Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...as important for disease emergence. Several of the mechanism by which urban disease emergence is promoted also increase the risks of vector-borne diseases, and the mosquito-borne Dengue virus is one of the pathogens benefitting from this. The related virus Japanese encephalitis virus is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world, and is maintained in avian reservoirs and amplified by pigs. The occas...

H. Bruce Rinker

...th century CE marked the emergence of modern science that later accelerated especially with the emergence of ecology and evolutionary thinking. However, the strict determinism and mechanistic assumptions inherent in the physical sciences delayed unification and, thereby, contributed inadvertently to the present-day scourges of fragmentation such as human-accelerated climate change and biodepletion. A philosophia prima is now...

Maureen McKeague1, Maria C. DeRosa2*

...e, leading to the recent emergence of elegant new approaches and tools for SELEX. In this commentary, we discuss recent advancements in the selection of aptamers.

...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...oga cerealella Olive, on emergence of and para- sitism by female Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) emerged from HaNPV- treated host eggs. The percent emergence (mean) of tiny parasitoid from host eggs treated during egg, larval and pupal stages with the virus at field dose (x), 2x dose, and 0.5x dose ranged from 83.2- 87.3%, 87.1- 91.6%, and 83.7- 89.7%, respectively, relative to control eggs treated with water. The parasitism r...

Ozgur Koca

...roblem as evinced by the emergence of many militant and terrorist organizations like al-Qaeda, ISIL, Boko Haram and the escalation of sectarian violence between the Shi’a and the Sunnis in Iraq and Syria.

...

Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
... host of ideas about the emergence and propagation of life on earth which, to the lay believer, seemed outright un-Godly. Marwa Elshakry, now an Associate Professor of History at Columbia University, explores the encounter of the Arab world with these and many other Western technologies and ideas in her wide-ranging Reading Darwin in Arabic through a panoramic lens, which then zooms in to focus on specific individuals. Thus we meet Free Masons, missionaries, c...

Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye1, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji1, 2 *

...(SWN) contributed to the emergence of these lineages. In 2013 sewage contaminated water samples were collected from two sites in Lagos, Nigeria. Samples were concentrated and inoculated into MCF-7 and RD cell lines. Isolates from MCF-7 were passaged in RD and L20B cell lines while isolates from RD cell line were passaged in L20B cell line. Subsequently, all isolates were subjected to panenterovirus 5l-UTR, partial VP1 and EV-C-3Dpol/3’-UTR PCR assays, am...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...istribution patterns and emergence of BT can be predicted by the abundance of the Culicoides species in a specified locality so that control measures
can be implemented well in time to contain the disease spread.

...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Mohammad Tariq Jan2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3 and Abdul Bari4

... interaction for maximum emergence, visible crop stand leading to yield and yield components. Significant differences were observed among cane portions and setts placement methods for all the traits except emergence %. Planting sources exhibited significant differences for emergence percentage. The interaction of cane portions and setts placement methods were significant except for

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...F) protein indicated the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of the F and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes indicated that the isolate clustered with the PPMV-1 strains recently reported from Israel within subgenotype VIb. Our findings report the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egyptian pigeons and the potential role these wild birds can play in the transmission and evolution dynamics of PPMV-1.

...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...rgence and re-emergence of FMD virus genotypes/lineages has been detected necessitating frequent replacement of the vaccine strains. The present review summarizes the knowledge generated in epidemiology, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease in the Maghreb countries.

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...mers contributed to this emergence.

...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

...tion period) and earlier emergence of first worker were found in polycarbonate box as compared to others. Similarly, colony foundation stage in polycarbonate box took 58.3 days which was about 7-10 days shorter than others box types. Early emergence of sexual were observed in polycarbonate box with maximum numbers of daughter queens and males emerged 1.7-4.0 fold higher than from cardboard and wooden material boxes. Foundati...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

... A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria mellonella was observed with White traps than with modified Baermann trays. Maximum juveniles of S. feltiae emerged at 50 IJ dose followed by 100 IJ. The emergence of IJ decreased significantly at the dose of 200 IJ and then increased with 400 IJ dose. The minimum number of juveniles emerged at the dose of 200 IJ. The relationship between inoculation dose a...

Muhammad Raheel1,*, Nazir Javed2, Sajid Aleem Khan2, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3 and Sohail Ahmed4

...ra. Time taken for first emergence of IJs from the host was shortest at 25oC i.e. 7-8 days in case of S. asiaticum and S. feltiae, while 11-13 days for H. bacteriophora and H. indica. Maximum emergence time was taken by S. feltiae at 10oC.

...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...ased. The data regarding emergence, parasitism, sex ratio, tibia length, adult weight and adult longevity of parasitoid D. rapae after the application of treatments was studied and analyzed statistically. The study revealed that plant extract can be toxic to paprasitoid D. rapae. This study will help us to use those insecticide formulations, which not only kill the aphid pests but are also eco-friendly to natural enemies and our environment.

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

...eported to influence the emergence of genetic variation and long-term persistence of the virus in an area. Since the first report of ASF in Nigeria, periodic outbreaks have continued to occur among domestic pigs with a few incidences in wild pigs. However, to investigate the risk of a tick-domestic pig transmission cycle in Nigeria, 3,288 serum samples were collected from domestic pigs from 10 states and analysed for anti-tick antibodies using the recombinant ...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management

Goutam Samui and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal incidence and management of Apsylla cistellata Bucton. on mango in West Bengal
...o end of February. Adult emergence occurred from fourth week of February and continued up to third week of March. Nymphs initially fed from midrib of leaf and then entered into the gall which they formed on the emerging vegetative buds resulting in total failure of such buds to put forth inflorescence properly. Repeated spraying without proper knowledge on the life cycle did not give good result in managing the pest. Hence, application of insecticides had to b...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...n no-mulch practice, but emergence in plastic mulching. Plants took less days to emergence (6 days) in 70% FYM, however, tasseling (45 days), silking (49 days) and physiological maturity (94 days) arrived earlier in no-fertilized plots. Tasseling, silking and maturity delayed with increasing urea N proportion in residue or plastic mulching. The days’ differences for silking across the years were apparent in residue mul...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

....20cm2) and more days to emergence (9.92 and 8.98), was recorded from salinity levels of 135mM and 90mM, respectively compared with maximum germination (94.80%), tillers plant-1 (4.42), leaves plant-1 (17.45), leaf area (32.10cm2) less number of days to emergence (7.54) from control. All growth parameters were significantly improved by seed priming with CaCl2 except shoot length (cm). It is concluded that salinity stresses h...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...rtality, pupal and adult emergence of 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera litura F. under laboratory conditions. Both NPV and flubendiamide were applied using diet incorporation method. Larvae were allowed to feed for 48 h. Mortality was recorded until larvae died or pupated. Second instar larvae showed more susceptibility as compared with 4th instar larvae. Maximum mortality was recorded in 2nd instar lar...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
... reduced the time to 50% emergence (E50), mean emergence time (MET) and emergence index (EI) of both soybean varieties. Moreover, osmo priming had no significant effect on E50, MET and EI that was at par with control. On an average, days to maturity (96.42), plant height (25.84 cm), plant population at harvest (25.22), 1000-seed weight (94.97 g), seed yield (1.71 t ha...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
... percent pupation, adult emergence and pupal weight decreased in treated populations as compared with control populations. The results of this study can be used in integrated pest management program for the management of H. armigera.
...
Mubashir Hussain1,Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3 and Sohail Latif4
...ving method and seedling emergence method. The data were collected on the seed density m-2, seed frequency, diversity of weed species and relative importance value. The input and output data was also collected to find out the socioeconomic feasibility of the techniques. The comparative analysis of seed bank extraction methods revealed higher weed seeds density, weed frequency with more diversity of weed species under sieving method in comparison to ...

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...des were applied as post emergence with three different doses each viz:,Ally max @ 34.58, 46.11 and 23.04 g ha-1, Lihua @ 53.34, 72.4 and 36.23 g ha-1, and Wheat Star @ 370.5, 494 and 247 g ha-1 and Buctril super 60% EC @ 741, 988 and 494 ml ha-1. An untreated control and hand weeded plot was also included in the trial. Wheat variety AUR-2009 was sown as a test crop and the herbicide was applied 65 days after sowing. All herbicides were sprayed as post-

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

...ata analysis showed that emergence m-2 affected by varieties only. Both crop phenology (i.e. days to tasseling, silking & maturity) as well as morphology (i.e. plant height, ear height, including ear length) was affected (p<0.05)by sowing dates. Likewise, yield traits (i.e. rows per ear, grains per ear, thousand grain weight) were also adversely affected by sowing dates, which decreases both biomass and grain yield. Varieties did differ in phenology (i....

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...nown critical stages (at emergence, 4 leaves, 8 leaves and tassel visible and blister) performed better as compared with other treatments applied for obtaining good return from maize crop in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Province, Pakistan. 

...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...atistically similar. The emergence of Steinernematids started from the 14th day and that of Heterorhabditids from the 17th day. In case of Heterorhabditids, the maximum emergence of H. bacteriophora IJ (199,894) was recorded on the 23rd day and that of H. indica on the 20th day (99,495). On the other hand, in case of Steinernematids, the maximum ...

Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik** and M. Aslam Gill***

EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS, TILLAGE PRACTICES AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON WHEAT STAND ESTABLISHMENT UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...2. On the basis of wheat emergence (m-2) and emergence rate index, wheat stand establishment was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the fallow-wheat cropping system compared to maize-wheat, mungbean-wheat, and cowpea-wheat system. Tillage practices (shallow and deep) and fertilizer treatments {recommended dose of fertilizer (F); fertilizer + manure (F+FYM); manure only (FYM) and control (C)} did not show significant effect ...

 Nasreen Sultana* and A.Ghaffar**

...control of pre- and post-emergence infection of L. theobromae in seedling of bottle gourd in vitro and in vivo. G. virens has been found most effective to reduce seed and root infection in vivo whereas B. subtilis performed best to reduce seed and seedling infection of bottle gourd in vitro.

...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik**, M. Aslam Gill*** and
Nasir M. Cheema*

Corresponding author: parvezkhaliq786@yahoo.com

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON MAIZE FODDER YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...was observed -2 that the emergence count m , maize fodder biomass, plant height, number of leaves per plant and maize fodder yield enhanced, with the application of RF+FYM. However, the effect of FYM+RF and recommended dose of fertilizer was statistically non-significant and on average basis RF+FYM treatment -1 produced higher green fodder (19971.5 kg ha ) than fodder yield of 18349.1 kg -1 ha produced by applying recommended dose of fertilizer. However, green...

 Javed Khan, Ehsan-ul-Haq, Naheed Akhtar, Waseem Ahmad Gillani*, Naila Assad**, M.Asif Masood and Irum Raza*

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF IMMATURE STAGES OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON RICE MEAL MOTH, CORCYRA CEPHALONICA EGGS
...l rate from egg to adult emergence of 82%, 68% and 42% at the respective temperature. The results indicate that developmental cycle of immature stages were significantly different at three different temperatures and with increasing temperature the developmental cycle decrease significantly.

...

 Shafique Qadir Memon*, Muhamamd Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal** Nadeem Amjad***, Muhammad Azhar Saeed, Shabbir Kalwar, Asif Ali Mirani and Habib Iqbal Javed****

TILLAGE AND NPK EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPRING MAIZE IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...ant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, -1 grains cob , 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK @ -1 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage, plant height, grains per cob, 1000-grain weight and grain yield followed by other fertilizer levels and conventional tillage. The zero...

 Rizwana Sultan*, Javed Khan, Ehsan ul Haq, Tariq Mehmood**, Roshan Zada Khattak***, and Naheed Akhtar**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TRICHOGRAMMA CHILONIS ISHII (TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE: HYMENOPTERA) FEEDING ON SITOTROGA CEREALELLA EGGS AT THREE CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
... 1 °C. Maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2± 5.83 female ratio at 28 ±1 °C while minimum was 51.10% with female ratio of 58.1 at 32±1 °C. The maximum developmental duration (9.6 ± 0.32 days) and adult longevity (4.3 ± 0.38 days) was at 24 ±1 °C while minimum was 7.4 ±0.36 and 2.0 ±0.56 days at 32 ± 1 °C. The results indicate that t...

 Hafiz Sultan Mahmood*, Munir Ahmad**, Tanveer Ahmad*, Muhammad Azhar Saeed* and Muhammad Iqbal***

POTENTIALS AND PROSPECTS OF PRECISION AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN - A REVIEW
...ral production system by emergence and convergence of several informationbased technologies for enhancing profit and reducing environmental risks. These technologies have demonstrated to provide benefits to farmers as well as reduced environmental stresses in the developed world. Present paper provides an overview of precision agriculture and examines the potentials, prospects, implications, issues and relevance of precision agricultural applications in Pakist...

 Adnan Umair*, Safdar Ali**, Muhammad Sarwar***, Kashif Bashir**, Muhammad Javed Tareen**** and Muhammad Asghar Malik*****

ASSESSMENT OF SOME PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) : A GREEN HOUSE STUDY
...rocess begin but radical emergence does not occur. A pot experiment was conducted in a green house. The seeds were invigorated by traditional soaking (hydropriming), osmo-conditioning using phosphorous (KH PO ; 2 4 -1 200 mM and 400 mM), mannitol (20 and 40 gl ), polyethylene glycol (50 and -1 -1 100 gl ), sodium molybdate dihydrate (0.2 and 0.4 gl ) and hormonal priming by salicylic acid (10 and 20 ppm). Untreated dry seeds were used as control. All the invig...

 Muhammad Tayyab Mudassar*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Muhammad Naeemullah**, Muhammad Shakeel*, Muhammad Ashfaque*, Asmat un Nisa* and Javed Khan*

ECONOMIC REARING OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (STEPHENS) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) IN INSECTARY
...lenopsis crawlers. Adult emergence rate was significantly higher when provided with S. cerealella eggs, which was more economical than that of P. solenopsis crawlers. For efficient and quality production of C. carnea in laboratory using available and inexpensive equipment to produce the healthy surplus of this predator for experiment and small holding field releases, S. cereallela is recommended as more efficient and economic host as compared to P. solenopsis....

 Javed Khan*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Tariq Mahmood*,
Awais Rasool*, Naheed Akhtar and Saleem Abid**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
...l rate from egg to adult emergence was 24.6± 0.06 days with 73% survival rate. The pre oviposition, oviposition and post oviposition periods were 9.2±1.25, 34.6±1.72 and 7.4±1.02 days, respectively. The female and male longevity was 51.2 ± 2.18 and 32.4±2.04 days respectively. The female fecundity was 384.2±21.20 eggs per female with 11.16±1.31 eggs per day per female.

...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
...r use can influence weed emergence, weed persistence, weed dormancy, weed dynamics, weed growth and weed dispersion attributes. The rate, timing, type and method of fertilizer application affect biological trends of weeds. In conservation tillage systems, the interaction between fertilizers and weeds is very complex, and there are reports of positive as well as negative correlations with weed establishment. Altered physical and chemical properties of reduced-t...

 Asghar Ali*, Muhammad Tahir**, Shahid Riaz Malik* and Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*

EVALUATION OF PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
...to evaluate pre and post-emergence herbicides for weed control in lentil. The experiment comprised eight treatments including three herbicides, manual weeding and check (no weeding). The yield was higher in manual weeding but in herbicide treatments Isoproturon as pre-emergence @ 2 kg -1 ha produced statistically at par grain yield to that of manual weeding -1 followed by Isoproturon after one month of planting @ 2 kg ha . B...

 Inayat-Ur-Rahman*, Shamsher Ali**, Mukhtar Alam*, Mohammad Adnan*, Hidayat ullah*, Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik*, Abdul Sattar Shah* Mohammad Ibrahim*

EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GERMINATION PERFORMANCE AND YIELD OF OKRA ( L.)
...blem of slow and erratic emergence in okra, two experiments, i.e., laboratory and field were carried out during 2013. In the laboratory experiment, okra seeds were primed in PEG-8000 (polyethylene glycol) and Mannitol solutions (0, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6, -2 and -2.4 Mpa osmotic potential) for 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours while dry seeds were used as control. Same primed seeds were used in the field experiment. Priming proved effective in improving percent germinati...
Muhammad Sharif1*, Shahzada Sohail Ijaz2, Muhammad Ansar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Syed Abdul Sadiq5
...lts showed that seedling emergence, wheat biomass and grain yield were statistically same under CT (83 plants m-2, 6.02 Mg ha-1, 3.32 Mg ha-1, respectively), MT (83 plants m-2, 5.90Mg ha-1, 3.26 Mg ha-1, respectively) and RT(72 plants m-2, 5.92 Mg ha-1,3.20Mg ha-1, respectively)tillage systemswith retention of crop residues,whilesignificantly lower values were re...
Tariq Mukhtar,1,* Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Humayun Javed2

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

... seedlings 20 days after emergence (DAE). Water was sprayed as untreated control on maize seedlings 20 DAE. After foliar application, the plants were regularly irrigated upto one week and water stress was imposed by withholding water from half of the pots for 20 days. Data were recorded on the relative water content (RWC), proline, sugar content and transcripts abundance of Lhcb2 gene in the selected leaves. Application of CaCl2 increased the RWC, proline and ...

Osama Elshazly1, AbdelSatar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2, Ismaeil M. Reda2 and Hussein A. Hussein2*

...culating AIV strains and emergence of new AIV subtypes in Egypt. The wide circulation of the 2.2.1.2 subclade, carrying triple mutations (120, 129∆, I151T) associated with increased binding affinity to human receptors, is an alarming finding with public health importance.
...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
...for mortality and larval emergence was made every 3 days and cumulative taking at the end of 28 days. Mortality of adult D. maculatus was higher in 8, 12 and 15% (w/w) of P. guineense and 15% (w/w) of C. annum than control. Both extracts significantly enhanced D. maculatus larval and adult mortality (p < 0.05). Larval emergence in 8, 12 and 15% (w/w) of P. guineense and C. annum w...

Mohammad Javad Golmohammadi1, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust Chamanabad1*, Bijan Yaghoubi2 and Mostafa Oveisi

...ext-align: justify;">The emergence of weeds in agricultural fields is one of the most challenging problems of humankind since the beginning of agriculture. An important part of the proper management of weeds in the paddy fields is rice postharvest weed management until land preparation for re-cultivation. In order to determine the frequency and relative cover (RC), the samples were collected from 481 fields during the growing season and 255 fields after harves...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

...ects the germination and emergence of the young seedlings and then the growth and yield of various crops and ultimately disturbing the socioeconomics of the farming community. Among the microbes, cyanobacteria are known as photoautotrophic, blue green algae which is not a truly eukaryotic algae and grown in different and such complex habitats freely and symbiotic association with large numbers of plants and microbial mats. In this regard, a pot experiment was ...

Shamsher Ali1*, Sarmad Khan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Naveed ullah4, Muhammad Rashid3 and Wiqar Ahmad1 

... grown for 3 weeks after emergence. Plants growth was observed for three weeks after emergence. Statistical analysis of the data showed that both soils and varieties significantly (p<0.05) affected per cent emergence and growth. Interactions between soils and varieties were significant (p <0.05) regarding emergence and plant heights. From the inter...

Muhammad Sajid Mahmood1*, Muhammad Ashraf1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Sohail Latif4 Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar5 and Waqas Ahmad6 

...es of pendimethalin (pre-emergence) for weed control in mungbean during summer season, 2009. The treatments were: Control (weedy check), Hand weeding (30 and 45 DAS), Pendimethalin herbicide @ 1.5 kg a.i. ha-1 (recommended dose), Barley W.E. @ 12 L ha-1 (20, 30, 40 and 50 DAS), Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1, Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 0.75 kg a.i. ha-1, Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 0.50 kg a.i. ha-1. The...

Muhammad Ishfaq1*, Nadeem Akbar1, Imran Khan1, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Usman Zulfiqar1, Muhammad Ahmad1, Mumtaz Ahmad2 and Muhammad Umer Chattha1 

...ok minimum time to start emergence (3.7 days) and mean emergence time (9.6 days). In case of soil moisture condition at the time of sowing minimum time start to emergence and mean emergence time under moist field condition were (4.1 days) and (9.9 days) respectively. Final emergence count (177.3 m-2), Plant height (71....

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

...ext-align: justify;">The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus posed a major veterinary and public challenge worldwide. S. aureus being a highly versatile pathogen can quickly acquire resistance genes. The development of resistance in bacteria predates the era of antibiotic use. However, resistance developments in S. aureus have been reported since the early 1940-ties, when penicillin resistant S. aureus was first reported. Ever since,...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
...infections. However, the emergence of carbapenemases particularly metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) in bacteria have severely mitigated the efficiency of carbapenems. MBLs producing gram-negative bacteria have been reported from various hospital settings, worldwide. However, data is lacking in Pakistan regarding their frequency particularly among GNRs. Therefore, the present study aimed at determining the frequency of carbapenemase and β-lactamase producin...

Muhammad Faheem Jan1*, Asad Ali Khan1, Waqas Liaqat1, Haseeb Ahmad1, Muhammad Dawood Ahmadzai1 and Wazir Rehan

... crop phenology (days to emergence, tasseling, silking, and maturity) and crop growth (single leaf area, leaf area index, and plant height) which resulted in different grain yield. Among hybrids DK-Garanon gave highest value for all the studied parameters as compared to others hybrids. Similarly, in K ratios higher values for the studied traits were recorded in plots which were treated with K 40% from organic (poultry manure) and 60% from inorganic (sulphate o...

Yasir Ali1*, Muhammad Aslam Khan1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Muhammad Hussain2

...for longer period due to emergence of new rust races. However, genotypes such as Inqilab-91, Bluebird, Kenya Plume and Hope developed in early part of green revolution retained their resistance for longer period due to presence of non-specific rust resistance genes. Until now, 187 rust resistance genes (80 leaf rust, 49 stripe rust, 58 stem rust) have been described from different wheat and durum cultivars and related local species using different molecular ap...
Ali Murad Rahoo1, Tariq Mukhtar2,*, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...ignificant effect on the emergence of IJ. Significantly greater numbers of IJ both of H. bacteriophora and S. feltiae emerged from large sized G. mellonella than medium and small sized and the emergence was found to be positively correlated with the size of the host. It was also observed that emergence of IJ of H. bacteriophora was significantly greater than tha...

Zubina Hameed1, Muhammad Azim Malik1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Farina Shaheen1, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Khisrao Kalim3 

...ficacy of different post-emergence herbicides viz. Clean wave 15 EO (Aminopyralid + fluroxypyre) @ 0.8 L ha-1, Aim 40 DF (Carfentrazone ethyl) @ 0.05 Kg ha-1, Buctril-super 60 EC (Bromoxynil + MCPA) @ 0.750 L ha-1, Atlantis 3.6 WG (Mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron) @ 0.7 Kg ha-1, Sectril-M 40 EC (Bromoxynil + MCPA) @ 1.2 L ha-1, Brominal-M 40 EC (Bromoxynil + MCPA) @ 2.0 Kg ha-1 for controlling weeds in rainfed wheat. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Compl...

 *Muhammad Waseem1, Dost Mohammad Baloch1, Ghulam Khaliq1,
M. Rashid1, Qurban Ali2 and Mustajab A. Khan3

INTENSIFICATION IN BAMBOO (Bambusa bambos L.) TRAITS IN RESPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CHEMICAL NITROGEN ALONG THE COAST OF ARABIAN SEA
...and growth rate of newly emergence culms per day also showed higher vigour under the application of treatment combination {50% N from urea (the recommended dose) + 50% N from Farm Yard Manure (FYM)}. It was suggested that the growing of bamboo should be produced through the use of combination of chemical {50% N from urea and organic N (50% N from Farm Yard Manure).

...

Misbahullah, Shad Khan Khalil, Asim Muhammad*, Afza Tabassum and Shah Fahad  

... 3 times of application (emergence,tillering,50% at emergence + fifty percent at tillering). Herbicide sole, weeded by hand and un weeded plots used for comparison. Results showing that concentration of sorghum and appliance point considerably increased days to heading, anthesis, physiological maturity, area of flag leaf, tillers number m-2 and spikelets per spike and decreased weed density in wheat. Sorghum extract sprayed ...
Muhammad Asad Saleem1,*, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1, Mudssar Ali1, Muhammad Amin2, Muhammad Tayyab1,3 and Sumaira Maqsood4
...on in pupation and adult emergence was recorded in the combined treatments. Moreover, decrease in weight gain, frass production and cumulative gain in size was found when larvae were treated with integrated effect of Bb and Nit. Depending on the lethal of treatment, development duration of RPW was disturbed. Integration of Bb and Nit delays the development and diet uptake in RPW which can be used for agent of control for this cryptic insect.
...

Shamsher Ali1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Zahir Shah2, Naveedullah3 and Abdul Jalal1 

... parameters were percent emergence, plant height, number of leaves, shoots and roots weight. The results revealed that all data parameters except number of leaves were affected significantly (p < 0.05) by different levels of salinity. Irrespective of maize varieties, the percent emergence, plant height, number of leaves, shoots and roots weight of Maize were reduced with linear increasing levels of salinity. Among the gen...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Saleem Haider1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Ashfaq1, Muhammad A. Aqueel2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah2
...rtality, pupal and adult emergence by exposing three field strains of S. litura (Faisalabad, Chiniot and Sargodha), under laboratory conditions. Both NPV and Bt were applied using diet incorporation method. Two concentrations of a NPV based formulation (Somestar): 1x107 and 1x108 POB/ml, and three concentrations of a Bt based formulation (Dipel): viz., 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 μg/g, were applied alone and in ...
Ali Murad Rahoo1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2, Barkat Ali Bughio3 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4
...arily, there was greater emergence of IJ of H. bacteriophora than S. feltiae in all the treatments. The mean numbers of H. bacteriophora emerging from G. mellonella larvae were 272,600 from T. molitor medium were 194,600 and in T. molitor small were 21,900. Whereas, emergence of the mean numbers of S. feltiae IJ emerging from G. mellonella were 136,000 from T. molito...

Saqib Bashir* and Bashir Ahmad 

...60, 90 and 120 days post emergence were allotted to main plots, where crop was incorporated in soil at different days after emergence (DAE), this was done in previous season before sowing of wheat crop, whereas nitrogen levels as 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1 were allotted to sub plots in the field where wheat crop was sown. Data were recorded on emergence m-2, days to maturity, plant he...
Ahmed Ali Samejo* and Riffat Sultana*
...ght green at the time of emergence, but turned over to black with yellow strips after two hours of hatching, when they were placed in crowded condition. However, they remained green, when they were in solitary condition. Solitarious hoppers were passed through five nymphal stages during development into adult in field as well as in laboratory condition. Comparative morphometry revealed that in relation to previous stages 2nd and 3rd nymph...
Muhammad Nasir1,*, Ata-ul-Mohsan2, Shafqat Saeed3, Munir Ahmad2, Muhammad Asif Aziz2 andMunir Ahmad4
...osition period and early emergence of the first worker in a colony was also observed at three months diapause period at diapause temperature of 1-3 ºC. Larger colony size with the highest number of workers, males and progeny queens were also observed at 1-3 ºC for three months period which suggests the importance of diapause conditions on bumblebee colony characteristics.
...
Muhammad Nasir1,*, Ata-ul-Mohsan2, Munir Ahmad2, Shafqat Saeed3, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Muhammad Imran4 and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh4
...e-oviposition period and emergence timing of the first worker were observed best at 28 and 30 ºC. Number of workers produced in the first brood and in the total lifespan of the colony was also observed higher at 28 ºC. Higher number of progeny queens was produced at temperature treatment of 30 ºC. Therefore, 28-30 ºC temperature exposure to the post-hibernated queens was found the best for artificial rearing of B. terrestris and deve...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...vaccines may lead to the emergence of new variants and, consequently, the emergence of a different evolutionary pattern of NDV in Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to test if genotype II-based vaccines apply unique selective pressures on NDV glycoproteins and their role in changing the NDV evolution in Egypt. 

...

Muhammad Adnan Islam1,2*, Muhammad Iqbal2, Zia-ul-Haq2,3, Muhammad Mohsin Ali1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1, Shabbir Ahmed Kalwar1, Liaqat Ali Shahid1, Badar Munir Khan Niazi1 and Muzammil Husain1 

...ance (519 kPa). Seedling emergence rate index (11.26 %), number of tillers/m2(372) and grain yield (2984.58 kg/ha) were also found 1.1, 1.14 and 1.00 times more under zone disc tiller drill as compared with conventional tillage emergence rate index (10.18 %), number of tillers/m2(326) and grain yield (2975.55 kg/ha) respectively. The treatment vise fuel consumption was high under conventional tillage (T10) produced significa...
Rıfat Ertekin1*, Mete Ozkurt1, Gokhan Kus2 and Selda Kabadere1
...lation of COX-2 paths in emergence of cancer or in metastasis, this study shows TA has an antiproliferative and stimulating effects on apoptosis of LNCaP cells based on the dose and duration of exposure.
...

Muhammad Rehan1, Asim Aslam1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan1, Muhammad Abid2, Shakeel Hussain3, Javeria Umber4, Ahsan Anjum1 and Altaf Hussain2* 

...ure of the virus and the emergence of new strains is limiting in its diagnosis and control. Pakistan is a developing country and poultry industry is the backbone of its economy. Recent outbreaks have caused huge losses to the poultry industry. This review details the possible role and potential of some common captive and non-captive wild bird species in the spread of NDV and also its economic impact on the commercial poultry industry of Pakistan.  

...

Aliya Ayaz, Gohar Ayub, Maqsood Khan* and Syed Aizaz Ali Shah 

...ficantly reduced days to emergence and days to first flower, while increased germination percentage, number of fruits plant-1, fruit length, fruit weight, plant height, yield plot-1, total yield and survival percentage. In case of dipping durations, seeds dipped for 18 hours significantly reduced days to emergence and days to first flower, while increased germination percentage, number of fruits plant-1, fruit length, fruit ...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1, Samia Afzal1,*, Zareen Fatima1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...rgence and re-emergence of dengue fever in previous epidemics has been documented globally, including Pakistan. We conducted a comprehensive study and compared the immunological and genomic status of dengue outbreak in Pakistan through ELISA and PCR. In this study 720 samples were collected from different diagnostic centre’s/laboratories of Pakistan for ELISA and PCR tests. Out of 703 dengue positive samples, 93.5% were anti-dengue IgM positiv...
Asad Abdullah, Muhammad Irfan Ullah*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Afzal
...ll diets provided. Adult emergence rate was high in cabbage (93.11%), followed by alfalfa (87.5%), sesbania (81.33%), and maize (68.44%). Fecundity was higher when fed on leaves of cabbage, alfalfa and sesbania as compared to maize and artificial diet. Number of eggs oviposited were highest on cabbage (2455.5 eggs) followed by alfalfa (1750.0 eggs) and lowest on maize (1055.6 eggs). More egg batches were found on alfalfa and sesbania. All of the biological par...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,*, Hareem Mansoor1, Sana Khan1 and Mushtaq A. Saleem1
...ome difficult due to the emergence of resistance against almost all the known insecticides and fumigants. The development of resistance can be delayed by using binary combinations of insecticides. Keeping in view the importance of synergism as well as the concerns about environmental hazards and emergence of resistance against these insecticides, the current project was designed to figure out the lethal concentration (LC
Muhammad Khalid Rafique1, Rashid Mahmood1,*, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1,Imran Bodlah2 andFarid AsifShaheen2
... respectively. The queen emergence weight was slightly higher in the royal jelly added grafting than other treatments. The queen spermatheca diameter, emergence rate and mating rate were not found to be affected by the treatments and rearing interludes. Additional research is suggested and needed for clear recommendation.
...
Mubasshir Sohail1,2,*, Raza Muhammad1 and Qadeer Ahmed Soomro1
...9.86±0.41 mg) and emergence (95.13±2.03%) was observed when C. carnea was provided with eggs of Sitotroga cerealella. Bervicornye brassicae was performed well than A. nerii but was found least successful as compared to eggs of S. cerealella. Both aphid species were significantly good in performance when fed to C. carnea larvae with S. cerealella eggs than their solo effect. Results depicted that mo...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 51, Iss. 6, Pages 1999-2399

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