Francisco J. Ayala and John C. Avise (eds.)
Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 547 pp., $47.64 (hbk),
ISBN 1421413051.

Reviewed by David Pindel

 

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...of essential readings in evolutionary biology exists, despite the fact that evolution remains central to and is the unifying principle of the biological sciences. To remedy this, they have put together an impressive collection of classical papers, encompassing virtually all aspects of evolutionary biology and including all of key figures in the development of this field.

 

...

Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...ic analysis of RVAs has revolutionized the study of RVA genomics, providing a plethora of conclusive and vital data on the overall genetic diversity, true origin and complex evolutionary patterns of human RVA strains. In this review, we have summarized and discussed the significance of recent research outcomes obtained from whole genomic analysis of common and unusual human RVAs. 

...

Lei Chen, Ling Zhu, Zhi-Wen Xu, Wan-Zhu Guo

 

Molecular Genetics of Aichivirus C (Porcine Kobuvirus) in China
...re needed to clarify the evolutionary features and pathogenicity of Aichivirus C.

 

...

David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 265 pp., ISBN 13: 978-1-4214-1326-6

Reviewed by Francisco J. Ayala, University Professor & Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, email: fjayala@uci.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...>.

...

H. Bruce Rinker

...emergence of ecology and evolutionary thinking. However, the strict determinism and mechanistic assumptions inherent in the physical sciences delayed unification and, thereby, contributed inadvertently to the present-day scourges of fragmentation such as human-accelerated climate change and biodepletion. A philosophia prima is now required to repair and reunite human thought to achieve a consilient valuing as a platform for our survival. One such system of con...

Yanina Panzera1*, Nicolas Sarute1, Lucia Carrau1, Jaime Aldaz2, Ruben Perez1

...f the genetic diversity, evolution, and epidemiology of the virus in several countries. Our study allowed us to establish the presence of four genetic lineages in South America, being the continent with more lineages described to date, underscoring the high genetic diversity of the circulating strains.

...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

...f vaccination by genetic evolution and antigen variation. Moreover, the ratio of L226 in the haemagglutin (HA) receptor binding site has increased, which indicates that the H9N2 virus has the increasing potential to infection and cause human epidemics. The threat to the poultry industry and public health should not be ignored. In this review, we summarised the findings of recent studies on H9N2 AIVs epidemics and strategies for their prevention in poultry in C...

Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

...ated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. These single stranded nucleic acid aptamers can acquire various secondary and tertiary structures to bind their cognate targets with high affinity and specificity. The ease in synthesis and modification makes them an attractive candidate for a variety of applications. Since the last decade, aptamers have been regarded as an emerging player in biology. They have found applications not only in biosensors, ...

Maureen McKeague1, Maria C. DeRosa2*

...ated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. The selection of aptamers with optimal specificity and high affinity remains a challenge, leading to the recent emergence of elegant new approaches and tools for SELEX. In this commentary, we discuss recent advancements in the selection of aptamers.

...

Varadaraja V. Raman

...ng instance was in post-Revolutionary France during the Reign of Terror. On the other hand disgruntled, oppressed, and frustrated citizens (Irish Catholics, Algerian Muslims, Sri Lankan Tamils, etc.) have terrorized people and governments for various causes.There has also been terrorism by the majority on the minority in communities and nations: for example, Jews in Nazi Germany, Kurds in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and Blacks in South Africa. In recent years...

Rabbi Paul Shrell-Fox

...terviewed to explore the evolution of their religious faith and its impact on their religious practice and behavior. In as much as Judaism places a great emphasis on communal deeds rather than cultural creed, the rabbis still feel comfortable functioning in communities, school settings and informal educational roles. We therefore may expect little existential angst; this was found to be only partially true. Some have found other expressions of their talents, w...

Marcus Mann

... Harris’s example, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins published his book, The God Delusion, cognitive philosopher Daniel Dennett came out with Breaking the Spell and journalist and literary critic Christopher Hitchens concluded the movement’s must-read canon with God is Not Great. While these four polemics are indicative of each author’s expertise, they are united in their claim that organized religion is an affront to reason and that we ...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

...gh the reconstruction of evolutionary history and spatial dissemination of pathogens. Infection of a single host can be viewed similarly as an epidemic spread on a microscale, creating a unique opportunity for the application of phylogeography at the intra-host level, which has until recently been limited by dataset quality and the lack of a rigorous statistical framework. As recently described in studies using the SIV-macaque model of neur...

Reviewed by Dr William Patterson

... the evidence supporting evolutionary biology. It was rightly seen by many as one of the best books yet written on that subject for a general audience and deservedly spent time on the bestsellers list. In his second book, Faith vs. Fact: Why Science and Religion are Incompatible, Coyne does less well. His aim is to demonstrate that the contrasting mindsets underlying science (with its emphasis on rationality, evidence, experimentation, and observation) an...

Maurice A. Finocchiaro

...rsy over creationism and evolutionism; they stress such attitudes as impartiality, judiciousness, and even-handedness.

...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

... in the transmission and evolution dynamics of PPMV-1.

...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...ersity suggests a higher evolutionary rate. Haplotype diversity and Nucleotide diversity (genetic diversity) of a species population is often related to the ecological systems, evolutionary rate, adaptation of the species, gene flow, epidemiology and control strategies. Our study observed that the two laboratory grown species of tsetse flies may be genetically related.

...

Usman Ijaz1, Muhammad Sajid Tahir2, Khalid Abdul Majeed3*, Shahid Iqbal4, Iffat Huma5, S. Firyal6, Ijaz Ahmed7, Shahid Chohan8 and Aamir Riaz Khan9 

...igned to investigate the evolutionary relationship of the Panthera pardus subspecies found in Pakistan by exploring the partial DNA sequences of mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Scat samples of 15 different known leopards were collected from Nathiagali, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. After amplification with specific oligos, the amplicons of partial region of COI were subjected to sequenci...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

Imed Ben Salem*, Aymen Ben Ibrahim, M’barek Chetoui and Said Nouira

... related to a phenotypic evolution due to selective pressure, as is also the case in the genus Gerbillus.

...
Waqar Islam*1, 2, Madiha Zaynab3, Muhammad Qasim2 and Zujian Wu1,2
...ave undergone continuous evolution and have equipped themselves with counter defense and tolerant strategies against viral infections. In the 21st century, considerable progress has been made in understanding the available natural resistance in plants against viral threats. The review aims to explain the molecular mechanisms involved in triggering the antiviral resistance in plants. Antiviral RNA silencing, R-gene mediated resistance and host factor...
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

Neenish Rana, Nosheen Ehsan, Awais Ihsan and Farrukh Jamil*
...al by-products of genome evolution. However, it has been indicated by several lines of evidences that some pseudogenes are active. Using current data of NCBI we have retrieved 65 pseudogenes from the genome sequence of human pathogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strain 26695. Computational analysis of the genome showed 6 transcriptionally active pseudogenes that can produce stable mRNA secondary structure compared to their functiona...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...-based) techniques have revolutionized the diagnosis of plant viruses. While the technologies available to virologists have obviously become more diverse and improved, the challenges have also changed greatly.Detection of plant viruses is becoming more critical as globalization of trade,particularly in horticultural commodities increase. The potential effects of climate change have further aggravated the movement of viruses and their vectors, transforming the ...

Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control
... field has potential to revolutionize agriculture and food systems. We utilized nano-technological interventions for developing nanopesticides with potent fungicidal and miticidal properties. Nanosulphur and nanohexaconazole were prepared using encapsulation technique. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the nano-structure of nanopesticides. Nanoparticles of...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
...well as their functional evolution post duplication. Overall, the whole set of GST genes provide essential genomic resources for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies in common carp.
...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...f the genetic nature and evolutionary behavior of these viruses in the country.

...
Farid S. Ataya,1,2,* Dalia Fouad,3,4 Ajamaluddin Malik,1 Nikolaos E. Labrou,5 Mohamed S. Daoud1,6 and Hesham M. Saeed7
...information into camelid evolution and give further insights into the diversity and complex enzymatic functions of GST superfamily.
...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...ave played a key role in evolution and speciation of the Siwalik fauna especially the mammals.

...
Francisco J. Ayala
...question of teleology in evolutionary biology. This requires further discussion. Scientifically speaking, we can perceive design in nature without a designer. On the one hand, there is purpose in nature. Human eyes have a purpose, namely, to see. Teleological explanations are required in biology for (1) goal oriented behavior; (2) self-regulating systems; and (3) the function of organs and limbs. On the other hand, the natural history of ...
Ted Peters
...on OH; and distinguished evolutionary biologist and winner of the Presidential Medal for Science, Francisco J. Ayala. I offer responses to each critique.
...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...he concept of Evergreen Revolution. They have the potential to improve value cost ratio (VCR) of agricultural production. Pakistan faces increase in degraded lands, water shortage, energy crisis, all contributing to poverty. During last two decades, many efforts were made to address the issue through developing and applying the inoculants. Several research institutions including National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan contributed sign...
Dildar Hussain Kalhoro1,2,, Shan Liang1, Muhammad Saleem Kalhoro2, Shoaib Ahmed Pirzado2, Nasir Rajput2, Muhammad Naeem2, Fahmida Parveen2 andYongjie Liu1*
...). The HA and NA genetic evolution analysis revealed that one isolate was most similar to the newly isolated H3N2 viruses from dogs in China and had the same evolutionary branching. The result provided a foundation for further studies on biological characteristics of CIV.
...
Zheng Quan Jiang1,2, Feng Shan Li3, Jiang Hong Ran1,*, Chen Hao Zhao1, Man Zhang1 and Hua Li4
...anding the life history, evolution and adaptation of birds. A survey was conducted on nest size and the underlying regulatory factors of Black-necked Cranes from 25 March to 31 July in 2013 and 2014 at Ruoergai Internationally Important Wetland and its surrounding area, covering 83 nests. Four types of nests were found in the area, i.e., natural island nest, grass mound nest, dirt mound nest and floating grass nest. The nest length, nest width, nest hei...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...d to study their genetic evolution followed by estimation of their evolutionary rates among different virus clusters. This analysis revealed a high evolution rate for clade 2.2.1.2. Additionally, analysis of selection pressures in the HA gene revealed a positive selection pressure. Deduced amino acid analysis revealed characteristic mutations at HA antigenic sites besides two other mutatio...
Shuai Shang1,2, Honghai Zhang2,*, Xiaoyang Wu2, Qinguo Wei2, Jun Chen1, Huanxin Zhang1, Huaming Zhong2 and Xuexi Tang1,*
...in many species, but the evolution and repertoire of Tas2r genes in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) was still unknown. As a true omnivorous mammal, the Tas2r genes may play a critical role in food selection of raccoon dogs. Thus, we explored the evolution of Tas2r genes in raccoon dogs. In this study, Tas2r genes including eleven intact genes and four pseudogenes from raccoon dogs we...

Syed Muhammad Hassan Raza1*, Syed Amer Mahmood1, Veraldo Liesenberg2 and Syed Shehzad Hassan1  

... from egg laying to pupa evolution stage. The results obtained highlight that 73% of the investigation area were venerable for a female YSB to lay 100-143 eggs on April 03, that increased up to 96% to lay 148-176 eggs on April 19, due to increase in temperature. On May 05, about 5377 km2 area was found in egg hatching phase, on May 21, 1514 km2 area was found in larva evolution phase and on June 22, 1725 km2 area was found i...
Wei Meng1,3, Tianyan Yang2,*, Yunguo Liu1, Mahmut Halik1 and Tianxiang Gao2
...ing method to reveal the evolutionary relationships within subfamily Schizothoracinae. Three different grades of schizothoracine fishes were well recognized from each other in branching diagram. The primitive group and the specialized group + the highly specialized group constituted a sister relationship with strong supports.
...

Yasir Ali1*, Muhammad Aslam Khan1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Muhammad Hussain2

... in early part of green revolution retained their resistance for longer period due to presence of non-specific rust resistance genes. Until now, 187 rust resistance genes (80 leaf rust, 49 stripe rust, 58 stem rust) have been described from different wheat and durum cultivars and related local species using different molecular approaches. This review provides a detailed discussion of the different aspects for controlling three rust diseases caused by P. recond...

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...mic status of economical evolution. Overall requirements for this purpose in 2028–30 is estimated at approximately 5.30 million/tons from which domestic share could be only 1.99 million/tons. Generally, the genetically modified cotton (Bacillus thuringiensis) was acquaint in Pakistan during the first decade of this century to moderate harmful effects of lepidopterous insects; which were causing major loss to the cotton production ultimately to the econom...

Waqas Ali* and Mudasser Habib 

...rts on its selection and evolutionary pathways are rare. In present study, 336 strains of serotype O (n = 178), A (n = 82) and Asia 1 (n = 76) were downloaded from NCBI database that mainly belonging to Pakistan, along with three vaccinal strains. Phylogenetic analysis (maximum likelihood) showed that lineages Pan Asia II, An Iran-05, and Group VII within serotype O, A and Asia 1 are causing majority of the outbreaks in the Pakistan during recent years. Moreov...
Fehmeeda Fatima, Asif Nadeem* and Maryam Javed
...dy genetic diversity and evolutionary characteristics of Sindh ibex. In this research, samples of Sindh ibex were collected from Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan, the gene of interest was amplified, PCR products were sequenced and data was analyzed. The results of genetic diversity indicated that Parsimony informative sites were found to be 11 while Singleton variable sites were not detected. The total number of haplotypes (h) was found to be 17 and hapl...

 Halil Erhan Eroğlu

The comparison of the Felidae species with karyotype symmetry/asymmetry index (S/AI)
...an be compared. Also the evolutionary
relationships of higher organisms can be determined. The symmetry/asymmetry
index is applied to the Felidae species. After a comprehensive literature search,
karyotype formulae, S/AI values and karyotype types of 23 species were
determined. According to the S/AI values, a phylogenetic tree was drawn showing
relationships among the species.

...
Zhiwen Zou, Jianfei Xi, Fen Chen, Rui Xu, Tianrong Xin and Bin Xia*
...lecular evidence for the evolution, but also provide a better way to identify phytoseiid species in citrus.
...

 Tazeen Jamil, Saba Ijaz, Rabia Arif*, Faiza Akram and Muhammad Saleem

Ihsan Ullah Khan*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan, Muhammad Ashraf, Ashiq Saleem, Sundas Awan, Samra Azam and Shamim Ul Sibtain Shah 

...eeding and consequently revolutionized sunflower seed sector. The high impact of heterosis on the yield and other yield contributing traits in the hybrids, as revealed in this study, offers good prospects for the future use of hybrid breeding in sunflower if genetically more diverse germplasm is incorporated in breeding programs. 

...

Amer Mumtaz2*, Muhammad Suhail Ibrahim1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui2, Muhammad Naeem Safdar2, Masooma Munir2, Aqsa Qayyum2, Sahar Shibli2 and Muhammad Khalid Ibrahim3 

... audible frequency have revolutionized food industries being inexpensive and green technology. The technology has wide range of application in food industry. Ultra-sonication, thermo sonication, man osonication and man othermosonication are used in food industries for various objectives. Sound waves produce acoustic effect and when bubble produced bursts it results in mechanical energy responsible for inactivation of the pathogenic organisms present in food by...
SiRui Wang1,2, Fekede Regasa Joka1,2, XiaoLong Wang1,2,* and SuYing Bai2,*
...ance (Mx) protein in the evolution of different wild birds, 10 wild bird species, including Anas formosa, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Mergus squamatus, Accipiter nisus, Buteo hemilasius, Buteo lagopus, Passer montanus, Psittacula roseata and Emberiza elegans, were selected.The sequences of the GTPase effector domain (GED) of the Mx gene were determined by PCR sequencing. The haplotype...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

... onwards with continuous evolution and diversity. In the present study, manure from specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of NDV and kept at room temperature ranged from 20 to 25oc which is nearly the same as poultry farms on different coupon surfaces (metal, plastic and cooling pads). Daily examination of poultry manure for the persistence of NDV was conducted on the basis of virus isolation followed by haemagglutination as...
Sun Hong1, Zhang Yifeng1, Wang Baishi2, Li Yangwei1, Xu Wenbo1, Mao Runkun1 and Wang Zhenglong1,*
...stigations regarding the evolutionary, physiological, and molecular basis of hypoxia-hypercapnia inmandarin voles.
...
Zhengfei Wang*, Dan Tang, Xuejia Shi, Huayun Guo, Xiuping Chen, Daizheng Zhang and Boping Tang*
...ical role of PCGs in the evolution of extreme environmental tolerance by Bythograeidae crabs.
...
Yan-Bin Zhu1, Wang-Dui Basang1, Zhan-Dui Pingcuo1, Yang-Ji Cidan1, Sang Luo1, Dun-Zhu Luosang1, Yang-La Dawa1 and Guang-Xin E2,3,* 
...rt for understanding the evolution and migration of yak population in future studies.
...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 51, Iss. 6, Pages 1999-2399

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