Gregg D. Caruso

Science, Religion and Culture
...nce and religion are two great manifestations of human culture, and that the scientific and religious worldviews dominate our understanding of the cosmos and our place in it, it is no surprise that these issues are of profound importance to many of us. It is vital, therefore, that we ask ourselves: Are science and religion compatible when it comes to understanding cosmology (the nature and origin of the universe), biology (the origin of life and of the human s...

Victor J. Stenger

Science, Religion and Culture
...tions that have been the greatest hindrance to human progress that ever existed on this planet.

...

Keith Ward

 

Science, Religion and Culture
... 2010), Stephen Hawking agrees that we should attempt to answer the questions ‘Why is there something rather than nothing? Why do we exist?’ and ‘Why this particular set of laws and not some other?’ (p. 19). In his book he proposes to answer those questions, from a purely scientific point of view (‘Philosophy is dead’, he announces on p. 13, even though the whole book is an exercise in scientifically informed philosophy). Bu...

Timothy Helton

In a Mirror Dimly: Anthropology and Restoring a Sense of Presence to an Empty World
...s through which the ethnographers gaze at the objects of their study. Scholars that approach religion as an object fit only for analysis discover in it a model of an objectified universe; and those that assume a universe subject only to natural law find in the religions that they study worlds devoid of others–sterile worlds populated only by selves incapable of meaningful relationships. The essay urges that those who see in religions only objects for ana...

Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
...ignored or regarded with great suspicion at the present time. Natural scientists, for example, by and large employ an instrumentalist approach to the study of the laws of nature. Their aim is to deal, not with things in themselves (the Kantian noumena) but with their empirical manifestation (Kantian phenomena) via tentative hypotheses subject to empirical verification. In the humanities, there is deep suspicion of so-called “meta-narratives” that o...

Reviewed by David Svolba, Fitchburg State University, USA email: dsvolba@fitchburgstate.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
... Kantian and utilitarian grounds. People will likely be happier in a society that allows them a “private space” in which “they can freely choose what to believe and how to live,” and affording each other this space is one important way in which we show respect for each other as persons (15-19). So the book’s title should not be taken as expression of skepticism on Leiter’s part concerning the case for religious tolerance. Le...

Reviewed by John Shook, University at Buffalo, USA; Email: jshook@pragmatism.org

Science, Religion and Culture

Reviewed by Rick Repetti, Kingsborough Community College, CUNY; Email: Rick.Repetti@kbcc.cuny.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...ns” designed to progressively tutor armies of atheist evangelists in the art of demolishing faith, which Boghossian claims is “pretending to know things one doesn’t know.”

...

Reviewed by Elly Vintiadis (www.ellyvintiadis.com)

...t consists of the autobiographical accounts of the journey of ex-believers from a life of faith to a life of atheism or agnosticism. It brings together the so-called ‘deconversion’ stories of 16 people of different gender, race, age, and religion. If, like me, you have never heard of the term “deconversion” before, it is the atheist equivalent to the religious finding of faith – it is a conversion from belief to agnosticism or ath...

H. Bruce Rinker

... by Gaia theory.

...

Muhangi Denis

...red in future control programs. This may call for investing resources in changing disease management behaviour in managing this disease.

...

Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

...equestrome 1(SQSTM1) / aggrosome and colocalization of HDAC6 to the cytoplasm. The key player HDAC6 is investigated for modelling several intracellular processes that come into action to bring out the viral clearance. The shuttling of HDAC6 takes place from nucleus to cytoplasm and vice versa controlling the overexpression of IFN-beta and ISGs which subsequently triggers virus specific immune response.

...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

...s no official control program for BVDV. The significance of cattle production losses or the potential implementations of commercial barrier by other countries can possibly reason the placement of governmental veterinary measures in the near future.

...

Simon Mwangi Kihu1*, George Chege Gitao1, Lily Caroline Bebora1, Njenga Munene John1, Gidraph Gachunga Wairire2, Ndichu Maingi1, Raphael Githaiga Wahome1, Davis Njuguna Karanja1, Julius Otieno Oyugi3, Ernest Lutomia3

...death. Clinical outcome, gross lesions and histological observations were suggestive of PPRV infection, which were confirmed by the application of a reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Collectively, results indicate the continuous persistence of PPRV in Kenya.

...

John Martin Fischer

...the kind of freedom that grounds robust, desert-based moral responsibility, I find that (surprisingly) our views don’t really differ that much from each other. It might seem that our views are miles apart; but upon reflection, it turns out that they are very close, and with the intelligent and patient help of Pereboom, one can see the great appeal of his approach to a whole range of interrelated issues. I’m not...

Dana Kay Nelkin

...conceptual and empirical grounds, and the thesis that life on the assumption that we do not have free will can be meaningful and perhaps even better in certain important respects than life on the assumption that we have it. At the same time, there are some subtle shifts in particular commitments, new ways of framing certain issues, and detailed responses to a good number of the very many challenges to the view as originally set out in Living Without Free Will...

Weili Kong1, Guangpeng Ma2 and Jinhua Liu1*

...in different genetic backgrounds of influenza experimentations. Conclusively, it can be stated that CTT confers a positive role during the infection of influenza A viruses. However, this regulation is contributed by multiple factors and has variable impact on the pathobiology of influenza A viruses.

...

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...on a silty clay soil at Agricultural Research Institute, Ratta Kulachi, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan, during 2010–2011. The effects of three tillage systems as main plot factor and four split N fertilizer application timings as subplot factor were studied in a randomized complete block design with split plot application. The results revealed that zero tillage had higher spikes m-2, 1000 grain weight and biological yield ...

Muhammad Arif1, Fazal Jalal1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Dost Muhammad2

...tion and sequester C in agricul- tural systems. Two years field experiments were conducted on corn crop at the research farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2011-2013. Wheat-maize-wheat cropping pattern was followed with the adjustment of legumes in summer gap (land available after wheat harvest till maize sowing). Legumes i.e. mungbean, cowpea and sesbania with a fallow were adjusted in the summer gap with...

Zaheer Ahmed Deho1, Shamsuddin Tunio2, Qammaruddin Chachar2, Fateh Chand Oad2

...at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Sindh Pakistan. Three cotton varieties (Sadori, Chandi-95 and Malmal) were evaluated under four sowing dates (15th April, 1st May, 15th May and 1st June). Four pickings at various boll openingstage viz. 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of bollopening were carried out.The varieties responded differently for opening of bolls at different timings of picking. Some varieties exhibited higher percent of boll opening, others d...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...croorganism (EM) on the agronomic performance of spinach crop, at Gomal University D.I. Khan during 2009- 11. A commercial product called Bio-Aab was used as a source of EM. Organic manure was first mixed with Bio-Aab, left for 7 to 15 days at room temperature (20oC) and then applied to appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, compost @ 0.7 t ha-1 and poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 were applied with half of th...

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

...g dates and media on the growth of kiwi (cv. Hayward) cuttings at Agriculture Research Institute (ARI) Mingora Swat, during 2011. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement in three replications. Planting Dates (20th Jan, 30th Jan, 10th Feb, 20th Feb and 2nd March) were allocated to main plots, whereas soil media (Silt+ Garden soil+ FYM) at the rate of 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 1:2...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...- sitism by female Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) emerged from HaNPV- treated host eggs. The percent emergence (mean) of tiny parasitoid from host eggs treated during egg, larval and pupal stages with the virus at field dose (x), 2x dose, and 0.5x dose ranged from 83.2- 87.3%, 87.1- 91.6%, and 83.7- 89.7%, respectively, relative to control eggs treated with water. The parasitism rates by female parasitic wasps emerged from host eggs treated at x dose when paras...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...tan. Data from 100 wheat growers were collected through multistage stratified random sampling technique during 2009-10. Stochastic frontier analysis was employed for the estimation of technical efficiency levels and its determinants. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique was applied to estimate stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production function to ascertain the level of technical efficiency. The econometric computer software STATA was applied for the...

Arshad Ali Khan1, Muhammad Sajid1, Abdur Rab1, Sahib Alam2, Abdul Bari3

...inorganic sources on the growth, yield and fruit quality of two tomato cultivars i.e., Falcon and Rio Grande for two years. The response of tomato cultivars was assessed to six combina- tions viz. 0-0 (control), 100-0, 75-25, 50-50, 25-75 and 0-100% of poultry manure (PM) and Sul- phate of Potash (SOP). All the factors (K-sources, cultivars and years) alone and in combination sig- nificantly affected the growth, yield and fr...

Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas Ullah Jan, Dawood Jan

...ided using Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) data from Pakistan Social and Standards Living Measurement (PSLM) 2010-11. The elasticities of interest were obtained via log-log inverse (LLI) functional form of Engel equation. The quantity and expenditure elasticities remained less than unity with reasonable differ- ence in magnitude across urban and rural households. Quantity and expenditure elasticities of all the vegetables were higher for rural hous...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

...>The knowledge of supply greatly helps planners and policy makers to allocate and achieve production targets and in longer term planning. A study was conducted during 2009-10 with an objective to estimate the wheat yield response function in two agro-ecological zones in Punjab. The method of ordinary least square was used. Time series data for different explanatory variable (eco- nomic, location and climatic) from 1979-2009 ...

Mohammed Ali Hussain, Zakiya Ahmed Hassan

...o locations, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq and second at FishKhabor, during spring season 2012. The experimental materials comprise seven F1 hybrids (sangaria, IK8 x zp-707, DK x Hs, zp-707 x un 44052, IK 8 x un44052, un 44052 x DK and polina). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among maize hybri...

Sajid Ali1, Nouman Badar1, Hina Fatima2

E-mail | sajid_economist@yahoo.com

...Pakistan by using Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models of forecasting. Using data for 1948 to 2012, productions and yields of both crops were forecasted for 18 years starting from 2013 to 2030. ARMA (1, 4), ARMA (1, 1) and ARMA (0, 1) were found appropriate for sugarcane production, sugarcane yield, and cotton production respect...

John Teehan

...ic radicalism to the foreground of public consciousness. Such attacks, of course, raise vital questions of public safety and the costs we are willing to pay for that safety. They also raise questions of how to understand the complex conditions that give rise to such events and the conditions for such events are always complex, even when facile “explanations” are readily available, i.e. the violent nature of Islam, their hatred of Western freedom, e...

Varadaraja V. Raman

...or. On the other hand disgruntled, oppressed, and frustrated citizens (Irish Catholics, Algerian Muslims, Sri Lankan Tamils, etc.) have terrorized people and governments for various causes.There has also been terrorism by the majority on the minority in communities and nations: for example, Jews in Nazi Germany, Kurds in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and Blacks in South Africa. In recent years a new kind of terrorism has been emerging in which individuals or

Muhammad Mushtaq

E-mail | mushtaq@uaar.edu.pk

...ing the effectiveness of groundnut – maize grain bait in delivering the lethal amount of strychnine alkaloid in controlling the Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica, during 2006-07. Indian crested porcupine is a severe forest and agricultural pest throughout southern Asia and the Middle East, including Pakistan. The results suggested that in case of pre-baiting trial, a 25% reduc...

Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
...lshakry describes in her groundbreaking work, a world which encounters cylinder-powered platen printing machines, the telegraph, the steam ships and railways—all coming from countries dimly perceived and barely understood. These fruits of modern science are accompanied by a host of ideas about the emergence and propagation of life on earth which, to the lay believer, seemed outright un-Godly. Marwa Elshakry, now an Ass...

Thomas J. Coleman III

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2, Pages 39-41
... reclaim Darwin from the grasp of the New Atheists by charging him with uncovering “[t]he truth about religion.

 

...

Nayle Maria Oliveira da Silva1*, Ricardo do Carmo Zanella2

 

...tory process that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Viral clearance occurs in a minority of patients with viral hepatitis C, whereas chronic infection is established in 60 to 80% of all cases, 20 to 40% of which may evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Genetic differences among infected hosts can determine the progression and outcome of the virus infection, causing different individuals to respond in differe...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

... treatments at National Agriculture Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Cropping systems were kept in vertical blocks and fertility treatments in horizontal blocks replicated thrice with RCBD strip block system. Sole mungbean and intercropped mungbean with maize were treated with five fertility treatments (T1, control; Phosphorus and Potash (PK) (80-60 kg ha-1) + inoculation, T3, (120-80-60 NPK kg ha-1); T4, poultry manure (PM) @ 15 t ha-1 and half PM+...

Qingzhong Yu

 

...s. Recently, inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene upstream from the GE sequences of the viral genes and subsequent quantitative measurements of the GFP fluorescence intensity, we have concluded that the P and M junction region is the optimal insertion site for a high level of foreign gene expression by a NDV vector.

...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...loam soil at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during 2011. Six nitrogen treatments (80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and 280 kg ha-1) and a control one were studied in this trial. Growth and yield traits and quality such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein, crude fiber and ash percentage were sig...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...so on the stage of plant growth at which it develops. A pot study was conducted during 2011-12 at College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan, to assess the effect of induced water stress on performance of different wheat varieties at critical growth stages. Three wheat varieties viz. Faisalabad-2008, Lasani-2008 and Kohistan-97 were manually sown in polythene lined pots. Five water stress tre...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

...investigate the six-week growth performance in four different strains of Japanese quails maintained at Avian Research and Training Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. For this purpose, 2160 newly hatched quail chicks were randomly picked up from available stock and then placed into 108 experimental units (replicates comprising 20 chicks each). Growth parameters i.e. weekly body weight (g), weight gain (g), times of weight gain, feed i...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

..."text-align: justify; ">Agriculture is a major sector of Pakistan’s economy as it has a significant contribution to GDP, employment generation, and export earnings in the economy of Pakistan. Due to modernization in agriculture sector over the last few decades, credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. The current...

Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Aysha Sameen1, Mahr un Nisa2

 

... were divided into three groups: T0 rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 7% flaxseed, and T2 were on 3.5% flaxseed in the feed of rabbits. Bearing in mind that this range of flaxseed will fulfil omega 3 Poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration that contributes 8.5% of the total fatty acids. Rabbits were reared for the period of eight weeks. Enrichment of 7% flaxseed in the diet of rab...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

... Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during 2007-2009. Lentil was planted in winter and during summer sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and mung bean (vigna radiata) followed lentil. Five different fertilizer treatments i.e. farmyard manure (FYM) 30 tons ha-1, NPK 35-40-20 kg ha-1, poultry manure 20 tons ha-1, compost (press mud) 12.5 tons ha-1 and inoculation by phosphorus mobilizing microorganisms 2.5...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...dustry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are crucial to gaining insight into HP-PRRSV-induced path...

Hai-Bo Wang, Qiu-Hua Mo, Ze Yang*

...e have been two major progresses in the field, in which RT-NASBA technique was applied for the detection of diarrhoea related viruses. This mini review overviewed the basic principle of RT-NASBA and discussed the significance of these new findings.

...

Khalid Usman1*, Niamatullah Khan2, Fazal Yazdan3

.... Khan, Pakistan, during growth season 2011‑2013 in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The strain DNH-105 gave optimum yield owing to more bolls per plant (37.2), boll weight (3.4 g) plus higher ginning out turn (39.9%) compared to the standard varieties of cotton in Pakistan. The quality characteristics such as fibre length (29.2 mm), strength (28.5 g tex-1), micronaire (4.3µg inch–1) and uniformity (80.2%) were also highe...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

...icipatory approaches to agricultural extension service delivery emphasize the need for accountability of extension to the end users. This study analysed farmers’ perception of the accountability of agricultural extension services rendered in Oyo State, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used in eliciting information from 195 farmers in rural communities across the four agro-e...

Muhammad Shah Zaman1, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Aish Muhammad1, Khalid Farooq2, Iqbal Hussain1*

...ect the productivity of agricultural crops in arid and semiarid regions. In vitro screening of eight potato varieties (Asterix, Cardinal, Challenger, Desiree, Hermis, Kroda, Sh-5 and Sante) was investigated for salt tolerance at 0.0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mM NaCl supplemented with MS medium. Kroda emerged as the most salt tolerant variety with the highest plant height (6.5 cm), number of nodes (8.8), fresh shoot weight plant-1 (0.166 g), number of roots (4.6...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

...pulation and the largest grain crop as well. Pakistan has been regularly importing wheat, except for the few years. Wheat’s domestic production has remained short of its domestic demands. To estimate the wheat varietal effect on wheat production and technical efficiency, a Cobb-Douglas Translog frontier analysis has been done. A primary research is conducted in the area of Rahim Yar Khan. Adoption of Modern wheat varieties is important for more profit as...

Faheem Khan*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

... sample of 336 sugarcane growers for the present study and an interview schedule was used to solicit responses that addressed the research objectives. The findings from the study showed that 80 percent of respondents were illiterate while the 20 percent of respondents who were literate had achieved various levels of education. In the years 2012 and 2013, the average yield of educated sugarcane growers was 76 t/ha while illit...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...pea cropping system. Integrated nutrient management is important for higher crop yields and sustainable agriculture. A field experiment was conducted to study the residual effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of chickpea crop. The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-2...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

...fficients indicated that grain weight had a significant positive relationship with residual transpiration, osmotic adjustment, cell membrane stability, flag leaf weight, specific flag leaf weight, while negatively correlated with specific flag leaf area. These results indicated the importance of physiological traits and their positive influence on grain weight. Multivariate techniques, including factor analysis (FA) and clus...

Jonathan Jong

...ls, formation of non-kin groups, obedience to moral codes, and so forth—that variously co-occur in packages we intuitively label as particular religions. Furthermore, these distinct phenomena are also present among ostensibly nonreligious (or secular) individuals and groups. Scholars of religion and nonreligion should therefore all but abandon the terms “religion” and “nonreligion”, and with the...

Ethan G. Quillen

...the study of Atheism has grown in popularity, leading to both positive and negative results. On one end, this has engendered a polyvocal and polyfocal discourse, garnering perspectives from a number of different methodological and theoretical approaches so as to develop a truly inter- and multi-disciplinary understanding about what we mean when we discuss Atheism. On the other, this myriad of voices has equally led to an ever-broadening discordancy, an equivoc...

Luke Galen

...mbeddeness in supportive groups. Often, those with the lowest levels of well-being and prosociality are uncommitted or indifferent religious believers, not socially engaged nonbelievers. Therefore, defining individuals who are not committed or engaged in socially supportive groups solely in terms of their lack of religious belief virtually guarantees that atheists and agnostics will appear inferior on a variety of outcome va...

Joseph Langston1*, Joseph Hammer2, Ryan T. Cragun3

...vers (N=1,939) into four groups based on degree of formal affiliation and assessing attitudes, perceptions, and preferences in three areas. First, we examined the preferences of nonbelieving group members (“secular affiliates”), former members, and nonbelieving non-members (“secular nonaffiliates”) on nonbeliever group goals, fun...

Gareth Longden

...yment, and education background of the members.

...

John Stinespring, Ryan T. Cragun*

...teady state solution and growth path for the share of the population that is nonreligious. The model setup and solution are shown to be both intuitive and determined by three parameter values. The authors illustrate its use by estimating these parameter values using biannual data from the 1973 to 2012 General Social Surveys (GSS). The parameter estimates from the first half of the GSS data series, 1973-1991, provide a good fit to the 1993-2012 data. Calibratin...

 David F. Bradley*, Julie J. Exline, Alex Uzdavines

... Using correlation and regression, we found that personality factors (Big Five personality traits, adult attachment style, and socially desirable responding) were not strong predictors of the characteristics nonbelievers assign to hypothetical gods. Seeing a hypothetical god as more loving, less cruel, and less distant was associated with more past positive emotional experiences with gods, less past anger at gods, less participation in explicitly nonreligious ...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

...lves over time. To the degree that belief in a supernatural God is a derivative of religious intuition, it is safe to assume that over one’s lifetime, intuition and attitudes towards a belief in God is subject to fluctuation. Dennett and LaScola found this to be true with priests and ministers. That study was the catalyst for the current study of rabbis’ shift in religious beliefs in general, and belief in God in particular. Approximately 25 rabbis...

Liz Goodnick

...: justify;">Probably the greatest challenge to theism is the problem of evil (perhaps better understood as the problem of pain and/or suffering): it is difficult to understand why an all-knowing, all-powerful, and perfectly good being2 would allow his creatures to suffer: “Epicurus’s old questions are yet unanswered. Is he willing to prevent evil, but not able? then is he impotent. Is he able, but not willing? then is he malevolent. Is he both able...

Marcus Mann

... 12, 2001, Sam Harris, a graduate student in neuroscience at the University of California – Los Angeles, woke up with an itch. He had been shaken to his core by the events of the previous day and found himself drawn to his computer, relating his thoughts on the 9/11 terrorist attacks’ implications to a word processor. What started as an itch evolved into his first book, The End of Faith: a scathing indictment of religion, which in his opinion, was ...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa and Muhammad Arshad Khan

...gen was 1.5 to 2.6 times greater after week 6 of fertilizer application compared to before fertilizer application. Similarly, P and K were 4.7 to 6.6 times and 2.6 to 3.9 times greater, respectively. Based on these findings, it is concluded that urea in split doses and diammonium phosphate in single dose should be applied 3-4 weeks before the commencement of rearing of Mulberry Silkworm Moth for nutritionally rich mulberry f...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...="text-align: justify;">Agriculture consumes more water than any other human activity. In Pakistan, the contribution of irrigated agriculture is more than 90%, thus the sustainable water supply to meet the food and fibre demand of the ever increasing population is a big challenge. Increase in crop water productivity (CWP) is one of the most important options for sustainable use of water resources in semi-...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...s of olive fruits degrades significantly during four weeks of treatment process. Results showed that during brine treatment, fermentation take place which significantly convert the oleourepean into simple sugar and decreased during treatment process. Lye solution penetrates inside the msesocarp and than endocarp during four weeks of treatment process. The lye treated olive fruits were treated afterwards into brine solution for the next...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...aken at Cotton Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam Pakistan during summer 2010 and repeated during summer 2011 for validating the previous results. The experiments were laid out in three replicated randomized complete block design. The seed of cotton variety “Sindh-1” was sown through drilling in the 1st week of May each year. The treatments consisted of: weedy check (no weeding), interculturing twice (30+60 DAS), ...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...7: H7 and S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these treatments. Results revealed that levels of citric and lactic acid concentrations effect were maximum for 5.0%, followed by 3.0% and least for 1.0% on E. coli and Salmonella load on beef surfaces. In addition, citric acid was more effective than lactic acid at all concentrations (1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%) in reducing E. coli and Salmonella growth. The citric acid at 5.0% was fou...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...stify;">Bayesian phylogeographic analysis has recently been at the forefront of understanding epidemiological processes through the reconstruction of evolutionary history and spatial dissemination of pathogens. Infection of a single host can be viewed similarly as an epidemic spread on a microscale, creating a unique opportunity for the application of phylogeography at the intra-host level, which has unti...

Rick Repetti

... practice may be used to ground a model of the possibility of free agency that stands up against four powerful arguments for free will skepticism in contemporary analytic philosophy: Peter van Inwagen’s consequence argument, which asserts that if choices are lawfully necessary consequences of prior events, then they are unfree; Derk Pereboom’s two arguments for hard incompatibilism: the manipulation argument, which asserts that&...

Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde1*, Kayode Ayinde2, Tofunmi Emmanuel Ilori1, Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde1

E-mail | opeyemi@unilorin.edu.ng

...he impact of government agricultural policies on the prices of major staple food in Nigeria. Secondary data were sourced from various organizations and used for this study. These data were transformed from their nominal value to real value and analysed using descriptive statistics, unit root test, ordinary least square model, Cochrane-Orcutt, least absolute deviation estimators and simultaneous equation model. The study further established ...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...odeficiency Virus have a greater risk to the virus due to their impaired immunity. The study was carried out to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Ogbomoso. The blood sample of consented two hundred and seventy five (275) subjects were obtained and their sera were screened for antibodies to HEV using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Samples were collected over a period of 4 months (September...

Luca Vitale

...otic stresses that limit growth and productivity; however, plants are able, to some extent, to cope with limiting environmental conditions by means of different mechanisms that contribute to their adaptive success in different habitats.

...

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

...animals of different age groups was observed as less than 1 year, 1-2 years and more than 2 years for both ELISA and SNT. The peak immune response measured by SNT was 2.8log10 whereas ELISA detected serum antibody titer up to 2.4 log10. Findings showed that highest titers were seen in animals of age > 2 years i.e. 1.70 log10 (for serotype Asia 1), 1.99 log10 (for serotype A) and 1.53 log10...

Muhammad Arif Zafar1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1*, Aayesha Riaz1, Asim Shamim2, Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 and Arfan Yousaf

E-mail | murtazhassan@yahoo.com

... were divided into three groups; Group A animals were operated for partial excision of the lesions, Group B were inoculated with autogenous vaccine alone and Group C were treated with inoculation of autogenous vaccine supplemented with immune-modulators (Levamisole and Vitamin E+Selenium). The animals treated with autogenous vaccine along with immune-modulators showed complete regression of the papillomas compared ...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...he implementation of integrated control measures and disease risk analysis, this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culico...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...enome comparison program was used to select a suitable target DNA sequence. A PCR targeting the bfrZ gene was developed which showed no cross-reactivity in silico or when tested with a panel of bacterial isolates. The limit of detection was determined to 4x103 bacteria per mL of nasal swab sample and less than 10 copies of target DNA per PCR reaction. Out of 23 isolates of B. bronchiseptica tested, one isol...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...de, ranging from 0 to 40 grams active ingredient per hectare (g.a.i ha-1) through foliar spray. Analyses were done at days 3, 7, and 15 after treatment. Lipid peroxidation rates and contents of proline, ascorbate (ASC), glutathione (GLU), antioxidative enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...tion, it has been facing greater impediments in wheat and related crop species. Its success depends largely upon the average effect of several important factors including explant tissue, culture medium, plant genotypes, and their interactions, the detail of which is not fully explored. Current article described this issue in detail. The information synthesized would be important to select and manipulate appropriate factor(s) for successful ...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

... and maleic hydrazide on growth and flower quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) was carried out at Ornamental Nursery, Department of Horticulture, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2011. Suckers of chrysanthemums were planted during the first week of January and transplanted in 20 cm clay pots in July. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Comp...

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

...>Heterosis is one of the greatest practical contributions of genetics to the agricultural world and has its most signi cant expression in maize than other cereal crops. Exploitation of this phenom- enon of superior performance of F1 progeny over their parents not only trans gured maize breeding schemes but also constituted the foundation of maize seed industry. Evaluation of per se performance of parental lines and estimatio...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

...ethod and biochar on the growth, yield and its related parameters of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) at Sugar Crops Research Institute Mardan during 2011-12 and 2012-13. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement in four replications. Sugar beet was sown at the rate of 6 kg ha-1 at four seeding depths from 1 to 4 cm. Nitrogen was applied at band and broadcast methods at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 mixed with biochar...

Rick Repetti

...imperfect beings God was graceful in giving the undeserved gift of life. There have been many objections to Adams’s argument; e.g., Jerome A. Weinstock (1975) objected that God still would have been graceful in granting undeserved life to superior beings, and, among others, E. Wielenberg (2004) objected that grace doesn’t erase the imperfecti...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...ficant (p<0.05) 2nd degree correlation between temperature and B. bassiana infectivity was analysed. Beauveria bassiana infection was in range of 27-30ºC. Based on these findings, it is concluded that B. bassiana has promising potential as microbial control agent against A. sciodoxa and should be exploited under field conditions.

...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

... subjects with limited degree of physical activity. However, most of young subjects are not recommended to be treated with this method owing to high level of physical activities. KineSpring knee implant system was designed for young subjects with knee OA to reduce knee pain, improve stability and knee function. The aim of this review article is to screen for the available information on knee implant system and to propose a suitable remedy f...

Muhammad Amjad Nadim1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Kashif Waseem2

...rs and micronutrients on growth and yield of wheat was conducted at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) using split-plot arrangements with four replications. Main plot consisted of NPK and organic fertilizers while micronutrients viz. Zn, Cu and B (alone and in combinations) were assigned to sub-plots. The results revealed signif...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...ext-align: justify;">Integration of green manuring crops along with the inorganic fertilizers in the prevailing cropping system may increase crop productivity and net profitability through improving soil physico-chemical properties and fertility. Two years field experiments were conducted at the Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar- Pakistan (semiarid conditions) to investigate ...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...ut association among demographic characteristics and MFSC registration duration and Rank Based Quotient was calculated for problem identification. It was found that machinery was provided to almost half of the respondents. Similarly seed was the most provided input followed by fertilizers. Top most source of agriculture information was input dealers followed by Model Farm Services Center. The top learned skills by respondent...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...s, level of rice yield, agricultural practices for rice production and farm management techniques employed in the study area were observed. The study employed simple percentages to analyse the farmers’ responses; while regression model established significant relationships between rice yield and farm management methods adopted in this area. Results were presented using charts and tables. The study revealed that; chemic...

Moorthy S. Muthuswamy

... religious leaders began growing in power due to the popularization of a self-serving theme that sharia is all-encompassing divine law and an essential guide to life. A new analysis of the 2013 Pew data shows us that religious leaders’ political and religious influences correlate with sharia’s popularity, and in turn, can correlate with politically motivated violence. In particular, the top three terrorist groups...

John G. Bruno1*, Chien-Chung Chao2,3, Zhiwen Zhang3, Wei-Mei Ching2,3, Taylor Phillips1, Allison Edge1, Jeffery C. Sivils1

...d fever and scrub typhus groups, making the assay specific only to the Rickettsiaceae family level (Rickettsia and Orientia). When conducted in < 100% human serum or a tick homogenate, the fluorescent aptamer assay maintained sensitive detection of Rickettsia typhi cells. 

...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried blood samples collected from mink, a VP2 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) system was recently evaluated. However, such estimations of disease progression are commonly based on single sampling occasions and it is essential to know if estimated antibody levels vary over a period of weeks or mont...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...on crop productivity at Agronomy Research Farm, University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan. Sunflower (cv. Hysun-33) was planted on different dates i.e. Jul. 1, 11 and 21 treated with different N-rates starting from 40 kg ha-1 with a 40 kg increment to the maximum of 160 (kg ha-1) including a control treatment in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in four replications. Sowing date (SD) were main ...

Haq Aman Ullah1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Muhammad Ijaz2 and Aqeel Javeed3

...rformance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Out of total samples Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 33 feed samples, with a percent contamination rate of 83%. The level of aflatoxin B1 ranged from 0 to 225.736 ppb in different feed samples. The maximum level of aflatoxin B1 was detected in cotton seed cake (mean level 137.059 ± 22.293 ppb) followed by wanda, homemade concentrate mixture and wheat bran.. Amongst the positive concentrate feed samples, 28 samples (85...

Mohammed M. Islam1, 3 *, Damian F. J. Purcell2 and George Kannourakis1,3

...s of diverse genetic backgrounds. 

...

Shahida Bibi* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...rm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during the year 2012. The study was carried out in a split-plot design with three replications. Herbicide treatments (herbicide used and herbicide not used) were assigned to main plots, while intercropping treatments (sole maize, sole mungbean, 5 rows of mungbean + 6 rows of maize, 10 row of mungbean + 6 rows of maize) were allotted to subplots. Results of the study revealed that weed density m-2

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

...>Morus alba) variety grown in District Skardu, Gilgit Baltistan. After drying, mulberry fruit was stored for 150 days and evaluated for physiochemical and sensory parameters (water activity, ash content, percent acidity, pH, moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, taste, texture, color and overall acceptability). Statistically minimum decrease was observed in water activity, pH, moisture content and organoleptic characters. While, stable increa...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

...riment was conducted at Agriculture Research Farm, Ahmad Wala Karak, Pakistan in a randomized complete block design (RCBD); split plot arrangements in three replications during winter season 2014-15. Sowing dates were assigned to main plot and varieties to sub plot as treatments. Thirteen wheat varieties (i.e. Pak.2013, Dharabi, Tatara, Lalma, Chakwal-50, Shahkar-2013, PS-2005, Hashim-2008, Zam-2004, KT-2000, Atta-Habib, Siren-2010 and Khttakwal a local as che...

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

...ss="s1">The influence of growing conditions and planting dates on vegetative growth of Silvery was studied at Ornamental Horticulture Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during January to September, 2011. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plots arrangement was used for the experi...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Hidayat-ur-Rahman2, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Fakharuddin2

...e heterosis for various agronomic and biochemical traits in Flue Cured Virginia tobacco. Seven tobacco varieties/lines, ‘NC606’, ‘K399’, ‘Spt G 126’, ‘Spt G 28’, ‘KHG21’, ‘KHG22’ and ‘KHG24’ with contrasting traits were crossed in all possible combinations to generate 7 x 7 diallel crosses. In 2008 and 2009, all F1 hybrids along with their parent cultivars were plant...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

...s conducted at National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. The experiment was performed on randomized complete block design (RCBD) consisting of eleven treatments (cultivars) replicated three times during 2015. The results showed that Tarocco attained maximum height (156.13 cm), followed by Mexican Lemon (146.80 cm). Similarly, maximum plant spread and leaf area were recorded in Mexican Lemon 124.07 cm and 11.35 cm2, respectively. Howev...

Ashley C. Banyard1* and Satya Parida2

...the strategy taken to progress with the aim of eradication. Here we describe current areas where knowledge improvement is required to shape our understanding of the disease and its distribution alongside areas of investigation that require consideration in any viral eradication campaign. 

...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...egic mass vaccination programme. The decreased number of outbreaks in recent years as well as changes in the disease severity patterns and distribution might be due to the effectiveness of vaccine, timely vaccination, circulation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...transboundary disease of great significance through its effect on the development and maintenance of sustainable agriculture in developing countries, most notably in Western Africa and South Asia. Here, we review, using available data in research papers and reports of international organizations and databases, the factors that enables the spread of PPR in Africa and the required countermeasures that are required to control a...

Neil Levy

...dash; roughly, explosive growth in machine intelligence, resulting in the appearance of AIs that are vastly superior to us cognitively – will or might occur in the relatively near future. Understandably, many are worried by this prospect. In this paper, I argue that we have less to fear from the singularity than many people think. Depending on how we define ‘singularity’, it is either less likely to occur, or it will likely occur in a form th...

Neil Levy

...dash; roughly, explosive growth in machine intelligence, resulting in the appearance of AIs that are vastly superior to us cognitively – will or might occur in the relatively near future. Understandably, many are worried by this prospect. In this paper, I argue that we have less to fear from the singularity than many people think. Depending on how we define ‘singularity’, it is either less likely to occur, or it will likely occur in a form th...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...es and to increase the degree of participation in PE could increase its potential as an important tool in disease impact assessment and control. Particular attention is paid here to the potential role of PE in future research on the epidemiology and control of PPR. 

...

Keyvan Sharifmoradi1*, Nader Farahpour2

... study was to assess the ground reaction force characteristics of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and to compare with healthy age group. A total of 14 patients with PD and 16 normal elderly subjects with matched age and gender were included in the study. A motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Analysis System) and two Kistler force plates were used to measure forces applied on the legs. Data were evaluated...

Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

...ns during 2010 at Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. Genetic analysis of yield traits from half diallel crosses was carried-out. Mean squares due to GCA and SCA were significant for days to 75% maturity, tillers plant-1, spike length, spike density, grains spike-1, grain yield plant-1, seed index and harvest index. Significance of GCA and SCA...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

... Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Tarnab Peshawar and The University of Agriculture Peshawar KP-Pakistan during 2015. Olive: palm oils treated in sole or admixture at various ratios were kept at different stress conditions for three months. Data was recorded on peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), anisidine value (AV), iodine value (IV), color index (CI) and beta carotene (BC) value of the oils. The results s...

Murad Ali Khan and Mohammad Akmal 

... hybrid Hysun-33 at the Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during spring 2011 and repeated in spring 2012. The planting geometries were (a) 70 x 20 cm with rows spaced at 70 cm and plants spaced within the rows at 20 cm and (b) 90 x 15.5 cm with rows spaced at 90 cm and plants spaced within rows at 15.5 cm. It is important to mention here that 70 cm is the recommended row spacing used fo...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...ance crop production in agricultural system. Two years field trials were carried out during 2011-12 at New Developmental Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Thirteen compost treatments including control as main plot treatment and two fert-N levels (0 and 75 kg N ha-1) as subplot treatments were used. Compost materials i.e. farmyard manure (FYM), cereal residue (CR) and legume residue (LR) were composte...

 Muhammad Ishaq and Raziuddin

 
...ure rapeseed breeding programs. The estimates of variances of combining ability (σ2GCA, σ2SCA) and predictability ratio (σ2GCA/σ2SCA>1.00) indicated that gene action was predominantly additive for days to flowering while, for the rest of the traits non additive gene action was responsible as the predictability ratio was less than unity which was further confirmed by higher values of variances of SCA than GCA. In present study for all...

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...armers’ access to agricultural credit market has been prioritized in agriculture finance policies of Pakistan. The main objectives of this study are to explore farmers’ access to different formal and informal credit sources, and to investigate their credit adequacy and the role of important socio-economic factors in access to credit. The data were collected from 87 farming households in Mardan Tehsil of Mardan Di...

 Aqila Shaheen

...rimental types of land degradation that deteriorates both soil quality and land productivity. Determination of soil characteristics and nutrient status of eroded lands is pre-requisite for restoring their productivity. The objective of present study was to quantify the selected soil properties and nutrient status of eroded soils.  The study was undertaken on eight soil series (Missa, Pirsabak, Guliana, Rajar, Balkassar, Rawalpindi, Chakwal and Satwal) in ...

 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

...;Crop nutrition from integrated sources is advocated for higher productivity and soil fertility. The current research was designed to the exact ratio of nutrients from organic and inorganic sources for water eroded lands during 2007-08. The combination of nutrient sources tested were; control, NPK50 (50% NPK), NPK75 (75% NPK), NPK100 (100% NPK), FYM10 (10 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM10, NPK75+FYM10, NPK100+FYM10, FYM20 (20 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM20, NPK75+FYM20, NPK1...

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...e was recorded among age group i.e. adult were more susceptible as compare to young ones. In subsistence farms level prevalence in intensive, extensive farming and nomads was 74.07%, 57% and 83.3% respectively. Breeding through natural service was in greater risk (94%) as compared to artificial insemination (78%). In humans overall sero-prevalence was recorded 12.12%, 09.59% and 08.59% by SPAT, i-ELISA and PCR respectively. ...

 Gul Naz and Mohammad Akmal

... crop of Pakistan. It is grown on the maximum cropped area every year. The suitable variety identification for agro-climate and its optimum N-fertilizer demand with application are need of the day to overcome on N-leaching from the soil and to ensure future food security. Present study was, therefore, conducted in two seasons (2011-12 and 2012-13) at the Agronomy Research Farm, the Univers...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

... in Pakistan, especially grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). We evaluated K requirements of five elite grass pea genotypes in a field experiment. The experiment was organized in factorial block design with three replications. The study involved five commonly grown grass pea genotypes (Sel-B 111, Sel-449, Sel-190, Sel-1785 and Sel-945) and three K doses (0, ...

 Arif Khan, Abdur Rahman, Shoail Akhtar, Siraj Uddin, Zahid Ullah and Nazir Ahmad

 
...collected from three age groups (i.e. group 1= 12-18 monts, 2 =18.1-36.0 months and 3= > 36 months) of Kundi and Nili Ravi breeds of buffalo. Samples were obtained from freshly preselected slaughtered buffaloes at local municipal abattoir Peshawar. The effect of breed and animal age on marbling, water holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness and sarcomere lenth of the two buffalo breed beef samples were investigated. A two x...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

... that the two laboratory grown species of tsetse flies may be genetically related.

...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

...ts were laid out at the Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2013 and 2014, respectively. Nitrogen (0, 250, 300, 350 kg ha-1) and Sulfur (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha-1) in main plots, whereas maize hybrids (R-3305, R-2210, R-2207) in subplots, were replicated thrice in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement. Maximum biological yield, gr<...

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

Koksal Karadas1, Muhammad Tariq2, Mohammad Masood Tariq3* and Ecevit Eyduran4

...RT (Classification and Regression Tree), CHAID (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector), Exhaustive CHAID, and a ANN type MLP (Multilayer Perceptron) in the prediction of lactation milk yield in sheep was measured comparatively by model assessment criteria, such as R2, R2ADJUSTED, SDRATIO, CV(%), RMSE, RAE, MAPE, MAD and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between actual and predicted milk yield values, respective...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...ducted at Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in three replicated completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of control (untreated), eucalyptus water extract at 10, 20 and 30 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 10 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+water e...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...mmer seasons. The fourth group had screen bottom board trays but without any chemical. There was a trend of fallen mean number of mites 157±6.28, 97±3.81, 132.75±9.76 and 26±1.68 in winter, 160±20, 149±30, 161.75±18.5 and 27.5±1.04 in spring and 188.25±5.34, 196.25±5.48, 144.25±7.74 and 34.5±4.94 (Mean±SE) in summer, respectively. The average efficacy (%) of the four

Muhammad Ibrahim, Jawaria Ali Khan, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Avais, Ali Husnain, Naimatullah Khan, Muhammad Kamran Ameen and Abdullah Iqbal

... allopathic and herbal ingredients for treatment of subclinical mastitis and to test out how these ingredients can be used for enhancement of milk quality as well as their effects on the haematological values. Total 30 cows were selected for this study kept in different dairy farms in the premises of Lahore. Out of these 30 cows, 24 had subclinical mastitis and 6 were healthy. Cows suffering from subclinical mastitis were di...

Amtul Jamil Sami1*, Madeeha Khalid1, Sara Iqbal1, Maira Afzal1 and A.R. Shakoori2

...as weight and swelling degree of composite were studied. Chitosan starch based composites were used in treatment of waste water to remove a toxic anionic dye Congo red. Congo red solution (0.015 mM) was treated with polymer composite at neutral pH overnight with 150 rpm orbital shaking at room temperature. The same procedure was performed for commercial dyes. The dye was removed due to the interaction with the polysaccharide starch and flocculation phenomenon....

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...er, the addition of gums gradually improved these aspects with higher values for cheese containing guar gum as compared to xanthan gum. The full fat cheese showed the minimum (1270g) while the negative control had the maximum (1604.64 g) hardness. The hardness decreased gradually on increasing the concentration of gums and the samples having guar gum were less hard. On sensory evaluation, the maximum scores were awarded to f...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...ants, which decreases progressively with increasing fertility level. Less number of spores and percent root colonization was found at high RP level (RP100) in all hybrids. Higher P doses declined the sporulation and colonization. There was total seven AMF species that were observed and recorded. The dominant genus was Acaulospora which was followed by Glomus, Sclerocystis and Gigaspora. The average AMF spore density ranged from 56-260 spores/100g soil while ro...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...ical efficiency of these growers. Technical efficiency has been found dissimilar under both the situations. The estimated mean technical efficiency of NonBT cotton farmers has been found to be 0.70, and 0.90 is the technical efficiency found in that of the BT cotton farmers. Hence the average output of Non-BT cotton and BT-cotton farms could be increased by 30 and 10 percent, respectively by adopting the technology with an appropriate approach. The results of ...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...f nutrient management on growth, yield characters and leaf reddening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Cotton variety Haridost was studied under 4 NPK treatments (000 NPK kg ha-1, 120-0-0 kg N ha-1, 120-70-0 kg N ha-1, 120-70-40 kg NPK ha-1 and 5 secondary and micronutrient (Control, 50, 3, 4 and 1.5 kg ha-1 Mg, Fe, Zn and B, respectively) treatments. NPK @ 120-70-40 kg ha-1 resulted maximum plant height, number of green le...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...storalists for livestock grazing during summer. Since the late 1980’s, these pastures have been used for off season vegetables cultivation which leads to change the traditional mobile pastoral system. This study was carried out in Naran valley in 2015, to understand the agriculture land use changes during the past three decades and its impacts on traditional mobile pastoral system. For this purpose, participatory discu...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...2) (95.8%) infection. In greenhouse experiment, similar trend was found. L. muscarium proved to be more effective against M. hapla whereas S. rugosoannulata and C. rosea showed better results among other tested fungi in experiments. Moreover, plant growth parameters were also improved due to antagonistic relationship of fungi and nematodes in soil.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...ore interestingly, plant growth parameters including shoot and root were tremendously improved in L. muscarium treated plants than that of other treatments.

...

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

...dietary distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, meat quality and fatty acid composition of pork belly. A total of 50 gilts and 50 barrows (initial BW 26±6.3 kg) were randomly allotted to 2 diets including a corn-based control diet and control plus 9% DDGS. After 105 d administration of experimental diets, growth performance, pork quality traits, and fatty...

Muhammad Aslam

...ray current scenario of agricultural productivity through yields and gaps of five major crops; wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane. The review discusses major constraints, identifies future prospects and makes policy recommendations for enhanced agricultural productivity in Pakistan. The review revealed that in Pakistan, on average current yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane is 2.26, 1.87, 2.88, 1.77 and 4...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...icts (Vehari and Muzzafargrah), geographically located in the southern region of Punjab province of Pakistan. The study analyzed the significance of milk marketing cooperatives by revealing and evaluating possible returns to smallholders in dairy sector. The hypothesis that milk marketing cooperatives are beneficial for milk producers was tested by surveying the cooperatives’ members. Econometric techniques to draw inf...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...ated into four treatment groups namely WST-0, WST-I, WST-II and WST-III with three replication. Group WST-0 was kept as a control, while WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were treated with W. somnifera water based infusion @ 10, 20 and 30ml/lit respectively. The means were compared by using CRD as statistical model for analysis. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly improved. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly reduced in all treated

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

...ic effects on vegetative growth and flower quality of Zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jacq.) were examined during 2015 at the Horticulture orchard, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam in a three replicated RCBD design. The zinnia plants were grown under four photoperiodic treatments which included T1=Natural photoperiod (Control), T2=4 hours daylight (8 am -12 noon), T3=6 hours daylight (8 am &nd...

Tarun Kumar Sharma, John G. Bruno and William C. Cho

...industry is continuously growing to create space in research and diagnostics markets. However, translation of aptamer in several applied disciplines is still lagging behind as compared to antibodies. In this article, we discuss the translational aspects of aptamers, current potential of aptamers and strategies to create the “bench-to-bedside” translation of aptamer technology.

...

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...hich may be helpful for agriculture sustainability and food security.

...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

...t b gene. Morphology, geographical distribution and genetic data suggest the elevation of M. v. americanus to a full species Rufous-crowned Bee-eater M. americanus, supporting the latest taxonomic arrangement by IUCN.

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Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...ared to the APAP-treated group. Treatment with the combination of CUR and THQ was the most effective therapies in the attenuation of liver injury assessed by a decrease in ALT and ALP activities down-regulation of Bax and CD68 expressions. It was concluded that the combination strategy of THQ and/or CUR may be considered as a potential antidote in combating liver injury induced by APAP due to their antioxidant effects with fewer side effects compared to...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...ngs unemployment in the agriculture sector is likely to increase. There is a need to create off-farm employment opportunities. Agro based industries seems to potential area to generate employment opportunities. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs.

...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

... as well like population growth and the wealth effects that have been observed in Pakistan. These changes can affect the consumption pattern of the people, and hence result in the food demand shifts. The current study estimates for the presence of structural shifts in the demand for food in Pakistan for the selected food groups from the Household Integrated Economic Survey for the years198...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...o identify the socio-demographic risk factors contributing to increasing susceptibility to heroin addiction in Pakistani populations. In this epidemiological study subjects were interviewed through a comprehensive questionnaire consisting of open and closed-ended questions. Data regarding key factors such as age and ethnicity, communal domain, education level, employment status and demographic factors (drug route, drug dose)...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...resents a systematic integration of complex biological interactions of 226 mammary gland genes to uncover underlying regulatory networks. Data were collected from various databases after having an exhaustive literature study. Network, functional and pathway analysis of the mammary gland genes were performed to find mastitis resistant genes, which helped us to identify prime genes of mammary gland that are more resistant to mastitis, and analysis of those resis...

Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

...sential for sustainable agriculture. Soil organic carbon of three land uses viz. forest land, grassland, and cultivated land were quantified. These land uses belonged to two soil groups having different soil type and climate. Selected soil groups were Inceptisols (site 1) and Mollisols (site 2). Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density (BD), soil orga...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

...Gobiidae represented two groups: one large group consisted of Amblyopinae, Gobionellinae, Oxudercinae and Sicydiinae, and the other was the monophyletic Gobiinae. Phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated clade Amblyopinae included all three species and that O. lacepedii

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

...gned into 5 experimental groups (control group and 4 treatment groups) each including 16 and maintained individually in cages of 35 x 40 x 45 cm. The strongest correlations were found for egg weight-egg width (r=0.910, P<0.01), haugh unit-albumen index (r=0.876, P<0.01), egg weight-egg height (r=0.799, P<0.01), and egg shape index-egg height (r=0.693, P<0.01). ANOVA results rev...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

...y both on plants and the ground. Ant diversity in fire ant-infested plots was significantly reduced compared with in fire ant-free plots. Compared with in the no-ant plots, the colony growth rate of mealybug significantly increased, and the parasitism of mealybug was obviously decreased, both in fire ant-infested plots and in fire ant-free plots. Colony growth rate of mealybug in fire ant-...

Sadiq Hussain, Muhammad Sharif, Sarmad Khan, Fazli Wahid, Hina Nihar, Wiqar Ahmad, Imran Khan, Nadeem Haider and Tabassum Yaseen

...were isolated from fresh growing crop of berseem at the University research farm and used as inoculums in this experiment. Results showed the maximum grain yield of 15.09 and 14.7 g pot-1, highest total dry matter yield of 36.3 g and 36 g pot-1, maximum roots dry weight of 5.6 and 5.41g pot-1, hundred grains weight of 4.64 g and 4.6 g were observed for the mycorrhiza inoculation with half ...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

... using the Household Integrated Economic Survey of Pakistan for the year 2011-12. Food products are categorized into fourteen groups including milk, meat, fruits, vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food. Economic factors such as food commodities price and household’s income and their socio-economic and demo

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

...l data of House Hold Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) collected by Pakistan Bureau of Statistics to obtain the income and expenditure level of sampled House Hold. The HIES data set of year 2011-12 for KP Province was comprised of the total of 1352 sampled House Hold. However, the sampled rural House Hold was 926. The statistical framework comprised of Lorenz curve and Gini Coefficient to gauge the income inequality in the study area. To assess the income ineq...

Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

...f increase in imports is greater the rate of increase in exports and that is why Pakistan still faces the problem of trade deficit even after the implementation of WTO.

...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...creasing factors in our agro-ecosystem. Among many pest management approaches, biological control is considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has also been reported from different loc...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...r to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Their abuse results in various side effects on the human health, environment and agriculture. The occurrence of bacterial “suprainfection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimic...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

... were assessed. Sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, viability and chromatin integrity was higher (P<0.05) in extender containing melatonin 0.1 mM and 0.5 mM compared to control. In conclusion, the addition of melatonin 0.1-0.5 mM to extender improved the post-thaw quality of buffalo bull semen.

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Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...tal impact assessment programmes.

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Ambreena Hafiz1, Tanzeela Riaz2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*

...istant populations of T. granairum collected from wheat godowns of Gujranwala, Okara and D.G khan has been studied in current investigation. The toxicological data generated from deltamethrin-resistant populations was compared with deltamethrin-susceptible population that has not been exposed to any insecticide since thirteen years. From analysis of metabolic profile, it was found that soluble proteins, glucose contents and free amino acids increased, whereas ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...atode that affects plant growth and yield. We report on studies aimed to evaluate the effects of five nematophagous fungi on the population dynamics of this pest in sugar beets in laboratory and greenhouse trials. The fungi chosen were Arthrobotrys oligospora, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, and Lecanicillium muscarium. In the laboratory experiment, S. rugosoannulata proved to be the ...

Syeda Farzana Bibi*, Lal Badshah and Siraj-ud-Din

...f road sides and central green belt of Motorway (M-1) from Peshawar to Charsadda Interchange. A total of 30 different species ,which belong to 29 genera and 16 families, were recorded from the area.Poaceae was the most dominating family including 7 genera. Ecological characteristics like life form spectra indicated that Therophytes (53.33%) were the most dominating life form. Leaf size spectra showed that the most abundant leaf size was Microphyll (50%). This ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...ents were conducted in a greenhouse to determine the population dynamics of the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and the nematophagous fungus, Lecanicillium muscarium, on tomato. The nematode population densities were measured by determining the number of galls and egg masses, juveniles and eggs per root system, and reproduction factor. Four initial populations (Pi) (500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 eggs) mixed with antagonistic fungal conidia levels (1&tim...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...h soil application under greenhouse conditions. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in the number of galls and egg masses, eggs and juveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infestation significantly (P=0.05) in soil compared to the control, but there was no significant difference (P=0.05) among ...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

...erated longitudinal bone growth at puberty or pubertal growth spurt has been ascribed to reciprocated physiological influences of both somatotropic and gonadal axes, manifested as higher secretion of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (T). GH and T affect linear growth velocity (LGV) directly through stimulation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Further...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria mellonella was observed with White traps than with modified Baermann trays. Maximum juveniles of S. feltiae emerged at 50 IJ dose followed by 100 IJ. The emergence of IJ decreased significantly at the dose of 200 IJ and then increased with 400 IJ dose. The minimum number of juveniles emerged at the dose of 200 IJ. The relationship between inoculation dose and emergence of IJ by using ...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

... that support Leptospira growth, (ii) animal and human seasonal public health burden of Leptospirosis, (iii) seasonal variation in the distribution of Leptospira determinants in a slum setting, and (iv) a simulation model based on an ecological metapopulation framework to track Leptospira bacterial population dynamics in biotic and abiotic habitats in a slum setting. This is the first study in Kenya to describe the role of temporal dynamics of multihost commun...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

...mated using the phase program. Haplotypes combinations constructed on these two SNPs of HTT gene were associated with some reproduction traits. In particular, diplotype H1H1 had positive effect on reproduction traits, diplotype H2H4 had negative effect of reproduction traits. In conclusion, our study showed that polymorphisms of the HTT gene were significantly associated with egg production traits in two Anhui local chicken breeds, but the suggestions that HTT...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...ide family which effects growth, development and metabolism. In this study, full-length of one type of SS cDNA from C. nasus was synthesized, cloned and sequenced. This SS cDNA encodes a protein with 114 amino acids that contains the SS14 sequence at its C-terminus. This putative peptide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus SS1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which ...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...ong classification and regression trees (CART), chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID), radial basis function (RBF) networks and multilayer perceptrons with one (MLP1) and two (MLP2) hidden layers in body weight (BW) prediction from selected body measurements in the indigenous Beetal goat of Pakistan. Moreover, the results obtained with the data mining algorithms were compared with multiple linear regression (MR)....

Süleyman Kök1*, Sertaç Atalay1, Hasan Semih Eken2 and Mustafa Savaşçi3

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

...ermination, enhance root growth and soil fertility.

...

Sania Subhan Qureshi, Mian Saeed Sarwar and Zahir Shah

...ital, The University of Agriculture Peshawar. Physical examination was performed and it was diagnosed a case of muscle tumor (myoma). A skin incision was given to expose and to remove tumor mass from the surrounding tissues. Peritoneum, muscle and subcutaneous tissues were sutured with absorbable suture (vicryl; polyglactin 910) and skin with a non-absorbable suture (silk). Owner was advised for daily check-up for any damage to the stitches and for regular dre...

Wenmin Cheng1,2*, Weirong Pan1,2, Yubo Qing1, Yingchao Liu1, Xingqin Zha1,2, Yan Huang2, Jige Xin1,2, Hongjiang Wei1 and Yangzhi Zeng2

...pm and 1000 ng/μL PGA groups were higher than those of other groups. Moreover, the blastocyst rate was highest in injection 560 ng/μL Npm group and was lowest in injection 100 ng/μL PGA group. These data suggested that addition of recombinant Npm obtained by prokaryotic expression or PGA could improve the development of SCNT embryos in the BMI.<...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...t and exacerbates the progression of secondary infections. This review gives an overview of the known immunosuppressive strategies of PPRV, among the Paramyxoviruses, as well as the strategies developed by this virus to evade the immune system, focusing on the newly identified factors involved. In the last years substantial progress has been reported in the identification of viral factors involved in the host immunosuppressi...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

... fin sea bream (Acanthopagrus berda), grunts (Pomadasys hasta), croaker (Otolithus ruber), silver sillago (Sillago sihama), sea perch (Lates calcarifer) and jaw fish (Johnius goma). In majority of processing units, traditional methods were applied causing quality problem. Finally, it was concluded that quality of fish meal and production in our region is suitable for fish feed formulation. But the processing technique should...

Sabri Unal1, ASır Er2, Erol Akkuzu1* and Lubomir Salek3

...as increased with the progress of the larval instars up to the fourth which was the most voracious.

...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...domly divided into three groups as follows: group (I) control group (lupus uninfected); group (II) live P. chabaudi infected group (lupus + live P. chabaudi infection); and group (III) irradiated P. chabaudi-infected group (lupus + irradiated P. ch...

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...t not only improved fish growth and health but also enhanced egg fecundity, gonadal development and spawning.

...

Tasnim Farasat*, Saima Sharif, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muneeza Zafar and Shagufta Naz

...; 0.05) in proliferative group of diabetic retinopathy, while triglyceride level, HbA1c (%), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were non-significantly higher (p> 0.05) in diabetic retinopathy groups. To conclude high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was observed among newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

...

Dallin D. Oaks and Cynthia L. Hallen

...rucial implications that grow from these metaphors. The discussion considers the relationship of these metaphors to such matters as an open canon of scripture, the relationship of grace and works, the doctrine of the eternal progression of human beings, and the vital nature of covenants. As part of the discussion, the metaphor of restoration is identified as the overarching Mormon metaphor...

Imed Ben Salem*, Aymen Ben Ibrahim, M’barek Chetoui and Said Nouira

...arbarus, L. bellieri, L. griselda, L. limulus, L. macculus, L. rosalia, L. striatus and L. zebra; which have practically similar external morphologies although they spread in completely different geographical areas. The approach adopted was to identify landmarks on the skulls of all specimens using the tpsDig software, and then analyzing them through the program MorphoJ. Our results show t...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...Phenacoccus solenopsis), grain moth eggs (Sitotroga cerealella) and honey. Results revealed complete development of all larval stages on all diets with maximum survival of lady bird beetle larvae on mustard aphid (76.6%) followed by on grain moth’s eggs (20%), immature mealybugs (6%) and the least survival on honey. These findings can lead to the discovery of new artificial diets for the C. undecimpunctata for the mass...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

Atta ur Rehman1, Sher Ali2 and Sajid Malik2*

...attention due to the demographic transitions caused by recurrent displacements, fragmentation and migrations. In order to observe the genetic differentiation in lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) region, ABO and Rh blood groups record of nine Pashtun populations, i.e., Bannu, Dera Ismail Khan, Hangu, Karak, Kohat, Kurram Agency, Lakki Marwat, South Waziristan Agency, and Tank, was collected. A...

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...ales (in current studied group). The age group 31-40 years, was found to be more susceptible for this infection.

...

John G. Bruno

...od samples, leading to a greater ability to detect these serotypes if coupled with genetic identification techniques such as PCR or gene probe hybridization.

...

Dein Simon

...larities between the two groups. In this paper I analyse new atheism in terms of fundamentalist characteristics discussed by the Fundamentalism Project: Reactivity, dualism, absolutism and inerrancy, apocalypticism. Additionally both underscore the role of evidentialism. From my analysis of these characteristics I conclude that the movement is fundamentalist

...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

...riment was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan in randomized complete block design having three replications during 2013-2014. The treatments comprised of wheat + Rumex dentatus 0 plants m-2 (T1), wheat + Rumex dentatus 05 plants m-2 (T2), wheat + Rumex dentatus 10 plants m-2 (T3), wheat + Rumex dentatus 15 plants m-2 (T4), wheat + Rumex dentatus 20 plants m-2 (T5)...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

...respectively. Results of growth kinetics in PBMCs showed that V3 replicated more efficiently comparing to RSF/1 at all-time points. Further, strain V3 induced significant up-regulation of IL-1b and IL-6 at 24 hours post infections (hpi) comparing to RSF/1. However, both strains induced significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-8 at 1 and 3hpi and interferon (IFN)-α late 24 and 48hpi. Altogether, our results suggest that the concurrent up-regulation ...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 2013-14. Adsorption procedure was done by harmonizing 2.5g soil in 0.01M CaCl2 solution having diverse B doses (0, 0.01, 0.03 , 0.05 , 0.07, 0.09, 0.11, 0.13,0.15 and 0.17 mg B L-1). Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were applied to the data to check the sorption of B on sandy clay loam soil. Freundlich model depicted superior fitness of the sorption (r2=0.99) statistics than Langmuir model (r2=0....

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...M was highest in the age group 41-50 years, 5 (5.81%); females, 8 (4.85%); students (14.21%); and CD4+ 350-500 cells/µl, 4 (36.36%). The multivariate analysis using age and the CD4 count showed highest prevalence (27.27%) among the age ranging from 41 to 50 years with the CD4+ count of 350- 500cells/µl. The result from this study highlight that EBV IgM is prevalent among individuals infected with HIV in Nigeria and may warrant future investigations...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...aluate its effect on the growth performance of Nile tilapia over a period of 10 weeks. Inclusion of AFB1 at both 2 and 4 ppm levels significantly (p<0.05) decreased specific growth rate (SGR), net weight gain (NWG), average daily gain (ADG), survival, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the additio...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

...monly used pesticide in agriculture for pest control in Nigeria. This study investigated the effects of aluminium phosphide on the behaviour, haematology, oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemistry of African catfish (C. gariepinus) juvenile on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were exposed to 0.175, 0.0875 and 0.035 mg/L corresponding to 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50 of the 96 h LC50 value (1.75) of the pesticide. Behavioral responses which include colouration of the fish ...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

...of convict cichlid (A. nigrofasciata) were described. In order to reveal the main histological construction, transverse sections of different parts of intestine were firstly stained with hematoxylin eosin (H-E). Sections of anterior, mid and posterior intestinal segments were also treated with different staining methods of alcian blue (AB) at pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin (AF), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), KOH/PAS and PAS/AB (pH 2.5) and investigated. Goblet cells o...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

...of convict cichlid (A. nigrofasciata) were described. In order to reveal the main histological construction, transverse sections of different parts of intestine were firstly stained with hematoxylin eosin (H-E). Sections of anterior, mid and posterior intestinal segments were also treated with different staining methods of alcian blue (AB) at pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin (AF), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), KOH/PAS and PAS/AB (pH 2.5) and investigated. Goblet cells o...

Ibrar Khan1,2,3,*, Sadia Qayyum2, Shehzad Ahmed2, Kashif Syed Haleem2, Mujaddad-ur-Rehman1, Guang-Lei Liu3 and Zhen-Ming Chi3

...economically significant group of marine micro-fungi family. The study comprised isolation, microscopic observations and ribotyping, allowed discrimination of the marine fungal isolates as Penicillium viticola F1, Penicillium restrictum F2, Penicillium rubens F8, Penicillium implicatum F10, Penicillium piceum F11, Penicillium oxalicum F12, Penicillium sumatrense F15, and Penicillium vinaceum F16. This study demonstrated that Yellow Sea can be considered as a v...

Asmaa Hamid1,* and Samia Kalsoom2

...domly divided into seven groups, each of six rats. One group comprised of normal rats fed on basic purified diet AIN-76-A, three groups were alloxan induced diabetic rats which were fed basic purified diet AIN-76-A, Kabuli chickpea HFD and Bengal gram HFD and were monitored for random blood glucose and weight for a period of six weeks. Another three

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

...SNAF showed an effective growth reduction of S. aureus RP isolate, compared with other bacteriophages. The bacterial challenge test in milk indicated that proliferation of S. aureus was successfully ceased until six hours post infection when applied at and MOI of 100.

...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...Areas each from the two Agricultural Development Programme administrative zones (Zones C and D) in Kwara State where fish farming is prominent and well-practiced was carried out. Forty fish farmers were then randomly selected from the fish farmers’ association chapter present in each selected Local Government Area. Interview-schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. The findings revealed that the fi...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

...t a visual assessment of growth as a function of time and predict body weight at a specific age. We investigated the growth characteristics of Colored Mohair goat using four nonlinear growth models. Thirty (n=22 males and n=8 females) Colored Mohair kids were used. The kids were weighed at 2-week intervals from birth to 150 days. The Monomolecular, Gompertz, Richards and Three Parameter Lo...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...may play some role in progression and pathogenesis of RA. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene polymorphism [rs2070424 (–251A/G)] in RA and to compare the levels of metals and minerals among its various genotypes in RA patients. A total of 400 individuals including age and gender matched healthy individuals (control group) and RA patients were genotyped. Detectio...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...g level and frequency on growth performance, nutrient utilization and body composition of juvenile black fin sea bream, Acanthopagrus berda (weight 23.5g−125.8 g) were investigated. Fish were randomly distributed in rectangular glass tanks (150 liter) and were fed at six ration levels of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0,3.5, 4.0 and 4.5% body weight per day (BW d−1) and four feeding frequency i.e., once, twice, thrice and four time...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...plant extracts exhibited greater antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition exhibited by methanolic extracts of S. aromaticum was 10 mm and 20 mm in mono and mixed culture bacterial isolates, respectively. The findings from this study warrant further research to help to establish an alternative anti-infective phytotherapeutical approach to control antibiotic-resistant microbial strains in the food industry.

...

Bin Wang, Bo Zhang, Nan Yang, Liang Dou and Jianghong Ran*

...social structure and demography of this species, however, have not been examined in natural populations. To determine if cooperative breeding occurs in populations unassociated with humans, we surveyed two natural populations in the Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in western China. We compared the demography of the natural populations with that of the habituated population. The results showed that facultative cooperative...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

...aluate the repellent and growth inhibitory efficiency of five plant extracts (Azadirachta indica, Melia azadirach, Pegnum hermala, baryosma and Zingiber officinale) and three synthetic pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on three geographical populations of Callosobruchus chinensis collected during 2013 from Faisalabad, Multan and Nankana districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Three concentrations of each plant ...

Muhammad Saeed* and Iftikhar Hussain Khalil

...portant traits including grain yield plant-1 which can be subsequently utilized in future wheat breeding to develop high yielding new wheat cultivars from transgressive segregants recovered in latter generations.

...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...uation of intrinsic (age groups and sex) and extrinsic factors (season fluctuation) clearly indicated the occurrence of previous outbreaks of PPR virus due to persistency of virus in endemic regions.

...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...trient cycling and plant growth. However, information regarding its co-application with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on enhancing spinach yield is scarce. A pot experiment was conducted at Gomal University D.I. Khan, Pakistan, during 2009-10 to study the changes in soil fertility and spinach growth after the application of EM with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. The six treatments were; control (T0), 10 t...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...is show that dry fodder, green fodder and daily labor hours have positive significant effect on milk production, while herd size has negative significant effect. Furthermore, the addition of estimated coefficients is less than 1, indicating a decreasing return to scale in milk production. These results suggest that small sized dairy farms are more productive and profitable; however, farmers need to utilize each input at its allocatively efficient level in orde...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...m 70 off-season cucumber growers by using simple random sampling. Cobb-Douglas was good on the basis of R2 (0.748) and f-statistics (17.505). Production elasticity was positive for education, polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemical, irrigation and labour days. Under utilization of resources was found for polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemicals, irrigation and labour days. Over utilization of resources was observed for seed quantity and use of tractor. There exi...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...d rusts. To evaluate the grain yield and related yield components of synthetic derived bread wheat lines under different moisture levels, this research was conducted during 2006-07 in the field conditions of Tel Hadya and Breda i.e. the leading research venues of International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria. The experimental material comprised of forty synthetic derived wheat lines along wi...

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...rvices and share of non-agricultural income. By increasing 1 percent in these parameters will increase the probability for adoption of sunflower. Keeping in view the importance of this crop it is suggested to provide market structure for sunflower growers near to their field areas and Research efforts should be made to overcome the problems faced by sunflower growers.

...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...le size of 303 sugarcane growers was formally interviewed for crop season 2014-15 through a pretested questioners prepared on the bases of objectives of the study. Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA) was employed for data analysis using computer software STATA. Result illustrates that technical efficiency of sugarcane crop for the period under study in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa ranges from minimum 0.47 to maximum 0.98 with mean value of 0.84 percent. This mean that wi...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...yzed in ARC GIS 10.1. Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based set of procedures used to store and analyze geographically-referenced data. Primary data about crop yield and per acre production, new seed and crop varieties etc. was collected with the help of a questionnaire survey. A total of 50 household were surveyed which make 45 percent of the total (114 households). The analysis of acquired data reveals th...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...nitiation of breeding program in the country. A site near Bagh district (Arja) Azad Kashmir was found suitable and used for morphological evaluation, phenotypic diversity analysis and their flowering behavior sugarcane under local conditions. Two year data revealed that genotype HSF-242 showed maximum mean values for, internodes length, brix percentage and reducing sugar while S-08-FSD-19 showed maximum values for number of tillers and stem girth, whereas S-05...

Sheraz Ahmad Khan and Ghulam Hassan

...lers, spike length, 1000-grain weight and grains per spike. These results suggest that all the traits showing significant correlation with grain yield needs better attention in future wheat breeding programs for increasing yield.

...

Muhammad Aslam Shahid, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Niamatullah

...le in fruit setting .The growers pollinate the date by using low potency pollen source and get low yield. Present studies were conducted with the aim to explore best pollen sources for maximum fruit set and yield. In this respect, an experiment was conducted during 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the male spath characteristics and to observe the effect of pollen sources on fruit set, yield and physico-chemical characteristics of Dhakki date palm. Data were recorded ...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...puts in terms of their degree of changes in cotton-melon output to change inputs reflected by the allocative efficiency analysis. It is indispensable that policies aimed at adapting innovative farming techniques must be implemented in an efficient manner. Effectively implementation of agricultural schemes, formal education and in-formal education should be realized. During and after conducting the ag...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...ely. F2 and F3 increased grain and straw yield compare to F1. In the case of maize, DT increased grain yield by 53%, 20% and 15%, over ST, STR and DTR, respectively. Deep tillage showed statistically higher water use efficiency (WUE) of 4.56 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.02 kg ha-1 mm-1 for both wheat and maize, respectively. However, similar WUE of wheat and maize was recorded for F2 and F3. Soi...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...n the province the maize growers are always in need of loan for the purchase of inputs. The present study examined the effect of ZTBL credit program on maize productivity in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For this, a sample of 226 farmers was selected by employing multi stage sampling technique. At first stage, all the three tehsils (i.e.; Mardan, Takht Bhai and Katlang) of the district were selected. At se...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...tion). The A. flavus was grown on two different media, i.e. Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and Glucose Nutrient Broth (GNB) media for active secondary metabolites. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of PDB medium gave significant results against selected phytopathogens compared to GNB medium and selected for further study. Crude (1 µg.mL-1 ) obtained from PDB medium showed 2.50 ± 0.64 mm and 1.97 ± 0.21 mm inhibition zone against X. campestris and ...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...astating impact on plant growth. Heat shock transcription factors are known to play an important role in regulating heat stress in plants. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) was transformed with heat shock transcription factor HsfA1d by transfecting leaf discs with Agrobacterium strain GV3101 carrying CaMV35S-YFP::HsfA1d construct. After PCR and confocal-based confirmation, HsfA1d overexpression lines (OX1, OX2 and OX3) were e...

Ibni Amin Khalil* and Raziuddin

...al in future breeding programs. Overall the biplot approach was found much cooperative in elaborating the genetic parameters of the data on the basis of its high explanatory aptitude and graphical demonstration.

...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...e categorized into three groups i.e. small, medium and large. For analysing the data, descriptive statistics and gross margin were used. The average total cost of small poultry farm was Rs. 3,10,067 per flock while that of medium and large farms were Rs. 4,99,002 and Rs.7,34,290 respectively. The highest cost was estimated for feed followed by chicks cost. The average gross margin of small...
Yusuf Koc1, Ecevit Eyduran1* and Omer Akbulut2
...ustive CHAID, and CART regression tree methods for different combinations of parent node: child node in the data set regarding animal science. To achieve the aim, 1884 Mengali lambs were provided for predicting weaning weight from sex (male and female), birth type (single and twin), birth year (2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009), farm (Research station, Mastung, Quetta, and Noshki), birth weight, dam age, and dam weight. To choice the best re
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
...tedfrom three different agroecological zones of Pakistan. Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium solani, Fusarium incarnatum and Fusarium sp. along with other fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as genetically by amplifying internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). Variability among Fusarium species based on ITS showed that it is not enough to score diversity within species and isolates. Additionally pathogenic...
Wan-Long Zhu1 and Guang Yang2,*
...etween short photoperiod group and long photoperiod group, and serum leptin levels showed a positive correlation with body fat mass. Hypothalamic neuropeptide NPY, AgRP, POMC and CART expressions had no significant differences between two groups. Leptin was negatively correlated with NPY expression, but not correlated with CART, POMC and AgRP expressions. All of the results suggested that ...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6
... varying dietary oils on growth, nutrient utilization and body composition of juvenile black fin sea bream Acanthopagrus berda was investigated. Fish juvenile (10.1±0.5 g) were collected from Sonari Channel, Hawksbay, Karachi and were brought to aquaculture laboratory of the Centre for 15 days acclimatization. After acclimatization, they were randomly distributed into the rectangular tanks (3 × 1.5 ×...
Muge Aliye Hekimoglu*, Kgrşat Fırat, Şahin Saka, Cüney Suzer, Aysun Kop and Yaşar Durmaz
...iprion frenatus. Two groups, each of 6 fish were fed on feed containing (69.8±9.158 mg.g-1) N. oculata (Group A), and 67.21±7.068 mg.g-1 of P. cruentum (Group B). The third group (Group C) was fed on control basal diet (34.93±29.07 mg.g-1). Total carotenoid content of fish skin was determined at30-day intervals. At the end of the experiment the highest w...
Ahmad Kamran Khan1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1,*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Nazir Javed2
...n to be the most diverse group of predatory mites within soil ecosystems, involved in maintaining the soil health. Biodiversity of Mesostigmata can be used to access the soil health within a geographical region. Family richness, diversity, abundance and evenness of soil inhabiting Mesostigmata mites in cultivated and undisturbed soil were estimated from five different localities of Punjab, Pakistan in 2014. Family richness, ...
Irshad Ahmad
...l purposes. It is widely grown on farmlands in Northern Areas of Pakistan, where it is a cash crop ranked third in value of exports after onion and tomato. It is attacked by a number of insect pests including walnut borer (Zeuzera coffeae Nietner) that adversely affects the yield and quality of the fruit and wood. This study describes the life cycle of the pest, the nature and extent of damage done to walnut, and the preventive measures applied under in...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...ntification using an integrative taxonomic approach that combines morphology and molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. Adult P. websteri exhibit a high degree of morphological plasticity in the palp pigmentation pattern, the shape of the anterior edge of the prostomium, the shape of the major spines on chaetiger 5, and the shape of the pygidium. The COI gene sequence demons...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...hou big ear goat, Jining grey goat, Dazu black goat) and three low fecundity goats (Boer goat, Nubian goat, Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat). The results revealed a high diversity of those markers in the goat populations. The population structure did not diverge significantly between high fecundity goats and low fecundity populations, but it followed the agro-ecological zone and management history. This indicated that the frequ...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Ghulam Sarwar1, Waqar Ahmad1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1, Ammara Balouch1 and Muhammad Khalid Rafique1
... March 2015 at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Twenty five honeybee colonies were used which had similar number of worker bees, brood and stored food. In order to study the foraging activity of honeybees in the field condition, the number of pollen foragers returning to the hive entrance was recorded for 10 min duration on hourly basis between 0800 h to 1600 h for 3 days per week. The data was collected at 0800–1000 hours (early morning...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...evere consequences and a growing transboundary potential. The disease is caused by ASF virus (ASFV), the only DNA virus with an arthropod vector of the genus Ornithodoros, involved in its transmission. Tick involvement has been reported in Europe, East and Southern Africa to be part of ASFV transmission cycles. Ticks in an ASFV infected area have been reported to influence the emergence of genetic variation and long-term persistence of the virus in an area. Si...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...ntation of biocontrol program for the suppression of pyralid pest insects damaging different agricultural crops of economic importance.
...
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
...r for future breeding program.
...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...ated negative allometric growth in male, female, and combined sexes (b < 3.00, p < 0.001). All LLRs were highly significant (p < 0.001), with coefficients of determination (r2) values exceeded 0.98. Among the condition factors, KF is the best index for assessing the well-being of this species in the Ganges River. The WR was not significantly different from 100 for males (p
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...e for 15 years) of wheat grain pest, Trogoderma granarium collected from various storage facilities of Punjab, Pakistan viz., Mandi Bahauddin-I, Mandi Bahauddin-II, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sargodha. The activities of all esterases tested were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations when compared with phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th<...
Mehmet Cilbiz1* and F. Banu Yalim2
...justify;">In this study, growth parameters (i.e. condition factor, length-weight relationship, K, L, to), mortality rate (Z, M, and F), recruitment pattern and yield were investigated for Oncorhynchus mykiss in Karacaören I Dam Lake. Fish were collected on monthly basis between July, 2013 and June, 2014. Growth parameters were analyzed by ELEFAN with monthly length–frequency data. The b...
Yaoguo Li1,2 and Maoxian He1
...me methylation level and growth traits inpearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata). The incidence of type II locus (hemi-methylation locus) was significantly correlated with the shell height and the shell length, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.204 and 0.233, separately. The incidence of type IV locus (super methylated locus) on the other hand was significantly correlated with the shell length, with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...on by contaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mosseae (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) were applied as protective treatment. The roots of eggplant were inoculated with 1000 se...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
... milking per day. Antibiogram of Staph. aureus indicated very strong resistance to oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicilline, amoxicillin, azlocine, chloramphenicol, mupirocin, vancomycin, cefixinme, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. In contrast to this sulphaphenazole, gentamicin, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive. Piperacillin, Tazabactam and cinxacin were moderately effective against Staph. aureus. The concluded remarks of research staged ...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...;">In the present study, growth potential of juvenile black fin sea bream, Acanthopagrus berda was examined in brackish water ponds. Fish were stocked @ 1500 individuals per pond (2 treated and 2 control) of approximate dimensions, 13.72 m × 10.97 m × 1.52 m (229 m3). In treated ponds, fish were fed with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in t...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

... accurately recorded pedigree for several generations however, this is really useful firsthand information.
...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
... of different pollinator groups with crop yield. Apple is dependent on insect pollinators to set fruit. Farmers in Pakistan are generally not aware of pollination needs of apple. Results depicted a high population decline of Syrphids and Non-Apis bees. Syrphids were recorded as 12.65 to 13.85 per 250 flowers in 2013 but decreased in year 2014 by 7.82 to 7.88 per 250 flowers and Non-Apis bees was recorded as 6.15 to 7.59 per 250 flowers in 2013 which also decre...
Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
...andomly divided into two groups the inhibitor group (experimental) and the control group, reach of 10 pikas. The pikas of experimental group were injected with 1 mL of 1 mol/L N-isopropyl oxamate, a specific LDH-C4 inhibitor, in biceps femoris muscle of hind legs, each leg with 500 μL. The pikas of control gr...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
...NDF), The University of Agriculture-Peshawar, (34.01° N, 71.53° E)Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan during spring and fall 2012 and 2013. Objectives of current trial were to assess visitation pattern of Apis mellifera and A. florea and to examine their influence on yield increase as well as on oil contents of sunflower seed. Frequent visitations of A. mellifera observed at 1200 noon, where 29 individuals of bee visitors were found on sun...
Nagwan F. Zahran, Ali F. Hamza and Rehab M. Sayed* 
...xt-align: justify;">Full grown male pupae of the peach or guava fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata were irradiated with sterilizing and substerilizing doses of gamma radiation. The effect of gamma rays on the DNA patterns of adult males showed alterations from the control. Exposure to radiation caused very frequently the appearance of some extra bands and the deficiency of others in the RAPD-PCR amplification patterns of the irradiated insects. 
...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
...alassemia syndrome are a group of hereditary blood disorders in which or absent beta globin chain synthesis, results in reduced Hemoglobin, decreased RBC production and anemia. Total 300 individuals were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender i.e ≤13 years females, >13 years females, ≤13 years and >13 years males. Height in centimeter, weight in kilogram was m...
Fermín Lopez-Uriostegui1, Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox2,*, Fabiola Lango-Reynoso1, María del Refugio Castañeda-Chavez1, Virgilio Eugenio Arenas-Fuentes3 and Fernando Vega-Villasante4
... repletion index was greatest during the day and M. americanum in the night.
...
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...5 mature amphistomes and gravid eggs with traditional microscopic methods on the basis of standardized measurements. Amphistomes were flattened and stained in Borax carmine, some were sectioned in the median sagittal plane and histological slides of the worms were prepared for detailed morphological studies. Bile tissues, aspirates and blood samples of the same animals were analysed. The infection was found prevalent throughout the year but during post monsoon...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in plants against viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in triggering the antiviral resistance in plants. Antiviral RNA silencing, R-gene mediated resistance and host factor related recessive resistance are categorized as most beneficial plant defense approaches used by plants. The review also briefly explains about intro
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...distance, home range and group characteristics of scaly-sided merganser Mergus squamatus in Yihuang and Wuyuan counties, Jiangxi Province, China, from December 2012 to March 2013 and December 2015 to March 2016. Results showed that the daily travel distance of scaly-sided merganser was 3100 ± 1313 m; the daily home range was 122,460 ± 42,019 m2; and the overall home range was 202,350 m2 during the wintering period. No...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...rium. Through logistic regression analysis, it was observed that, in Tamil population the CC and CT genotype carriers have higher odds of developing myocardial infarction (OR – 1.64 and  2.04 respectively) and for developing hypercholesterolemia (OR – 2.02 and 2.13 respectively). In the total population, the CC genotype carriers have significantly lower HDL-C (0.82 ± 0.04 mmol/L Vs, 0.9 ± 0.05 mmol/L (p<0.05)) and higher LDL-C...
Zafar Iqbal1* and Muhammad Khurshid2 
...e primers. ToLCNDV is geographically wide spread Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae), considered as a close relative of TYLCV, and cause severe losses for many economical important crops in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This is the first report of the use of heterologous polyclonal antibodies (PAbs), raised against a geographically distinct begomovirus, ToLCNDV. The described results have shown to exhibit a m...
Hui Zhang2, Yajing Wang2, Kun Li2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Rui Gui2, Yanfang Lan2 and Houqiang Luo1,2
...ymphoid leukosis virussubgroup A (ALV-A) infection in free-range chickens in five different cities of Anhui province, a total of 732 serum samples were analyzed through enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in 2015 and 2016. The diagnosis of avian leukosis virus subgroup A (ALV-A) infection was confirmed by necropsy, histopathological examinations and PCR analysis. The results showed, 20 chickens as positive for ALV-A (...
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...ity of Saudi Arabia. Demographic data was recorded. Specific Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM were detected in serum by ELISA method. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected using PCR. Most women were in the 20-29 years age group (48%), followed by 30-39 years (33%) and >40 years (14%). Overall prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG was seen in 12%, with significantly more in women with age more than 30 years as...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...hly important antibiotic group (Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Trimethoprim sulfa methoxazole and Chloramphenicol) and showed dissimilar pattern of resistance to critical important antibiotic group. Salmonella isolates showed antibiotic resistance to Nalidixic acid (100%) and Nitrofurantoin (42.9%). Strict biosecurity measures are required to reduce the incidence of mixed bacterial infection and subsequently reduce the spread of...

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

...Sciences, University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan. The surgery was performed under paravertebral anesthesia at T13, L1-3 using xylocaine 2% in standing position after proper sedation. The operated site was prepared for aseptic surgical procedure. A vertical incision was given in middle of the left flank region. Twin fetuses (one male and female) were surgically removed with care to avoid proliferation of uterine contents into the peritoneal cavity. Penicil...

Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul M. Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa, Khurram Ziaf, Irfan Afzal and Muhammad Qasim

...commercially used by the growers for early, uniform and healthy nursery stand of the tested species, which can ensure uniform maturity and flower harvesting of ornamentals.

...

 Sheraz Ahmed and Fida Mohammad

... any crop improvement program. One hundred recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from four F4 populations of Flue Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco were tested to identify effective selection indices. Experimental material was planted at two locations i.e. Mardan (E-1, E-3 and E-5) and Mansehra (E-2, E-4 and E-6) using alpha lattice design with three replicates during 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15. Heritability in broad sense was generally low for all traits exce...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...cky (17.7%), S. Schwarzengrund and S. Havana had the lowest isolation rate (11.8%). S. Llandoff was isolated in all the matrices and was distributed across the three LBM whereas the other less frequent serovars had a more circumscribed distribution. Resistance to Methicillin, Penicillin, Erythromycin and Oxacillin was 100% for all the serotypes while Gentamicin had the lowest resistance (5.9%).This is one of few studies on the occurrence and antimicrobial resi...
Abdul Malik1,4, Ghulam Abbas1*, Hameeda Kalhoro2, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Syed Sajjad A. Shah4 and Halima Kalhoro3 
...ed eggs were found to be greater in number at low salinity level as compared to higher salinity level. Survival of fry ranged from 1058 to 1100 at salinity level of 0‰ – 20‰ with 5% increment, after which fry number decreased significantly (P<0.05). The fertilized eggs did not differ for the fish at salinity of 0‰ –20‰, but decreased significantly when salinity levels were increased above 25‰. Water quality par...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...ded into eight treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks. Six treatments were three herbs i.e. Allium sativum, Cassia angustifolia and Artemisia scoparia @ 0.5 and 1.0% respectively, control (basal diet), and a positive control (Oxyfeed® @ 2g/kg). In the study, the treatment groups, which were given diet supplemented with herb and antibiotic, exhibited improved weight gain...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...econd cutting had better growth compared to the first cutting, so that the plant produced the highest fresh and dry yield in the second cutting. However, weed non-interference increased the levels of superior morphological traits of alfalfa, such as fresh and dry yield, plant height, and number of leaves per plant, number of main-stem nodes, leaf area and percentage of vegetation cover as well as increased the nutritional value of alfalfa in terms of nutrient ...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
...val and development of a gregarious ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The number of adults, sex ratio and size of emerging adults were recorded. Smaller and larger host species were used to determine the survival potential of the wasp. It was observed that maximum number of adult wasps emerged from the hosts G. mellonlla (95 ±2.30 (se) and S. litura (81 ±1.15 (se)) by placing the lowest number of...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...g importance as pests of green forest in addition to shade trees, shrubs, and pink wood products as well as vectors of tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packing substances have been remarkable tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against disturbances, for instance fires in addition to windstorms, and start the bio-worsening of woody tissue. The females la...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...cinated and unvaccinated groups, there were 13 and 17 up- and down-regulated DEGs (2-fold; FDR < 0.05; P < 0.001), respectively, in PBMC of PEDV. Most of significant DEGs were involved in multiple cellular processes of cell growth and immune system. Thus, results from our current study indicate that DEG analysis of RNA-seq data help us better understand the precise mechanisms of PEDV in pig PBMC. 
...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...itivity was found in age group of 16-25 rather than teenage (≤16) and older age group (≥50). From the result of this febrile illness study we concluded that males and young people are more susceptible to Dengue virus infection. Moreover serotype-2 was the main causative serotype of the 2013 outbreak of dengue fever.
...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...andomly divided into six groups (20 birds in each) were coded A, B, C, D, E and F; vaccinated with various combinations of IBD through different routes. Results showed that the birds of different groups received different maternal antibodies did not induce any antibodies as recorded in all groups received vaccines at days 1, 9 or 12 exhibited similar pattern antibody profiles, however, an ...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...inea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) from Dera Ismail Khan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province.
...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1
...ed and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D), each comprising of 20 birds. Group A and B were treated with Ivermectin @ 0.2mg/Kg orally for two days and Fipronil (Spray at once), respectively. Group C was kept as positive control whereas the ticks free birds were kept in group D. The results showed the significant decrease (p<0.001) in tick’s count in both the groups (A and B) ...
Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Shahid Munir2 and Irfan Ahmed2
...y of coumatetralyl maize grain bait (0.0375%) against wild boar population in Fatima Jinnah Park, Islamabad. A total of 1838 kg bait was applied at 32 bait points, out of which 1627 kg was consumed by wild boars during 17 nights. The consumption of bait increased asymptotically and attained peak on the 7th night. The bait in-take, external and internal pathological symptoms were similar as has been described for warfarin and brodifacoum. The bleedin...

Habib Ullah Khan1*, Saleem Ullah1, Hamid Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Arif2

...erals in mg/kg indicated greatest variation in Fe from 2.759 to 5.358, Mn from 0.324 to 0.73, Na from.9 to 11.9 and K from 8.60 to 15.30 while other minerals like Cu, Zn, P, Pb and Ni showed moderate variability. It was concluded that acid base treatment of the wood coal resulted in pH, EC and minerals changes which might have good or bad effect on plants grown in those soils.

...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...nt storage containers on growth, yield and quality of cotton genotypes. The experiment was conducted between July, 2010 to February, 2011 at Cotton Research, Training and Seed Multiplication Farm, Sreepur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Significant variations related to genotypes and seed sources were observed for stand establishment, branch development, phenology, yield components, yield and fiber quality attributes of cotton. Yield and quality of cotton were significa...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...="text-align: justify;">Agricultural Mechanization in the present era led to drastic changes in the transformation of agriculture to produce more farm commodities in shortest possible time with minimum inputs. Agriculture is the pivotal source of producing food crops including dairy, fruit cultivation, poultry, bee keeping and edible and non-edible like forestry products etc. An A

Waqar Islam

...tropical conditions. Integrated management approaches involving utilization of virus resistant crops and efficient management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are rarely applied due to lack of farmer’s knowledge about plant virus diseases. Therefore, here we reviewed about this issue by highlighting that what farmers know about plant viruses, what is their perception about yield losses...
Mohammad Salim1, Arshad Javid2,*, Faiz-ur-Rahman3, Khalid Javed Iqbal4 and FarmanUllah5
...1 mm. Similarly, average greatest length of skull was 23.35 ± 0.20 mm while the total length of baculum of a single specimen was recorded 4.13 mm. The mean body mass, head and body length and forearm length of the R. lepidus specimens captured from the study area was 3.93 ± 0.21 g, 38.49 ± 0.54 mm and 38.02 ± 0.63 mm, respectively. Average greatest length of skull of two specimens was 15.94...
Syed Ishfaq Ali Shah1,*, Tassawar Hussain Malik2, Imran Rafi Khan1 and Zahid Hussain
...ted State Department of Agriculture (USDA), United State of America (USA) primarily for Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease with promising local varieties tolerant to the disease. After screening, the most resistant accessions of USDA were USG-14-2464 and USG-14-2478. However, USG-14-2481 and USG-14-2484 were recorded as partially resistant to CLCuV disease. Among the local germplasms, all accessions screened were found extremely susceptible. Disease...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
... M. m. musculus migrated from northern China to eastern China and that M. m. castaneus invaded from southern China. The two subspecies form a hybrid zone in eastern China. There were three major well-differentiated clades within M. m. castaneus, which were designated as CAS1, CAS2 and CAS3 and confirmed previous internal sublineage differentiation of this subspecies. Of the three clades, only CAS1 was detected in all the samples from mainl...
Jun Gao1,2, Liang-Liang Yue3, Xianhuan Jiang1, Liju Ni4, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Yuxun Zhou,1 Kai Li1,* and Junhua Xiao1,*
...">To examine the phylogeographic relationships of Microtus fortis in China, we investigated 84 individuals collected from five populations. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) and control region (CR) were sequenced and 49 haplotypes were observed. No shared haplotype was found among different geographic populations. High Fst values among the populations suggested that fragmentation of ...
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
... of the positive control group treated with fenvalerate. Furthermore, the dead state of mites treated with stigmasterol was different from that of mites of the negative control group. This result confirmed the insecticidal activity of stigmasterol. We conducted a thorough research on the insecticidal molecular mechanism of stigmasterol to lay the foundation for the development of stigmasterol as nontoxic and pollution-free p...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
... including the following groups: control (CK), 100µm GSH, 10µm fasudil hydrochloride (FH) and a combination of the two (GSH + FH). A solution of 10% (v/v) Me2SO + 20% FBS was used as the standard cryopreservation solution. After 2 months, MTT assay showed significant differences in the proportion of adherent viable cells in the FH group and GSH group compared with th...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...ced almost similar above-ground symptoms and profuse root galling. The pathogenic potential of M. incognita on passion fruit was determined; the minimum 10 second stage juvenile (J2)/200 cc soil can cause reduction of plant growth parameters and highest reproduction (R=87.27). 
...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
... and ruminal parameters, growth performance, meat analysis and feed intake of growing lambs. Fifty one Barki lambs with body weight of 30±0.57 kg; in three groups (17 animals, each). Experimental rations were composed of concentrate and clover hay in a 60:40 concentrate: roughage ratio.There was no effect of bakery by-products inclusion on nutrients digestibility and nutritive value...
YaQiu Liu and ZhiJian Wang*
...d capillary network underground, while there were no folds on mucous membrane surface. Distance between blood capillary network and intestinal cavity was 1.95±0.34 μm. Respiration epithelial cells of posterior intestine are a kind of modified squamous epithelial cells which show the ultrastructural characteristics of both types I and II pneumocyte of lung alveoli in mammals. The blood is composed of three layers: the thin layer of the extended...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1
... antioxidative effect of green tea extract on the cryopreserved bull semen. Experiments were carried out on Achai breeding bulls of similar age at the Semen Production Unit, Harichand, District Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Collection of semen was done using artificial vagina (42°C) for three weeks. Semen was extended in egg yolk extender at various inclusion levels (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75 and 1.0%) of green tea extrac...

Muhammad Noor, Hidayat ur Rahman and Muhammad Iqbal

...ir long term breeding programs more accurately. This study was conducted to estimate the magnitude of heritability for flowering and maturity attributes along with plant and ear height parameters in four popcorn populations. Broad sense heritability estimates varied from 0.69 to 0.76, while narrow sense ranged from 0.38 to 0.69. Maximum broad sense heritability estimate of 0.84 was observed in cross-II for days to anthesis. Minimum narrow sense heritability of...
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...lected from different geographic areas of the country. Samples were screened for positivity and verified for CPV using PCR. From a 30% positive samples for hemagglutination, nineteen (38.4%) samples were positive in PCR. Sequence analysis of the selected positive samples revealed that both CPV-2 and new CPV-2a strains are circulating in the domestic dog poputlation in Pakistan. This pioneer research on the molecular characterization of CPVs in dogs would estab...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

...s a serious concern for agricultural productivity in more than 90% of Pakistan’s soils. In addition to P deficiency, high pH level and soil carbonate contents further limit the utilization of P by plants. This research was conducted during wheat cropping season of year 2010 and 2011 and it consisted of determination of the residual effect of six treatments (T0 = control without rock phosphate & farmyard manure, T1= rock phosphate @150 kg P2O5 per hec...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

...cipation, and a linear regression model was used to determine factors affecting women’s involvement in livestock farming. Results reveal that women were mostly involved in almost all farming activities. The average composite index value is 4.81 which indicate that women were on average involved for 4.81 hours per day in livestock farming activities. Regression results show that respondent’s age, experience in liv...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
... the major oilseed crops grown worldwide for the production of edible oils. In order to increase the oil production there is dire need to grow more sunflower by using the economical and environment friendly techniques. Present study was proposed to evaluate theresponse of spring and autumn sunflower to chemical and bio-fertilizers for yield and quality traits during 2014 at University of Agr

Zia Ur Rahman1*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Hidayat Ur Rahman1, Fida Mohammad1, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Ijaz Ahmad Khan2

...se at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar-Pakistan during 2011 rice crop growing season. On artificial inoculation with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae, the fundamental agent of bacterial leaf blight, most of the studied rice accessions and the two commercial rice cultivars displayed susceptible reactions. Seven rice accessions viz. UoA-2, UoA-5, UoA-11, UoA-48, UoA-53, UoA-102, and UoA-123 showed moderate levels of resist...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
...ty cotton genotypes were grown using randomized complete block design with three replications. Significant variation among the genotypes was observed for studied traits by analysis of variance. Pearson correlation analysis depicted significant positive association between NL and BW. SV also revealed positive association with SI. BW showed positive association with NLB, NS and SI. LA showed positive association with NL. Path coefficient analysis was utilized to...
Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3
...-1, weight of grain spike-1, grain yield and harvest index % (H.I. %). While (S) had significant effect on yield of grain, straw, biomass and H.I. Maximum grain yield and BCR was recorded in treatment combination of P2 × S1.It is concluded that use of 2-tillers on raise bed sowing method gave significant ...

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...n Pakistan. However, the growing trends of crops cultivation in the high mountains of HKH region have largely transformed this subsistence livestock production in to commercial agricultural system and shaped an uncertain environment that is not suitable for both landless nomadic pastoralism and ecological sustainability. This study reflects that how this agriculture encroachment may have c...

Wazha Mugabe1,2, Lawrence Akanyang1, Mackenzie Nsinamwa1, Batanani Moatswi1, Naledi Matthews1, Kealeboga Dipheko1, Imtiaz Ahmed Ujjan3 and Assar Ali Shah2*

...;">The extent to which degradation or changes in fodder tree species composition caused by grazing pressure is critical since fodder trees form the base diet for browser such as goat as well as maintenance purposes for cattle in the dry season. Thus understanding the dynamics on rangeland response to grazing could prove worthy in finding an equilibrium point for optimizing animal productiv...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

...gh density plantation on growth and yield of citrus (Kinnow and Musambi) grown under drip irrigation at Postgraduate Agriculture Research Station (PARS) Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Plants were grown at three planting distances as T1 (11 ...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...rformance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The chlorogenic acid was isolated using resin. The recovered amount of compound was calculated. Aliquots of the extracts at known concentration of chlorogenic acid were then applied against different bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of isolated compound was also measured. Two antibiotics were used as references compounds for antibacterial activities. The aqueous ethanolic...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...ture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the year 2015. The research work was conducted in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and storage intervals (0, 3, 6, and 9 days). The data was recorded onfirmness (kg/cm2), weight loss (%), moisture contents (%), taste, decay fruits (%) and total soluble solids (TSS). The experimental result showed that both the varieti...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...ize is one of the widely grown crops in the world and even in Pakistan has also influenced in either way. Current study employed vector auto regression models (VAR) along with times series data from 1980 to 2013 for Pakistan to estimate the potential effects of climate change on Maize production. Result professed that average temperature will affect Maize crop negatively bringing about 6% reduction in maize production till t...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...re categorized into five groups. The study groups were given saline, 0.2 % dimethyl sulfoxide, D-GaIN, EA plus D-GaIN and D-GaIN plus EA, respectively. In the group given D-GaIN, the following transmission electron microscopic and light microscopic results were found: degenerative changes in the liver tissue, significant decreased in the number of activated Bcl-2, while increased in the nu...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...logy over a century ago.Agreat variety of methods have been developed that permit differentiation of viral pathogens.These methods, initially based solely on identifying the distinct biological characteristics of different viruses, were soon supplemented with methods based on light or electron microscopy and serology and subsequently by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) and finally the use of molecular (nucleic acid-based) techniques have revolutionize...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...bio-agents (bracon,trichogramma, ladybird beetle) and sex pheromone are in the pipeline for commercial use.

...

 Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Evaluation of shelf life of some value added organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum
...em and mustard cake. The growth was estimated in terms of colony forming unit (c.f.u.)/g of substrate up to 120 days at 30 days interval. In all organic products or their amendment with oil cakes c.f.u. increased up to 60 days and then gradually declined. Among the four organic media, vermicompost retained 21.3 x 10 c.f.u./g at 120 days where as leaf mold,FYMand rice bran retained 20.1 x 10 c.f.u./g, 17.3 x 10 c.f.u./g and 1...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
... were surveyed to record gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera, Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua, plant hopper of Pentatomorpha group, termite Odontotermes spp, and cut worm Agrotis ipsilon in chickpea whereas Campoletis chlorlidae was recorded as natural enemy feeding on H. armigera larvae. In pigeonpea crop, mainly H. armigera, leaf webber Grapholita (Cydia) critica, Myllocerus ...

Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)
...G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology,Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand to investigate the population dynamics of the mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi Kalt. on different 42 cultivars of Indian mustard (B. juncea). The results revealed that the population of L. erysimi exhibited negative correlation with maximum and minimum temperature,rainfall, wind velocity, evaporation and positive with afternoon and morning relative humidity. The values of coe...

M.K. Pandit,P. K. Pal and B. K. Das

Effect of date of sowing on flowering and incidence and damage of melon fruit fly in snap melon Cucumis melo var.momordica genotypes
...s to first female flower gradually lessened from the first to the third sowing, which signify longer fruiting period from the first to the third sowing. The infestation level of fruit fly has been found to be higher in March sowing than the other two sowing dates, irrespective of the genotypes, and BCSM-4 was affected the least when sown in January or March by fruit fly. Considering earliness, total number of fruits per plant and moderately lower fruit fly inc...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
...ys. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the forecasting of BLS could best be done from min temp, minimum relative humidity and number of rainy days.

...

1N. Johnson Singh, 2Amitava Konar and 3Palash Mondal

Incidence of aphids in different traps on potato in Gangetic plains of West Bengal
...7 and 2007-08 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly,West Bengal to evaluate the population dynamics of aphids with the help of yellow pan trap and yellow sticky trap. The population of aphid catches was quite lower in yellow pan trap than yellow sticky trap. Aphids were first observed in traps during third week of December and the population of pests gradually increased to reach the peak in second week of February in the ...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...and capable of promoting growth of certain crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on various cereal grains, agricultural wastes and byproducts. The solid state production is highly labour intensive and fit for co...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
...ring different phases of growth of rainfed vis-&agrave;-vis irrigated rape and mustard crops, and work out relationships between aphid population and weather parameters for its forewarning. Results revealed that initial incidence times of aphid varied from 19 November to 3 December, depending upon dates of sowing done during 1 October to 5 November, which fall under recommended dates of sowing. In crops sown during 22 Octobe...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...ng location-specific integrated management schedule of the parasite, crops, other than sugarcane, grown in the target area were evaluated for their potential as trap and catch crops of the parasite. Twelve crops, selected on the basis of germination induction test of A. pedunculata seeds on root exudates as compared to that of three germination inducing chemicals (viz.; NaOCl, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and <...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...sease and promote plants growth as the length and weight of root and shoot in pot trials on tomato plants. Keywords: Antagonistic fungi, root knot nematode, wilt fungus, bio-management
 

 

...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...fee, sweet potato, jute, groundnut, tomato, citrus, cotton, guava etc. causing enormous damage to them. The female lays about 300-400 eggs which hatch in few hours. The life cycle is completed in about 40 days. The small and big black ants tend F. virgata and they keep other insects including hymenopteran parasites away from the mealy bug. The cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Mask. (Homoptera: Margarodidae) is a soft-bodied mealy bug infesting guava leav...

Sitansu Pan and N. K. Mishra

Epidemiological studies on some diseases of guava (Psidium guajava L.)
...redictive purpose from regression equations. The simple correlation coefficient matrix showed significantly positive correlation of canker severity with maximum relative humidity at 1% level whereas, anthracnose correlated well with minimum relative humidity, temperature and number of rainy days at 5% level. The negative correlation was obtained for stem canker and dry rot with all parameters at 1% significant level. In case of Phytophthora fruit rot, positive...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...e L.) is a perennial evergreen shade loving creeper belonging to the family Piperaceae. In India, it is commercially cultivated over an area of 50,000 ha as an important and potential cash crop. In spite of the tremendous potentially of the crop, cultivation of betelvine is highly risky and returns are uncertain because of its susceptibility to several pests and diseases, aggravated by the nature of the plantation. A good nu...

Bushra Afreen, Geetesh Baghel, Akil A. Khan and Q.A. Naqvi

Virus- vector relationship of yellow vein disease of calendula and the whitefly
...transmission of CYVV was gradually decreased. Keywords: Whitefly, Calendula, Yellow vein disease, Transmission

...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...hological characters, geographical distribution, period of activity, parasitoid behavior and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid species are also provided for helping in easy identification of the species. Keywords: Database, insect-pest, parasitoids, Manipur
 

...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...eraea assamensis Helfer) growing mainly in North Eastern region and Uttaranchal State in India. India is unique in producing the golden muga silk and has monopoly in global silk market grows up to 20-25 meters and survives for 18-20 years. Pollarding of Som plant at 6 ft height is a common practice in North Eastern region of India for controlled rearing (outdoor) of muga silkworm. It was observed that stems of som plant (spe...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
... effective and is an integral component of integrated plant disease management framework for sustainable crop production. A considerable number of biocontrol agents have been established successfully for their bioconrol potential including strains belonging to bacterial genera such as Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Bacillus, and fungal genera such as Gliocladium, Trichoderma,...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...tophthora parasitica and growth, yield, and keeping quality by applying two bioagents, viz., P. fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. P. fluorescens inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1 was applied once at pre-monsoon, twice during pre- and post- monsoon and four times at quarterly intervals. T. harzianum inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1was applied at quarterly intervals. Bordeaux mixture (BM) was used to compare the treatments in preventing the intensity of ...

Amitava Konar, Palash Mondal and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of potato pests in different dates of planting in Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India
...7 and 2007-08 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal, India. Kufri Chandramukhi was planted in five dates of planting starting from 3rd week of November with one week interval upto 3rd week of December with a spacing of 60×20 cm. The trial was laid in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with four replications. The recommended practices for raising the crop in the field was maintained except the application of insecticides. It was observed that t...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
... pest attacking several agricultural, horticultural crops, ornamental plants and weeds of economic value. The papaya mealybug feeds on the sap of the plants by inserting its stylets into the epidermis of the leaf as well as into the fruit and stem. In doing so, it injects a toxic substance into the leaves. The result is chlorosis, plant stunting, leaf deformation, early dropping of the leaves and fruits, a heavy accumulation of honeydew and death of the host p...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
... is a perennial crop and grown as a monoculture on large contiguous areas. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of several notorious pests such as insects, mites, nematodes, diseases and weeds. Globally 1034 species of arthropods and 82 species of nematodes are associated with tea plants. Among them 25 species of insects, 4 species of mites and 10 species of nematodes are recorded from Bangladesh. Enormous crop loss was incurred due to the attack of these pest...

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...ortant legume fodder and green manure crop during pre-kharif and kharif season. It has been considered even better in performance than maize. In some parts of India it is also used as green vegetable and pulse. The crop is known to suffer from a variety of diseases. Among those root rot and collar rot are important and R. solani has been an important factor behind these two main diseases. A field trial was conducted during p...

Sunita J. Magar and D.D. Nirmal

Effect of plant spacings and cultivars on spread of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) disease
...tion rate throughout its growth period was observed in closer plant spacing i.e. 30 x 30 cm in kharif. Among cultivar, Parbhani Kranti show slow progress of the disease. Among plant spacings the closer plant spacing 30 x 30 cm show slow progress of the disease followed by 50 x 30 cm and 60 x 30 cm both in kharif and summer seasons.

...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...oil pests i.e. cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufner; Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) and molecricket (Gryllotalpa africana P. de Beau; Gryllotalpidae: Orthoptera) infesting potato at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Mogra, Hooghly, West Bengal (India) during 2007-08 and 2008-09. The field trial was conducted in Randomized Block Design with six treatments and five replications. Among the various treatments...

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
... experiments at 'Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal, India in two consecutive kharif seasons i.e., 2010 and 2011. The experiment was laid in RBD with seven treatment schedules and three replications. Among all the treatments soil application of phorate at transplanting, followed by foliar spray with acephate, thiodicarb and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki at 50, 70 and 90 days after transplanting, respectively) and seedling treatment with ...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...n is taken up by many progressive farmers in Tamil Nadu and facilitated by Senthil Papain and Food Products Ltd (SPFP), Coimbatore since 2004. The onslaught by the new invasive mealybug (PMB)-Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) in 2006 caused major concern in papain production. The need for repeated application of insecticides and dearth of labour for application of insecticides made it difficult for the farmers to maintain the crop and forc...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...ed germination and under green house experiments for control of Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial gr<...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
...rtion in the major mango growing districts of West Bengal, India. The present study had been taken up regarding the biology, population dynamics and management of this pest. Branch gall is a univoltine species. Emergence of adults from gall could be found from 2nd week of February, which continued up to 2nd week of March. Incubation, larval and pupal period lasted for 3-5 days, 315 days and 30-45 days, respectively. Eggs were laid singly throughout the young v...

Md Riton Choudhury, Koushik Brahmachari, Sudeshna Kar and Rupayan Deb

Integration of weed management practices in rice-potato-groundnut cropping sequence
...ecommended in potato and groundnut.


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Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control
...ential to revolutionize agriculture and food systems. We utilized nano-technological interventions for developing nanopesticides with potent fungicidal and miticidal properties. Nanosulphur and nanohexaconazole were prepared using encapsulation technique. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the nano-structure of nanopesticides. Nanoparticles of sulphur and h...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
...00 to 600 eggs. Eggs are greenish-yellow in colour measuring 0.120 cm diameter and laid in an ovisac that 3-4 times the body length. Eggs are covered with white waxy substances developed ventrally by the adult female. Egglaying is continued up to 2 weeks and 150-200 eggs were deposited during this period. The life cycle is completed within 29 days at an average room temperature of 25 ± 1ºC and 67 ± 5 % RH. The adult life span for male and fe...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...ml;hn. Efficacy in plant growth promoting activity of all the isolates was also tested on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.), chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with culture filtrate of biocontrol agents and found both positive and negative effect on seed germination, plant growth and vigour. Maximum increase in germination by 13.64% (chilli), shoot length by 59.69% (tomat...

M.S. Islam, M.Ali, and I. Ahmad

Efficacy of sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP to control die-back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh
...cozeb 80WP caused colony growth inhibition, respectively by 75.00-90.77% and 75.88-91.33% in 2008 and 74.66-90.55% and 75.66-91.11% in 2009. In a field experiment at the main farm of Bangladesh Tea Research Institute (BTRI), both fungicides were applied as foliar spray for three times at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg ha-1. In 2008, sedomil 72WP gave 45.52-92.78% and recozeb 80WP gave 46.47- 90.39% reduction in PDI. In 2009, the reduction in PDI was 45.84-90.83% and...

Biswajit Pramanick, Sruti Karmakar, Koushik Brahmachari, Rupayan Deb 

An integration of weed management practices in potato un-der New Alluvial soil
...per rupee invested vis-&agrave;-vis the maximum N, P, K uptake by potato and the minimum uptake of N, P and K by weeds emerged in the potato field were recorded under the treatment T3 (hand weeding at 20 DAP along with mulching) which was closely followed by the treatment T9 (Pendimethalin @1kg a.i. ha-1 along with mulching). So, the findings of the experiment provide us with a great opportunity of using herbicides and mulch...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
... recorded at the various growth stages of the cowpea plant in the two seasons. Therefore the advent of increased fauna on cowpea established in this study portrayed a need to find possible ways to reduce the emission of Greenhouse gases in the region in order to ameliorate the effects of induced global warming on cowpea production in the country and also provide effective control of the identified pest in order to maintain or stall resurgence. 

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A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens

Dipak Mandal, Paramita Bhowmik, Pronobesh Halder and M. L. Chatterjee

Determination of relative toxicity and base line data of dif-ferent insecticides against cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley)
...is in the Department of Agricultural Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Mohanpur during 2012. Both treated food untreated insect and treated food treated insect methods were followed. The lowest LC50 values through treated food untreated insect method were recorded in chlorpyriphos 20 EC (226 ppm) and dichlorvos 75 EC (282 ppm) in treated food treated insect method, which was 8.89 and 7.13 times more relatively toxic in respective method ...

D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal and G. Saha

Bioassay of some agricultural chemicals, human drugs and disinfectants on Phytophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd
...alidamycin, kasugamycin, griseofulvin, fluconazole and ketoconazole did not have any pronounced effect on mycelial growth, sporangia formation and its germination. None of the eight antibiotics used in this study prevented mycelial growth. No sporangia formation was recorded in five antibiotics viz. streptomycin sulphate + tetracycline hydrchloride, streptomycin sulphate, oxytetracycline h...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...nly replace toxic, non-degradable ingredients/adjuvants of the conventional formulations but also increase the bio-efficacy of the products through incorporating latest technologies including size reduction (WP to SC, SL to ME), increased coverage of applied surface area (EC to ME/Nano-formulations), reduced wastage (Dust/WP to Con-trolled Release Formulations) and dose rates of same pesticides applied to improve food qualit...

Dharmishthabahen R. Shah and Abhishek Shukla

Reaction of gerbera cultivars to spider mite, Tetranychus urti-cae Koch (Tetranychidae: Acari) under polyhouse conditions
...m mite population having green coloured leaves and red coloured flowers, while the highly tolerant cultivar Cherany with dark green leaves and pink coloured flower.

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Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
... from the Department of Agrometeorology, AAU, Jorhat.The incidence of red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae on tea leaves was maximum during month of April to May-June and September-October (2011). The minimum number of mites was recorded from July- August and November (2011) to February (2012). The data taken from 1st week of April, 2011 to last week of March 2012. In case of eggs population, there was a gradual increasing t...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...Divi-sions during potato growing seasons in 2011-12. Incidence and distribution of Potato mop-top pomovirus (PMTV) and Tobacco rattle tobra virus (TRV) was reported on the basis of characteristic symptoms expression, bait test, infectivity assays and double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both the viruses were prevalent in Hazara and Malakand divisions. The average symptoms based incidence in Hazara divi-sion for PMTV was 8.83%...

Rashid Pervez, Santhosh J. Eapen, S. Devasahayam and M. Dinsha

Characterization of entomopathogenic nematode, Stein-ernema carpocapsae from ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizosphere in India
...llar (Euproctis sp.) and greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) was found under in vitro condition. Further this isolate displayed high virulence on above insect species. This study reported occurrence of a isolate of S. carpocapsae from ginger rhizosphere from India. This indigenous isolate could be investigated further for managing insect pests of ginger.

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M. S. Joshi , D.M. Sawant and A.P. Gaikwad

Isolate variations in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting pomegranate
...gn: justify;">Eleven pomegranate varieties were tested against six isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides under controlled conditions. Inoculated fruits were assessed on the basis of virulence of the isolates and reaction of a particular variety was expressed in Disease Reaction Index (DRI). There was considerable variation in virulence and suscep-tibility within isolates and varieties. Isolate Cg 86 was found to be virulent (DRI 7.2), Cg 81 as less virule...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...ike any other branch of Agricultural Sciences, the Division of Nematology at IARI, initiated researches in the exciting field of biochemistry and molecular biology of plant parasitic nematodes during the early seventies of last century. The main research areas were biochemical mechanism of resistance against phytonematodes and diagnostics of economically important plant parasitic nematodes. Specific isozymes have been identified for differentiating the importa...

Anjan Bhattacharyya, Suhrid Ranjan Barik & Pritam Ganguly

New pesticide molecules, formulation technology and uses: Present status and future challenges
...ch could undergo photo-degradation, microbial degradation as well as chemical degradation leaving very less amount of residues in the environment. Conventional pesticide formulations like WP, EC etc are endangering human health and polluting environment. Newly developed modern formulations like water emulsifiable gel, floating granules, drift less dust, ...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
...4 and 2004-05 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hoogly, West Bengal to find out the incidence pattern and population dynamics of aphids on various potato germplasms. The common potato germplasms viz Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Jawhar along with three processing varieties like Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chipsona-2 and Atlantic were screened against aphids. Potato seed tuber was planted by end of November following all standard ag...

Anil Sehajpal, Saroj Arora and Parminder Kaur 

 

Evaluation of plant extracts against Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight of rice
...extracts showed varied degree of antimicrobial effect at different concentrations against the pathogen whereas 8 plant extracts, viz. Abrus precatorious, Acacia auriculiformis, Bougainvillea glabra, Convolvulus arvensis, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Morus alba, Thevatia peruviana, and Withania somnifera did not exert any effect. Among all the plant extracts, A. sativum exhibited strong fungitoxicity even at the lowest concentration, i.e. 100 ppm, with relative magn...

S. Pal, H. Banerjee and N. N. Mandal 

Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.)
...eed population and their growth. This treatment also gave the maximum grain yield (3.53 tha-1) and straw yield (4.73 tha-1) of rice resulting in lowest weed index (5.61 %). Therefore, penoxsulam 24 SC at 0.0225 kg a.i. ha-1 applied at 8-12 days after transplanting may be recommended to replace the tedious, time consuming and expensive hand weeding practice of weed control in transplanted kharif rice.
 
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Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...;West”, Precision Agriculture (PA) may be suitable for capital-intensive, high turnover economy, high technology monoculture and controlled management of a single major soil borne pathogen or pest across vast cultivated area but not for the peasant farming or the pest complex ridden unaided agriculture as in India. PA is not about an abstract of characterization. The specific values indicating variations in population ...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...reliable source. So, integration between whole tuber planting or seed piece treatment units supervised management may offer better protection from the dreaded disease. Dynamic nature of disease management offers the scope for future modification.
 

 

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K. K. Hegde and B. S. Nandihalli 

Bioefficacy of some indigenous products in the management of okra fruit borers
...in kharif, 2003 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad to evaluate the bioefficacy of some indigenous products against okra fruit borers, Earias vittella Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Different indigenous products like NSKE (5%), GCKE, sweet flag extract (5%), garlic extract (5%), cow dung (10%) and cow urine (10%) were tried individually and in combinations along wit...

B. S. Nandihalli

Utilization of botanicals in the management of the coconut perianth mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer
...r was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad, Karnataka during 2003-04 with nine treatments. The results of the present study indicated that among different botanicals, NSKE 5 percent was found significantly superior in reducing the mite population with higher healthy nuts (81 nuts 4 bunches), least percent of damaged nut (65 per cent) and highest benefit which was on par with wettable sulphur. The next best treatment was neem oil 2 percent.<...

Shrinivas Mudigoudra and Shekharappa

Evaluation of plant products aganist sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani
...f 2005 at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The different plant products used in the study were, Vitex negundo, NSKE, Adathoda vesica, Pongamia glabra, Vinca rosea, Butea monosperma, Aloevera @ 5% concentration and were compared with carbofuran 3 G @ 30 kg. ha-1 to know its efficacy on shoot fly in sorghum ecosystem. The results clearly indicated that NSKE (5%) recorded less eggs of shoot fly (0.40egg/plant), per cent dead heart (14.97%) and maximu...

Shekharappa

Biological control of earhead caterpillar, Helicoverpea armigera Hubner in sorghum
...system of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The mycoinsecticide N. rileyi was highly infective at both the dosages 1x108 conidia per litre & 2x108 conidia per litre against H. armigera as compared to Ha NPV 250 LE per hectare and chemical control in mitigating the pest population as well as in obtaining the higher yield.
 

 

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Manidipa Chowdhury 

Incidence of saw fly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug. as influenced by level of irrigation and fertilizers on mustard
...was recorded on the crop grown without irrigation and medium level of fertilizers (60:30:30 Kg NPK ha-1) while lowest population level (0.10 larvae/plant) was observed at highest level of irrigation (three) coupled with medium level of fertilizers (60:30:30 kg NPK ha-1) and two irrigations coupled with lowest level of fertilizers (40:20:20 Kg NPK ha-1).
 

 

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S. Choudhury and S. Pal

Population dynamics of mustard aphid on different Brassica cultivars under terai agro-ecological conditions of West Bengal
... of mustard aphid. The degree of infestation and the rates of population change of the aphids on different Brassica cultivars seem to be governed by varietal characteristics of different germplasms. Brassica campestris varieties as a group harboured relatively higher populations of the aphid than Brassica juncea varieties.
 

 

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S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
... the lepidopteran pests, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) was found most important inflicting serious damage to Carnation, Gerbera, Gladiolus, Chrysanthemum and Straw flower. The green semilooper, Plusia orichalcea caused damage to Gerbera and Gladiolus by feeding on the leaves. The tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) was serious on Gladiolus and Anthurium. Cutworm (Agrotis segetu...
Zhensheng Liu1,2, Hui Gao1,2, Jiapeng Dong1, Mingming Zhang3 and Liwei Teng1,2,*
...o sexes live in separate groups outside the breeding season. We studied the seasonal activity of blue sheep from May 2010 through August 2012 to test the activity budget hypothesis, which predicts that females spend more time on feeding and that the activity synchronization of same-sex groups is higher than for mixed-sex groups. Our results support the hypothesis. Both males and females sp...
Bao-Ming Ge* Dai-Zhen Zhang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Sen-Hao Jiang, Jun Cui, Chun-Lin Zhou and Bo-Ping Tang
...n Yancheng, China. The aggregated distribution of A. vulgare population was found by Taylor’s power law and Iowa’s patchiness regression methods in each season (P< 0.001). The abundances were markedly affected by habitat type (F5,120 = 49.409, P < 0.001) and season (F3,120 = 13.577, P < 0.001), however, there was no significant interaction of habitat type and season (F15...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...irds were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D). The birds in group A were commercial broiler chicks having maternal derived antibodies and were challenged with IBDV field isolate at the rate of 0.1ml of EID50 (virus titer 105.50/100μl) on 2nd week of age through eye drops. Group B specific antibody negative (SAN) chicks were challenged with same dose at 2nd week of age. While the
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
... commonly found in wheat grains, associated with food related disorders and a number of autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that gluten containing diet would further exacerbate an already undergoing arbitrary immune reaction in SLE patients. Pristane was injected in female BALB/c mice to induce the disease. After five months, mice in various groups were treated with prednisone and fed with gluten containing and standard die...
Jakub Jan Skorupski
... (Neovison vison) growth hormone gene was analyzed. For this purpose set of 3 amplicons were sequenced, including 5’-UTR and all exons and introns. The study involved 389 animals. The sequencing results revealed the presence of 5 exons (10 bp, 161 bp, 117 bp, 162 bp, 201 bp) and 4 introns (245 bp, 171 bp, 176 bp, 290 bp), with a total length of 1745 bp. Fourteen polymorphic variable sites were identified: 12 SNP substitutions, one single nucleotid...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...t protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Disc diffusion method was applied for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of lactoferrin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lactoferrin was determined by 96-well plate method using ELISA reader. Results depicted that CM-Sephadex C-25 was a good cation exchanger for recovery of lactoferrin. Camel ...
Sadia Munir1a, Asif Nadeem1a*, Maryam Javed1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3 and Sidra Manzoor1 
...s for future breeding programs.
...
Song Li1,* and Zuojian Feng2
...formed on mapping its geographic variations in China. In this study, we used 45 P. albiventer specimens from Xizang and Yunnan in China to conduct multivariate analyses and calculate coefficients of differences on cranial measurements, together with a comparison of pelage characteristics. Results indicated that the allopatric samples from Xizang were obviously different from all those previously defined in Yunnan. Therefore, we describe them as new subs...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...significantly in fasting groups, which can return to the control level after refeeding. Fasting for 12 h decreased serum leptin levels, and leptin levels can not recover to the control level after refeeding. Interestingly, there were no post-fasting compensatory increases in food intake. All of the results indicated that A. chevrieri can adjust their physiological functions to cope with food shortage, mainly by decreasing body mass, thermogenesis and se...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...ignifcantly decrease the grain yield in wheat crop. Field experiment was conducted at NIAB, Faisalabad to evaluate the use of the planting time and the insecticide sprays for managing aphids to avoid losses to grain yield. During the crop season in year 2015-16, wheat variety (Millat 2011) was sown on three planting dates: mid Nov (crop 1), end Nov (crop 2), and mid Dec (crop 3). Trial was laid out in split plot design havin...
Yasemin Bircan Yildirim* and Hediye Tugce Vurmay
...aurida undosquamis), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), threadfin bream, (Nemipterus randalli), which were caught from the Iskenderun Bay at 6 different locations (local fishermen’s fish market) were evaluated. The Serratia spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae were isolated from the gill samples, while E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and Pseudom...
Ayesha Zahid,Ammara Muazzam, Sidra Mustafa, Saba Irshad*,Malik Siddique Mahmood and Rehman Shahzad

 

...ueness and inappropriate growth of fiber cells. In the present study, a novel G to C substitution (1104G>C) (pE368Q) was screened by PCR-SSCP in exon 2 of GJA8 and this tansversion altered exceedingly conserved glutamic acid to glutamine at site which was involved in coding of ASF1 like histone chaperone. Further presumption based on structural and functional analysis of mutated protein was anticipated by bioinformatics tools, which manifest mild changes in...
Rauf Ahmad1, Karam Ahad2 and Aziz Ullah Shah3
...category was OK. Overall grain quality of 6% samples graded excellent, 19% well or OK and 56% candidates were below standard. Physically, 7% candidates from coarse category were extra-long size, ranked well and 43% OK while15% was below the standard. Cooking quality of coarse candidates was OK however overall, 21% samples showed poor milling, and physical and cooking quality and 36% did not meet the standard. Ratio of hybrid...
Madeeha Arshad1, Naveed Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Khalid3, Asmatullah1, Mohammad Tahir2, Khadija Naveed1 and Asia Iqbal4
... pregnant mice. Among 05 groups of pregnant females (10 females in each group), three were treated with 50%, 25% and 12.5% of the LD50 of Cr VI, respectively, with one control and one vehicle control group. Fetuses were recovered on 18th day of gestation and fixed for morphometric and morphological studies. Experimental groups showe...
Jia-xiang Wang1,2,* and Peng Li1,2
...ndogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been identified in the pancreas of many vertebrates. While ghrelin has been found in the cerebellum and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks, little is known about its distribution in the pancreas ofthe African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the African ostrich pancreas were investigated using immu...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...the (i) adeptness of integrated module of prophylactic soil disinfection and bio-control, (ii) only prophylactic soil disinfection, and (iii) only curative soil disinfection over uprooting and destruction of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and be...
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
...udy, chlorantraniliprole granule was applied both in seedbed and transplanted field along with spraying of some new generation insecticides like indoxacarb, flubendiamide, spinosad and chlorantraniliprole to test their efficacy against different rice insect-pests. The study found that whorl maggot can be managed properly in seedbed application with chlorantraniliprole granule 0.4% WW/SR in seven days prior to seedling uproot...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...t-align: justify;">Black gram (Vigna mungo L.) is widely cultivated during May to September under the rainfed unbunded uplands of Purulia, West Bengal and the produces are stored by farmers under homestead condition for the purpose of consumption and seed for the next year sowing. Callosobruchus sp.(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is the major stored grain pest of blackgram under ...
Mohammed M. Ibrahim1,2*, Y.S. Chandel1 and Anil3
...resenting two different agro-climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh during 2012. The findings revealed that the significant differences were observed between the populations for all characters except abdomen length, fore wing width and length of trochanter and tibia. Overall, the mean of populations for head height × width, proboscis length, thorax length, abdomen length, fore wing length × width, cubital index, hind wing length × width, number o...
Obaidullah1, Zafar Ali Shah1* and Sami Ullah2
...m through column chromatographic technique. Characterization of Lapachol was carried through melting point assessment and running its comparative TLC against standard, added with structure elucidation by FT-IR spectrum. Silver nanoparticles of Lapachol were  synthesized by treating 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution with 1 mM solution of Lapachol in the presence of sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) in double distilled water at pH of 7.6 having temperature 40 &de...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...cordifolia, Ipomoea pestigridis and Trianthema portulacastrum were selected for in vitro studies. Fungal isolates namely Ascochyta cypericola, Bipolaris sp., Chaetomium globosum, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata, Curvularia tuberculata, Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium sp. and Gibbago trianthemae were isolated by inoculation of parasitized weed propagules like infected leaves, stems...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
... was to investigate hair growth promoting effects of extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves. The extracts of powdered leaves were obtained in various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and distilled water) using hot and cold extraction methods. Phytochemical analysis of leaves was performed on powder and extracts of leaves using already reported methods. Mineral analysis was done using atom...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...accinated with LaSota. A group of chicks (n=40) were immunized using baculovirus (H5 and ND) inactivated vaccine via subcutaneous route. Birds (n=20) were then either challenged with 106 EID50 using Egyptian avian influenza H5N1 and Newcastle disease genotype VII. Comparative blood profiling in vaccinated and challenged, non-vaccinated and non-challenged and non-vaccinated and challenged indicated that MDA for H5N1 gradually...
Süleyman Kök*
...align: justify;">Turkish grey cattle (TGC) are facing the danger of extinction. Intensive breeding program has mainly been used for purebred TGC that are under the conservation of Bandırma Livestock Research Institute (BLRE) ex-situ program. This study aims to compare 3 SNP of the genetic features of purebred TGC that are under the conservation of ex-situ (51 cattle) pro...
Mehmet Avci1, Recep Aydin1,* and Jale Metin Kiyici2
...ifferent ration forms on growth, feed conversion and behavioral characteristics of Brown Swiss calves. The calves in treatment group were supplied with mixed ration of chopped roughage (5-7 cm) and concentrate calf starter feed and the calves in control group were supplied with natural roughage and concentrate feed separately. The calves were supplied with milk at about 8% of their birth w...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
... teleosts because of the greater pressure they suffer in aquatic environment. In this study, we identified a set of 27 GSTs including 8 classes of members in common carp genome. Both sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis exhibited that genes derived from the same GST class from different species share more similarity than genes of different classes in the same species. Copy number of GSTs examining showed that five classes of GST genes in common carp h...
Erol Akkuzu1,*, Hidayet Güzel2 and Özkan Evcin1
...>I. sexdentatus were greater in pure forests than mixed ones, 2) density of I. sexdentatus were grater in stands with site index-III than those with site index-I, and 3) the body length of the pest did not differ significantly between two site productivity classes and between two stand compositions. 
...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...hildren of different age groups with highest disease prevalence in children of less than 5 years of age (21.40%) and lowest in children of 11-15 years of age (15.99%). Cryptosporidium was significantly higher (P<0.05) in study subjects having livestock animal contact and persistent diarrhea, highlighting its zoonotic potential from livestock animals to human beings in the study area. This is first study addressing the one of the main cause of neonata...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
...d into fifteen replicate groups (n=10), and consequently reared on five experimental diets according to a completely randomized design. Feed intake was higher in D4 group in comparison with other groups (P < 0.05). Live body weight was higher in D4 group than D2, D3 and D5 groups (P < 0.05). FCR and dressing perc...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
...es were divided into two groups. One group served as a control while the other was treated with rumen bolus of trace elements containing copper (Cu) cobalt (Co); selenium (Se), manganese (Mn); zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). Blood samples were collected from ewes and their newborns at parturition. Colostrum yield and biochemical analysis at parturition was also determined. A significant (P<0.05) increase of calcium (Ca), Zn, Co...
Ahmad Ali1,*, Sheikh Muhammad Azam2, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Mujahid Kaleem3
...gal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris Linnaeus 1758). There are five big cat species in the genus Panthera and tiger is the biggest one. Data were collected by recording observations on breeding of Royal Bengal Tiger in captivity at Bahawalpur Zoo from June 2012 to July 2014 (two years) on prescribe sheets. Data from June, 2003 to December, 2011 (nine years) were collected from zoo management. In two years stu...
Yun Wang1,*, Lei Guan1, Jiding Chen1, Yaping Kong1, Lang Si2 and Asif Shah3
.../i>) and Wild Yak Bos grunniens; we suggest that the distance between the proposed route for the expressway and the present highway and railway should at least be 1500m, and ideally, it should be 2500m.
...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
...nts. Among different age groups HBV PCR positivity was highest (n=181, 83.41%) in the age group of 31 to 40 years. HBV genome was detected in 79.21% of HBsAg positive samples, showing that HBsAg on ELISA is much more sensitive than PCR as HBV shows chronic conditions and both of the tests are needed against HBV.
...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...he biological control program of cotton mealybug in Pakistan, but its multiplication for inundative releases has been impacted by a hyperparasitoid, Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: Eriaporinae). Traditionally the detection of hyperparasitoid is done by host-rearing, but that is time-consuming when working with field populations at larger scale. The current study used morphology and DNA sequences from mitochondrial (cytoc...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1*,Ibrahim Alhidary1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Rifat U. Khan3, Abdel Raouf S. Bello4, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2 and Ramzi A. Amran1
...stics and performance of growing Naemi lambs fed TMR. Four groups, each of 3 months old growing Naemi male lambs (28.85±1.09 kg), were fed on TMR (NDF=41. 95%) (T1). TMR plus 100 g alfalfa hay (NDF= 43.3%) daily (T2), TMR plus 200 g alfalfa hay (NDF= 43.3%) every two days (T3) and TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay (NDF= 43.3%) every three days (T4). Rumen fluid samples were analyzed for vo...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
... Health, Lahore. The demographic values for age, employment and marital status did not differ significantly among case and control groups. Exonic regions of BDNF gene were sequenced. In-silico analysis was performed to detect the possible disease causing effect of genetic variants with OCD. Sequencing of BDNF gene showed one change G>A at position c.196 (rs6265) resulting in a nonsynonymous change from valin...
Sidra Manzoor1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Wasim Shehzad1, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Muhammad Imran1, Tanveer Hussain2, Abdul Wajid1 and Maryam Javed1
...ronments and genetic backgrounds.
...
Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
...catla was exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol-A (10,100,1000μg/l) for 14 days. BPA exposure strongly elevates vtg mRNA level in fish exposed to 100μg/l but at 1000 μg/l exposure of BPA, vtg level decreased compared to 100µg/l exposed fish. These results showed that BPA has estrogenic action and cause endocrine disruption in juvenile C. catla at environmentally relevant concentration. Moreover, these results als...
Jianping Gou, Jianli Xiong*, Baoxia Dong, Zhennan Liu and Manman Hou
...n compared to males, and greater internal organs in females are a consequences of high energy requirements for reproduction, which favors females to produce more high-energy eggs. 
...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

...was conducted at “Agricultural Research Institute, D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan” during wheat crop season of 2013-14. The major aims of the study were to test the effect and economics of soil vs. foliar applied nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen use efficiency on wheat variety Hashim-08. The experimental trial was conducted following RCB design with three replications. Fertilizer applications (foliar and soil) were assigned to main pl...

Khurram Shahzad and Mohammad Akmal*

...riment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar in 2015-16 in a randomized complete block (RCBD) design with four replications. Seedbed was prepared as recommended for wheat, planting was made with basic seeds (cv. Pakhtunkhwa) using seed drill in rows spaced 0.25 m equal distances. Recommended rates of phosphorus and potassium were applied yielding 90 and 60 kg ha-1respectively while t...

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...cal efficiency of tomato growers in Malakand district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A sample of 120 tomato growers was selected employing multistage sampling technique. An interview schedule was used for data collection during November-January, 2016. Maximum likelihood technique was used for the estimation of the Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production model. After running various econometrics software the output of t...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

... efficiency among tomato growers in Mohmand Agency, Pakistan. The study is based on primary data, collected through a well designed questionnaire from a sample of 115 tomato growers. A Cobb-Douglas type production model is used to estimate tomato yield and identify important factors affecting yield. Ordinary Least Square estimates for the model indicate that machinery, seed quantity, labor, number of irrigation, chemicals sp...
Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
... and MYMV resistant) at Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan. Inqalab Mung was tested in various experiments for production technology and yield trials for its performance. Result showed that 40 kg ha-1 seed rate with 30 cm row spacing, fertilizer dose @ 20:50 kg ha-1 N:P2O5 and inoculation with rhizobium strain Vm M1 were optimal for its maximum yield. Inqalab Mung outclassed among all candidate lines i...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

...kly. After 42 day of the growth, the birds were slaughter with the Islamic Halal Method and the blood samples of the birds were preserved for antioxidant enzymes assay analysis. The data showed that as the citrus waste percentage in the feed of the broiler was increased, its feed intake and the body weight decreased but the citrus waste has non-significant effect on the feed conversion ratio of the broiler birds. The results also showed that citrus waste in th...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
...showed the occurrence of great proportion of Decomposable organic matter, adequate moisture content and C/N ratio. On windrow composting, not only the bulk of the waste was compacted but also formed a powdery earthy stinking soil-like, compost material. All valued factors in the compost samples were found to be within the acceptable limits set by international standard. The pH fluctuated between 7.5-8.1, moisture 35% and organic matter 43%, and has adequate qu...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...empowerment of vegetable growers. Primary data were collected from 234 vegetable growers through well-structured interview schedule. Whereas secondary data were amassed from various published and unpublished sources. Results of the present study revealed that majority (85%) respondents had joint families system. Almost (60%) respondents had landholdings up to five acres and majority (77%) respondents were involved on full ti...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...ifferent proportion with grape fruit albedo powder. The effect of fiber source on physicochemical, sensory attributes and microbiological properties of fruit cakes were examined during 30 days of storage. Results showed that with varying fiber content water activity, texture, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, NFE and fiber content changed significantly (p<0.05). Gross energy level in cake which is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was...
Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
...asin) including the age, growth, length-weight relationship and reproduction. The study was conducted in upper Akcay River between June 2012 and May 2013. Monthly data showed that native fish chub were aboundantly with other native fish (Acanthobrama mirabilis) in upper Akcay River. The age distribution for both females and males of S. cephalus populationwas betweenI-VII, and the second age group was found at m...
Farah Ashfaq* and Tasnim Farasat
... in overweight and obese groups as compared to the normal weight group (p<0.01). In overweight group, resistin levels were significantly related with cholesterol, insulin levels and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.375, p = .000; r = 0.336, p < 0.01; r = 0.301, p<0.01). In obese group, resistin showed a signifi...
Sogolo L. Lebelo1,* and Gerhard van der Horst2
... Leydig cells occur as a group of polymorphic cells in the intertubular region, and are usually associated with large and small blood vessels and abundant loose connective tissue. Leydig cells have large spherical or slightly elongated nuclei, which possess prominent nuclei and frequently deep indentations of nuclear envelope. The nuclei are characterized by patches of euchromatin and heterochromatin regions with the latter usually occupying the periphery of t...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...s clareae is causing greater damage to Apis mellifera colonies and major economic losses (a serious threat) to beekeeping industry in Pakistan. Seven treatments including five essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), oregano (Origanium vulgare), lemon (Citrus lemon) and thyme (Thymus linearus), formic acid at three different concentrations of ...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...espondents. The binary regression model has been used to evaluate the effect of different socio-economic variables on the adoption response of different recommended production practice for citrus. Average age, education and experience of the citrus growers were estimated 43.92 years, 9.74 schooling years and 17.72 years respectively. The awareness and adoption of recommended citrus practices was generally good. The results o...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...ble without sustainable agriculture growth. Forecasting plays an imperative role in adjusting the vision and applicability regarding aspirations. The study attempted to forecast major crops area, production, yield and per capita food availability using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from ...
Hassen Allaya1,2,*, Abderraouf Ben Faleh1, Manel Rebaya1, Sonia Zrelli3, Abdallah Hattour2, Jean-Pierre Quignard4 and Monia Trabelsi1
... showed two morphometric groups. The linear canonical variate analysis (CVA), the overall assignments of individuals into their original groups was 95.13%. The morphometric and meristic analysis were fully congruent and confirm the occurrence of two potential differentiated groups. This variation of morphometric and meristic characters in specimens from ...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

... in Multan during cotton growing season in 2014. Cultivars as well as nitrogen increments significantly contributed to the related traits of cotton growth, seed cotton yield and yield attributes. Increasing N increments reveals a positive association with biomass accumulation (growth), yield and yield associated components. Among N increments, 200 kg ha-1 achieved more number of bolls per ...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...;-glucan from major food grains used locally on plasma cholesterol level of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Insoluble dietary fiber (lignin and cellulose) was extracted from wheat and maize, while ß glucan was extracted from barley and sorghum. Male rats (n = 32), weighing 200-220 g were induced with hypercholesterolemia and were equally divided into 5 groups to study the effect of purified diet-AIN-93 G, wh...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...d Ross 308 broilers. One group of broilers was reared on chopped wheat straw (the particle length of straw ≥ 10 cm). The second group was kept on newly formulated pelleted wheat straw. The duration of the trial was 42 days. Moisture content in litter materials and FPD occurrence and severity were assessed weekly. First signs of FPD were observed in 21-day old chickens reared on chopped wheat straw (FPD score = 0.52±...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

...roduced extra vegetative growth rather than seed cotton yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield. The results further illustrated that, genotype DNH-105 ranked first for plant population, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, weight per boll and seed cotton yield when sown on April 01. CIM-616 was the 2nd suitable variety under April 01 sowing. Earlier and later planting p...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...="text-align: justify;">Agricultural Extension Officers (AEOs) plays a crucial character regarding agricultural and rural development of Pakistan through supervision and administration of agricultural activities. The current study was carried out to measure the level of competency of AEOs in skills regarding management of supervision and administration that is considered necessary in order...
Shuangye Wang1, Yunlin Zhao1, Zhenggang Xu1,2,*, Li Li3, Liang Wu1, Choucang Duan1 and Jiao Peng1

 

...s), also known as P&egrave;re David’s Deer, to their new environment, this study was designed to track and observe 16 Milu, which were released in the Dongting Lake wetland area from Jiangsu, from April 4 to May 12, 2016, using instantaneous scanning and recorded 486 observations. Nineteen types of behaviour were observed which were classified into nine categories: resting, feeding, moving, excreting, parental behaviour, embellishing, rutting, vigila...
Saba Irshad1,*, Ayesha Ashfaq1, Ammara Muazzam1 and Abida Yasmeen2
...black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), used in Pakistani cuisine to enrich flavour and to treat infectious wounds. Their crude ethanol and methanol extracts were tested against five important bacterial and fungal strains. Both extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, E. coli and S. aureus. All alcoholic extracts were competent enough to reduce the growth rate of M. canis...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...olfsii and their integrated management by using derosol, cadusafos and Trichoderma harzianum in the green house at 25 ± 4ºC. Primarily, 15 chilies cultivars viz., 28-2010, C-72, Sanam, C-73, Gola Peshawari, 27-2010, Tata Puri, C-302, C-33, C-19, 5-2010, C-68, 11-2010, 18-2010 and 15-2010 were evaluated against M. incognita and S. rolfsii. Two week old chilies plants were ino...

Murad Ali1, Farmanullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad2* and Imran Khan1

...zer application from integrated organic and inorganic sources is universally accepted agronomic practice for improved yield and soil properties. However, determination of a suitable dose from either source that could beneficially and easily combine to give maximum output still needs lots of research. The experiment was conducted during wheat season 2014-15 on a selected water eroded site in District Swabi. Fourteen treatment...
Muhammad Hanif1,*, Naureen Rana1, Muhammad Akbar Khan2, Muhammad Javed1 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1
...us sites, Dhok Mila of Nagri Formation (early Late Miocene) and Kaulial Kas of Dhok Pathan Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) are located in district Attock, Punjab, Pakistan. The recovered material comprises isolated premolars and molars. The identified species of hipparionines include Hipparion sp. small, Cormohipparion sp., Sivalhippus cf. nagriensis, and Sivalhippus cf. ...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

... crop stand affects crop growth and development. Understanding the role of mulching techniques and nitrogen management in crop stand and phenological occurrence is not well understood. Therefore field studies were conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan to quantify the effects of mulching techniques and nitrogen management on maize (Zea mays L) ...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
... to study the effects of graded levels (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 FTU kg-1) of microbial phytase on growth performance and nutrient digestibilityof Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed sunflower meal based diet. The chromic oxide was added as inert marker in the diets. Three replicate groups of 15 fish (Average weight 5.05±0.013 g fish-1) were fed at the ...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...lly enriched bulk feed ingredient and to explore its potential as wheat bran replacer in total mixed rations for the ruminants. For this purpose rice husk was subjected to different processing techniques using acid, alkali, water treatment and fermentation to prepare processed moiety on pilot scale. All these processed materials were included in experimental ration at a fixed level (20 %). All iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous rations were offered to experimenta...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

...nity and seed priming on growth characters of Wheat varieties” was carried out at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during winter 2013-2014. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The response of fourteen wheat varieties at two seed treatments (primed with 50 mM CaCl2 and un-primed) with four salinity l...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

...hod (Dry method) in rice growing areas of Punjab. In last some years, the direct seeded rice system is introduced in some of the rice cropping districts of Pakistan. The current research estimate the technical efficiency of conventional and dry rice farmers and also determine the factors which significantly contribute to increase the rice output. Moreover, this study estimated the sources of inefficiency. Data collected from 300 sample rice farmers into the Kh...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
...ere determined. By using grid based sampling strategy, soil samples (n= 1280) were collected from villages (n=256, 5 samples/village) of the nine districts. Brucella genus specific DNA (bcsp31) was detected using Real Time PCR and prevalence was 2.11%. Out of five species, only two species B. abortus and B. melitensis were detected through conventioneal multiplex PCR. Prevalence of soil borne species specific DNA of B. abortus
Kanwer Shahzad Ahmed1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Fatima Sellami3 and Muhammad Afzal1
...1798) and Exochomus nigripennis (Erichson 1843). Two species namely Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabricius 1775) and Scymnus nubilus (Mulsant 1850) represented respectively the tribe Epilachnini (Mulsant 1846) of subfamily Epilachninae (Mulsant 1846) and tribe Scymnini (Mulsant 1846) of subfamily Scymninae (Mulsant 1846). Among all the species, C. septempunctata was found widely distributed in all localities studied, w...
Muhammad Aslam Farooqi1,*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan2, Sohail Akhtar1Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Naveed Aslam3 and Muhammad Rafay4
...rformance Liquid Chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine residues of commonly used agricultural insecticides (imidacloprid, thiametoxam, profenofos, endosulfan, spinosad and deltamethrin) in multi-floral raw honey of Apis dorsata F. collected from the cotton belt area of Punjab, Pakistan. The residues of these insecticides were extracted using ethyl acetate. Honey samples were spiked ...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

... and lameness. The major gross lesions were erosive stomatitis, hemorrhages in lung, liver, abomasum, small and large intestine. PPRV NP was detected in sheep (n=20) and goats (n=18), anti-PPRV NP was also detected among sheep and goats (n=162) by ELISA, 3ABC-FMD enzyme immunoassay were positive (n=6) when ovine sera were tested. The study revealed that PPR-FMD viruses were circulating in the region and warrants proper control measures. 
...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...me by a comprehensive program focusing on the provision of low cost inputs, pesticides/insecticides, modern techniques and trainings, and value chain market facilities at the local and regional level. 

...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
...ant factor affecting the growth of giant gourami. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different feeding rates on the growth, and carcass composition of giant gourami (initial weight 14.17±0.15 g and length 9.88±1.11 cm). The nutrition content of the diet was a cross energy of 3,340.50 kcal/kg, made up of 30% crude protein, 7% crude lipid, 6% crude fiber, 12% ash, and 12% moisture as a percen...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...bollworm larvae in both agricultural and horticultural crpos. Flubendiamide is a new chemistry insecticide which also controls bollworm effectively and relatively safer for natural enemies and beneficial arthropods. Present investigations were carried out to determine their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence of 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera litura F. under laboratory conditions. Both NPV and flubendiami...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
... ants, parasitoid wasps, green lacewings and coccinellid beetles. Experimental design was split-plot randomized complete block with three replications for each treatment. Transgenic (Bt) cotton variety (FH-118) was sown. Insecticide formulations were applied according to their field recommended dose rates upon attainment of ETLs of most of the sucking insect pests. Data regarding insect populations were recorded 3 and 7 day post treatment. Results revealed tha...
Mehran Kausar1,2, Naveed Ashraf3, Farzana Hayat4, Asraf Hussain Hashmi1, Saima Siddiqi1,* and Mariam Anees2
...han (p.Arg46Trp) which segregated with the disorder. The clinical findingsimplicated CTSK and the use of direct sequencing provided a precise molecular diagnosis. Theidentification of the same variant in CTSK as identified in other families from Pakistan suggests that it is common due to a founder effect.
...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...re sampled covering a geographical area of little less than 5000 acres in the southern, central and northern zones located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. Yellow rust occurrence was distributed over an area of 463 acres in all three wheat production zones. Maximum yellow rust impact values (estimated by Field Impact Factor (FIF) of 121, 201 and 328 were recorded in Bannu (Southeren Zone), Nowshara (Central Zone) and Mansehra (Northeren Zone), respect...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...s purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence calculated was 5% and 4.4%, respectively, in these areas. Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) was frequently isolated (78%) from roots as well as i...

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

...n: justify;">Citrus is a group perishable fruit and require good marketing practices, proper time and methods of harvesting, packaging, storage and processing. There are various middlemen (market intermediaries) involved at different stages in the marketing of citrus. This study is an attempt to examine the marketing margins of the intermediaries involve in the value chain of sweet oranges of citrus group. Three villages in ...
Usman Waheed1,*, Humayoon Shafique Satti2, Muhammad Arshad3, Ahmed Farooq3, Abdul Rauf4 and Hasan Abbas Zaheer1,5
...creasing among high risk groups (HRGs) in Pakistan leading it away from achieving the 6th millennium development goal of halting and reversing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Syphilis increases the risk of HIV transmission by two to five times, and this co-infection is common among HRGs. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among selected HRGs. During a period from September 2015 to February 2016, community-based...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...mly allocated into three groups each of which contained 10 sheep. The groups were formed as; Group 1 The Control Group (No castration), Group 2 (Surgical castration group) and Group 3 (Chemical castration group), respectively. Blood sample was taken from vena jugularis of the animals before the application and every two months for a total of 4 times for ...
Kulsoom Akhter1, Tahseen Ghous1,2,Saiqa Andleeb3,*, Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim4, Samina Ejaz5, Zain-ul-Abdin1, Bilal Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammed Naeem Ahmed1
...f Tagetes minuta, growing in soil adjoining automobile workshops to investigate their bioaccumulation capacity for three selected metals Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II). The plant was selected due to its natural abundance in the climate of Kashmir and also in the area of study. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were identified as B. cereus BDBC01, B. cereus AVP12 and B. cereus NC7401. At ma...
Ibrahim A. Alhidary1,*, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Moez A. Ayadi1,3 and Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2
...fferent levels of NDF on growth performance, metabolic profile and rumen characteristics in Naemi lambs. Fifty growing Naemi lambs at age of three months with an average bodyweight of 27.77 ±1.09 kg were randomly distributed to five different treatments, ten lambs each, as follow: 1. Alfalfa hay and barley grain (ABG); 2. Pelleted alfalfa hay and barley (PAB); 3. TMR1 (25.67% NDF); ...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...re has to rise for wheat growth in Pakistan. Wheat crop is planted on more than 52% area as rainfed crop in the providence Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (KP). The study, therefore, aims to plant wheat in season from early to late i.e. November 15 to December 25 with about 10 days intervals. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar in winter sea...

Fawad Ali1*, Hidayat Ullah2, Ikhtiar Khan1

...ied localities. Linear regression analysis indicates that concentration of the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn) in vegetables are significantly correlated at R2 value of 0.956 at P≤0.001 with their extractable concentration in soil. Health risk index (HRI) has been found>1 for Pb in Abelmoschus esculentus while rest of the heavy metals have been noted less than 1 indicating relative absence of risk concerned with ingestion of adulterated vegetables. This...
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
...taine supplementation on growth performance and immunity in broilers under natural summer stress. A total of one hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were divided into four different treatment groups such as Bet-0, Bet-1.0, Bet-1.5, Bet-2.0 having betaine supplementation at the rate of 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 g/kg feed, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher weekly and total feed intake and weight gain were recorded in ...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...align: justify;">Cattle egret is considered as biological insect pest control agent in our agricultural ecosystem. To analyze this activity present work was planned to collect the preliminary information about habitat requirements and different breeding aspects of Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). The fieldwork was performed for two years (2012, 2013) at three different stations in the ...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...ence of various feeds on growth increment, body constituents and survival rate of snakehead (Channa marulius) cultured in plastic tanks (42.5 liters water carrying capacity each). Fish juveniles (length: 10.63 ±0.980 cm, weight: 9.030±1.40g) were stocked after acclimatization. A total of 3 treatments were tested following 2 replications i.e. first treatment (T1, Squid feed), second treatment (T2, Tubifex feed) and thi...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...igned and fabricated at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The prototype machine was tested for fibre extraction. Results indicated that sisal fibre production capacity of this machine was 15.94 kg h-1 (dry fibre). Average yield of dry sisal fibre was 3.2% of green leaf weight and average fibre length was 1348.9 m...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
... study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, during spring 2011. The experiment was composed of two soybean varieties (Faisal Soybean and 95-1) and five priming techniques (control, on-farm priming, hydro priming, hydration inoculation and osmo priming with 0.5% urea solution. Results revealed that hydro priming, on-farm priming and hydration inoculation significantly reduced the tim...
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...as well as different age groups per month / year is provided. Intestinal parasitic infection is still a public health problem in Riyadh region, KSA. It is necessary to update the epidemiologic survey of the parasitic infection at regular intervals using different statistical methods to develop effective prevention and control strategies.
...
Lu Liu1, Sher Khan Panhwar2, Tianxiang Gao3, Zhiqiang Han3, Chunhou Li4, Dianrong Sun4 and Na Song1,*
...rm a strong monophyletic group. The mean within-species genetic distances for L. affinis, L. carinata, and L. klunzingeri were 0.26%, 0.52%, and 0.47%, respectively. The mean genetic distances among L. affinis, L. carinata, and L. klunzingeri ranged from 12.22% to 14.74%, higher than the threshold for species delimitation. The results confirmed the taxonomic validity of the three Liza species and verified that t...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

...trains. T. harzianum was grown under different conditions and their extracts were evaluated, using disc diffusion method against tomato wilt causing bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris and Clavibacter michiganensis). Extracts that resulted in strong activity were fractionated into acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by testing against human pathogenic bacterial strains (Eschericia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) using 96 well microtitr...

Muhammad Amin1*, Khalid Mahmood2, Imran Bodlah3, Muhammad Rahim Khan2 

...s bucktoni Jacob and Wahlgreneilla nervata (Gillete) on Rosa species. Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) was recorded on new host plant, Rosa species, in Pakistan. Distinguishing characters, morphometric data, biology and distribution of the studied species are provided herewith.  

...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...s that aimed to provide agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, machinery along with advisory services in order to increase per acre yield. This study was conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in the year 2016. The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Farm Services Centers (FSCs) in district Charsadda regarding provision of agricultural services to its member farmers. About 57% respondents w...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...cation on fruit drop and growth of winter guava was carried out in Horticulture Farm at The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2016. RCB Design was used for this experiment with three replications i.e. factor A was Deblossoming Time (Control, May, June, July, August and September) and factor B was GA3 application (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm). Results demonstrated that minimum fruit drop (5.95%), fruit dens...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
...n study was conducted in grazed and in un-grazed sites at Pabbi hills Kharian, District Gujarat, Pakistan. The study area was surveyed and homogeneous sites for conducting experiment were selected for grazed and un- grazed range land at Pabbi hills Kharian, District Gujarat, Pakistan. Carbon is played a vital role in the gr
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...ced changes in different growth related end point using cotton as a model plants, the present study was designed. For this purpose, dry seeds of four cotton genotypes (Gomal-93, Bt-131, Bt-121 and Bt-CIM-602) were exposed to gamma rays with 10, 15, 20 and 25 Kilo Radium (KR) doses sourced from 60Co. The irradiated seed samples were assumed treated seeds while non-irradiated seeds of each genotype were used as control. Field experiment was conducted ...
Shantanu Jha1, A. Rama Devi1, Ngalaton Kasar1 and Abhishek Mukherjee2
... 31 participants. The programme was inaugurated by Prof. D. D. Patra, Hon’ble Vice-Chancellor, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV) and was chaired by Professor C. Sen, President of Association for Advancement in Plant Protection (AAPP). Oher dignitaries attended the meeting were Prof. T. K. Maity, Dean, Faculty of Horticulture, BCKV and Prof. M. R. Ghosh, Taxonomist and Retired Professor of Agriculture Entomolo...
Zuhao Huang*, Meifang Li, Rujue Ruan and Jiawei Qin
... from 5.39% (between Egretta sacra and Egretta garzetta) to 41.15% (between Egretta sacra and Botaurus stellaris). Five conserved sequence boxes (F to B) in the domain II of Ardeidae sequences were localized. Maximum likelihood method was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic trees based on HKY+ G model. The phylogenetic tree gr
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...ning of case and control group data showed no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with p-value 0.879 and 0.32, respectively. There was no significant difference in age (p-value 0.081), employment status (p-value 0.34) and matrimonial status (p-value 0.28) but there was a significant difference in their education (p-value 0.0002). The prevalence of C allele was 13.5% in disease, 5.83% in controls and found significant wi...
Muhammad Fiaz1, Khadija Munawar2, Muhammad Mushtaq2,*, Mukhtar Ahmad3, Mushtaq Ahmad Chaudhry3, Muhammad Aslam3, Tanveer Ahmad1 and Nasrullah4
...cer to lambs for optimum growth performance and survivability. For this purpose, Salt Range neonatal lambs (n = 24, age = 01 week) were selected and divided equally into three groups having 08 lambs each. The experimental lambs were fed ewe milk, calf milk replacer-1 (Telilac) and calf milk replacer-2 (Creamo) through nipple feeding for optimum performance in lambs after mandatory colostrum feeding. Results depicted that ave...

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

...ence recommended for the grower of Peshawar valley.  

...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

...plication on tomato crop grown in saline conditions was investigated by exposing tomato plants to 0, 75 and 150 mM salinity; and foliar application of 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25% calcium solutions. Salinity stress increased leaf Na+ and Na+/ K+, fruit firmness and blossom end rot (BER) incidence but significantly decreased the leaf K+ and Ca content of the fruit and yield. The foliar calcium application decreased the Na+ accumulation, Na+/ K+ ratio and B...
Umair Talib1*, Ijaz Ashraf1, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhary1, Riaz Ahmad2
...ify;">Abstract | Agricultural extension is the main source for addressing technical issues and dissemination of current technologies among the smallholder farmers in Pakistan. Since the late 1980s, the government of Pakistan include private sector in extension circle to enhance the effectiveness of public extension through competition. This study conducted in 2016, sought to analyze whether smallholder rice growe...

Mian Ahmad Raza*, Ghulam Hassan and Naqib Ullah Khan 

... in the subsequent wheat growing season of 2012-13. For days to maturity, F1 cross combination PS × FS among the F1 hybrids showed earliness (160.7) whereas F1 cross combination BST × SRN and JNB × BST ranked first among the crosses for spike length (15.9 cm). Among the F1 hybrids, FS × SRN and TTR × BST displayed maximum spikelets spike-1 (24.3) whereas for F1 cross combinations, FS × SRN and TTR × BST had the highest...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
... free phosphorus for the growth of monogastric poultry birds. Current study deals with the production and characterization of recombinant thermostable phytase from Thermotoga naphthophila (PHYTN). This study was an initial step for the fulfilment of domestic industrial requirement of phytase in Pakistan.The PCR resulted in the amplification of 1.8 kb phytase gene. SDS-PAGE confirmed the size of recombinant protein as 70 kDa. The optimi...
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
... test. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association of cobalamin with fasting blood sugar level after adjusting for gestational age and gravidity. ROC curve analysis was conducted to assess the suitability cobalamin as a predictive biomarker for GDM. Median cobalamin were significantly reduced in cases (108.95±92 pg/mL) as compared to controls (173±90 pg/mL) at p<0.001. Low vitamin B12 ...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

...LET could inhibit oocyte growth in female and promote the development of testes in males. For the gonad differentiation related genes, the expression profiles of Cyp19A and Cyp19B show a pattern of increase in short time and low concentration, but decline in long time and high concentration. Arα has a trend of increases, ERα shows downwards trend. Dax and Foxl2 are female-biased genes, their expression profiles show similar tren...
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
...erson and Trueman), is a greatest rigorous and economical pest of Apis mellifera L. worldwide. Many control measures including application of chemicals are adapted to resistor the influx of mites in hives of honey bee. The indiscriminate use of pesticides involve many problems; cause resistance in mites, residual in honey, wax and potentially hazardous to man and environment. Plant-derived mixtures are normally more easily degr<...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...ecies, causing decreased growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Twenty-nine pools (29/59; 49%) appeared positive for AAstV, 6 pools (6/59; 10%) were positive for R...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

... randomly divided into 3 groups viz. A, B and C on the basis of physiological and productive status (n= 08). Experimental animals were allocated to diet containing zero (control), 12 and 18 percent MSC. All the three rations were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogeniuos. Each cow was given a daily feed ration according to NARC standards. Milk yield of each experimental animals were recorded twice daily while its composition were checked through milk analyzer twice a w...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...;s Chi-square test and regression model were applied to analyze the data. The results of study found Rhepicephalus the most prevalent genus followed by Heamaphysalis, Hyalomma, Dermacenter and Amblyomma with the prevalence of 78.50%, 10.33%, 10.08%, 0.67% and 0.42%, respectively. On species basis, R. (Boophilus) annulatus, R. (Boophilus) microplus, Heamaphysalis aciculifer, R. appendiculatus, and R. decoloratus ...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
...me quality parameters of grapefruit juice were investigated based on pH, acidity, ºBrix, viscosity, cloud value, hunter color values, bioactive compounds, microorganisms and enzyme analysis. The grapefruit juice was treated with processing variables of HPP treatment (0, 150, 200 and 250 MPa), temperature (40, 50 and 60 oC), for processing time of 3 minutes and thermal treatment was done in a water bath at 70 ...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...study can be used in integrated pest management program for the management of H. armigera.
...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...ina, a reintroduction program was conducted in the Dongzhai National Nature Reserve in 2007. Wild birds bred in semi-wilderness were reintroduced. Habitat selection and breeding ecology of crested ibis in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve has not been studied. To clarify the breeding status of the crested ibis and to provide more reference for the reintroduction of this species, the process of pairing, nest site selection, egg laying, incubation and brooding of...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...etative and reproductive growth, along with various and biochemical attributes, but augmented the leaf proline. SA application significantly increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, proline and decreased root length, number of roots and water use efficiency. SA treatment therefore decreased adverse effect of stress on strawberry plants. Thus the result suggests that SA at a concentration of 3mML-1 concentration could be used commer...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

...gen, while for vaccine B group mean S/P ratio dropped to 0.550 at week 6. Virus neutralization test showed that birds vaccinated with vaccine A showed neutralizing antibodies against IBV Massachusetts, 4/91, D274 and Qx types, while titers for vaccine B were not detected, suggesting a role of the poor emulsion quality on the performance of vaccine B. These results demonstrate that effective quality control and emulsion preparation are essential benchmarks of i...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...aluate the effect of fenugreek as a feed additive on the survival, growth and body composition of striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The experiment was conducted in fiberglass tank having capacity of 18 L water with a stocking density of 25 fish fry per aquaria. There were two treatment groups; T1, T2 and a control (T0) each was replicated twic...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...f rice crop at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC) Islamabad during summer 2016. Pots were induced with salinity of 7.0 dS m-1 and arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Six treatments consisted of a control (no strains) and 5 different strains of cyanobacteria i.e Oscillatory-MMF-1 (Oscillatoria princeps), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-2 (Lyngbya mucicola), Leptolyngbaya- MMF-3 (Lyngbya Phormidium), Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa)...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...0.05) variation in plant growth, yield parameters of wheat and water use efficiency. The inorganic fertilizer gave significantly higher total dry matter, grain and straw yield and also due to the greater grain yield the water use efficiency calculated was greater in the NPK treatment. Bulk density, porosity and organic...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

...re and rainfall on wheat growers’ net-return in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Data for this purpose are collected from 255 wheat growers, selected from Southern, Central and Northern climatic zones of KP. Results from descriptive statistical analysis demonstrate that net-return per acre from wheat crop is highest in the Central zone because of conducive agro-climatic ...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

...d for susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection by investigating different parameters such as embryo physiological age, co-cultivation period, addition of L-cysteine in co-cultivation medium, heat shock to immature embryos prior to infection, resting stage and Agrobacterium strains that deliver T-DNA into plant cell from which whole plant can be regenerated. The results indicated that optimal embryo physiological age is 15 a...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...ode is seasonal free and green house independent which would accelerate the work relevant to genetic transformation of maize. MS medium fortified with 3 mgL-1 BAP and 5 mgL-1 picloram produced maize seedlings with expanded coleoptilar nodes. Longitudinal cut sections of expanded coleoptilar nodes produced maximum primary calli on callus induction medium containing both 0.5mgL-1 2, 4-D and 1 mgL-1 picloram. Eighty percent of embryogenic calli were obtained on M...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
... viability, membrane integrity, morphology, malondialdehyde (MDA), fatty acid composition and super oxide dismutase (SOD). Sperm characteristics such as sperm motility, viability, morphology, membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were decreased in treated groups. DHA concentration was increased in all supplemented gr<...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
... were selected and seven groups were made consisting five cattle. Group A was controls: Animals in Group B and C were at 45 days prepartum with and without VES: animals in D and E were at day 60 prepartum with and without VES: animals in F and G were at 75 days prepartum stage with and without VES: respectively. At day 0 of experimental trial VES was given to animals in group C, E and G. All gr
Rabia Arif*, Shahar Bano, Muhammad Ishfaq and Muhammad Saleem
...icola. Circular Phylogram showed close relatedness among the strains under study and potential association with the Ascomycetes. This study for the first time reports the variations at the molecular level between strains from two different environments. V3 and V4 regions showed genetic variations at two sites i.e., 212 A (C); 213 G (A) in strains isolated from the stressful environment while V9 showed no polymorphism. Sequences were submitted to NCB...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
...ks were divided into two groups: TN and HAT zones. Chicks in TN group were housed at constant room temperature, while chicks in HAT zone were kept at high ambient temperature. Chicks in each group were further divided into four sub groups. Each sub group was further subdivided into four replicates having ten chick...

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

...related traits in the geographical location of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The experiment was conducted at The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during the cropping season of 2016. Randomized complete block design was used, having two replications and 35 genotypes, comprised of 33 hybrids and two local checks. Data were recorded on days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% anthesis, days to 50% silking, anthesis silking interval, plant h...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
... of field assistants in Agricultural Extension, the present study was commenced in district Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during year 2014. Eight villages were selected randomly. Among all the farmers, 120 farmers were evaluated through valid, reliable and pre-tested interview schedule. Data collected was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 20. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The study has revealed that field ...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
...ng percentage, number of grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, harvest index, grain and biological yield. Maximum marginal rate of return was obtained with foliar application of both Zn and B and using foliar Zn alone. Integrated B and Zn application produced more marginal rate of returns both in soil and foliar applications. Use of foliar Zn application al...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

... is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficient strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis. Several anti-VEGF drugs have been developed over the last ...
Mahmood-Ul-Hassan*, Naeem Fiaz, Muhammad Akhlaq Mudassir and Muhammad Yasin
...ubsequent ratoon in cane growing areas. A field study was conducted on loamy soil during 2011-2013 at Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI), Faisalabad to explore the ratooning ability of five sugarcane varieties/clones under varying harvesting dates of plant crop using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangements. The cane genotypes viz. S2003-US-704, S2006-SP-30, S2003-US-410, S2006-US-321 and HSF 240 (check) were kept in main plo...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
... species due to its slow growth and high mortality due to unavailability of suitable diet especially at juveniles stage. This study focus on the healthy production with low cost by using sunflower meal to some extent replace fish meal. In this 3× 3 factorial and completely randomized design study 324 fish were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) whereas the phytase levels were (0, 500 and 1000 FTU). The addition of 3 % citric acid and 100...

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

...examined the effects of Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund on agricultural outputs in three different agricultural subsectors in Nigeria. Data on the value of output of crop, livestock and fishery subsectors of agriculture,and the amounts of the fund allocated to each subsector from 1982 to 2013 were subjected to econometrics (time series) analysi...

Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...’s rice exports is greater in Vietnamese rice markets. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and Relative Trade Advantage Index (RTA) were used to understand the relative competitive advantages of China and Vietnam rice export. The results showed that Vietnamese rice comparative advantage grew steadily in the Chinese market. Overall Sino-Vietnam rice export competition is not strong, it is helpful to reduce trade ...

Abbas Ullah Jan1, Muhammad Fayaz1*, Yousaf Hayat2, Dawood Jan3 and Ghaffar Ali3 

...e is constant for dates, grapes, guava and mango and tends to increase in all fruits, apple, banana and citrus with increase in household income for urban households. For rural households with increase in household income, quantity elasticity of all the fruits tends increase with the exception of grapes where it decreases and remains constant in dates. The estimated quality elasticities reveal that both the urban and rural h...
Mehmet Guvenc1,*, Ayşe Nilay Guvenc3, Ökkeş Yılmaz2 and Mehmet Tuzcu2
...ndomly divided into four groups; control, resveratrol, fructose, and resveratrol plus fructose. Resveratrol was administered 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Fructose (10% w/v) was administered with drinking water for 56 days every alternate day. Fructose administration increased the hepatic omega-6/omega-3 and 16:1 n7 / 16:0 ratios (p<0.001, p<0.001), but decreased the retinol and alfa tocoferol levels (p<0.01) compared with control ...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...The highest and lowest degrees of population size, richness and evenness and diversity were recorded in agriculture crops and fodder crops, respectively. 

...
Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
...xplore the catch-up like growth from diallel cross-breeding due to its similarity with high growth speed in the later period for common carp Cyprinus carpio L cross-breeding. A compensatory index matrix for 3×3 full diallel cross combinations used for selection was built to investigate compensatory like growth of each combination. Yes/No(Y/N) effect was determined for specific...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
... efficient for producing growth within 36 h while method A produced within 48 h nevertheless both had the same positivity (70%). While other two methods C (filtrate into broth) and D (filtrate onto agar) produced just 40% and 31%. Moreover, the C methods is the most time consuming method for growth production. The former two methods were superior in their productivity 30% and 39% over C and D methods, respectively. The tPCR ...

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...y is a crucial issue in agricultural credit market, and Pakistan is no exception. The aim of this study is to explore the credit fungibility and credit margin of investment among different farmers’ group in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The data were collected from 87 subsistence farmers in Mardan sub-district. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the study area. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
... July, the winged form migrated to the secondary host, where successive generations have been born through parthenogenetic reproduction. Gynopara in October return to the primary host and give birth to wingless oviparae that mate with males and lay winter eggs. The biometrical measurements of Aphis nasturtii help to complete knowledge on external morphology of this species. By knowledge of biology and ecology of Aphis nasturtii a protocol for the...
Rehana Shahida1, Tasnim Farasat1, Shagufta Naz1,* and Shahjahan2
...ar damage. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, waist /hip ratio, B.P., personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Fasting glucose and HbA1c was done by chemistry analyzer. Fasting serum insulin, IL-6, TNF-α and thrombomodulin levels were assessed by ELIZA. Gene expression was measured by RT-PCR. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were high in IGT and diabetic gr

Arshad Iqbal1*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1 and Muhammad Sharif Kakar

...15 at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar. The randomized complete block design with three replications was used in the experiment. Data were recorded on yield and some other important plant traits like days to heading (days), days to maturity (days), flag leaf area (cm2), spike length (cm), grains spike-1 (no.), grains weight spike-1 (g), biological yield (kg ha-1) and

Sikandar Hayat, Khalid Usman* and Muhammad Tahir Amin 

...r zero tillage wheat at Agronomic Research Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan (D. I. Khan), Pakistan in 2015-2016 wheat growing season. The experimental design was randomized complete block with split plot arrangement replicated thrice. Four row-spacing i.e., 10, 20, 30, and 40cm were assigned to main-plots while N fertilizer application methods (broadcast and...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Muhammad Saeed Akhtar1, Maryam Umer1, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Muhammad Imran Din3
...lant extracts by chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed five different compounds in F. vulgare: Piperidine, 3-isopropyl, Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,3,3-trimethyl, Benzaldehyde, 4-methoxy, Estragole, 11-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester and 9-Octadecenoic acid ethyl ester. Whereas nine different compounds were identified in extracts of O. basilicum. These were: 1-Isopropyl-2, 2-dimethylpropylideneamine, Camphor, Naphthalene, Thymol, 1,...
Nehafta Bibi1, Muhammad Shafiq2, Munawar Saleem Ahmad3 and Haitao Wang1,4,*
...>The tendency to consume greater amount of food in social context has traditionally been attributed as social facilitation, which is an important characteristic of social and flocking birds. In this study, we investigated Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus) dominant individuals for neophobia and influence of social context on foraging. In our experiments, a subject (observer) was presented with three novel and familiar food in each of three contexts: aso...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...fects plant vitality and grain production. Planting resistant/tolerant varieties against pests is the main way to overcome these field losses. Present study is an effort to screen different wheat varieties/lines against aphids under field conditions. Wheat varieties, Galaxy-13, Millat-11, Lasani-08, Faisalabad-08, and two wheat lines NW-1-8183-8 and NW-3-3341-7 were sown at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...ith the aim to increase agricultural productivity and income of farmers. This study was conducted with the aim to assess the effects of micro-credit programme of KBL on agricultural productivity in district Mardan in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The study was conducted in three purposively selected villages namely; Nasir Kaly, Shankar and Kodeenaka. From the field surveys, it w...
Tahira*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan and Mubashar Ahmad Khan
...d out to determine the degree of variation among rapeseed hybrids and the best selection criteria for yield enhancement in rapeseed (Brassica napus).For this thirty-six rapeseed hybrids were sown in a RCBD with four repeats at NARC, Islamabad during the cropping season 2014 and 2015. Cluster analysis based on WARD’s method showed considerable genetic variation among the hybrids. In the first year, thirty- six Brassica hybrids were
Muhammad Imran Mahmood* and Muhammad Zubair
...t irrigation sources and growth parameters of forest trees Shisham, Neem, Siri and Sufeda. The effect of different irrigation levels exhibited the highest plant height in Sufeda under flooding which were 135 and 125cm after and before the experiment. However, Neem showed maximum plant height after experiment (103 cm) under drought condition. But, the minimum plant height (57 cm) before experiment was observed in Sufeda under droughtexhibiting 50% decline than ...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
...Estuary. We employed the group follow protocol, which resulted in 260 h of direct observation. Our results revealed feeding as the most frequent activity in the estuary, totaling nearly two thirds of all records. We also identified two sites of Guiana dolphin habitat preference in our study area, where sightings remarkably totalled > 62% of observation records. These sites (especially Guaraqueçaba Bay) were not only important for feeding, but also fo...
Boran Karataş, Muhammed Arabaci and Şükrü Önalan*
... study is to analyze the growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (G) and brown trout (Salmo trutta ssp) (K) monoculture and polyculture in 75-25%, 66-34% and 50-50% stocking rates and its effects on food utilization and to determine the results with respect to aquaculture. Stocking was conducted in 5 different ratios in the study and each different stocking ratio was considered as a group and ...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
...ria (LAB) additives. The groups were as follow: silage without additive as a control (c); glucose 1% fresh matter basis (G1); glucose 2% (G2); glucose 3% (G3); Lactobacillus Plantarum (LAB1); Pediococuss acidilactici (LAB2); Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LAB3). All the silos were incubated at 25°C. Then, 90 days later, the fermentation quality of tested silages was analyzed. No significant difference was found between the control and treate...
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...that CdGSTP1-1 is grouped with the enzyme from S. scrofa. The 3D homology model of CdGSTP1-1 showed similar fold and topology with the porcine GSTpi enzyme. Gene expression analysis in five camel tissues was examined employing real-time PCR. The highest level of transcripts was found in the camel testis, followed by liver, spleen, kidney and lung. CdGSTP1-1 was heterologously expressed in Eschericia coli BL21(DE3) as a ~24 kD...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
... were divided into three groups as control, drug and oil which were respectively treated with water, fluoxetine (0.3 mg/kg) and fennel oil (0.5 ml/day). The treatment was continued for three weeks. Struggling time in forced swim test (FST), number of square crossed in open field test (OFT) and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze (EPM) was monitored weekly. Repeated administration of fennel oil for 3 weeks showed significant antidepressant- and anxioly...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
...div>KIT encodes a growth factor receptor that is expressed in the precursor of the melanophore. It plays an important role in the multiplication, migration and survival of melanophores. As of yet, no studies have addressed the diverse expression of the KIT gene and its protein ingoats of different fur colors. The effect of KIT mutations on KIT protein expression was examined in white cashmere and ...