring regularly, round the year and most frequently during the lean period throughout the country. In some Indian states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Chhattisgar h the PPR outbreaks in sheep and goats have declined after implementing the strategic mass vaccination programme. The decreased number o...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...tant plague of sheep and goats that serves as a major constraint in the development of the small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately affected with its attending impact on poverty in what are already the poorest areas of the globe. PPR is consider...

Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Habibur Rahman

...in young and adult sheep/goats, body weight loss in young and adult sheep/goats, milk loss, loss due to increased inter-lambing/kidding period, loss due to increased abortion, cost of high feeding and rearing inputs in young and adult sheep/goats etc. The results revealed that at the annual 10% incidence level, the estimated total loss due to PPR in sheep and goat<...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud1, Muaz Abdellatif 2, 3*, Luai Shazali1

...rus antibodies in sheep, goats and camels at Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples (n=400), collected during 2012–2013 from sick and clinically healthy herds, were subjected to antibodies detection using c-ELISA. Out of examined animals, 83 (62.9%) goats and 70 (33.2%) sheep were detected positive against PPRV antibodies, whereas camels appeared to be seronegative. Based upon the seasonal variat...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...PPR), a viral disease of goats and sheep caused by a morbillivirus of the family paramyxoviridae is a major threat to small ruminant farming. Global announcement of PPR eradication by 2030 has opened lot of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...ral disease of sheep and goats. Domestic sheep and goats are important species for the livelihoods of poor people in many developing countries. Within societies where PPR is now spreading, poverty is widespread and the disease is expected to have significant negative impacts on livelihoods. In resource-constrained marginalised societies, it is often difficult to collect disease data in conventional ways. Participatory epidem...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

..., spleen and trachea) of goats and a sheep during the year 2008-2012. The partial N gene of ten isolates and partial F gene of eight isolates were amplified by RT-PCR, and were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that PPRVs circulating in Bangladesh belonged to Lineage IV and they formed a separate sub-cluster along with recent isolates from Nepal, Bhutan and China. On genetic analyses, it appeared that the N gene of PPRV is less conserved as compare...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

... mixed herd of sheep and goats. Goats in the herd showed characteristic signs of PPR including nasal and ocular discharges, high temperature, diarrhea and ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. A total of eighteen goats from a herd of sixty, were affected and two goats succumbed within two weeks. Interestingly, the disease was exclusively observed in

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

...he prevalence of tick in goat’s population of three different areas (Kaptai, Kattoli and Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 60 goats were examined for tick infestation in three places using random positive sampling technique. Among the breed, Black Bengal goats were highly affected (53.33%) followed by Jamuna pari (33.33%) and ...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...in the indigenous Beetal goat of Pakistan. Moreover, the results obtained with the data mining algorithms were compared with multiple linear regression (MR). A total of 205 BW records including one categorical (sex) and six continuous (head girth above eyes, neck length, diagonal body length, belly sprung, shank circumference and rump height) predictors were utilized. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted BW (r) and root-mean-squ...

Bibi Tayyaba Batool1, Aemal Tareen1, Shahjahan Shabir Ahmed1, Hira Ejaz1, Mohammad Azam Kakar1, Syed Abdul Rehman2, Mohammed Saeed1, Zafar Ahmad3, Mohammad Masood Tariq3, Mohammad Arif Awan3 and Muhammad Naeem Shahwani1*

... tuberculosis in cattle, goats and sheep in some primary dwelling districts of Balochistan. Our results showed that brucellosis was found 2.2% positive from Quetta district and 0.6% positive from Pishin district and bovine (TB) was found 0.60% positive from Quetta and none from Pishin district of Balochistan.

...

KM Fakhrul-Islam, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Sonnet Poddr, Md Nurul Quader, Md Sahidur-Rahman, Avijit Dutta and Shuvo Mazumder

... cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and wild animals around the globe. This highly contagious disease causes severe economic loss due to reduced productivity of the affected animals as well as increased mortality in calves and kids. In this study proportionate prevalence of FMD in cattle was estimated and the distribution of FMD according to different factors was evaluated. Both retrospective and prospective FMD clinical cases were included considering clinical si...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

...istics of Colored Mohair goat using four nonlinear growth models. Thirty (n=22 males and n=8 females) Colored Mohair kids were used. The kids were weighed at 2-week intervals from birth to 150 days. The Monomolecular, Gompertz, Richards and Three Parameter Logistic models were used. The best model was determined by considering the root mean square error, R2 % and asymptotic correlation coefficient criteria. We concluded that the Gompertz and Richards models we...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...carried out in sheep and goats of Jatoi and surrounding areas in Muzaffargarh districts South Punjab of Pakistan. A total of 965 serum samples were collected from sheep and goat’s farms from January to December 2015 with no history of vaccination. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was performed using PPRV antigen to determine antibody titres level. The overall prevalence of antibodies to PPRV in

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...accinated sheep (n=683), goats (n=624) and camels (n=155) of all ages and sexes were collected in a cross-sectional study in Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah. Saudi Arabia. The seroprevalece was determined by NP-epitopes based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegative. The prevalence of...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
... in three high fecundity goats (Jianzhou big ear goat, Jining grey goat, Dazu black goat) and three low fecundity goats (Boer goat, Nubian goat, Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat). The results revealed a high diversit...
Kiran Afshan1*, Sarwat Jahan1 and Mazhar Qayyum2
...for sheep as compared to goat indicating high risk of infection in sheep. The current study showed that commercial bovine F. hepatica ELISA test is effective in Pakistan for small ruminants.
...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...diet for browser such as goat as well as maintenance purposes for cattle in the dry season. Thus understanding the dynamics on rangeland response to grazing could prove worthy in finding an equilibrium point for optimizing animal productivity, with limited range degradation. Therefore, the current study was aimed at determining and comparing fodder tree species composition along grazing gradient in fenced and unfenced grazing area in the Gaborone North Region....
 

Amir Ismail1, Muhammad Riaz1,2*, Saeed Akhtar1, Amjad Farooq3, Muhammad Arif Shahzad1 and Ahmad Mujtaba4

 

...ples of cow, buffalo and goat. The level of Pb was found to exceed the maximum permissible limit (0.02 µg/g) set by Codex Alimentarius Commission in 53% milk samples. In 44% milk samples the level of Cd was found to exceed the permissible limit (0.0026 µg/g) set by International Dairy Federation (1979). The mean levels of Ni, Cu and Co were found in the normal ranges. The data for estimated daily intake of heavy metals through milk showed that infa...
Wenqiao Hui1, Jishun Tang1, Dejian Zhu1, Qian Ban2* and Sheng Chen1*
... efficiency. Anhui white goat is a native Chinese breed, with the characters of early time puberty onset and high fecundity. However, the molecular mechanism of puberty onset has not been well understood. It has been demonstrated leptin act as a critical metabolic cue linking adipose and the onset of puberty. In the present study, we first assessed the morphological changes in adipose tissue at pre-puberty and puberty onset stages of g...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

... of PPR/FMD in sheep and goats in Hail. Saudi Arabia. During the outbreaks 271 (20.6%) died out of 648 (49.3%) of affected animals, the overall morbidity in goats (33.3%) was higher as compared to sheep (12.3%), with a case fatality rate in goats reached 74.69% in the 2nd outbreak. Affected animals exhibited fever, stomatitis, mucopurulent to bloody nasal/ocular discharges, watery to blood...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
...> gene and its protein ingoats of different fur colors. The effect of KIT mutations on KIT protein expression was examined in white cashmere and black cashmere goats. A single A→G missense mutation in exon 13 differentiated cashmere goats with different colors. Only a histidine (H)→arginine (R) amino acid (AA) change was detected at KIT exon 13 in both the wh...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...he major one followed by goats and sheep. Livestock was found significant at household level in two aspects of income provision and of lowering household and farm budget. Livestock income was derived from the sale of milk, milk products (such as yogurt, butter and butter oil), other products (like farm yard manure and dung cakes) and animals which included calves, goats and sheep mainly. The major share of livestock income w...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Yue-Hui Ma2, Ming-Xing Chu2, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Hui-Jiang Gao2, Huai-Zhi Jiang3, Di Liu4, Li Liu5, Yan-Bin Zhu6, Wang-Dui Basang6, Luo-Bu Danjiu7, Tian-Wu An8, Xiao-Lin Luo8, Shi-Cheng He7 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...nondominant follicles of goats. These data will contribute to research on the molecular mechanisms of dominant follicle selection in goats. In this study, 90276370 and 115579236 clear reads in dominant and nondominant follicles of goat were generated through Illumina paired-end sequencing, and their mapping rate was 84.99% and 84.47%, respectively. A total of 12577 differentially expressed...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...ing disease of sheep and goats. Present study was designed to have an insight into the epidemiology of PPR under field conditions in the country using molecular tools. A total of eighty-four (n = 84) PPR outbreaks were investigated during the study (2010 to 2013). The highest number of outbreaks was reported from Punjab province (n = 38) followed by Sindh (n = 21) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, n = 10). In 48 out of 84 outbreaks, disease occurred in
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
...c ganglion of the female goat. Our results showed that IL-18Rα mRNA and proteins are expressed in the IMG, which provides molecular evidence for the study of immune and neuro-modulation in the female reproductive system.
...

 R. Hussain* and A. N. Naqvi**

...e was zero.

...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...ce to the success of any goats’ enterprise. In Pothowar region of Punjab, household and sedentary system of goat production is practiced. The availability of feed varies according to the season. Goats in the region are under nourished and producing less than potential. This study was conducted to find out the feed supplementation practices of goats...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

...sed on the assessment of goat breed improvement intervention through supply of 65 Beetal bucks in rainfed Pothwar. To judge short term impact and assessment, a survey was carried out of both buck holder and non-holder beneficiaries in six project tehsils, after one year of buck distribution. Data were collected from a sample of 38 buck holders and 31 beneficiary farmers using a structured pretested questionnaire. The main influencing factor in keeping bucks wa...

 Muhammad Afzal, Sarfraz Ahmad , Abdul Salam Baloch* and Qazi Bashir Ahmad**

...imals (389 sheep and 336 goats) from Quetta livestock market was collected for one year on quarterly basis with a minimum sample of 150 animals. The objective was to determine seasonal price variation considering the effects of different attributes of the animals namely, live weight, age, gender, body score and time of sale of animals. The results indicated that there were significant differences in prices among seasons. The seasons considered in the study wer...
Nay Naing Htoo1, Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Aung Tun Khaing1, Than Kyaw1, Erkihun Aklilu Woldegiorgis1 and Mohd Azam Khan1
.../div>...

 A. N. Naqvi and K. Fatima*

INCIDENCE OF LIVESTOCK DISEASES IN NOMAL AND NALTAR VALLEYS GILGIT, PAKISTAN
...git. The data on cattle, goat, sheep and donkey were collected from the Animal Husbandry Department from 2003 to 2007. In total 19259 animals were found affected with various diseases. The disorders reported in the area were digestive diseases, infections, mastitis, reproductive diseases, endoparasites, ectoparasites, wounds, hematuria, respiratory diseases, emaciation, hemorrhagic septic-emia, tumour, blue tongue, cow pox, enterotoxaemia, tetanus, paralysis a...

 Nasia Batool*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar**, Imdad Hussain Mirza** and Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan**

MIXING LESS PALATABLE GRASSES WITH UREA, MOLASSES AND EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS AND ITS EFFECT ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...ion and digestibility in goats. (HC), (CA), (SH) and (DB) were used and the combinations were grass + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea, grass + 4% urea + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea + 1:100 EM, grass + 1:100 EM + 4% molasses, grass +1:100 EM + 4% molasses + 4% urea. Proximate analysis of samples was carried out. Crude protein content of mixtures improved as compared with sole grasses. Digestibility of HC supplemented with urea, molasses and EM in various combinat...

  Abdul Hassan*, Muhammad Ishaq*, Nisar Ali Shah* and Arshad Farooq*

MILK PRODUCTION POTENTIAL IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...er year, 95 lit milk per goat per year and 64 lit of milk per sheep per year. The data in comparison to the National and World average, is far below from probable production levels. Except in buffaloes and goats where the farm level production of milk is higher than the World and sheep where the farm level production of milk of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is higher than Pakistan and World. Overall the milk production of Khyber Pakhtu...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Raheel Babar*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASS OF HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS WITH IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS

Mehwish Kiran*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Kashif Waseem*
and Muhammad Sohail**

EFFECT OF ORGANIC MANURES AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF RADISH ( L)
... manure (PM) @ 10 t ha , goat manure (GM) @ 15 t ha , press mud (PrM) @ 20 t ha , sewage sludge (SS) @ 20 t ha and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK) @ 120-65-100 kg ha . Data on leaf plant , leaf length (cm), fresh leaf weight plant (g), dry leaf weight plant (g), root length (cm), root diameter (cm), fresh root weight plant (g), dry root weight plant (g), total biomass plant (g), root yield pot (g) and root yield (t ha ) were recorded and analyzed statist...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
...e study were to evaluate goat milk production practices and attributes of goat farmers in the Oodi agricultural region, Botswana. Ninety-one farmers were purposively selected based on milk production potential from a list of 170 farmers officially registered with the Oodi agriculture station. Farmers were visited to conduct face to face interviews and administer a questionnaire. The results showed that farmers milking a...

Mohammad Nazeer* and Safdar Hussain Shah 

...raits of four indigenous goat breeds of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. The breeds selected for this study were namely Damani, Surguli, Kaghani and Gaddi. Data was collected from two districts to the south (Dera Ismail Khan and Kohat) and two districts to the north (Kaghan and Naran) of KP province. Total number of 120 goat specimen (30 per breed) was selected for this study from random locations. A pretested q...
Aitezaz Ahsan1*, Muhammad Usman1, Ihsan Ullah2, Aamer Bin Zahur3 and Adnan Rasheed Malik4
...s a disease of sheep and goat, particularly in the regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia. Besides clinical signs and symptoms of PPR various diagnostic assays, both serological and molecular, have been developed and are applied for estimating the current status of the disease. This review article focuses on the development of different molecular diagnostic assays from conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to real time reverse transcrip...
Saba Parveen Samo1, Moolchand Malhi1,*, Javed Gadahi2, Yan Lei3, Allah Bux Kaciwal1 and Saeed Ahmed Soomro1
.../div>...
Ali Haider Saleem1,*, Khalid Javed2, Masroor Ellahi Babar3, Tanveer Hussain3, Asad Ali2, Afzal Ali2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Zahid Farooq1 and Muhammad Dawood2
...etc. in cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep worldwide. LEP gene polymorphism and associations have not been extensively reported in Lohi sheep of Pakistan, so this study aimed to find any variations in gene sequence and possible association with growth rate to explore meat potential of this breed. A total of 18 Lohi animals were selected from the flock. After the DNA extraction from blood samples, a 1486 bp fragment of exon three was amplified and sequenced. Seque...
Nilgün Paksoy1, Hikmet Dinç2 and Serap Kılıç Altun3,*
... Cd, V and Ba in donkey, goat, and sheep milk samples. Fifty-six individual milk samples were collected from 17 lactating donkeys, 19 goats, and 20 sheeps in three different Turkish Farms. The samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Minimum and maximum levels of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn in donkey milk samples were 108.6-202.7, 48.6-76, 355-670, 565-1053, 279-637, 1.86-5.8, 0.052-...
Senol Celik1,*, Ecevit Eyduran2, Adile Tatliyer3, Koksal Karadas4, Mehmet Kazim Kara2 and Abdul Waheed5
...in Daera Din Panah (DDP) goat. Based on coefficient of determination (R2), adjusted coefficient of determination (R2ADJUSTED) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used. Janosheck model was chosen as the most appropriate model for its highest R2 (0.999) and smallest RMSE (0.124). Growth related parameters (A, B, k, and d) of the Janoscheck non-linear model were estimated as 43.000, 0.905, 0.124 and 0.950, respective...
Sherin Reda Rouby
...ard to cattle, sheep and goat. Diseases caused by capripoxviruses are transboundary in nature and are regularly spread into neighboring, non-endemic regions with significant economic implication. Capripoxvirus isolates are extremely conserved with genome identities of at least 96% between SPPV, GTPV and LSDV. The LSDV is similar in antigenicity and in cultural characteristics to SPPV. The current study was delineated to identify capripoxviruses from diffe...

Ashraf Sayed Awaad1 and Mohamed Zaki Fathy2*  

...or epidural injection in goats based on the anatomy of the lumbosacropelvic region and confirmed by computed tomography (CT) as well as successful application of the needle within the epidural space guided by ultrasonography (US). This study was conducted on seven lumbosacropelvic regions of goat cadavers and five live goats of both sexes ranged between 25-30 kg body weight. Longitudinal a...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...ne responses in rabbits, goats and sheep. C. perfringens were isolated from enterotoxaemia suspected sheep and goats from the endemic areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan during 2016. The isolates were initially identified through colony characters, Gram staining and biochemical tests. The identified isolates were quantified on blood agar and confirmed through PCR. Toxins were extracted, quantified, formaliz...
Maryam Javed*, Farwa Saghir, Naveera Aziz, Maham Saeed, Asif Nadeem and Wasim Shehzad
... (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra hircus). Selected marker V158M is present in exon-8 of COMT gene. Each specie was subjected to blood sampling (n=20 each). DNA was extracted, purified, quantified and amplified through PCR by using specific primer set. Then Sanger’s method of DNA sequencing was used. Multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that sheep and goat were having the wild base Guanine against which t...
Nuzhat Huma1, Fozia Ghaffar1, Saima Rafiq2,*, Imran Pasha1, Aysha Sameen1, Imran Hayat2 and Imtiaz Hussain2
...ike buffalo, cow, sheep, goat and camel. The buffalo and sheep milks have comparatively higher fat, solid-not-fat and total solid contents than other milks. Maximum whey proteins were found in the sheep milk (0.78%) whereas cow milk had lowest contents (0.54%). Non-casein-nitrogen (NCN) contents in sheep milk were higher followed by camel and buffalo milks. Electrophoresis study of caseins on Urea-PAGE showed darker bands of αS1-CN and β-...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
...nts of CCPP in sheep and goats in Northern Pakistan. The current study was thus aimed to identify relative abundance of members of MM in small ruminants suspected of CCPP in Northern region of Pakistan. A total of 300 samples, (150 sheep and 150 goats) were randomly collected from nasal discharge, pleural fluid and lung tissues, and streaked into Pleuropneumonia like organism (PPLO) medium for isolation and identification of...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla

...sequenced from sheep and goats (n=12). Nucleotide identity among Hail strains was identified to be 96.2-100%, while identity with previously sequenced Saudi Arabian strains and with reference PPRV retrieved from GenBank was found to be 94.1-98% and 81.2-100%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hail PPRV strains clustered in four separate groups within lineage IV indicating genetic divergence based on N gene. These findings further support the co...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...not limited to sheep and goats, which lead to high economic impact in developing countries including India. The causative agent, Orf virus (ORFV) belong to the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV) of the family poxviridae produces a typical papillomatous, cauliflower like external growth around mouth regions and rarely the lesions are found in other parts of the body and internal organs. Another characteristic feature of ORFV including other PPVs is the ability to re-infe...
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
... viral disease of sheep, goat and other small ruminants, imparting substantial economic losses. In current study, antiviral activity of six dilutions of Nigella sativa (N. sativa)alcoholic extracts against the PPRV was investigated in vitro. Vero cell lines infected with PPRV were treated with six dilutions alcoholic extracts of N. sativa (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 µg/mL). The antiviral effects were judged by 3-(4,5)-dimethylth...
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
...collected from sheep and goats suffering from seasonal diarrhea. C. perfringens type D was identified through different biochemical tests and PCR. Antibiograms and lab animal trials were also carried out on local isolates of C. perfringens type D. Out of 204 analyzed samples, 89.18 % were found positive while 10.82 % were negative for C. perfringens type D. The division wise distribution showed that Quetta, Zhob, Sibi and Kalat were more e...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
...d samples (500 each from goats and sheep) were collected from animals kept at the respective livestock farms. An indirect-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA) was used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in the serum. Serological analysis revealed overall flock-level sero-prevalence of 92.3% which varied from 88.88% in sheep and 100% in goat, while individual level sero-prevalence was 15.6% in sheep and 15.0% ...

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku1*, Maimadu Abdullahi1, Dakwang Nalong1, Rengkat Jonah1 and Olabode Mayowa

...odies in pigs, sheep and goats at slaughter in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. Five hundred (500) serum samples comprising of 300 pigs, 100 each of sheep and goats were collected and analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG) using latex agglutination test (LAT). Serum samples with LAT titer >10 IU/ml were considered positive. The study showed that 176 of the 500 samples analyzed were positive for Toxoplasma gondii antib...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor Paio Khan1, Naveed Afsar2 and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah3

...lved in buffalo, cattle, goats and sheep rearing with higher possession of small ruminants (goats and sheep), while men were found dominant in large ruminants’ possession (buffalo and cattle). Women’s higher time allocation to livestock management activities depicted their higher level of participation in livestock management was found high as compared to their male counterparts. Women’s participation was f...
Fehmeeda Fatima, Asif Nadeem* and Maryam Javed
...rable subspecies of wild goat (Capra aegagrus), which faced serious population threats. In the present study, HSP70.1 gene has been partially sequenced (1344 bp) to study genetic diversity and evolutionary characteristics of Sindh ibex. In this research, samples of Sindh ibex were collected from Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan, the gene of interest was amplified, PCR products were sequenced and data was analyzed. The results of genetic diversity ...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
... purpose, a total of 384 goat milk samples were screened for SCM through surf field mastitis test (SFMT) and mastitis-positives cases were further investigated for isolation of S. aureus using standard procedures. Coagulase gene was PCR amplified from the clinical isolates to categorize them into Coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). A questionnaire was used to record risk factors associated wit...
Jun Yan Bai1,*, Yong Gang Zhao2 and Yu Qin Wang1
...idate genes that control goat growth and explore SNP loci of GHRL genes, thus laying foundations for genetic marker of growth traits of goats. In this study, GHRL genes of black goat and Yaoshan goat were collected for PCR amplification. Polymorphism of goat species was tested by sequencing technology. Results demonstr...
Zhongquan Zhao*, Tianyuan Yang, Lei Qiao, Qijie He and Zinuo Dai
...cteristics of Dazu black goats (1056 kidding, 584 adult does and 224 adult bucks) have been researched in this study. The results showed that the age of puberty, sex maturity and breeding for male and female kids were 102.0±4.2 days vs. 117.0±8.7 days; 216.0±28.5 days vs. 195.0±22.4 days; 490.0±38.5 days vs. 355.0±27.5 days, respectively. Estrous cycle was 20.1±0.5 days. The duration of the natural estrous perio...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to control the helminths infections.But the parasite worms have developed multiple resistances against the synthetic anthelmintics. Hence, various biological controls, vaccines and local medicinal plants are being explored to control the parasitic worms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of two local plants, Albizia lebbeck ...
Iqra Bano1,*, Moolchand Malhi2, Pershotam Khatri3, Saeed Ahmed Soomro2, Hira Sajjad4, Ambreen Leghari5, Muhammad Awais2, Safia Kandhro6 and Shakeel Ahmed Lakho5 and Munaza Soomro7
... twelve cross breed male goats of age (2-3 months) having 8-9 kg body weight. After 15 days of adaptation period, they were divided into two groups viz. control (C) and selenium yeast supplemented (SY) (n=6), respectively. Basal diet given to the animals consist of roughage and concentrate at the ratio of 65:35. In group C, the goats received only basal diet while in group SY the goat
Muhammad Zain Saleem1,*, Raheela Akhtar1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry1, Muhammad Adeel Manzoor1, Bilal Ahmed Shah3, Rais Ahmed4 and Muhammad Yasin5
...us in both sheep and goats. Brucellosis in sheep and goats is caused by B. ovis and B. melitensis, respectively but B. abortus (causative agent of bovine) may cross the species barrier to infect the small ruminants which may complicate the control measures of brucellosis because most of the control programs rely on serological screening of brucellosis rather than molecular assay which could confirm t...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...n current study 12 (25%) goats out of 48 were PCR positive. In case of sheep, 7 (14.58%) out of 48 were PCR positive. Tissues were taken for histopathological studies. Gross pathological finding includes scraps on commissure, ulcerations, vesicles on in oral cavity, erosion on dental pads, warts on external ears, ulceration on udder and scrotum. Increase in WBC, lymphocytes, monocytes count while decrease in RBC, platelets count and Hb concentration in disease...
Senol Celik
...ictors from 130 Pakistan goats. Also, sex factor was included as a possible nominal predictor in the current study. To measure predictive performances of the tested algorithms, model evaluation criteria such as the correlation coefficient between actual and predicted LBW values (r), Akaike’s and corrected Akaike information criterion (AIC and AICc), root-mean-square error (RMSE), mean absolute deviation (MAD), standard deviation ratio (SDratio...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1,*, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2, Irshad Ahmad3, Ikramul Haq4, Kashif Prince1, Asad Ullah5, Muhammad Shoaib2, Shahid Zaman6, Amjad Islam Aqib7, Ghazunfar Rashid1, Mahboob Ali1, Imdad Ullah Khan4,Imad Khan5, Naimat Ullah4 and Muhammad Shahid8
... type D epsilon toxin in goats to sort out better immunogenic approach. This study was conducted on total of 36 healthy animal of equal number of rabbits and goats. Each species was divided randomly into three equal (n=6) groups. Group A was supplemented vitamin E and group B was without vitamin E supplementation in both species. Animals of both groups were vaccinated with enterotoxaemia vaccine. Group C was kept as negative...
Muhammad Raza Khan1, Tariq Mahmood1,*, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim2, Shaista Andleeb1 and Abdul Hamid1
...y, horse, cow, sheep and goats, resulting in a negative perception among the locals. Most of the depredation occurs at night time while maximum livestock are depredated during winter season. 
...
Muhammad Usman Akhtar1,2, Abdul Qayum3, Anshan Shan1,*, Shuli Chou1, Hyeonsoo Jo4, Syed Waqas Ali Shah4 and Ishfaq Muhammad5
...ield of lactating Beetal goats. Thirty five lactating Beetal goats were randomly divided into five groups (seven goats per group) in a randomized complete block design. Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70% RDP of dietary protein represented as 30RDP, 40RDP, 50RDP, 60RDP and 70RDP, respectively. Feed intake was recorded, nutrient digesti...

Abdul Razzaq1*, Muhammad Islam2, Zahra Islam3, Zahida Fatima1, Munib Hussain4 and Farmanullah5,6 

...thogens in grazing sheep/goats throughout the world which impairs productivity and leads to high economic losses. In most part of the world, drug resistance against anthelmintic is now very common. In this context, various alternative control programs including herbal use against these worms is also an important option. To explore the problem, three available synthetic anthelmintic (Oxfendazole alone, oxfendazole-Levamisole combination and Ivermectin) were adm...
Haq Aman Ullah1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Ijaz2, Aqeel Javeed3, Muqadder Shah1 and Ikramul Haq1
... parameters of lactating goats. Thirty two lactating Beetal goats of 3-4 y age, weighing 40.91±0.285, were randomly selected, and equally divided into four groups. Group A was kept as control while animals of groups B, C, and D were individually fed daily with 30µg, 40µg and 50µg of AFB1, respectively, through naturally contaminated cotton seed cake for a 10 days period. Milk samples were tested for ...
 

Aftab Shaukat1,2,*, Tauseef ur Rehman3, Rizwan Shukat4, Shahid Ali Rajput5, 

Shadab Shaukat6, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem2,5,8, Mubashar Hassan2,5, Tabassam Fatima2,5
Fayyaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Usman Saleem7, Fatima Arooj1, Ashar Mehfooz2 and Anas Sarwar Qureshi2
...dy weight gains of teddy goat kids.
...
Awais Bin Shahid1, Moolchand Malhi1,*, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Muhammad Giasuddin Shah2, Nazeer Hussain Kalhoro3, Asmatullah Kaka4, Rajoo Mal1, Muhammad Awais Soomro1Saba Parveen Samo1 and Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani5
... status in rumen of goats. A total of ten goats were randomly divided into two groups; control (C, n=5) and selenium yeast (SY, n=5). Animals were fed concentrate (2 % BW) as basal diet without (C) or with selenium yeast (SY, @ 0.3 mg.Se.kg-1.diet) supplementation. Hay and water was provided ad libitum. The results revealed that the molar concentrations of propionate and the total short ch...
Doulat Khan1, Hamayun Khan1, Nazir Ahmad2, Muhammad Tarique Tunio3, Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Saleem Khan2 and Rifat Ullah Khan1*
...tion in cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep. A total of 120 blood were taken from jugular vein of different breeds of cattle (Achai, Achai x Jersey, Holstein Friesian and Jersey), buffalo (Nilli Ravi, Aza Kheli and non-descript), goats (Beetal, Teddy and non-descript) and sheep (Bulkhi, Karri and non-descript). In cattle, the average sensitivity, specificity, false pregnancy prognostic value, false non-pregnancy prognostic valu...
Tong Feng, Zilu Zhang, Minghao Qu, Chan Luo, Laiba Shafique, Qingyou Liu and Kuiqing Cui*
... receptor gene of Nubian goat (white, pure black and brown flower) was cloned and analyzed by systematic bioinformatics. The result showed that the coding region of the MC1R gene of Nubian goat was 954 bp in length and encoded 317 amino acids. The results of multiple sequence comparison showed that the clones were 99%, 87%, 86%, 85%, 84%, 81%, and 77% similar to the published pig, cow, human, dog, sheep, mouse, and chicken, ...

Anand Kushwaha, Amit Kumar, Aparna Madhavan, Durga Goswami, Golmei Poulinlu and Gnanavel Venkatesan* 

...viral diseases of sheep, goats and cattle. They are endemic in most parts of the globe associated with significant production losses due to high morbidity, high mortality rate and animal trade restrictions. Though several diagnostics including molecular tools are available, recombinant protein based diagnostic assays namely ELISA is safer and robust to handle large sample size and also to minimize labor/time. However, the genus Capripoxvirus encodes putative 1...
Elmas Ulutaş1,*, Abdullah Eryavuz2, Aziz Bülbül2, Abdur Rahman3,*, İsmail Küçükkurt4 and Cangir Uyarlar5
... and oxidative status in goats. In this study, twenty four male Angora goats each of 12 months of age, and weighing approximately 35 kg were divided into four groups as: control group (C) fed with basal diet containing 31.76 ppm Zn, experimental group 1 fed with basal diet supplemented with 500 ppm Zn, experimental group 2 fed with basal diet supplemented with 750 ppm Zn and experimental group 3 fed with basal diet supplemen...
Abdul Kabir¹, Amjad Hussian Mirani¹, Jam Kashif1, Shumaila Manzoor2, Abdullah Iqbal3*, Ihsan Ullah Khan4 and Muhammad Abubakar2
...ion systems of sheep and goat in district Nowshera, KPK. A total of 246 serum samples were randomly collected from three age groups (<1 year, 1-2 year and >2 years) of sheep and goats. Competitive ELISA was performed to evaluate sero-prevalence of PPR in goats and sheep. The swab and tissue samples were collected from the surrounding areas from suspected sheep and

Kenneth Nnamdi Anueyiagu*, James Jingmang Kopmut, Chrysantus Achi Lagi and Kelly Nkem Okoh 

...estock comprising sheep, goats, and cows between October 2017 and April 2018. Samples were enriched in peptone water broth, incubated at 37oC for 24 hours, and sub-cultured onto Mannitol Salt Agar and thereafter standard bacterial procedure continued. A total of 83 (51.9%) S aureus isolates were identified, 54 (33.8%) MRSA, and 15 (9.4%) Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The study showed a statistical association between the prevalence of M...
Muhammad Waseem, Tariq Mahmood*, Abid Hussain, Abdul Hamid, Faraz Akrim, Shaista Andleeb and Hira Fatima
...tic black bear including goats (75%), sheep (14%), and cows (11%), amounting to economic loss of 15,240 US$. Moreover, 16,420 kg maize was damaged by Asiatic black bear having a worth of 3284 US$.
...
Yan-Guo Han, Jia-Yuan Wu, Ri-Su Na, Wei-Jiang Si, Yu-Qin Han, Yan Zeng, Yong-Ju Zhao and Yong-Fu Huang*
...ing mutton odour of male goats. In this study, 20 male goats aged eight weeks were randomly divided into the oral and plasmid-injected KISS1. DNA vaccine groups (groups T1 and T2) and the empty vector groups (groups C1 and C2) for immunisation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 10 and 14 weeks after primary immunisation for the detection of kisspeptin antibodies and testosterone by indirect enzyme-linked immuno...
Shaista Abbas1,Imtiaz Rabbani1, Hafsa Zaneb2, M. Shahbaz Yousaf1, Saima Ashraf2, Abid Hussain Shahzad3, M. Afzal Rashid4 and Habib Rehman1,*
...tary yeast in transition goats. Therefore, a trial was planned to elucidate the effects of various inclusion levels of live dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on dry matter intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW) and serum health biomarkers in Beetal goats during the transition period. Twenty-four Beetal goats were randomly allotted to three groups YSC0, YSC5 ...
Majeeda Rasheed1*, Tanveer Akhtar1, Nadia Mukhtar2, Muhammad Furqan Shahid2, Muhammad Imran3, Saima Yaqub2
...all ruminants (sheep and goat) have been frequently reported. Despite PPRV is endemic in Pakistan, information on disease serosurveillance of prevailing strains in Gilgit-Balitistan (GB) territory is scarce. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the seroprevalence of PPRV and to evaluate potential risk factors involved in the transmission of PPR disease in four distinct locations of GB province. We reported occurrence and risk factor analysis of ...

Md. Al-Amin Tan1, Mst. Antora Akter1, Md. Sabuj Rahman1, Marzia Rahman2 and Md. Mahmudul Alam1* 

... Povidone-iodine (PI) in goat. Seven surgical fields were prepared for evaluating seven formulations of these antiseptics. The bacterial swabs collected at different stages of skin preparations were transferred in nutrient broth and cultured in Plate Count Agar for counting of Colony Forming Unit (CFU). Results revealed that Chlorxylenol was less efficacious than PI and Chlorhexidine gluconate when mean CFU was counted at different stages of surgical field pre...

Korkmaz Bellitürk1, Zubair Aslam2, Ali Ahmad2* and Sami ur Rehman2

...lysis of raw material of goat manure, cow dung, sheep manure and their vermicompost products. The earthworms for vermicomposting, Eisenia fetida (an epigeic species), were used as the test species. The samples were collected from prepared vermicompost and raw material for chemical and physical examination. For these samples, the pH, EC, organic matter, C:N ratio, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, nitrogen, sulfur and heavy metals i.e. tin, cadmi...

Hassan Boulahyaoui1,2*, Sanaa Alaoui Amine1,3, Marouane Melloul4, Farida Hilali5, Elmostafa El-Fahime1,3, Saad Mrani1,2 and Nadia Touil1,5* 

...y with zoonotic Moroccan goat and bovine strains. The amino acid sequences of the antigenic regions inside VP8* proteins showed high conservation between the amino acid sequences of human and animal strains bearing P[14] proteins, and revealed several changes with respect to the RotaTeq™ and Rotarix™ vaccine strains. This report suggests a possible reassortment event between human and domestic animal rotaviruses. Continuous surveillance in the post...

Nasrullah1*, Ahmad Nawaz Khoso1, Jamila Soomro2, Ilahi Bakhash Marghazani1, Masood-ul-Haq Kakar1, Abdul Hameed Baloch1, Sarfaraz Ahmed Brohi1 and Muhammad Asif Arain1* 

...performance of sheep and goat. The animals were fed on Maize, Sorghum, and Millet. For this purpose, a total of 90 animals (n=45 sheep) and (n=45 goats) were randomly assigned into six groups (n=15) each under 2x3 factorial arrangement. All groups of both species were fed maize, millet and sorghum randomly. Results indicated that goat spent more time to eat than sheep while sheep ruminatio...

Hafiz Muhammad Imran Javed* and Mushtaq Ahmed 

...ral disease of sheep and goats. The present study compared the select genetic markers of the vaccine and field strains originating from the field outbreaks for phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analyses, and a comparison of three-dimensional protein structures. The N gene ORF was 1578 nucleotide long with a single open reading frame encoding 526 amino acids. Similarly, the ORF of F gene was 1641 nucleotide long which encoded 547...

M. Hammouchi1*, G. Sebbar1, N. Touil2, C. Loutfi1, Y.S. Malik3, M. El-Harrak1 and O. Fassi-Fehri4 

... exotic breeds of Alpine goats were observed to be highly susceptible to the disease, with mortality rates approaching 100%, contrary to local breeds which were less susceptible to the disease. In the present study, animals of local breed of Moroccan sheep (Timahdid) were experimentally infected using the protocol previously validated for Alpine goats. The infected animals showed mild or no clinical signs of disease, with lo...
Sumaira, Ali Mujtaba Shah*, Ghulam Asghar Solangi, Ifra Anwar, Qudratullah Kalwar 
... sheep, ass, horse, yak, goat, bison and camel while the 80 % milk is produced by cows. Milk of camel plays an essential part in the diet of human. Additionally, camel milk comprises numerous fatty acids and enzymes. Hence camel milk has many beneficial effects, such as antiviral, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-ageing. Besides, camel milk contains abundant proteins which are conductive to improve the immunity functions. Thus, it is ne...

Ali Hazrat1*, Mohammad Nisar1, Khan Sher2, Jehandar Shah2, Tour Jan1 and Abid Ullah1

Taxonomic and Medicinal Study of Papilionaceae of District Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...alaria juncea forage for goats and cattle and also toxic alkaloids, particularly in the seeds and pods, Lathyrus cicera is used as a green manure, soil cover for preventing erosion and in breeding program for the plant species, Medicago minima is rich source of vitamins A, C, and E, green manure and fixes atmospheric nitrogen, Robinia pseudo-acacia is astringent, diuretic, emetic, emollient, laxative, poison, purgative, sedative, tonic, emetic and for toothach...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

June

Vol. 36, Iss. 2, Pages 374-733

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