Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similari...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similari...

John Shook

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...o aloof and abstract for direct confrontation over evidence. Theology’s desperate maneuvers for avoiding science and scientific atheology only delay the inevitable. Partner atheologies wielding logic, ethics, and civics await to help theology extinguish the gods.

 

...

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...R universal primer pairs directly from field samples including tissues, vesicle and secretion. The direct sequencing and subsequent analysis of amplified PCR products for VP1 gene indicated the circulation of serotype O of FMD in studied areas. Moreover, using serotype-specific primers (SA(F)/SA(R)) which target the VP1 gene, serotype O was confirmed in all representative samples. As high as 98% nucleotide sequences similari...

Reviewed by John Shook, University at Buffalo, USA; Email: jshook@pragmatism.org

Science, Religion and Culture
...tting readers to examine direct answers on all sorts of topics from today’s premier public intellectu- als. Reading the answers about science and religion in this volume is consistently informative and inspi- rational, and frequently revealing in stunning ways. Comparing the answers from the impressive figures in the book takes readers on a journey through truly deep and important issues with honesty and clarity.

...

Derk Pereboom

...entional manipulation is direct and immediate, the agent is not morally responsible. Fischer’s thought is that Plum’s non-responsibility in Case 1 can be accounted for by the conditions on mechanism-ownership, a feature of the compatibilist account of moral responsibility he and Ravizza (1998) developed, which, he correctly points out, I neglect in favor of the reasons-responsiveness component.

...

Mohammed Ali Hussain, Zakiya Ahmed Hassan

...rains row-1 had positive direct effect on grain yield plant-1 and high positive indirect effect through some traits, so that these traits could be used as an index in the selection of high grain yield plant-1.

...

Rick Repetti

...bsp;Engaging Buddhism is directed primarily at a Western philosophical readership, but is of perhaps equal value to Buddhist philosophers insofar as it articulates many of Buddhism’s core philosophical values, to and for Western philosophy, and in a distinctly recognizable Western philosophical voice, but one that does no damage to the often radically different frameworks, methods, and modes of discourse that are d...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...e fruit is unable to eat directly because the fruit contain high level of bitter glucoside such as oleourepean. Aim of this research work was to reduce the bitterness level of olive fruit by different treatment such as water, salt and lye solution which were coded as RW1, RW2 and RW3 respectively. During treatment process the bitter glucoside level such as oleourepean leached out from the fruits to the solvents by osmosis process which alters the composit...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...igh risk of infection is directly proportional to that of transmission vectors. Moreover, results demonstrate that the life stage “bumper” of the female imicola is the indicator of the infecting activity of C. imicola. Collectively, the distribution patterns and emergence of BT can be predicted by the abundance of the Culicoides species in a specified locality so that control measures
can be implemented well in time to contain...

Jonas Johansson Wensman1*a, Karl-Johan Leuchowius2,3 a, Jiting Yan1, Anna-Lena Berg4, Liv Bode5, Hanns Ludwig5, Sandor Belak6, Ulf Landegren2, Ola Soderberg2, Mikael Berg6

...e have for the rst time directly visualized protein-protein interactions between BDV and its host, and thereby con rmed previous data to demonstrate ndings in cell cultures to be applicable also in experimentally and naturally infected animals.

...

Yongfeng Li, Mo Zhou, Xiao Wang, Libao Xie, Hua-Ji Qiu*

...d an excellent option to directly detect viral replication without the use of secondary labeling. This mini-review discusses the applications of reporter CSFV in the study of CSFV biology, including efficiently screening the antivirals against CSFV and viral receptors, conveniently tracking the viral proteins in live cells as well as improving diagnostic methods and vaccines for classical swine fever.

...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...rough hard tick bite and direct contact with blood of the infected animal. The occurrence of CCHF outbreak in Pakistan is increased quite significantly near Eid-ul-Adha. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure this disease. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for this disease. It is recommended that the disease can be controlled by adopting...

 Zafar Khan, Asad Sultan, Rajwali Khan, Sarzamin Khan, Imranullah and Kamran Farid

 

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...cluded that there was no direct effect of N, P, K, Mg and Fe on the reddening of cotton leaves but B and Zn application decreased number of red leaves. Plant growth improved markedly when essentially needed NPK was applied @ 120-70-40 NPK in combination with Zn and B @ 4 and 1.5 kg ha-1, respectively.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...l Pi. Foliage growth was directly related to fungal Pi and inversely to nematode Pi. Our results showed that the higher Pi of L. muscarium was associated with the lower Pf of M. incognita. Foliage growth increased with increased fungus inoculum.

...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

...ar growth velocity (LGV) directly through stimulation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Furthermore, T promotes LGV through augmentation of GH secretion. Nevertheless, age and developmental stage dependent changes in GH and T and LGV and their associations require further investigation. This study examined relationships between GH and LGV, T and LGV and GH and T in 540 normal healthy boys of 1 to 20 years (n=27 boys/age group). The concentrations of GH and T we...

Ecevit Eyduran1, Daniel Zaborski2*, Abdul Waheed3, Senol Celik4, Koksal Karadas5 and Wilhelm Grzesiak2

...an be considered as an indirect selection criterion for future goat breeding studies. 

...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

... 35-50 weeks without any direct clinical manifestation of avian influenza. Serum collected from 120 birds was tested for antibodies against H9N2 by using Haemagglutination Inhibition assay. Calculated geometric mean titers of 5.37 revealed the infectivity of the flock with H9N2 Influenza virus. To investigate the presence of virus in the study population, trachea, lung and intestine tissue samples were processed for RNA isolation and subjected to molecular det...

Rongrong Li1, Kun Li2, Xiaoqiang Wang2, Houqiang Luo2, Gang Qiu2, Hui zhang2, Yanfang Lan2 and Jiakui Li2,3*

...bent assay kits and an indirect hemagglutination test. The results showed that seroprevalence in Tibetan pigs were 25.6% by ELISA. On gender basis, the prevalence was found 25.1% in males and 27.8% in females. By the method of IHA, the seroprevalence in Tibetan pigs were 21.6%, and the prevalence was found 23.1% and 21.4% in males and females, respectively. The results indicates that the Tibetan gigs were exposed to T. gondii in Tibet area, which should arise ...

Xiangxing Zhu1, Junyu Nie1, Shouneng Quan1,2, Huiyan Xu1, Xiaogan Yang1, Yangqing Lu1, Kehuan Lu1 and Shengsheng Lu1*

... regulatory elements for directing specific expression in porcine astrocytes. However, the practical application of hGFAP-DsRed transgenic Guangxi Bama mini-pigs in neuroscience research requires solving the germline transmission problem of the phenotype.

...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

... five plant extracts (Azadirachta indica, Melia azadirach, Pegnum hermala, baryosma and Zingiber officinale) and three synthetic pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on three geographical populations of Callosobruchus chinensis collected during 2013 from Faisalabad, Multan and Nankana districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Three concentrations of each plant extract (5, 10, 15 and 20%) and synthetic pyrethroids (0...

Pam D Luka, Frank N Mwiine, Bitrus Yakubu, Joseph Erume, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez, Hermann Unger and David Shamaki

... the recombinant TSGP1 indirect ELISA. Of the samples analysed, 13.4% (442/3,288) showed moderate to high reactivity, suggestive of domestic pigs’ exposure to tick-bite. Antibody reactivity’s were found in eight of the 10 states studied and all the states have favourable climatic conditions for soft ticks’ survival and national parks harbouring wild swine (warthogs) able to maintain the developmental cycle of these ticks. This provides some e...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...d extra-floral nectar. A direct behavioral assay was conducted to investigate the dietary preference and effects of different diets on the fecundity, sex ratio and longevity of B. hebetor. Three different diets [Honey syrup, sugar syrup, date syrup and a control (water)] were used with different solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was observed that honey fed wasp pair produces significantly more number of eggs, adults and also lived significant...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
.../i>) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mosseae (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) were applied as protective treatment. The roots of eggplant were inoculated with 1000 second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Eggplants inoculated with nematodes only served as control. Each treatment was replicated tenfold. D...
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...lso higher in women with direct contact to soil (14% vs 5%). Only one sample was PCR positive. The results show that overall prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in young women of Rafha city is low as compared to other regions of Saudi Arabia.
...
Sehrish Rasool1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2, Sumra Ashraf1, Maryam Anwer1, Atif Manzoor1, Muhammad Tahir1 and Hoor Shaina1
... and development that is directly proportional to the quantity of resources available.
...
Tausif Ahmad1, Iahtasham Khan2, Saddaf Razzaq1, Saeed-ul-Hassan Khan1,* and Raheela Akhtar3
.... abortus specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Serum samples that were confirmed to be positive for B. abortus through serology were subjected to an rPCR in order to test its efficacy in detecting Brucella in blood of infected animals. Initially a Brucella genus-specific bcsp31 genomic region based rPCR was used. This was followed by two species-specificrPCRs that detected IS711 genomic region of B. ...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
... oil production there is dire need to grow more sunflower by using the economical and environment friendly techniques. Present study was proposed to evaluate theresponse of spring and autumn sunflower to chemical and bio-fertilizers for yield and quality traits during 2014 at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The treatments comprised on the combination of chemical fertilizers (No chemical fertilizer, half recommended dose of fertilizer and full ...
Muhammad Qadir Ahmad¹*, Farheen Ashraf Raza¹, Abdul Qayyum¹, Waqas Malik¹, Rao Wali Muhammad2, Muhammad Asif Saleem1, Amir Hamza2, Ahmad Baksh Mahar3
...tilized to partition the direct and indirect effects of different traits on BW. Path coefficient analysis revealed positive direct effect of NS on BW. Similarly, SI illustrated positive indirect effect on BW via LA. The genotype V-89 was found a best performing genotype with high yield and moderate leaf traits.
...

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...otanicals viz., Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil, castor ( Ricinus communis) oil, a mixture of Neem seed oil and sesame oil, leaf extracts of custard apple (Annona squamosa ) and Bara Bishkatali ( Polygonum orienta) were tested against the pest infestation. The treatment of custard apple leaf extract produced the most favourable result in respect of pest control and crop yield. The other treatments also exhibited better results in comparison to control follo...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
...ing of chlorpyriphos, azadirachtin and Bt (T) was not as effective as T.

...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...ucts are used mainly for direct soil application in nurseries/main fields to suppress the soil-borne inoculum. In liquid state fermentation, Trichoderma is grown in inexpensive media like molasses and yeast medium in deep tanks on a commercial scale. Biomass from the liquid fermentation can be made into different formulations like, dusts, granules, pellets, wettable powders. Trichoderma formulations can be applied to the seed either by dry seed treatment or by...

D. Sharmah, K.C. Deka and A.K. Phukan

Field evaluation of efficacy of some botanical dust against rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabr.)
...fy">Efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A.Jass), soap nut (Sapindus trifoliatus L.) and their formulations and Malathion as standard insecticide were evaluated against the rice bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabr.) during 2000-2001 on the basis of per cent reduction under field condition. The per cent reduction in number of rice bug adults due to neem seed kernel powder, neem seed kernel powder + multani powder, multani powder, neem leaf powder, neem leaf powder ...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
... Manilkara zapota and Azadirachta indica was studied by poisoned food technique, seed germination and under green house experiments for control of Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radi...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...ll applied pesticides is directly involved in the pesticidal mechanism. This implies that most of the applied pesticides find their way as 'residue' in food chains where they undergo concentration and pro-duce potential, long term, adverse health effects. Pesticides in developing countries in Asia and Pacific region are mainly available as dust, wettable powder, emulsifiable concentrates, solutions, etc. These types of formulations are regarded now as ?convent...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...has been developed for indirect assessment in terms of severity as a direct function of yield loss in terms of occurrence or intensity but not yield or yield loss per se. These findings may help in building simple decision rules for management early in the season as soon as the disease appears in one case, and when some intensity has been achieved in all other cases. Where validated this approach may be a useful tool in plan...

Shyam Singh and L.P. Awasthi

Plant products for the management of yellow mosaic disease of mungbean and urdbean
... per cent followed by Azadirachta indica leaf extract by 42.43 and 42.92 percent in mungbean and urdbean, respectively. Maximum plant height (70.90 and 56.20 cm), primary branches (6.36 and 6.38 per plant), secondary branches (13.56 and 10.68 per plant), nodules (27.48 and 37.69 per plant), pods (17.25 and 22.85 per plant), seed yield (4.43 and 3.89 g per plant) were recorded in eight sprays with Clerodendrum aculeatum leaf extract followed by eight sprays wit...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...females had more gonads (direct relation, r=0.45) while the lighter males had more gonads (inverse relation, r=-0.52). The males’ total dry weights were < 20 g and > 40 g but females’ were between 10 to 40 g. The total wet weight was > ~2x (females) and > ~7x (males) the total dry weight. The wet gonad weights is ~3x of the dry gonad weight of gonads and the two-thirds of total wet weight is the moisture of gonads. In females, Interquar...
Muhammad Ayaz1,*, Muhammad Athar Abbas2, Pervez3, Noorulain3, Yasir Amin1, Zubair Ali3, Naila Siddique2 and Khalid Naeem2
...n poultry population was directly proportional to temperature, season and elevation.
...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
...a alba), neem (Azadirachta indica), niazboo (Ocimum basilicum), yellow kaner (Thevetia peruviana) and safeda (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) against the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), at 2% concentration in a free choice bioassays. Acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether and ethanol were used for extraction from leaves. Amongst the various treatments applied, the acetone extract of D. alba showed the highes...
Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...census study method in Igdir province of Turkey with the purpose of determining some factors influencing average honey yield (AHY) per beehive in the year 2014. For this purpose, predictive performances of several data mining algorithms (CART, CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID and MARS) and artificial neural network algorithm (Multilayer Perceptron, MLP) were evaluated comparatively. Several factors thought as independent variables in the survey were age of beekeeper (A...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
... Further research can be directed to the technological improvement of chopped and pelleted straw production or into the improvement of handling with this substrate.
...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
...It was hypothesized that direct antagonism and defense by bio-product enhance the resistance in chili cultivars. So, T. harzianum is an efficient biological control for integrated management of chili plants under controlled condition cultivation. To explore the nature of resistance response of C-33 to M. incognita and S. rolfsii further research is needed. 
...
Ghulam Abbas1,Asif Nadeem1,*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Tanveer Hussain2, Muhammad Sajid Tahir3, Wasim Shehzad1, Rajput Zahid Iqbal3, Muhammad Tayyab1 and Maryam Javed1
...oducts were sequenced bi-directionally, aligned and single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Bioinformatics tools were applied for construction of phylogenetic tree and genetic diversity analysis. Lower genetic diversity was observed. The finding of this research is prerequisite for future research.
...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

... In last some years, the direct seeded rice system is introduced in some of the rice cropping districts of Pakistan. The current research estimate the technical efficiency of conventional and dry rice farmers and also determine the factors which significantly contribute to increase the rice output. Moreover, this study estimated the sources of inefficiency. Data collected from 300 sample rice farmers into the Kharif cycle (2013-14) at five main rice growing di...
Mehran Kausar1,2, Naveed Ashraf3, Farzana Hayat4, Asraf Hussain Hashmi1, Saima Siddiqi1,* and Mariam Anees2
...ubby hands. We performed direct sequencing of CTSK for five members of the family to find out the causative mutation. All coding exons of CTSK gene were amplified and sequenced in the affected and unaffected individuals of a consanguineous Pakistani family consisting of five members, three affected brothers, one unaffected sister and the unaffected mother. We identified a known missense mutation c.136 C>T in the third exon of CTSK chang...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*

Muhammad Amin1*, Khalid Mahmood2, Imran Bodlah3, Muhammad Rahim Khan2 

...a species. Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) was recorded on new host plant, Rosa species, in Pakistan. Distinguishing characters, morphometric data, biology and distribution of the studied species are provided herewith.  

...
Asad Abdullah1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Waqar Hassan2,    Samina Khalid3, Yasir Iftikhar4, Muhammad Arshad1 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6
...tion of neem seed, Azadirachta indica extract was applied upon reaching economic threshold levels of B. tabaci and A. biguttula. The insect pest population was recorded 24 hours before and 24h, 72h and 168h after spray. Maximum reduction of 60.20% of B. tabaci on Bt cotton was recorded at 6% NSE while at 2% concentration of NSE after 148 hrs, 39. 16% reduction was observed. While maximum reduction on non-Bt cotton at 6...

Mohsan Ullah Goraya1,2, Liaqat Ali1,2 and Iqra Younis3  

...ratory tract is prone to direct and continuous exposure to viral infection. Respiratory viruses including influenza virus, coronaviruses and herpes viruses are important pathogens that cause significant losses in the poultry industry. However, successful establishment of infection in the respiratory tract switch on the pathogen recognition by innate immune receptors and establish first line of defense against viral infections. When specific cellular receptors ...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...an species who can cause direct damage to the plants by extracting the sap, and indirectly it is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romania. A...
Tahira*, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ayub Khan and Mubashar Ahmad Khan
... that in both years, the direct effects of pod length and number of pods per plant on grain yield were positive and of high magnitude. Finally, it was concluded that the trait pods per plant can be exploited for the improvement of seed yield in rapeseed.
...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
...ich resulted in 260 h of direct observation. Our results revealed feeding as the most frequent activity in the estuary, totaling nearly two thirds of all records. We also identified two sites of Guiana dolphin habitat preference in our study area, where sightings remarkably totalled > 62% of observation records. These sites (especially Guaraqueçaba Bay) were not only important for feeding, but also for S. guianensis socialization. The detectio...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
...t>ect sighting and indirect evidences were collected from all these sites. Seventy eight bird species were recorded that belonged to 34 families and 11 orders. Passeriformes was the dominant specie. The habitat destruction due to deforestation, agricultural activities, infrastructure and land sliding and disturbances by the increasing human population were major threats to the avian fauna of Rawalakot.
...

Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar1*, Amir Shakeel1, Muhammad Amir Maqbool1, Muhammad Waheed Anwar1, Zoraiz Tanveer1 and Muhammad Fahad Irfan2 

...e trait can be used as indirect selection criteria in segregating populations.  

...
Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...s the local herdsmen can directly suffer a great economic loss.
...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

...ium), neem (Azadirachtin indica) and datura (Datura stramonium) were used in traditional method. The overall results showed that the sprays at different interval indicated the highest pest population reduction at tobacco (17.45-15.09%) followed by neem (14.58-15.33%) and datura (11.72-7.81%) in both varieties and similar trend was also noted in the second year of the study. The effect of varietal difference of Bt. and non-Bt. cotton va...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Aly Khan3
...6 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. One hundred and fifteen (11.04%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal protozoans. Forty one (35.6%) of the participants were infected with single parasite and seventy four (64.3%) with multiple infections. Entamoeba histolytica 30.5% (n=77/252), Giardia lamblia 15.0% (n=38/252), Ascaris lumbricoides 17% (n=43/252), Trichuris trichura 11...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...he feeding deficiency is directly linked to the physiological or environmental stress. In this study occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in giraffids has been observed in species of all time intervals between 18.3-0.6 Ma except the time 11.2-9.0 (late Miocene) that has no giraffids with this dental defect. The comparative percentage for occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in giraffids of these Siwalik deposits is early Miocene-early middle Miocene (29%), middle Miocen...
Muhammad Siraj-ud-Din1,2, Riaz Aziz Minhas1, Usman Ali3,*, Mayoor Khan2, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Nuzhat Shafi1 and Basharat Ahmad1
...termined on the basis of direct or indirect evidence (e.g. animal sightings, fecal pallets and hairs) in different habitats. Information on food consumption was collected by using scan sampling technique and also collected from local people, hunters and shepherds (n=78). During scan sampling, focused feeding animals were observed with the help of a telescope and spotting scope. Ladakh urial preferred montane dry sub-tropical...
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...ficiency rates when were directly compared with mock-treated fish control. However, there was no statistically supported level of significance was observed for growth rates and feed conversion rates among groups. Improved live weight and protein efficiency rates reflected positively on the survival rate in MOS-fed fish. Interestingly, the whole body and fillet fatty acid composition shown no-correlation between treated and control groups (p>0.05). During th...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...st management. After the direct application of Huwa-San TR50, N. cucumeris could also sustain its population on treated and/or dead T. urticae, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Statistically, the difference between laboratory and greenhouse conditions was insignificant (P > 0.5, using F-test Graphpad prism 7). Up to 3000 ppm of Huwa-San TR50 reduced the population of N. cucumeris by 11.83 and 17.66% under greenhouse and labor...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...f RPW. After exposure to direct spray of oxamyl, adult mortality was 62, 82 and 100% whereas larvae mortality was 72, 77 and 100% after 1, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Alive adult and larvae were completely paralyzed after 24 hours. There was significant difference between 2 treatments, 1 and 24 h, in both adult and larvae. The mortality of both adult and larvae was 100% after 48 hours of exposure to oxamyl. In the field, however, Oxamyl was applied in two diffe...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
...d N = 16) were collected directly by cardiac puncture and used for estimation of hematological and some serum biochemical parameters. The hematological parameters did not show any significant variation between the two groups. From amongst serum biochemical parameters triglycerides (P = 0.02) in CGP55845 treated mice showed significant increase compared to the control mice. All other studied parameters remained unaffected indicating that CGP55845 can be injecte...
Syed Kashif Nawaz*, Faiza Zubair and Sidra Kanwal
...vergent genes and 5% uni-directional genes. These categories may further be differentiated as coding vs. coding, coding vs. non-coding and mixture of both types on the basis of overlapping gene structure. Our analyses revealed that human genome has various types of overlapping genes. The occurrence of these overlapping genes is not solely dependent on the size of the chromosomes.
...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...OPD). Their frequency is directly related to the prognosis of the disease. The objective of this study was to identify the ‘frequent exacerbator’ phenotype and determine the risk factors for increased frequency of acute exacerbations in local chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in a cross sectional analytical study design. For this purpose 137 patients were included in the study after obtaining necessary permissions from the ethic...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

Francisco J. Ayala
...force or immanent energy directing the evolutionary process toward the production of specified kinds of organisms. Even if a scientific account of natural history is open to the God question, it will take a theologian to propose an answer. 
...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

...he quickest ways in this direction is the designing molecular markers for non-race-specific resistance genes. Use of molecular markers is efficient tool for screening diversity of rust genes in wheat germplasm and can facilitate the integration of multiple genes into wheat by pyramiding and transformation. This review discusses information regarding rust disease and resistance in wheat to tackle the disease through resistance breeding. 

...
Bruce R. Reichenbach
... one starts from and the direction one goes determines where one ends up. This is no less true in philosophy than elsewhere, and certainly no less true in matters dealing with the relationship between God’s foreknowledge and human free actions. In what follows I will argue that the incompatibilist view that Fischer and others stalwartly defend results from the particular starting point they choose, and that if one adopts a different starting po...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
...6 to December 2008 using direct smear and concentration methods. Two hundred and twenty one (21.2%) participants were found infected with one or more than one intestinal tapeworms. Seventy seven (7.39%) of the participants were infected with single parasite and one hundred forty four (13.8%) with multiple infections. Taenia saginata 32.6% (n=146/447), Ascaris lumbricoides 20.3% (n=91/447), Hymenolepis nana 19.7% (n=88/447), Trichuris tr...
Justyna Batkowska1,*, Lukasz Wlazlo2, Kamil Drabik1, Bozena Nowakowicz-Debek2, Karrar I.A. Al-Shammari3 and Magdalena Gryzinska1
...ggshell. Its use did not directly affect the hatching results and chick quality, however, they were similar to control groups, what may confirm possible use of GT juice as an alternative disinfection method.
...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

...es dealing with clinical directors and managers. This research was conducted to study the leadership styles among the medical professionals. For this purpose, a cross sectional and non-probability convenient sampling was conducted involving 59 medical professionals of Azra Naheed Medical College, Lahore. The assessment of leadership-style (T-P leadership rating scale) was applied. The age of subjects was 37.42±11.91 years; 29(49.15%) were males and 27(4...

Ata-ul-Mohsin*, Ehsan-ul-Haq** and Muhammad Naeemullah*

...ain aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) and its parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Steph.). High calcium and high phosphorus concentrations applied to a partially resistant wheat cultivar “Rapier” did not have a significant effect on the growth and development of the aphid or its parasitoid. However, the mean fecundity of the parasitoid was higher on plants with high phosphorus than those treated with high calcium concentrations.

...

 Z. A. Soomro, M.B. Kumbhar, A.S. Larik*, M. Imran** and S.A. Brohi***

...dditive gene effects and direct selection may be effective. Boll weight and seed index exhibited low genetic advances irrespective to their high heritability estimates, probably due to non-additive gene effects, developing transgressive segregants through hybridization is suggested. However, hybridization system, which exploits both fixable and non-fixable components, simultaneously, could be useful in the genetic improvement of yield and yield components in u...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...present study aimed to indirectly investigate into the potential of saving land and water resources by re-allocating sugarcane area to relatively more productive recommended sugarcane varieties. Secondly, this exercise shall also provide feedback to researchers in sugarcane crop as well as sugar mills for assessing the types of varieties performing better, relative to others. The study document the extent of adoption of recommended sugarcane varieties in Pakis...

 Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Amanullah, Saifullah Khan, Basharat Hussain Shah and Munir Ahmed Khetran*

...he cuttings were planted directly in polyethylene bags without IBA application. Plants were kept in a shade house and humidity was increased manually by hand sprinkling (four times in a day). Highest rooting percentage (60%) was obtained in the cuttings treated with 3000 ppm. The maximum average number of roots per cutting (4.443) and average root length (5.687 cm) were recorded with 4000 ppm IBA treatment. Percentage of rooted cuttings decreased with increase...

 Oguz Bilgin, Kayihan Z. Korkut, Alpay Balkan, and Ismet Baser*

...aracters. The degree and direction of heterosis varied for different characters and for different hybrids. The highest heterosis over mid and better parents (120.14-109.93%) was recorded in hybrid of Kyzyltan91xIDSN209 for grain weight/spike. Maximum limits of heterosis over mid and better parent for spike length, spikelets/spike, grains/spike, spike density, grains/spikelets and spike harvest index were 8.77-8.14 (Svevo//GedxYav), 8.37-7.37 (Svevo//GedxYav), ...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

... a medicinal plant Azadirachta indica on the CNS enzymes of a stored grain pest, Tribolium castaneum and a socioeconomic insect, Apis mellifera. A comparative study was designed to identify the role of saponins on insect acetylcholinesterase (AChEs). The enzyme activities were tested for the effect of saponins. The AChE activity of T. castaneum was inhibited by the saponins and follows competitive inhibition kinetics. In case of ...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1*, Rehmat Ullah1, Asif Nawaz1 and Ejaz Ashraf2 

 Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Muhammad Arshadullah, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

EFFECT OF BORON NUTRITION ON PADDY YIELD UNDER SALINESODIC SOILS
...ic concentration of rice directly sown on raised beds under -1 saline sodic soils (ECe=5.32 dS m , pH=8.52 and SAR=18.87) at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian, district Hafizabad, Punjab Pakistan during 2009 and 2010. Treatments were arranged in RCBD with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity. Data on tillering, -1 plant height, spike length, number of grains spike , 1000-grain weight, straw and paddy yields were recorded. Na, K...

 Sajida Taj*, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan**, Mazher Abbas and Arshed Bashir***

PRICE SPREAD AND MARKETING MARGINS OF CUT ROSE IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...d channel producers were directly linked with retailers. In Channel-I the highest consumer's price of Rs. 444.78 per 100 pieces of cut roses indicated that consumers have to pay more there. The price spread was greater in Channel-I which was Rs. 243.36 per 100 pieces of cut roses. In Channel-II where producers were directly linked with retailers, producer's share was maximized up to 46.86% which increases the marketing effic...

 Ayesha Tahir* and Zafar Altaf**

DETERMINANTS OF INCOME FROM VEGETABLES PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NORMAL AND OFF-SEASON VEGETABLES IN ABBOTTABAD
...sing opportunity in this direction. The study is based on comparison of income obtained from production both in normal and off–season vegetables. Total sample of study was 150 vegetable producers of Abbottabad district. Majority of the sampled farmers were growing tomato and cucumber. There was not much fluctuation in the income among the farmers in normal season but the income from off-season vegetable production was almost double. Most of the farmers w...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
... periods and thus have indirect impacts on weed control strategies and management options in conservation crop production.

...

 Samiullah*, Mehmood Shah*, Kalim Ullah**, Rehmat Ullah*** and Ibrarullah****

PROFITABILITY OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...that profit is under the direct positive influence of price and output of wheat grain whereas cost had negatively affected the wheat profitability. 

...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi* and Abdul Jabbar**

SEAFOOD EXPORTS: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
...uction, seafood exports, direction and future prospects of seafood exports from Pakistan. The production of inland and marine fish was 729,000 t in 2012-13. Not only seafood output in the country is low but dwindling to the disastrous level. Export of seafood has increased from 131,620 t (a value of US$ 315.5 million) in 2011-12 to 136,360 t (a value of US$ 333.13 million) in 2012-13, with an annual increase of 9.5% in term of quantity and 4.5% in term of valu...

 Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Arshad Ali**, Tariq Sultan** and Muhammad Munir Ahmed***

CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ROOT SYSTEM OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L) GROWN UNDER SALT AFFECTED AREA OF PAKISTAN
...ing rhizobacteria (PGPR) directly promote plant growth by providing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), solubilization of inorganic phosphates, nitrogen fixation and siderophores and other organic acid production, whereas indirectly support plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. The objective of this study was isolation and characterization of bacterial strains from rhizosphere, endosphere and rhizoplane of sunflower. Thirty s...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz** and Mushtaq A. Saleem***

TOXICITIES OF AZADIRACHTIN AND POLYCHLORINATED PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON AGAINST RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE STRAINS OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) ADULTS
...gnated method against azadirachtin (Nimbokil 60 EC) and polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon (Tenekil 100 EC). The LC values of these insecticides were worked out as 12830 and 50 9331 ppm for azadirachtin and 5148 and 4047 ppm for Tenekil 100 EC against PAK and FSS-II strains, respectively. The results revealed that polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon was more toxic than the azadirachti...

 Syed Asif Imran Shah*, Shah Jehan Khan**, Abdul Aziz Baloch*** ,
Obaid Ullah Sayal**, Kalim Ullah* andShujaat Ali**

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS IN VARIOUS INBRED LINES OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)
...fic combining ability of direct and reciprocal effects were observed for all attributes. Azam -1 proved good combiner for days to 50% silking and kernel rows ear while -1 Islamabad Gold for kernels ear and grain yield. Islamabad White × Sadaf was the best combiner for grain yield. For reciprocal effects, BS-I × Sahiwal -1 -1 2002 proved good combiner for kernels row and kernels ear while BS-I × Islamabad White for grain yield. Selection in ea...

 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

SPATIAL PRICE TRANSMISSION IN PAKISTAN: THE CASE OF WHEAT AND RICE MARKETS
...m except few markets. Unidirectional and bidirectional causality exists between wheat and rice markets. Bad and poor infrastructure is a major impediment to price transmission among the markets. These market imperfections lead to food insecurity in the country. Government should formulate better policies and develop infrastructure towards better and efficient market function. The results of this study will help the policy ma...

 Imdad Ali Mahmood*, Arshad Ali**, Armghan Shahzad**, Muhammad Asif Masud Ghumman***, Muhammad Arshad Ullah**, Tariq Sultan** and Badar-u-Zaman**

CROP RESIDUES AND PHOSPHORUS EFFECT ON YIELD AND ECONOMICS OF DIRECT SEEDED RICE AND WHEAT GROWN UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOIL
...g ) was c 3 conducted on direct seeded rice and wheat for two consecutive years at Soil Salinity Research Institute (SSRI) Farm, Pindi Bhattian, Pakistan to investigate the yield and economics of direct seeded rice and wheat under crop residue incorporation and phosphorus applications. Split plot design (crop residue in main plots and P application in sub plots) was followed with three replications. Biomass yields were colle...

 Hina Fatima** and Bushra Yasmin**

EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN'S FARM SECTOR: A META-ANALYSIS*
...igned to evaluate the misdirected growth policies in farm sector of Pakistan.

...

 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

AN INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM TO FACILITATE FARMERS IN WHEAT, SUGARCANE AND OTHER CROP DISEASES IDENTIFICATION
...heir crop related issues directly to agriculture scientists is proposed. This 'AXPERT Platform' consists of web application that provides user centered interface to farmers and a desktop application that facilitates agricultural scientists to identify crop diseases. A case study was developed from Faisalabad region where information about crops, their soil conditions and associated diseases were provided on a web application. An online registration facility wa...

Jesse M. Smith

... should investigate more directly religious leaders’ rhetoric to better understand the relationship between religious and secular spheres.
...
Zheng Quan Jiang1,2, Feng Shan Li3, Jiang Hong Ran1,*, Chen Hao Zhao1, Man Zhang1 and Hua Li4
... nest, grass mound nest, dirt mound nest and floating grass nest. The nest length, nest width, nest height and nest volume among the four types of nests all were significantly different in the order: floating grass nests >dirt mound nests >grass mound nests >natural island nests, indicating that nest size was related to nest type. Among the three kinds of nest-site habitats, there were no significant differences in ...
Abdul Nabi Jatt1,*, Sarfraz Ali Tunio1, Shaista Bano Memon1, Abdul Sattar Qureshi2 and Muhammad Aqeel Bhutto
...enzymes on routine basis directly in bacterial cultures and biological fluids.
...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...erature declined in same direction. Malaria prevalence correlated positively with Anopheles mosquito abundance (r = 0.863, p = 0.012). Mosquito abundance and malaria prevalence strongly correlated negatively with temperature (r = -0.799, p = 0.031 and -0.869, p = 0.011, respectively). The positive correlation between relative humidity and malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance was not significant (p < 0.05). Malaria prevalence in Nigeria is influe...
Grace Chinenye Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie, Joseph O. Okoro, Christopher Didigwu Nwani*, Ngozi Ezenwaji, Ndubisi Stanley Oluah and Fabian C. Okafor
...ated host morbidity, and direct and indirect cost of such parasitism to human is important, first for human health and welfare, secondly for sustainable snail farming, and finally for maintenance of snail biodiversity.
...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...Pakistan and a source of direct and indirect employment in the country. Current study was designed to explore net return and resource use efficiency in sugarcane production in district D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. To realize the objectives of the study, primary data was collected from 76 sugarcane growers through a well-designed interview schedule. Debartin formula was used to calculate net return, while a Cobb-Douglas typ...

Amjad Ali1, Rajan Shrestha2, Ghaffar Ali1, Irfan Ullah1 and Salman Khan1 

...Pakistan and a source of direct and indirect employment in the country. Current study was designed to explore net return and resource use efficiency in sugarcane production in district D.I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. To realize the objectives of the study, primary data was collected from 76 sugarcane growers through a well-designed interview schedule. Debartin formula was used to calculate net return, while a Cobb-Douglas typ...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah*, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Abdulrahman Jarelnabi, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman and Mansour F. Hussein
...as determined using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All camels tested were clinically normal. Out of 253 camels of either sex, 117 (21.99%) were found to be serologically positive to specific anti-N.caninum antibodies. Logistic regression analysis and estimation of odds ratio revealed significant association of the sex and location of the camels with N. caninum seropositivity. On the other hand, neither the breed nor age of...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
...CDV antibodies, and an indirect IgG ELISA was used to detect CPV antibodies. Neutralizing antibodies was induced after CDV vaccination and persisted up to 3.9 years. Most animals had high IgG antibody titers to CPV prior to vaccination and vaccination did not result in increased titers. A decline in CPV antibody titer with increasing age was observed regardless of immunization status. Our results suggest that vaccination of African wild dogs with a live attenu...

Shahid Ali1* and Salamat Ali2  

...f Pakistan is generating direct and indirect employment and provision of income for millions. This study, therefore, estimated and compared costs and revenues of open shed and environmentally controlled (EC) shed broiler farms in Punjab, Pakistan. Multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of sampled respondents. 120 farmers, 60 farmers of open shed and 60 farmers of EC shed were interviewed during 2014. Dummy v...
Yakup Erdal Erturk1, Adem Aksoy2 and Mohammad Masood Tariq3,*
...n (comprising Erzurum, Igdir, Kars and Agri provinces) of Turkey. For this goal, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), a-non parametric regression technique, was used to develop a respectable prediction equation that can denote interaction effects of influential predictors in the definition of the influential factors on AFFLW as an output variable for male and female crossbred cattle. Several predictors in the current survey were province (Erzurum, ...
Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam1, Iram Gull1, Zaigham Abbas2,* and Muhammad Amin Athar1
...s as well as through its direct action on target cells. The recombinant expression of some proteins in E. coli produces inclusion bodies which are misfolded proteins. The objective of this study was soluble expression of IFNα2-Tα1fusion protein in E. coli using pET-SUMO vector and determination of its biological activity. SUMO-IFNα2-Tα1 was successfully expressed in soluble form with IPTG induction to final concentration 0...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Sidra Naz3, Sidra Abbas2, Wardah Hassan2, Shakeela Perveen2, Moazama Batool1, Laiba Shafique2
...ations showed strong and direct relationship with, fin movement followed by mucous secretion, hyperactivity and swimming rate for C. mrigala with R2 value of 0.858, 0.853, 0.216 and 0.005, respectively. The Fe+Ni+Pb+Zn mixture exposure at 96 h LC50 concentration caused significant decrease of catalase activity in liver, kidney, gills, muscle and brain of C. mrigala as compared to control. This study suggests that the behavio...
Muhammad Waheed Mushtaq1,*, Jamil Anwar2, Omara Naeem3,Farah Kanwal1 and Waheed-uz-Zaman1
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
...ortunistic survey) and indirect observations based on signs of the species were recorded. This was supplemented with information collected through questionnaire survey. Results confirmed the occurrence of leopard at six out of twelve sampling sites surveyed, in the form of evidences including pug marks, cave/ den, and dead bodies (two carcasses and one skin) of the animal. Moreover, three kill records of the animal in a short duration of six months are indicat...
Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain and Tariq Mahmood*
...damage to various crops, directly and indirectly, by gnawing, spoilage, contamination and hoarding activities. The current study investigated the occurrence of different rodent species inside the crop fields and at field edges, associated with four major crops (wheat, groundnut, millet and maize) in the Pothwar Plateau. In all four crops, maximum number of rodent burrows was recorded at maturity stages of the crops. The matu...
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...rs were evaluated with indirect haemagglutination test. The results indicated significantly higher (P< 0.05) immune titer in animal group vaccinated with toxoid vaccine prepared from pathogenic isolates and provide best protection against challenge infection.
...

Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Muhammad Rizwan2*, Muhammad Akram1, Jaffar Hussain1 and Fiaz Ahmad1 

...lso showed high positive direct effects on seed yield. Hence,indirect selection for these traits may facilitate for developing high yielding genotypes. The diversity analysis categorized fifty-eight genotypes into four clusters. Clustering pattern did not show any relation to the geographic origin. Cluster-I with three genotypes (Thailand: 2; Sri Lanka: 1) and Cluster-II with seventeen genotypes (Thailand: 12, Pakistan: 3, I...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...enetic analysis based on direct sequencing of hypervariable region of hexon gene grouped these sequences into two distinct groups, three FAdV isolates were clustered together belonging to fowl adenoviruses C species and serotype FAdV-4. The similar viruses have been commonly isolated since late 1980s from the poultry flocks. In addition, seven genetically related FAdV isolates were from fowl adenovirus type 11 in D species. To our knowledge, this is the first ...

Wasim Javaid1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2 and Muhammad Usman Raja2 

...ss against this pest was directly proportional to its concentration as well as exposure time. For effective management of C. chinensis, 1×108 spores/ml of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana is recommended for safer storage of chickpea, pulses and grains. 

...
Mudassar Javed1,Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Sufyan1, Sajjad Ali2 and Muhammad Afzal1
...ng the botanicals, Azadirachta indica, Citrullus colocynthis and Nicotiana tabacum caused the most significant reduction of okra borers in both years, followed by Curcuma longa and Corymbia citriodora. These synthetic insecticides and botanicals on average reduced okra fruit infestation by 20 to 56% and by 18 to 10%, respectively, and increased okra fruit yield up to 45%. We therefore recommend their integration in biorational IPM p...
Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

 

...attraction intensity was directly proportional to time and based on the nutrients provided by the nematodes. In this experiment, the nematophagous fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora, A. superba, A. musiformis, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Lecanicillium muscarium, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Monacrosporium ellipsosporum demonstrated a prominent...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

... can, therefore, be used directly as varieties to manage the disease after evaluation for acceptable agronomic characteristics, adaptation, and stability in various regions or can be used as a resistant source in further breeding programs 

...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...s and difenoconazole was directly related to the concentration of each component used in mixtures. Additive effects were observed in all treatments according to the mycelial growth inhibition, Me and Chi-square values. The use of T. hamatum offers a promising and effective co-formulation product or alternative to chemical fungicides in controlling popcorn disease of mulberry.
...

Muhammad Ishfaq1*, Nadeem Akbar1, Imran Khan1, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Usman Zulfiqar1, Muhammad Ahmad1, Mumtaz Ahmad2 and Muhammad Umer Chattha1 

...es along with quality of direct seeded rice. Farmer field-based experiment comprised two soil moisture regimes at the time of sowing: (M1 = Sowing in moist (field capacity) condition, M2= Sowing in dry condition) in main plots, while three different row spacings (S1: broadcasting, (no defined row spacing) S2: 11.25 cm row spacing, S3: 22.50 cm row spacing) were assigned to sub-plots. The experimental results revealed that treatment S3 (22.50 cm row spacing) to...
Gokhan Sahin1, Ecevit Eyduran2,*, Mete Turkoglu3 and Fatma Sahin2
...of migratory birds in Iğdir, Turkey for next studies with the scope of global warming.
...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 50, Iss. 5, Pages 1601-1998

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe