El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...re applied nationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic drift and the establishment of infections in vaccinated poultry. The Egyptian H5N1 viruses remain susceptible to oseltamivir, but genetic markers indicating resistance to amantadine have increased dramatically. In this mini-review, we discuss recent findings on the H5N1 viruses endemic in poul...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
... unconsciously trying to control the thinking and behavior of others. Yet, as Colin Gunton points out, human beings, thus faced with an enormous diversity of options in virtually every area of human life, end up making important decisions simply on the basis of momentary personal preference. In this article, I first review the classical philosophical understanding of the relation between the One and Many in which the One is conceived as ontologically prior to ...

Muhangi Denis

...enting of prevention and control strategies could be explored in future control programs. This may call for investing resources in changing disease management behaviour in managing this disease.

...

Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

...cytoplasm and vice versa controlling the overexpression of IFN-beta and ISGs which subsequently triggers virus specific immune response.

...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

... strategy to prevent and control H9N2 AIVs. There are three inactivated vaccines of H9N2 AIVs have been used in domestic poultry in China. But H9N2 AIVs occurred frequently and caused severe economic losses to the poultry industries. H9N2 AIVs can evade the pressure of vaccination by genetic evolution and antigen variation. Moreover, the ratio of L226 in the haemagglutin (HA) receptor binding site has increased, which indicates that the H9N2 virus has the incr...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

...y Brazil has no official control program for BVDV. The significance of cattle production losses or the potential implementations of commercial barrier by other countries can possibly reason the placement of governmental veterinary measures in the near future.

...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...espectively, relative to control eggs treated with water. The parasitism rates by female parasitic wasps emerged from host eggs treated at x dose when parasitoid was during egg, larval, and pupal stages were 21.6, 26.5, and 25.1%, respectively; the 2x dose resulted in parasitism (mean) of 23.1, 27.6, and 26.1 when parasitoids were treated in egg, larval, and pupal stages, respectively, while, 0.5x dose led to 21.0, 25.9, 27.7, mean parasitism, respectively. Th...

Arshad Ali Khan1, Muhammad Sajid1, Abdur Rab1, Sahib Alam2, Abdul Bari3

...combina- tions viz. 0-0 (control), 100-0, 75-25, 50-50, 25-75 and 0-100% of poultry manure (PM) and Sul- phate of Potash (SOP). All the factors (K-sources, cultivars and years) alone and in combination sig- nificantly affected the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato. The highest number of leaves plant-1 (75.25) and yield (49.25 t ha-1) were gained by Falcon in 50-50 treatment during, 2010. However, the plant height (134 cm) and fruit size (147.1 cm3) wer...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...ularly in regions with uncontrolled livestock movements.

...

Muhammad Mushtaq

E-mail | mushtaq@uaar.edu.pk

...f strychnine alkaloid in controlling the Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica, during 2006-07. Indian crested porcupine is a severe forest and agricultural pest throughout southern Asia and the Middle East, including Pakistan. The results suggested that in case of pre-baiting trial, a 25% reduction in burrow activity was achieved in case of groundnut – maize (1:1) grain bait loaded with 2% strychnine alkaloid and supplemented with 5% saccharin and a ...

Masood ur Rahman1*, Zahid Mahmood2, Taj Ali2, Muhammad Aziz Irfan Mufti3, Jehangir Khan Seyal4, Munir Ahmad5

E-mail | masoodra@hotmail.com

 

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 31, Iss. 1
...used for mechanical weed control and hoeing. It was observed that the worm gear used in its transmission often failed due to surface wear of gear teeth. Worm gears made from three different copper alloys were tested against soil resistance in sandy loam soil bin. The gears were formed of commercial gun metal (Cu 87.76%, Sn 7.74, Zn 1.52%), gun metal (Cu 88%, Sn 7.38%, Zn 1.78%), and gear bronze (Cu 85.92%, Sn 4.96%, Zn 2.93%, Ni 1.23%). The gear compositions w...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

...ertility treatments (T1, control; Phosphorus and Potash (PK) (80-60 kg ha-1) + inoculation, T3, (120-80-60 NPK kg ha-1); T4, poultry manure (PM) @ 15 t ha-1 and half PM+ half PK+ inoculation, half poultry manure (7.5 t ha-1) + half PK (40-30 kg ha-1) + inoculation. According to statistical analysis, data revealed that plots treated with PK + inoculation with Rhizobium gave 33% higher mungbean seed yield over control. Similar...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...0 and 280 kg ha-1) and a control one were studied in this trial. Growth and yield traits and quality such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein, crude fiber and ash percentage were significantly increased with increase nitrogen levels (200, 240, and 280 kg N ha-1). However, highest benefit-cost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was foun...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...r plant as compared with control. Wheat genotype Faisal-2008 exhibited comparatively more drought tolerance with less decrease in growth rate (18.70%); total dry matter (26.94%), 100-grain weight (23.45%) and grain yield (21.50%) as compared with all other treatments. It was concluded that water stress induced at grain filling stage showed a significant impact on wheat growth as compared with other growth stage stresses. Regarding genotypes, Faisal-2008 was le...

Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Aysha Sameen1, Mahr un Nisa2

 

... rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 7% flaxseed, and T2 were on 3.5% flaxseed in the feed of rabbits. Bearing in mind that this range of flaxseed will fulfil omega 3 Poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration that contributes 8.5% of the total fatty acids. Rabbits were reared for the period of eight weeks. Enrichment of 7% flaxseed in the diet of rabbits significantly enhanced growth performance of rabbits and improved ...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

...-1, in addition to control were evaluated under lentil-sorghum and lentil-mungbean cropping patterns. Fertilizer treatments were only applied to lentil while their residual effect was studied on sorghum and mungbean. The results revealed that net benefits and marginal rate of return from NPK were the highest mainly due to high lentil yield and poultry manure was next to it. The residual analysis confirmed the findings. Similarly sorghum gave higher retur...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

... The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1), Farmyard Manure (20 t ha-1), Poultry Manure (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + P.M (20 t ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1) + P.M (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (10 t ha-1), and NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + P.M (10 t ha-1). All the relevant agronomic observ...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...). Biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movements and inactivated vaccines were devised to combat the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1. HPAIV are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated f...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...ementation of integrated control measures and disease risk analysis, this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culicoides ne...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...ts over their respective controls at all doses and growth stages observed, attaining maximum with 40 grams Imidacloprid active ingredient per hectare-1 at day 15 after treatment. The antioxidative enzyme activity of SOD, APX and GR showed increasing trend in a dose-dependent manner, attaining maximum at 40 g.a.i ha-1 of Imidacloprid treatment at day 7 after treatment (DAT) followed by 3 and 15 DAT, respectively. On the contrary, the CAT activity was increased ...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

..., the plants grown under control treatment took minimum days (112.9) to flowering, maximum plant height (47.06 cm) and number of leaves (57.89) plant-1. Maximum fresh flower weight (47.85 g) and dry flower weight (5.80 g) was observed with 1500 ppm maleic hydrazide. The interaction between “potassium” and “maleic hydrazide” showed significant effects for some of the growth parameters. It can be concluded that potassium at the rate of 20...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...g potential as microbial control agent against A. sciodoxa and should be exploited under field conditions.

...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

... that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites and contact with blood of the suspected animal. 

...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried blood samples collected from mink, a VP2 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) system was recently evaluated. However, such estimations of disease progression are commonly based on single sampling occasions and it is essential to know if estimated antibody levels vary over a period of we...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...up>-1) including a control treatment in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in four replications. Sowing date (SD) were main plot and N-rate subplot treatments. Mean results of replications revealed a significant reduction in days to flowering and maturity by delay SD. However, positive responses were observed by increase in N-rate. Early planting showed maximum biomass and yield at 120 kg N ha-1 which was due to reflecting higher leaf ar...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...e experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or other countries of similar socio-economic and small ruminant rearing pattern to vaccinate and control PPR.

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...res that are required to control and eradicate it. However, with challenges such as uncontrolled movement of animals across porous borders, limited financial capacity of farmers to expand or improve the systems, and inadequate supply of quality vaccines and the problem of delivery to maintain cold chain, there is need for a very strong regional coordination for effective and sustainable control

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...tegies for the effective control and eradication of PPR. This review comprehend the current scenario of recombinant technology based vaccines and diagnostics, virus like particles (VLPs), reverse genetics approach etc., in the development of diagnostics and vaccines against PPR.

...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...se impact assessment and control. Particular attention is paid here to the potential role of PE in future research on the epidemiology and control of PPR. 

...

Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

... non-additive genes were controlling these characters. The magnitude of SCA variances were higher than GCA indicating pre-dominance of non-additive gene effects for spike length, spike density, seeds spike-1, grain yield plant- and harvest index, while GCA variances were greater for days to 75% maturity, tillers per plant. Parental cultivar TD-1 expressed maximum GCA effects for tillers plant-1, spike length, grain yield plant<...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...ost treatments including control as main plot treatment and two fert-N levels (0 and 75 kg N ha-1) as subplot treatments were used. Compost materials i.e. farmyard manure (FYM), cereal residue (CR) and legume residue (LR) were composted as sole or in various combinations six weeks before sowing and then were incorporated to plots at sowing both the years. All treatments including control were either supplemented with half of...

 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

...ent sources tested were; control, NPK50 (50% NPK), NPK75 (75% NPK), NPK100 (100% NPK), FYM10 (10 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM10, NPK75+FYM10, NPK100+FYM10, FYM20 (20 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM20, NPK75+FYM20, NPK100+FYM20. Results revealed that NPK75FYM20` significantly (p<0.05) improved the yield. As regards soil properties, NPK20FYM20 reduced bulk density, increased WHC, saturation percentage, organic matter content, plant available N, P and K significantly (p<0...

 Gul Naz and Mohammad Akmal

... ha-1 as compared to the control. Among the varieties for yield and yield traits, Pirsabak-2005 produced the highest grain yield (3043 kg ha-1) and the minimum (2494 kg ha-1) grain yield was observed by wheat variety Saleem-2000. The highest grain yield of the variety corresponds to higher thousand grains weight (46.98 g), spikes per meter square (263) and grains spike-1 (37.24). Variety Saleem-2000 showed the minimum number of spikes m-2 (242) and grains spik...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...>Glossinidae) vector control measures can rely upon knowledge of genetic diversity between species’ population. Two species were studied: Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA fragment primers- Cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and Cytochrome b (CytB). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calculate hapl...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

...improved with respect to control. It is concluded that R-2210 produced maximum yield, BCR value and N content in tissue with 350 kg N ha-1, however S content in soil and in tissue was more with 40 kg S ha-1. Hence, it is recommended that 350 kg N ha-1, and R-2210 should be used for optimum grain yield and economic benefits.

...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

... treatments consisted of control (untreated), eucalyptus water extract at 10, 20 and 30 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 10 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil and eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 30 ml kg-1 soil. Data showed that all the treatments of eucalyptus leaves water extract and powder caused substantial ...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...hree seasons effectively control the Varroa mite and can be used without any side effect during all the three seasons.

...

Muhammad Ibrahim, Jawaria Ali Khan, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Avais, Ali Husnain, Naimatullah Khan, Muhammad Kamran Ameen and Abdullah Iqbal

...ws were used as negative control so they can be used for comparing blood values and milk composition of healthy cows with animals under trial. Our study concluded that Vitamin E+ Se and Garlic were the most efficient drugs as 66% cows suffering from subclinical mastitis were recovered by treatment of each of them. Cows suffering from subclinical mastitis showed a 50 % recovery percentage when treated with lemon for five days and 33 percent cows recovered from ...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...t) and positive (4% fat) control samples. The cheese samples were ripened at 6-8oC for 30 days and analyzed for physico-chemical composition, functional, textural and sensory quality. The results showed that reduction in fat significantly (p < 0.05) increased the moisture and protein content. The addition of gums further augmented the moisture level owing to owing to their water retention properties. The melt-ability, flow-ability and yield of cheese decrea...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...as higher in the soil of control (RP0) plants, which decreases progressively with increasing fertility level. Less number of spores and percent root colonization was found at high RP level (RP100) in all hybrids. Higher P doses declined the sporulation and colonization. There was total seven AMF species that were observed and recorded. The dominant genus was Acaulospora which was followed by Glomus, Sclerocystis and Gigaspora. The average AMF spore density ran...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...were highly effective to control reddening of leaves, respectively. Interactive effect of NP @ 120-70 kg ha-1 × Zn @ 4 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum reduction of red leaves. Regardless the application of N, P or K and their control, reddening of leaves was linearly affected by Zn and B. It is concluded that there was no direct effect of N, P, K, Mg and Fe on the reddening of cotton leaves but B and Zn application decreas...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...ough soil application to control sugar beet cyst nematodes Heterodera schachtii. Lecanicillium muscarium decreased nematode population significantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nematode population compared to that of untreated control. A significant...

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

...s including a corn-based control diet and control plus 9% DDGS. After 105 d administration of experimental diets, growth performance, pork quality traits, and fatty acid composition in loin were analyzed. No significant difference in growth performance and quality traits of pork loin between control and DDGS was observed. Fatty acid composition in pork belly, however, was significantly aff...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...roup WST-0 was kept as a control, while WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were treated with W. somnifera water based infusion @ 10, 20 and 30ml/lit respectively. The means were compared by using CRD as statistical model for analysis. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly improved. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly reduced in all treated groups. Mean cholesterol was (157.66 mg/dl), triglyceride (65.64 mg/dl), HDL (58.88 mg/dl) while no alter...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

... cm (Wide Bed-WB)), with controlled traffic regime emplaced, in comparison with traditional intensive cultivated flat basin (FB) for evaluating impacts on soil, crop and water productivity. The results showed reduced bulk density by 7%, 6% and 5% and increased hydraulic conductivity by 90%, 106% and 72% for WB, MB and NB respectively, when compared with FB. The irrigation water saving was 36%, 40% on WB, 34%, 31% on MB and 7%, 8% on NB, for wheat and maize cro...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

..., two rRNA genes and two control regions CR and CCR, which was first reported in the order Coraciiformes. The overall A+T content for the mitogenome is 52%, and the GC and AT skews are -0.400 and 0.108. Unlike to many other birds, no extra base is inserted at certain position relative to ND3. Interestingly, a 484bp repeated sequence appears in both CR and CCR. Genetic distance shows that the differences between M. v. viridis and M. v. americanus ...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

... and tRNA structure. The control region spanned 1571 bp, 1336 bp and 1332 bp in O. lacepedii, O. rebecca a...

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

...o 5 experimental groups (control group and 4 treatment groups) each including 16 and maintained individually in cages of 35 x 40 x 45 cm. The strongest correlations were found for egg weight-egg width (r=0.910, P<0.01), haugh unit-albumen index (r=0.876, P<0.01), egg weight-egg height (r=0.799, P<0.01), and egg shape index-egg height (r=0.693, P<0.01). ANOVA results revealed that treatment factor influenced only egg height among all the egg charact...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...t approaches, biological control is considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has also been reported from different localities of Pakistan. The main...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...der with melatonin at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM. Diluted semen was cooled to 4°C for 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4°C. Straws were then kept over liquid nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Thawing was performed after 24 h of storage, at 37°C for 30 seconds and post-thaw sperm quality parameters were assessed. Sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, viability and c...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

... maturation stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Queen oviposition rate was 1.4-fold higher in polycarbonate box compared to wooden and cardboard materials. Early start of egg-laying (first oviposition period) and earlier emergence of first worker were found in polycarbonate box as compared to others. Similarly, colony foundation stage in polycarbonate box took 58.3 days which was about 7-10 days shorter than others box types. Early emergence of sexu...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...arked difference between control and exposed fishes, indicating that the herbicides negatively impact on these parameters. These behavioural and morphological anomalies became more pronounced with increasing concentrations of the herbicides. Mortality was also observed to be concentration dependent. After 96 h of exposure, the 96hr LC50 for paraquat was found to be 0.07mg/L while that of glyphosate was found to be 0.530mg/L. The result revealed that glyph...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...be the most efficient biocontrol agent by parasitizing the maximum number of eggs, whereas D. oviparasitica appeared to be the least efficient after 72 hours. The greatest numbers of cysts and eggs were found to be colonized with L. muscarium during microscopic observations. In the greenhouse experiment, L. muscarium had significant effects in reducing the nematode population in soil compared to the other treatments. In regard to the growth parameters, ro...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...nflower which should be controlled by exploiting of spiders and lady beetles.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...calcium cyanamide in the control of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, through soil application under greenhouse conditions. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in the number of galls and egg masses, eggs and juveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infest...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...y one normal age matched controls were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR using specific primers for GPR54 and GNRHR splice site exons. Mutations were analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or sequencing. No mutation was identified in GPR54 gene, while two mutations in GNRHR gene were observed in one sporadic case of isolated HH. The first was a synonymous substitution mutation of T to G at nucleotide position 12...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

... global strategy for the control and eradicaton of PPR, initiated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on 2015.

...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...ps as follows: group (I) control group (lupus uninfected); group (II) live P. chabaudi infected group (lupus + live P. chabaudi infection); and group (III) irradiated P. chabaudi-infected group (lupus + irradiated P. chabaudi-infection). All groups were killed at day 14 post infection. Histological and biochemical investigations were performed.Live P. chabaudi infection was accompanied with an increase in spleen weight in comparison to either the

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...ed fish. Treatment 1 and control failed to spawn. Fish fed on 30% protein diet (treatment 1) and the control had the lowest fecundity showing insufficiency of protein required for proper development of the ovary. These studies revealed that 40% protein diet not only improved fish growth and health but also enhanced egg fecundity, gonadal development and spawning.

...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...in order to biologically control a number of pests for an eco-friendly pest control system.

...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

... in agriculture for pest control in Nigeria. This study investigated the effects of aluminium phosphide on the behaviour, haematology, oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemistry of African catfish (C. gariepinus) juvenile on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were exposed to 0.175, 0.0875 and 0.035 mg/L corresponding to 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50 of the 96 h LC50 value (1.75) of the pesticide. Behavioral responses which include colouration of the fish skin and opercula co...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

... the alternate option to control mastitis. In ongoing era, bacteriophages are an alternate possible effective remedy. Therefore, in this study the infection ability of three lytic phages SA, SANF and SA2 was determined against ten isolates of Staphylococci and one Micrococcus, isolated from five raw milk samples. Their morphological, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that two strains were S. aureus, while all others were different ...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...hed healthy individuals (control group) and RA patients were genotyped. Detection of rs2070424 polymorphism was carried out using allele specific PCR based amplification strategy. The serum samples were analyzed for determination of metals and minerals through Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA 6600 Shimadzu). The statistical analysis indicated that non-significant association existed between SOD1 (rs2070424) gene polymorphism and RA (p>0.05). Results ...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...1) were used as positive controls. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts was also determined. Syzygium aromaticum was proven to have excellent antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms, while C. sinensis and M. piperita showed weak antimicrobial activity. Methanolic plant extracts exhibited greater antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition exhibited by...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...n along with appropriate control measures.

...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...The six treatments were; control (T0), 10 tons (t) ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM) (T1), 20 t ha-1 pressmud (T2), 0.7 t ha-1 compost (T3), 5 t ha-1 poultry manure (T4) and mixed chemical fertilizer in the ratio of 100 : 40 : 56 kg ha-1 as N, P and K (T5). Each treatment was applied alone and with EM. Results showed that EM + pressmud combination significantly improved soil physical and chemical properties as well as spinach growth compared to other fertilizers wit...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...’s levels viz. F1 (control), F2 (inorganic fertilizers) and F3 (farm yard manure; FYM+ inorganic fertilizers). Deep tillage increased wheat yield by 60%, 37% and 29% over ST, STR and DTR, respectively. F2 and F3 increased grain and straw yield compare to F1. In the case of maize, DT increased grain yield by 53%, 20% and 15%, over ST, STR and DTR, respectively. Deep tillage showed statistically higher water use efficiency (WU...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
... and can also facilitate control of infections. A total of 50 isolates were isolated from 60 swab samples collected from two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and not enough to identify most yeast species. . Molecular biological techniques provide a useful alternative approach. Conc...
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
.../i> tabaci. Under controlled conditions different species of Fusarium restrained the growth of B. tabaci as compared with control.
...
Muge Aliye Hekimoglu*, Kgrşat Fırat, Şahin Saka, Cüney Suzer, Aysun Kop and Yaşar Durmaz
...oup (Group C) was fed on control basal diet (34.93±29.07 mg.g-1). Total carotenoid content of fish skin was determined at30-day intervals. At the end of the experiment the highest weight gain was found to be 1.73±0.37g in Group B, whereas the lowest performance (1.29±0.38 g) was received in Group C. The best feed conversion ratio was found in at Group B. The total carotenoid content of skin of fish were found to be 0.77±0...
Irshad Ahmad
... cultural and biological control methods for the substantial control of walnut borer. The present study offers valuable information through IPM, which appears to be a promising approach for the control of walnut borer. Collectively this strategy has resulted in significant reduction of the pest population in the target area of district Dir, Pakistan.
...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...>Effective diagnosis and control measures for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) requires continuous disease surveillance and understanding of field NDV strains. The NDVs, a prototype of Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1), have been reported previously both in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of fu...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

... protocols and infection control in the future.

...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
... syrup, date syrup and a control (water)] were used with different solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was observed that honey fed wasp pair produces significantly more number of eggs, adults and also lived significantly longer than other treatments. Highest fecundity and longevity of parasitoid was recorded in case of parasitoids feeding on 50% honey solution followed by 25% sugar and date syrups solutions respectively. It has provided useful informa...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
... conservative mosquitoes control strategies in Pakistan especially in the unrestricted transport of tyres from southern part of the country to the northern parts.
...
Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...ions. Used as a positive control, 250 µM 5-Fluorouracil decreased the cell survival by only 40 % after 48 h, but licofelone treatment with the same dose and time duration decreased the number of surviving cells by 87 %. Treatments with 150, 200 and 250 µM licofelone caused early apoptotic cell rates of 4, 15 and 24 % for 24 h and 6, 13 and 24 % for 48 h, respectively. In addition, 150, 200 and 250 µM of 5-Fluorouracil resulted early apoptotic...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...uding eggplant. Chemical control of nematodes is hazardous to health and causes environmental pollution by contaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mosseae (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) were applied as protect...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...er pond (2 treated and 2 control) of approximate dimensions, 13.72 m × 10.97 m × 1.52 m (229 m3). In treated ponds, fish were fed with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in three equal meals. On the other hand, control ponds remained without additives. During the whole study period, water quality parameters of the experimental ponds remained as salin...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...ating very lower genetic control. This is the first study to show genetic of persistency of lactation. Although results may be validated using more data and more accurately recorded pedigree for several generations however, this is really useful firsthand information.
...
Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
...p (experimental) and the control group, reach of 10 pikas. The pikas of experimental group were injected with 1 mL of 1 mol/L N-isopropyl oxamate, a specific LDH-C4 inhibitor, in biceps femoris muscle of hind legs, each leg with 500 μL. The pikas of control group were injected with the same volume of normal saline. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Ldh-c in plateau pika skeletal muscles we...
Nagwan F. Zahran, Ali F. Hamza and Rehab M. Sayed* 
...wed alterations from the control. Exposure to radiation caused very frequently the appearance of some extra bands and the deficiency of others in the RAPD-PCR amplification patterns of the irradiated insects. 
...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
...roups on comparison with control. Kisspeptin levels were significantly reduced in ≤13 years female (P<0.001). While significantly high levels were observed in >13 years of male (P<0.01). T3 levels were significantly increased in both thalassemic groups of female (P<0.01). While T4 levels were significantly reduced in ≤13 years of male alongwith significantly reduced (P<0.05) TSH levels. In >13 years male significan...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...2 Normolipidemic healthy controls and 102 patients with hypercholesterolemia in a   Indian Tamilian population were included in the study. Genotyping of SCARB1 genetic polymorphisms was done by PCR-RFLP combined with gel electrophoresis. The genotype distribution in the population was found to be consistent with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Through logistic regression analysis, it was observed that, in Tamil population the CC and CT genotype carrier...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...trategies for Salmonella control in Nigeria with the aim of reducing Salmonella spread from poultry to humans.

...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...5 and 1.0% respectively, control (basal diet), and a positive control (Oxyfeed® @ 2g/kg). In the study, the treatment groups, which were given diet supplemented with herb and antibiotic, exhibited improved weight gain, average daily gain, and feed conversion (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in feed intake (P>0.05). The treatment groups supplemented with Allium sativum showed higher...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
...al feed in order to make control strategies and prevent toxic syndromes to this type of contamination.
...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

... of all groups including control were challenged with field strain of IBD virus collected from bursa of clinically infected chicks, No morbidity and mortality were observed. During present study, some milder infection with field strain of IBDV almost a week ago recorded were also found in the control group when challenged with IBDV, IBD vaccines in the presence of specific maternally antibodies of IBD could no induce antibod...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1
...cy of different drugs on controlling tick’s infestation in commercial layer, a double blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. For therapeutic trials, the 80 birds (n= 60 infested with ticks, n= 20 healthy birds) were selected and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D), each comprising of 20 birds. Group A and B were treated with Ivermectin @ 0.2mg/Kg orally for two days and Fipronil (Spray at once), respecti...

Muhammad Waqas1*, Anwar Ali Shad1, Omaira Bashir2 and Mohsin Iqbal3

...owder when compared with control. On the other hand spaghetti cooking becomes decrease by increase of carotenoids level in spaghetti when compared with control. Organoleptic evaluation of spaghetti prepared from lycopene revealed maximum score of smell, taste, odors, color texture and overall acceptability when compared with other tested sample and control

...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...plasmid vector under the control of the chicken β-actin promoter. The in vitro expression of recombinant plasmid DNA was performed by transfection of 293T (HEK) cell line. The HA protein was analyzed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The pCAGG-optiH9 vaccine efficacy was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of SPF chickens with different concentrations of plasmid DNA and the sera were collected weekly post vaccinati...
Jun Gao1,2, Liang-Liang Yue3, Xianhuan Jiang1, Liju Ni4, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Yuxun Zhou,1 Kai Li1,* and Junhua Xiao1,*
... gene (cyt b) and control region (CR) were sequenced and 49 haplotypes were observed. No shared haplotype was found among different geographic populations. High Fst values among the populations suggested that fragmentation of habitat has resulted in genetically distinct populations. The trees, inferred from maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, highly supported all the M. fortis individuals clustering into one m...
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
...of mites of the positive control group treated with fenvalerate. Furthermore, the dead state of mites treated with stigmasterol was different from that of mites of the negative control group. This result confirmed the insecticidal activity of stigmasterol. We conducted a thorough research on the insecticidal molecular mechanism of stigmasterol to lay the foundation for the development of stigmasterol as nontoxic and pollutio...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...ng the following groups: control (CK), 100µm GSH, 10µm fasudil hydrochloride (FH) and a combination of the two (GSH + FH). A solution of 10% (v/v) Me2SO + 20% FBS was used as the standard cryopreservation solution. After 2 months, MTT assay showed significant differences in the proportion of adherent viable cells in the FH group and GSH group compared with the control group (p < 0.05), and the FH+H ...
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...s to carry out effective control strategies in future.
...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

... of six treatments (T0 = control without rock phosphate & farmyard manure, T1= rock phosphate @150 kg P2O5 per hectare, T2 = FYM @5 tons per hectare, T3 = RP @100 kg P2O5 per hectare+ FYM @5 tons per hectare, E0 = without effective microbes and E1= EM-Biozote @ 50 l ha-1) on yield parametrs of wheat crop planted after the harvest of rice. All yield parameters significantly increased by the treatments consisting of RP (100 kg) with FYM (5 t ha-1) and EM @ 5...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
... trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vegetables.Biopesticides (formulated trichoderma) and bio-agents (bracon,trichogramma, ladybird beetle) and sex pheromone are in the pipeline for commercial use.

...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...rmplasm collection of biocontrol agents were tested for their antagonistic effect on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici by dual culture test. Among the isolates of chilli microflora tested, Aspergillus flavus showed 70.2% inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and 54.9% inhibition of C. capsici.Among the isolates of Trichoderma sp. tested, T.virens (Tvs-KSD isolate) and T. pseudokoningii (Tpk-1) showed highest percent inhibition of C. gloeosporioides (69....

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...esult in respect of pest control and crop yield. The other treatments also exhibited better results in comparison to control followed by Bara Bishkatali, Neem seed oil, a mixture of Neem seed oil and sesame oil, and castor oil. The yield was 10.8 and 12.0 maunds per acre in the crop fields of Lalmonirhat and Rajshahi Oilseed cultivation Centres, respectively.

...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...bean seed than untreated control.Amarked reduction in population of A. brassicae by difenoconazole 25EC and flusilazole 40EC was observed in mustard seeds. Inhibitory effect of fungicides on seed germination of all tested seeds was observed with prochloraz 45EC and flusilazole 40EC. There was increase in the plumule length of mungbean seeds with prochloraz 45EC and difenoconazole 25EC over untreated control, whereas sharp re...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
...days prior to harvest to control post harvest diseases viz., anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae). Carbendazim dissipated to 1.01 and 2.14 mg kg in mature whole fruit after harvest (12 days after second spray) at 0.05 and 0.1 per cent concentrations, respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after 12 days were 0.57 and 1.26 mg kg . In another experiment, cold wa...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
...sts was found maximum in control plot and it was recorded lowest in T treatment which received soil application of phorate 10G at 40 DAPand foliar spray with imadichloprid and chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin at 55 and 70 DAP, respectively. But soil application of phorate at planting followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos, azadirachtin and Bt (T) was not as effective as T.

...

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
... on four coccinellid bio-control agents (Micraspis crocea, Micraspis discolor, Brumus suturalis and Scymnus bourdilloni ). All botanicals tested showed least mortality and was on par with unsprayed control. Dimethoate (0.1%) was highly toxic causing 100% mortality. Whereas, dichlorvos (0.1%) was least toxic in comparison to dimethoate. Botanical insecticides tested in different conc./combinations are compatible with natural ...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
... maximum attention as biocontrol agent due to the fact that it is effective against a large number of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi, suppressive effects on some root nematodes without adversely affecting beneficial microbes like Rhizobium and capable of promoting growth of certain crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is g...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...ty of juveniles than the control (P< 0.05). The microorganisms which caused high nematicidal activity also showed antifungal activity in dual plate culture test in vitro. All the antagonists showed reduction in root knot and root rot disease and promote plants growth as the length and weight of root and shoot in pot trials on tomato plants. Keywords: Antagonistic fungi, root knot nematode, wilt fungus, bio-management
 

 

...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...tern region of India for controlled rearing (outdoor) of muga silkworm. It was observed that stems of som plant (specifically the pollarded plants) were generally infected with rot disease when it grows older. Phellinus contigus (under Polyporaceae), a white rot fungus, causes heart rot disease and Biscogniauxia mediterranea (= Hypoxylon mediterranea) (under Xylariaceae) causes canker rot disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of r...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...fy;">Abstract Biological control of plant diseases seems to be the best alternative for plant disease control. It is ecofriendly, reliable, cost effective and is an integral component of integrated plant disease management framework for sustainable crop production. A considerable number of biocontrol agents have been established successfully for their bioconrol potential including strains ...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
... disease was recorded in control treatment. The yield parameters like fresh weight of 100 leaves and leaf yield were good in treatments where BM was applied. Trichoderma applications resulted in better c : b ratio during 1 st year, where as applications of P. fluorescens over two year analysis of pooled data gave the best c : b ratio.

...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...ck farm, Kalyani for the control of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola by spraying three fungicides (carbendazim at 0.1%, mancozeb at 0.025% and blitox at 0.25%) and four biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride at 107 cfu / ml, T. harzianum at 107 cfu / ml, Pseudomonas fluorescens at 108 cell / ml and Biom...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
... best result in terms of control followed by neem seed oil, mehgoni seed oil, castor seed oil and tobacco leaf extract (20 % ).

...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...logical agents, cultural control measures, genetic techniques and sex pheromones technology. In tea husbandry, cultural control measures such as plucking, pruning, shade regulation, field sanitation, fertilizer application, manipulation or destruction of alternate hosts and selection of pest resistant/tolerant varieties and mechanical mechanisms like manual removal, heat treatments, light traps, use of bio-pesticides, bio-

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...kharif season of 2011 to control root and collar rot of cowpea caused by Rhizoctonia solani with two organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum along with other treatment combinations. It was observed that seed priming with mycelia preparation of the antagonist Trichoderma harzianum at 4g/kg of seed and organic formulation of the antagonist in vermicompost along with 20% neem cake (w/w) gave best disease control along wit...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...er treatments as well as control. Both the treatments (T5 and T6) were more or less equally effective to decrease the incidence of cutworm and molecricket. Yield of healthy tubers was recorded maximum (31.66 t ha -1) in T5 treatment succeeds by T6 than other treatments as well as control.


...

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
...whitefly population over control during both the years of study. Consequently both the treatment schedules achieved maximum marketable fruits of brinjal as well as highest monetary return than the other treatments.


...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...for getting effective biocontrol agent [Acerophagus papayae (Noyes and Schauff)] through ICAR-NBAII (National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects)-TNAU was emphasized as the existing biocontrol agents could not give relief. Later, when the exotic parasitoid was imported by NBAII, Bangalore, the papain industry wholeheartedly supported the training programmes by deploying its field staff in release and multiplication o...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...en house experiments for control of Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique, whereas 15% increased seed germination and 26% reduce...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
... @ 0.005% gave effective control of the pest.


...

Md Riton Choudhury, Koushik Brahmachari, Sudeshna Kar and Rupayan Deb

Integration of weed management practices in rice-potato-groundnut cropping sequence
...veness of different weed control measures. Rice exhibited the maximum yield when treated with two hand weedings, but it may be profitably replaced by the application of herbicides. From the point of eco-safety measures and economy, combination of hand weeding and mulching can be judiciously recommended in potato and groundnut.


...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...orth Bengal and their biocontrol activity were tested in dual culture and found effective against soil-borne plant pathogens, namely, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Padw.) Matuo. and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Efficacy in plant growth promoting activity of all the isolates was also tested on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.), chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with culture filtrate of bio

M.S. Islam, M.Ali, and I. Ahmad

Efficacy of sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP to control die-back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh
...mancozeb + metalaxyl) to control of dieback disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh. The pathogen, C. gloeosporioides was isolated from the dieback infected tea twigs on PDA medium. Mycelial blocks of the isolated pathogen were transferred to PDA plates amended with sedomil 72WP (mancozeb) @ 720, 1080, 1440 and 1800 ppm and recozeb 80WP (mancozeb + metalaxyl) @ 800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 ppm concentrations. Sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP cau...

Biswajit Pramanick, Sruti Karmakar, Koushik Brahmachari, Rupayan Deb 

An integration of weed management practices in potato un-der New Alluvial soil
...effect of different weed control measures on the yield of potato, a field experiment was carried out with this crop (var. Kufri-Jyoti) for two consecutive years (2009-10; 2010-11) at ‘C’ Block farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in RBD with nine treatments replicated thrice. The predominant weed flora in the experimental field of potato was Cyperus rotundas, Chenopodium album, Anaga...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...ential as a bioagents to control nematodes. Their inconsistent success in control of nematodes in field trials, however, is enigmatic. This paper takes a review of the researches done by various workers on the diversity, morphology ecology, physiology of nutrition, trap formation and mechanism of nematode capture as well as probable causes of death. The review traces the shift in the areas of research as well as ups and down...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...d also provide effective control of the identified pest in order to maintain or stall resurgence. 

...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...lants and were absent in control. The formulation was tested to have good emulsion stability. The antifungal activity of the formulation persisted up to seven days after spraying the formulation on rice plants. The formulation retained its 100% antifungal efficacy up to three months of storage. Surprisingly, spraying cowpea plants with the formulation as simultaneous spray reduced the number of lesions produced by Groundnut Bud Necrosis virus in cowpea by 88.3...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...rla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with application of diafenthiuron at 15 days interval from seedling to early fruiting stage. Among the ecofriendly options, alternate use of garlic with spirit performed better than their single repeated use starting from seedling to early fruiting stage at every 15 days interval. 

...

M. S. Joshi , D.M. Sawant and A.P. Gaikwad

Isolate variations in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting pomegranate
...um gloeosporioides under controlled conditions. Inoculated fruits were assessed on the basis of virulence of the isolates and reaction of a particular variety was expressed in Disease Reaction Index (DRI). There was considerable variation in virulence and suscep-tibility within isolates and varieties. Isolate Cg 86 was found to be virulent (DRI 7.2), Cg 81 as less virulent (DRI 2.87), and other isolates were moderately virulent irrespective of varieties. Fruit...

Goutam Samui and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal incidence and management of Apsylla cistellata Bucton. on mango in West Bengal
... gall psylla, mechanical control (Pruning) and insecticidal control measure were taken up in the district of Murshidabad. In mechanical control, both pruning of 15 cm and 30 cm of affected shoots resulted in the formation of lower number of gall/shoot as compared to control. But pruning at 30c m had been found to be most effective in managing the psyllid...

S. Pal, H. Banerjee and N. N. Mandal 

Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.)
...weeding practice of weed control in transplanted kharif rice.
 

 

...

Someshwar Bhagat and Sitansu Pan

Comparative ecological behaviour of some pre- and post-tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from Andaman & Nicobar Islands
...al behavoiur of these biocontrol agents. All the isolates showed better parasitic ability and rhizosphere colonization when the competition of other organisms withdrawn compared to natural and sun dried soil. Both competitive parasitic behaviour and rhizosphere colonization was low in post-Tsunami isolates of Trichoderma. The chlamydospore inoculum was found best in percentage colonization of sclerotia of boh R. solani and S. rolfsii, followed by mycelial and ...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...chnology monoculture and controlled management of a single major soil borne pathogen or pest across vast cultivated area but not for the peasant farming or the pest complex ridden unaided agriculture as in India. PA is not about an abstract of characterization. The specific values indicating variations in population at exact grids and helping the individual farmer in decision-making in pest management at varied pesticide doses depending on varied soil pest pop...

K. K. Hegde and B. S. Nandihalli 

Bioefficacy of some indigenous products in the management of okra fruit borers
...an (0.07%) and untreated control. Repeated sprays of GCKE recorded least number of eggs (1.40 eggs/plant) followed by NSKE (5%) alternated with cow dung 10 per cent (1.71 eggs/plant). Repeated sprays of cow dung and cow urine used individually were not effective against the borers and recorded higher fruit damage of 55.70 and 52.10 per cent, respectively. GCKE was significantly superior in reducing the fruit borer damage to the tune of 64.83 per cent with high...

Shekharappa

Biological control of earhead caterpillar, Helicoverpea armigera Hubner in sorghum
...d compared with chemical control with Melathian 5% @ 30 kg.ha-1 for the management of ear head caterpillar (H. armigera) in sorghum ecosystem of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The mycoinsecticide N. rileyi was highly infective at both the dosages 1x108 conidia per litre & 2x108 conidia per litre against H. armigera as compared to Ha NPV 250 LE per hectare and chemical control in mitigating the pest populat...

Sujoy Mondal and S. S. Ghatak

Bioefficacy of some indigenous plant extracts against epilachna beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr.) infesting cucumber
...h methanol as solvent in controlling epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Fabr; Both Neem Azal and seed extracts of Annona squamosa were used at 4ml, 5ml and 6ml (per Lt. of water) while this was 1ml, 2ml and 3ml (per Lt. of water) in case of petroleum ether extract of rhizome of Acorus calamus. Endosulfan 35 EC was used at 1ml, 1.5ml and 2ml (per Lt. of water) to compare the efficacy of plant products. Results of the experiment revealed that ...

Shyam Singh and L.P. Awasthi

Plant products for the management of yellow mosaic disease of mungbean and urdbean
...e recorded in untreated (control) plots in both mungbean and urdbean crops.
 

 

...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...C and D was unchallenged control containing commercial and SAN chicks. The Blood samples were collected from group A, B, C and D on 3rd, 5th and 7th day of post infection for biochemical analysis. The Albumin and total protein values were significantly low (P<0.05) in infected groups A and B as compared to control groups C and D on 5th and 7th day. The alanine aminotr...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...th standard diet disease control group. ANA autoantibodies, C3c and renal damage between gluten and standard diet group was non-significant. The remission of SLE manifestations was observed in prednisone treated group except renal damage. From the study it was concluded that gluten intake could worsen the clinical manifestations in SLE patients, therefore, administration of gluten free diet might be a better strategy for SLE patients. However, further confirma...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
... antimicrobial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol, this study was designed to isolate lactoferrin from milk of camel. Cation exchange resin (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isolation of lactoferrin using the fast protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylami...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...n not be returned to the control value on refeeding 12 h, and it returned to control level on refeeding 7 days, but body fat mass can not be restored to the control level on refeeding 7 days. RMR and mass of liver decreased significantly in fasting groups, which can return to the control level after refeeding. Fasting for 12 h decreased serum leptin leve...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...insecticide were used to control aphids during the season. Aphid infestations were higher in untreated plots of mid-Dec sown crop followed by end-Nov and mid-Nov sown crops. Heavy infestation of aphids in untreated plot caused for reduction in plant photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content. Untreated plots had significantly less grain yield as compared to treated plot in all three crops. Cost benefit ratios were significantly different among three crops as ...
Madeeha Arshad1, Naveed Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Khalid3, Asmatullah1, Mohammad Tahir2, Khadija Naveed1 and Asia Iqbal4
..., respectively, with one control and one vehicle control group. Fetuses were recovered on 18th day of gestation and fixed for morphometric and morphological studies. Experimental groups showed variable degree of fetal abnormalities, along with reduction in body weights parallel to increase in dose concentration, as compared to control and vehicle control...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...oil disinfection and bio-control, (ii) only prophylactic soil disinfection, and (iii) only curative soil disinfection over uprooting and destruction of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best appro...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

... may became promising biocontrol agents. A total of 7 weed plants include Commelina benghalensis, Cyperus rotundus, Crotalaria verrucosa, Digera muricata, Sida cordifolia, Ipomoea pestigridis and Trianthema portulacastrum were selected for in vitro studies. Fungal isolates namely Ascochyta cypericola, Bipolaris sp., Chaetomium globosum, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata, Curvularia tuberculata, ...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...ission of LSDV. So, tick control is a crucial part, which should be included as a part of LSDV control measures in endemic countries.

...
Mehmet Avci1, Recep Aydin1,* and Jale Metin Kiyici2
...r feed and the calves in control group were supplied with natural roughage and concentrate feed separately. The calves were supplied with milk at about 8% of their birth weights and weaned at 49th day. Mixed chopped and separate natural supply of roughage and concentrate feed did not created any significant differences in live weights, daily weight gains, feed conversion ratios and behavioral characteristics of the calves.
...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
...s. One group served as a control while the other was treated with rumen bolus of trace elements containing copper (Cu) cobalt (Co); selenium (Se), manganese (Mn); zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). Blood samples were collected from ewes and their newborns at parturition. Colostrum yield and biochemical analysis at parturition was also determined. A significant (P<0.05) increase of calcium (Ca), Zn, Co and Se levels in blood of ewes treated with bolus with a signific...
Muzammil Sattar
... by protein hydrolysate (control diet). The F1 progeny larvae that developed from adults consuming (Nu lure 5ml) diet had the shortest larval and pupal periods and complete all developmental stages in shortest period of time. Insects reared on different concentrations of proteins. Insects rear on different diets compared on the basis of egg to adult survival, female (%) and pupal weight (g) with low and high protein concentrations.
...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...ckbone of the biological control program of cotton mealybug in Pakistan, but its multiplication for inundative releases has been impacted by a hyperparasitoid, Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: Eriaporinae). Traditionally the detection of hyperparasitoid is done by host-rearing, but that is time-consuming when working with field populations at larger scale. The current study used morphology and DNA sequences from mitochond...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...IV (DSM-IV) criteria and controls (n=120) were selected from the same ancestry during August 2011 to January 2014fromSir Ganga Ram Hospital and Panjab Institute of Mental Health, Lahore. The demographic values for age, employment and marital status did not differ significantly among case and control groups. Exonic regions of BDNF gene were sequenced. In-silico analysis was performed to detect the possible disease caus...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...ctata as compared to control and aphids alone (0.7667±0.1204 and 0.8333±0.1153). With every next hour (3, 6 and 12 h) of observation the movement of C. septempunctata toward target localities was elevated. Finding of the current investigation revealed that wheat, brassica, citrus and rose infested with aphids can be used as host plants for mass rearing and culture maintenance of C. septempunctata.
...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...s as compared to healthy controls. HLA-DRB1*11 demonstrated significant association with aeroallergens and could have a protective role for allergy while HLA-DRB1*12 did not show any association with aeroallergen sensitization.
...
Farah Ashfaq* and Tasnim Farasat
...years and 100 comparable control subjects were included. Serum resistin and insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were found significantly high in overweight and obese groups as compared to the normal weight group (p<0.01). In overweight group, resistin levels were significantly related with cholesterol, insulin levels and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.375, p = .000; r = 0.336, p < 0.01; r = 0.301, ...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...of 25%, 50% and 100% and control were used against T. clareae in naturally infested honey bee, A. mellifera colonies in Honeybee Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The percentage of infestation by T. clareae on worker brood, number of dead/fallen mites per hive/weekon white formica sheet, percent mite mortality and honey yield per colony was determined before and after the treatments in the expe...
Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...hanging queen (FCQ), and controlling beehives in summer (CFB), respectively. Minimum beekeeping farm numbers for parent and child nodes were arranged as 8:4 in CART, CHAID and Exhaustive CHAID for attaining the best predictive performance in AHY. In the Exhaustive CHAID, only 3 independent variables, NFB, WPA and CFB were found statistically. In the CART algorithm, only NFB, WPA and AB independent variables were found significantly. In the MARS algorithm, sign...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...level. Group I comprised control group of induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on purified diet AIN-93 G. Group II comprised induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on WBF. Group III comprised induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on MBF, Group IV comprised hypercholesterolemic rats reared on SGF and Group V comprised hypercholesterolemic rats fed on BGF. Both BGF and SGF significantly lowered the TPC in experimental animals compared with purified diet AIN-93, ...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
... an efficient biological control for integrated management of chili plants under controlled condition cultivation. To explore the nature of resistance response of C-33 to M. incognita and S. rolfsii further research is needed. 
...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...c health risk, effective control of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this study was to construct Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based vaccine against a currently circulating avian influenza virus H5N1 strain in Egypt targeting the HA gene. The HA gene...

Murad Ali1, Farmanullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad2* and Imran Khan1

...rteen treatments viz the control (T1), recommended dose (RD) (120:90:60 kg ha-1 N: P2O5: K2O. T2), four combinations of farmyard manure (FYM) i.e 20, 15, 10 and 5 t ha-1 with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the RD (T3, T4, T5, T6, respectively), four combinations of poultry manure (PM) i.e. 10, 7.5, 5 and 2.5 t ha-1 with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the RD (T7, T8, T9, T10, respectively) and four combinations of the mixed FYM (5 t ha-1) and PM (2.5 t ha-1) with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the R...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...d 250 kg N ha-1 sources (control, 100, 70, 50, 0% from FYM with the remaining from urea). Phenological stages (tasseling, silking, and physiological maturity) occurred earlier in no-mulch practice, but emergence in plastic mulching. Plants took less days to emergence (6 days) in 70% FYM, however, tasseling (45 days), silking (49 days) and physiological maturity (94 days) arrived earlier in no-fertilized plots. Tasseling, silking and maturity delayed with incre...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

...parameters compared with control. Highest germination (85.42% and 84.31%) was recorded from wheat varieties (Lalma-2013 and Pirsabak-2005). Minimum germination (64.40% and 73.89%), tillers plant-1(2.83 and 3.49), leaves plant-1(11.44 and 12.79), leaf area (21.47cm2 and 25.20cm2) and more days to emergence (9.92 and 8.98), was recorded from salinity levels of 135mM and 90mM, respectively compared with maximum germination (94.80%), tillers plant-1 (4.42), leaves...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...gion and warrants proper control measures. 
...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...ntial pathogen which can control a wide range of bollworm larvae in both agricultural and horticultural crpos. Flubendiamide is a new chemistry insecticide which also controls bollworm effectively and relatively safer for natural enemies and beneficial arthropods. Present investigations were carried out to determine their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence of 2nd and 4th instar larvae...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
...as very close to that of control plots for both post-treatment observations. Based on these findings, Confidor and Jozer are recommended to be considered for their integration in sucking pests’ management strategies on transgenic crops such as Bt cotton.
...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...on and to optimize their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence calculated was 5% and 4.4%, respectively, in these areas. Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) was frequent...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...t difference between the control and surgical groups in testosterone was noted. In this study, although the application of different castration methods in 4-month-old male Norduz sheep resulted in changes in the blood hormone levels, it was determined that these changes did not affect body weight. In conclusion, the evaluation of the process in castrated six-month-old sheep revealed an increase in the body weight which was similar to that in the
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
...phocytes number than the control group. The heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and antibody titer was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the treated groups. Based on these results, it is concluded that supplementation of diets with betaine improved broiler feed intake, weight gain, FCR and increased immunity were under heat stress condition.
...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...s biological insect pest control agent in our agricultural ecosystem. To analyze this activity present work was planned to collect the preliminary information about habitat requirements and different breeding aspects of Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). The fieldwork was performed for two years (2012, 2013) at three different stations in the surrounding area of Faisalabad. Based on results it was concluded that Cattle egrets are colonial breeders and coloni...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
...five priming techniques (control, on-farm priming, hydro priming, hydration inoculation and osmo priming with 0.5% urea solution. Results revealed that hydro priming, on-farm priming and hydration inoculation significantly reduced the time to 50% emergence (E50), mean emergence time (MET) and emergence index (EI) of both soybean varieties. Moreover, osmo priming had no significant effect on E50, MET and EI that was at par with
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...effective prevention and control strategies.
...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...ch genotype were used as control. Field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replicates in the green house. Radiation effects were observed on some agronomic traits like Plant height, Number of branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1, Fiber Fineness and yield of seed. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences for radiation treatments, genotypes and interaction for treatment...
Sumit K. Satpathi1, Suprakash Pal2*, Rupsanatan Mandal2, Nonigopal Shit2 and Ashutosh Sarkar3
...s augmenting the natural control of pests.
 
Keywords: Cowpea, insect pests, biopesticides, bioefficacy, cost-benefit ratio, natural enemiesl
...
Zuhao Huang*, Meifang Li, Rujue Ruan and Jiawei Qin
...deidae mitochondrial DNA control region, the control region genes of 20 species were analyzed. All the Ardeidae species had duplicate control regions, except four species having only single region. The control region spans the region between the genes for tRNAGlu - tRNAPhe in the most Ardeidae species. The length of the
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...IV (DSM-IV) criteria and controls (n=120) from Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and Panjab Institute of Mental Health, Lahore from August 2011 to January 2014. During the sample collection the factors like age/period, employment status and marital status were considered after informed consent. We found one single base change G>C at c.745 resulting in a nonsynonymous change p.E249Q in theCOMT gene. In-silico analysis predicted it to be damaging and disease causing. Sc...
Shabana1,*, Farah Ehsan1 and Shahida Hasnain1,2
...d samples (diabetic=451, controls=449) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. A significant difference in genotype distribution was observed between cases (Gly/Gly, 66.9%; Gly/Ser, 20.17%; Ser/Ser, 12.8%) and controls (Gly/Gly, 67.4%; Gly/Ser, 28.5%; Ser/Ser, 4.00%) (p = 0.013). The cases showed significantly higher frequency of the Ser allele compared to the controls (22.9% vs. 18.3%; OR: 1.3...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

...plication as compared to control plants.

...
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
...llitus (GDM) and healthy controls and to propose a cut off value for serum B12 levels as a predictive biomarker for GDM. Study design was Quantitative cross-sectional study. This study was carried out at Lady Atchison Hospital/Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan from January to December 2016. Cobalamin levels were measured in women diagnosed with GDM (n=59) and controls (n=41). GDM was diagnosed when fasting blood sugar levels we...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

... be used as a reagent to control the sex differentiation of carp, but also can be used to disturb gonad differentiation, and then to reveal the molecular mechanism.

...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos1,*, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Elsayeid O. Swilam1 and Mu’ath Q. Al-Ghadi3
...th anticoccidial drug to control coccidiosis in broiler chicken. 
...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
...a L. worldwide. Many control measures including application of chemicals are adapted to resistor the influx of mites in hives of honey bee. The indiscriminate use of pesticides involve many problems; cause resistance in mites, residual in honey, wax and potentially hazardous to man and environment. Plant-derived mixtures are normally more easily degradable and could show a minor undesirable impact on environment with respect to synthetic compounds. This st...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...to diet containing zero (control), 12 and 18 percent MSC. All the three rations were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogeniuos. Each cow was given a daily feed ration according to NARC standards. Milk yield of each experimental animals were recorded twice daily while its composition were checked through milk analyzer twice a week. Mean daily production of milk among three groups was significantly (p<0.05) different, however highest milk production (4.8±0.74 l...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...amely housing type, tick control, age and sex of animal presented significant (P <0.05) association with tick infestation and burden while type of breed showed significant association with tick infestation but was non-significant with tick burden. Topography presented inverse behavior to that of breed with tick burden and tick infestation. On the other hand, geo-location was only factor exhibiting non-significant ly associated (P>0.05) association with b...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
...justify;">The effects of control, thermal and high pressure processing (HPP) techniques on some quality parameters of grapefruit juice were investigated based on pH, acidity, ºBrix, viscosity, cloud value, hunter color values, bioactive compounds, microorganisms and enzyme analysis. The grapefruit juice was treated with processing variables of HPP treatment (0, 150, 200 and 250 MPa), temperature (40, 50 and 60 oC), for processing time of 3 minu...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...ntify alternates like biocontrol agents, plant extracts etc. In the present study the extract of Citrullus colocynthis in different solvents were evaluated on second instar larvae of H. armigera under laboratory studies for toxicity, sublethal and antifeedant effect. The result showed that ethanol based extract was the most effective to control the H. armigera followed by the ethyl acetate. The su...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

...cines are widely used to control viral diseases in poultry, however, the interference of physico-chemical properties of the emulsions are overlooked when compared to antigenic properties. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different commercial inactivated water-in-oil multivalent vaccines; vaccine A contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and D274 strains), NDV (Clone 30), aMPV (BUT 8544) and IBDV (classic strain) whereas vaccine B contains IBV (Massa...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...sub> T2 and a control (T0) each was replicated twice. Fenugreek as an additive was added in experimental feed at the rate of 0.5% in T1 and 1.0% in T2 while control T0 was without fenugreek supplementation. Fish was fed for six days a week at the rate of 4% of its body weight twice a day. Results showed significant (P≤0.05) higher growth performance among the three tr...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...reatments consisted of a control (no strains) and 5 different strains of cyanobacteria i.e Oscillatory-MMF-1 (Oscillatoria princeps), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-2 (Lyngbya mucicola), Leptolyngbaya- MMF-3 (Lyngbya Phormidium), Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Rice seedlings were transplanted to each pot on July 18, 2016. The data were recorded on agronomic parameters of rice crop, plant tiss...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...1, NPK @ 150:120: 90 and control (without amendments), replicated four times. The results revealed that organic and inorganic amendments, irrespective of their kind and combinations, exerted significant (p≤0.05) variation in plant growth, yield parameters of wheat and water use efficiency. The inorganic fertilizer gave significantly higher total dry matter, grain and straw yield and also due to the greater grain yield the water use efficiency calculated was...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

...ion by 33.9% compared to control treatment. It has also been observed that cysteine enhanced the expression of GUS in the basal scutellar regions of immature embryos compared to apical and embryo axis region. Heat shock of 46 oC for 3 minutes increased the transformation efficiency of immature embryos by 26.96%. Growth of infected immature embryos on resting medium after co-cultivation period enhanced the survival of kanamycin resistant calli on selection medi...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...li by 54.90% compared to control treatment. Maximum regeneration (58.33%) was observed when embryogenic calli were placed on N6 medium supplemented with 60 gL-1 sucrose and 1 mgL-1 NAA for one week initially in dark and then three weeks on MS medium augmented with 2 gL-1 myo-inositol and 20 gL-1 sucrose under 16/8 hours light/dark photoperiod. The study confirmed that embryogenic type II calli obtained from half of coleoptilar node of maize seedling is fully c...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
...ameters when compared to control.
...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
...five cattle. Group A was controls: Animals in Group B and C were at 45 days prepartum with and without VES: animals in D and E were at day 60 prepartum with and without VES: animals in F and G were at 75 days prepartum stage with and without VES: respectively. At day 0 of experimental trial VES was given to animals in group C, E and G. All groups were given oil based HS vaccine at day 15 and alum based FMD trivalent vaccine at day 30 of experimental trial exce...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
Mehmet Guvenc1,*, Ayşe Nilay Guvenc3, Ökkeş Yılmaz2 and Mehmet Tuzcu2
...ivided into four groups; control, resveratrol, fructose, and resveratrol plus fructose. Resveratrol was administered 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Fructose (10% w/v) was administered with drinking water for 56 days every alternate day. Fructose administration increased the hepatic omega-6/omega-3 and 16:1 n7 / 16:0 ratios (p<0.001, p<0.001), but decreased the retinol and alfa tocoferol levels (p<0.01) compared with control

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...d agricultural credit to control credit fungibility. 

...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...l for the prevention and control can be established.
...
Rehana Shahida1, Tasnim Farasat1, Shagufta Naz1,* and Shahjahan2
... and age matched healthy control (n=35), and to identify the relationship of inflammatory cytokines with insulin resistance and the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of atherosclerosis and hyperglycemia within the context of chosen pro atherogenic parameters including plasma glucose level, serum levels of insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α. Serum level of thrombomodulin was assessed as a measure of vascular damage. Different demographic parameters a...
Talat Bilal Yasoob and Nasir Ali Tauqir* 
...ub>3 was served as control whereas other five rations had 0.15-0.73% NaHCO3 in the rations. In this way six dietary treatments resulted in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and sodium levels of 245, 262, 279, 297, 314, 331 meq/kg and 0.166, 0.206, 0.246, 0.286, 0.326, 0.336%, respectively. Protein and energy values in all broiler starter rations were kept at 20% and 2800 kcal/kg, respectively. In second phase, six finisher rations (5-6 weeks) ...
Prof. Dr. Saira Afzal
... essentially the quality control mechanism. Scientific discoveries and advancements have far reaching implications especially in health and medical publications. The quality assurance mechanism in medical journals has to be stringent and flawless. The peer review systems are continuously being criticized, debated and updated. It may be open peer review or blind peer review, both have advantages and disadvantages. Open peer review is performed for scientific qu...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
... hectare), significantly controlled the aphid population and enhanced the yield of all wheat varieties. The higher aphid infestations in untreated plots resulted in less chlorophyll content and reduced photosynthetic activity. Photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents were significantly higher in insecticide treated plots. Maximum cost-benefit ratio was found (1:9.2) in NW-1-8183-8 when treated against aphids. Wheat varieties, Galaxy-13 and Faisalabad-08 we...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
...ge without additive as a control (c); glucose 1% fresh matter basis (G1); glucose 2% (G2); glucose 3% (G3); Lactobacillus Plantarum (LAB1); Pediococuss acidilactici (LAB2); Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LAB3). All the silos were incubated at 25°C. Then, 90 days later, the fermentation quality of tested silages was analyzed. No significant difference was found between the control and treated groups in term...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
...ded into three groups as control, drug and oil which were respectively treated with water, fluoxetine (0.3 mg/kg) and fennel oil (0.5 ml/day). The treatment was continued for three weeks. Struggling time in forced swim test (FST), number of square crossed in open field test (OFT) and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze (EPM) was monitored weekly. Repeated administration of fennel oil for 3 weeks showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like e...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...ammotropin is crucial in controlling the growth of mammary tissue during pregnancy and its release during pregnancy accounts for increased mammogenesis. Bubaline placenta was obtained and processed for extraction of extracellular proteins at pH 9.5 using Tris-Glycine buffer. Placental lactogen was purified by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex-G100 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE- Sepharose, employing a linear salt gradient. SDS-PAGE was used...
Karim El-Sabrout* and Mohamed H. Khalil
...ent than the eggs of G1 (control). We could conclude that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick performance.
...
Toshina Mushtaq, Muhammad Javed and Sidra Abbas*
...ively as compared to the control fish liver (0.123±0.002UmL-1) and kidney (0.056±0.004UmL-1).
...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...ilkworms group was given control mulberry leaves that were infection free. Results showed that infected leaves exhibited limited toxicity to the silkworm; however, the cocoons yield found in infected group was deeply affected. Compared with control group, the biggest body weight, cocoon weigh, cocoon shell weight, pupal weight in infected group was 9.3%, 8.8%, 11.4% and 10.2%, respectively, lower than that of

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...cides are mostly used to control weeds. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the Chemical control of broad-leaved weeds in wheat at the Koont Research Farm, PMAS-Arid Agricultural University, Rawalpindi, during rabbi season, 2014. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications, with a plot size of 06 x 04 m2. Four different herbicides were applied as post emergence ...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

...o-extracts are useful in controlling the pest problem without destroying the natural enemies and environmental hazards. 

...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...t. The chemicals used to control this pest are prohibited in this region due to tea cultivation. For this reason, new strategies are needed to control this pest. With the awareness on the negative effects of the chemicals used in the control against pests and with the increasing awareness on environmental issues, alternative methods were sought in the past; and in this context, studies wer...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...sses. The pest is mainly controlled by chemicals which cause deleterious effects to human, livestock and environment. To dispense with the detrimental consequences of chemicals, use of resistant cultivars can prove one of the effective and reliable alternative approaches for the management of this pest. As the information regarding resistant cultivars is lacking, therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify resistant sources from among the ava...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
....Double blind randomized control trial. Study conducted in department of anaesthesia and obstetrics of Allama Iqbal Medical College, Jinnah hospital (tertiary care) conducted from13th June 2014to 13th December 2014. Sample size was calculated 60 (30 each) cases using 95% confidence interval, 80% power of test. Patients who developed PDPH after spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean section were divided into 2 group; Group A (Convention...
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...th comparison of healthy controls. Fecal samples from fifteen patients and five healthy individuals were collected. PCR-DGGE, by using universal primers focusing V3 region of 16S rRNA gene, was performed for characterization of gut microbial composition. Sequencing of most dominant excised gel bands was done. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the copy numbers of dominant bacteria of gut microbiota. The results indicated that a significant diversity diffe...
Muhammad Saqlain1, Humaira Kalsoom1, Muhammad Fiaz1,2, Abid Mahmood1, Rizwan Aziz Qazi4 ,Waseem Safdar5, Pakeeza Arzoo Shaiq1,Bernard M.Y. Cheung3 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1,*
...ation. MetS subjects and controls were recruited from out-patient departments of Pakistani hospitals. Ala54Thr genotyping of 200 MetS patients and 200 healthy controls was performed using a PCR-RFLP. Genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and computed for genetic associations presented as odds ratios (ORs) with a threshold of p≤0.05 to determine statistical significance. The frequency of 54Thr allele of FABP2 ...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

... mM KH2PO4 solution over control. The shoot and root [P] as well as its total uptake by wheat seedlings also showed several times increase over control. Further increase beyond 144 mM KH2PO4 though did not show any adverse effect and was no better than lower P levels. It is concluded from the present study that [P] applied as foliar spray up to 144 mM KH2PO4 could be an effective way to enhance the plant growth in P deficien...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
... in Pakistan. Biological control approach by using Aenasius bambawalei Hayat(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has been developed recently to control this pest. However, the efficiency of this parasitoid is variable according to the locality and the plants on which P. solenopsis is feeding. In this context, this experiment investigated under field and laboratory conditions the influence of the host plant of P....
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...d with mock-treated fish control. However, there was no statistically supported level of significance was observed for growth rates and feed conversion rates among groups. Improved live weight and protein efficiency rates reflected positively on the survival rate in MOS-fed fish. Interestingly, the whole body and fillet fatty acid composition shown no-correlation between treated and control groups (p>0.05). During the cou...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...afely used in biological control programs, as it has little or no effects on biological control agents such as predatory mite, N. cucumeris, which is widely associated with the infestation of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae on tomato plants.
...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...methods for managing and controlling it. A huge fund was given for managing and controlling RPW in several countries. In this study, the potential toxicity of oxamyl to RPW was evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, oxamyl had significant effects on the mortality of RPW. After exposure to direct spray of oxamyl, adult mortality was 62, 82 and 100% whereas larvae mortality was 72, 77 and 100%...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...P1B-mut and negative control groups. Meanwhile, PDK4, DUSP4 and FKBP1B expression levels were down-regulated due to miR-122 and miR-449a overexpression (p<0.01). Moreover, cells proliferation ability was activated after DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B overexpression (p<0.01). Finally, MTT assay results demonstrated that miR-122 or miR-449a could promote bull testicular Sertoli cells proliferation. Collectively, these ...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...ceptible population as a control. The activities of NADPH-CPR, ethylmorphine-N demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and soluble protein contents were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations with reference to phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher microsomal enzyme activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations. The inc...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
... of Punjab; hence strict control measures should be adopted to minimize its damage. Some cultivars were found resistant to the borer infestation and are recommended for cultivation.
...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...ated fish as compared to control group. The results supported the use of Comet assay for evaluating the toxicity of pollutants which may be used as part of environmental monitoring programs.
...
Muhammad Iqbal Anjum*, Shahbaz Javaid and Mukhtar Ahmad Nadeem
...epared as: R-I served as control with 0.83% di-calcium phosphate (DCP); R-II contained 50% less DCP (0.41%) than R-I and R-III contained R-II plus phytase Quantum® Blue @ 100 g/ton feed. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain per replicate were recorded for 35 days. On 35th day, blood and tibia bone samples from 5 birds per treatment were collected. Total weight gain and dry matter intake in chicks fed rations I, II and III were 1861, 173...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...layed as compared to the control. High ellurite reduction potential was shown 98% (1f) and 97% (2b) after 24 h of incubation. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was increased to 279% (1f) and 150% (2b) when ompared to the respective control indicating the ability to tolerate tellurite tress. Differential pattern of bacterial proteins in tellurite stress was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Both bacterial strains can be ...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
...increase compared to the control mice. All other studied parameters remained unaffected indicating that CGP55845 can be injected intraperitonially for the treatment of neurological ailments.
...
Rimsha Nawaz1, Muhammad Javed1, Sidra Abbas1* and Safina Kousar2
...ments as compared to the control group. It was found that enzyme peroxidase had activity of 0.364±0.004 and 0.588±0.004 UmL-1 in the metal stressed fish kidney and liver, respectively while in control fish, the same for both the organs were observed as 0.085±0.002 and 0.112±0.002 UmL-1, respectively.
...

Soraya Khosravian Dehordi*, Abdolnaser Mohebbi and Kahin Shahanipour

...ite sodium and group VI (control) given (1 ml) saline. All doses was orally (gavage) given to rates.Protein carbonyls (PC) andthiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS),superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) values in spleen were measured. An increase in TBARS and PC levels was obtained in rats' spleen of the Cd-group than controls and nano-Se decreased this effect close to the

Ayesha Aihetasham*, Faiza Qayyum and Muhammad Xaaceph

...100%, respectively. And, control showed 0% mortality. There was marked reduction in consumption by termites subjected to different exposure time. Consumption in all groups was significantly lower than control.

...

 Addishiwot Fekdu, Afework Bekele and Demeke Datiko*

...ts between exclosure and control sites, Ethiopia. To collect the rodent fauna, six study grid sites were identified and marked. These were three from exclosure and three from control sites. Twenty-five traps were used to capture the rodents. Four hundred sixty two (462) individuals of small mammals were captured and one recorded as observed species during both dry and wet season. They were identified into six species. Among ...

 Hafiz Muhammad Tahir*, Arooj Zaheer and Rabia Yaqoob

...as compared to untreated control. It is concluded that silk of N. theisi possess antifungal property.

...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
... circulating strains for control and prevention of future outbreaks.
...
Muhammad Usman Saleem1, Saima Masood1,*, Hafsa Zaneb1, Aneela Zameer Durrani2, Asim Aslam3, Kamran Ashraf4, Habib-ur-Rehman5, Muti-ur-Rehman3 and Muhammad Shabir Shaheen6
... first group was kept as control (CONT) whereas, the second (MOSG) and third (OABG) groups were given MOS (2g / kg of feed) and OAB (3g / kg of feed), respectively. The fourth group (MOS+OAB) was given combination of MOS (2g / kg of feed) and OAB (3g / kg of feed). Birds were given ad-libitum feed and water during an experiment of 35 days. At the end of trial, two birds from each replicate were slaughtered for analysis of the selected parameters. The results s...
Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed*
...pectively. The female of control group was subjected to sham operation whereas the other two groups were subjected to ovarian transplantation from adult to adult and (adult-adult) and from young to adult (young-adult). After 8 weeks of ovarian transplantation, the females were mated with vasectomized males and were checked daily for vaginal plug. Females were killed for morphological and histological examination of transplanted ovaries. Blood samples were take...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...url virus and biological control of insects-pests. Before integrated pest management all the farmers used pesticides haphazardly while 1.3% used after it. 90.7%, 86.7% and 97.3% farmers were aware of economic threshold level of harmful insects, use of pesticides at economic threshold level and clean cotton picking respectively. 94.7% growers adopted thinning of plants, 91.3% knew pest scouting, 87.3% used pesticides after pest scouting while 74% farmers used p...
Jo Ik-Hwan1, Choi Kwang-Won1 and Muhammad Fiaz2,*
...fferent (P>0.05) from control, whereas rye-vetch mixture had increased (P<0.05) crude protein (CP) yield and carrying capacity for Hanwoo heifers than that of rye monoculture. DM and TDN yield under 100 kg manure was higher (P<0.05) than control and 50 kg N/ha levels but not different (P>0.05) with that of 150 kg N/ha. Manure levels did not affect (P>0.05) protein yield. The carrying capacity for Hanwoo heifer...

Syed Asif Imran Shah1*, Shah Jehan Khan2, Kalim Ullah1 and Obaid Ullah Sayal

... traits were genetically controlled and under less influence of environment. Higher broad sense heritability and expected genetic advance reflected that all attributes were governed by additive genes and early phenotypic selection for their improvement might be effective. Five principle components (PCs) were depicted having Eigen value >1 and cumulative variability of 78.66%; PC1 (37.19%), PC2 (12.94%), PC3 (11.62%), PC4 (9.60%) and PC5 (7.32%) of variabili...

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

...design with fertilizers; control (Farmer’s practices, FP, 60-45 N-P2O5 kg ha-1), NPK recommended dose (RD, 120:90:60 N:P2O5:K2O kg ha-1), 5, 10, 15 and 20 t FYM alone (FYM5,10,15,20) and 5, 10 and 15 t ha-1 FYM in combination with 75, 50 and 25% of the recommended NPK (INM5:75, 10:50, 15:25) in sub plot (5 * 3 m2) and tillage practices (TP) in main plots. Tillage practices effect on micronutrient status was significant, however, variations in physical pr...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...er soil conditioners and control treatments. Data on the effect of gypsum application as sole or in combination with the other SC revealed that addition of gypsum had significantly increased all parameters as compared with no gypsum application. It is concluded that farmyard manure (10000 kg ha-1) and gypsum (1000 kg ha-1) with five irrigations at the known critical stages (at emergence, 4 leaves, 8 leaves and tassel visible and blister) performed better as co...

Afsheen Masood1*, Rubab Musarrat2, Shama Mazahir3 and Adeela Ashraf4  

...t of normal cohort. Case control study design was used. The sample consisted of N=120 parents out of which n=60 were the parents of children with leukemia and n=60 were the parents of normal children, , taken as normal cohort and drawn through non-probability purposive sampling procedure. Both cohorts were matched on the basis of the age and income level of the parents. Quality of Life Scale WHOQOLS and Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collect the data ...

Attia Anwar1, Sajida Malik2*, Zobia Usman1 and Sadia Chiragh3 

...tal group as compared to control group. There were no significant untoward effects of berberine on platelet count, LFTs and RFTs of Spargue-Dawley rats except neutropenia. 

...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

...and T3) and a control with three replicates in each group. Control group was exclusively fed on natural food composed of tilapia fry while fish in T1 was fed on 30%, T2 on 35% and T3 on 40% protein diet, respectively. A total of 240 Channa marulius (945 g) were arbitrarily stocked in 12 earthen ponds (90 ft × 70 ft × 4 ft) @ 20 fish per pond. Fish were fed at 5% ...
Justyna Batkowska1,*, Lukasz Wlazlo2, Kamil Drabik1, Bozena Nowakowicz-Debek2, Karrar I.A. Al-Shammari3 and Magdalena Gryzinska1
...ted (NC – negative control), the 2nd one was disinfected with formaldehyde and KMnO4 fumigation (PC - positive control). In 3rd group fresh juice of red grapefruit was used as disinfectant (GT). Eggs were incubated under standard condition. On 14th day eggs were candled to determine infertile eggs or dead embryos, as well as samples of eggs to microbial analysis were. After 1...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...ions i.e (F1) control, (F2)100% recommended dose of NPK, (F3) 75% recommended dose of NPK + 1.5 t ha-1 poultry manure(PM), (F4) 75% of recommended dose of NPK +3 t ha-1 farmyard manure (FYM) and(F5) 75% of recommended dose of NPK + 4.5 t ha-1 press-mud (PrM) along with seed inoculants (I1) Azospirillum and (I2) Azotobacter separately...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
... nematodes as biological control agents of specific target insects is affected by their level of infectivity and reproductive capacity. Therefore, in the present study the productivity of five entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema feltiae, S. kraussei, S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. indica) were compared in Galleria mellonella larvae. The production of infective juveniles (IJ) in G. mellonella was significant...

Nukhbat-Ullah Awan1*, Muhammad Sohail2, Zeeshan Sarwar3, Muhammad Mustahsen Bashir4, Muhammad Abbas Khokhar5 and Asad Aizaz Chatha

...ays.Weconcludethat early control of airway with tracheostomy in grade II tetanus patients helped in better patient management with early recovery and decreased hospital stay with minimal morbidity. 

...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
...non additive gene action controlling these traits. The present results, therefore, revealed that selection for these traits in early generation may not be useful and it has to be delayed till segregating generations.
...

Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik** and M. Aslam Gill***

EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS, TILLAGE PRACTICES AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON WHEAT STAND ESTABLISHMENT UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...); manure only (FYM) and control (C)} did not show significant effect on both emergence and emergence rate index. Overall, significantly (P<0.05) higher residual soil moisture content was available in fallow-wheat system which resulted in better wheat emergence. This ultimately resulted in vigorous crop stand establishment. The biomass harvest observed at 2-3 leaf stage in the fallow-wheat system was higher than other systems under study.
...

 Nasreen Sultana* and A.Ghaffar**

...obial antagonists in the control of Lasiodiplodia theobromae , the cause of seed rot, seedling and root infection on bottle gourd was studied in vitro and in vivo. Carbendazim and Topsin-M completely inhibited the growth of L. theobromae in vitro at 50 ppm whereas Aliette, Benlate, Mancozeb, Ridomil and Vitavax showed complete inhibition of colony growth at 100 ppm. Invariably all fungicides at three different concentration viz., 1, 2, 3 g (a.i.) kg-1 seeds re...

 Mohammad Siddique Munawar, Shazia Raja, Elizabeth Stephen Waghchoure* and Muhammad Barkat**

...bee population while the control colonies collapsed. It is therefore concluded that shook swarm method should be incorporated for prevention as well as curing of AFB.

...

 Sikander Khan Tanveer, Shaheena Yasmin, Imtiaz Hussain, M.Yaqub Mujahid*, Muhammad Munir and Muhammad Asif**

... FYM only (00:00:20) and control (00:00:00). N & P were applied in kg ha-1 and FYM in t ha-1. Wheat variety, Chakwal-86 was planted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Because of different combinations of fertilizer NP and FYM, statistically significant differences in biological yield, grain yield and yield components of wheat were recorded. Maximum wheat grain yield of 4083 kg ha-1 was obtained with the application of full f...

 Rahmat Ullah Khan, Abdur Rashid*, Mohammad Sohail Khan** and Erdogan Ozturk***

... yield by 46.9% over the control. In the second growing season (2008-09), application of 3 kg ha-1 HA alone produced significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield (2999.9 kg ha-1) and increased the yield by 24% over the control and saved 100% cost of the chemical fertilizer. Results suggested that HA applied alone at 3 kg ha-1 or in combination with half (30:20 kg ha-1) rate of NP fertilizers appeared to be the most economica...

 Mazher Abbas*, Muhammad Waqas Akram**, Ikram Saeed*** and Arshed Bashir*

...nment should effectively control the input prices to avoid the exploitation of farmers. Extension efforts are required to disseminate suitable canola technologies including high yield, short duration varieties to maximize the returns of canola growers. Public efforts are urgently required to ensure timely disposal of canola produce and prompt payment.

...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...on [VW+VC] compared with control [CON] and chemical fertilizers [CHM], had great influence on plant growth parameters. The average yield of Okra during trial showed a significantly greater response in VW+VC compared with the control by 64.27 %. The fruits have a greater percentage of fats and protein content in VW+VC when compared with those grown with chemical fertilizers by 23.86% and 19.86%, respectively. The combination ...

 Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Amanullah, Saifullah Khan, Basharat Hussain Shah and Munir Ahmed Khetran*

... sandy loam soil. In the control, the cuttings were planted directly in polyethylene bags without IBA application. Plants were kept in a shade house and humidity was increased manually by hand sprinkling (four times in a day). Highest rooting percentage (60%) was obtained in the cuttings treated with 3000 ppm. The maximum average number of roots per cutting (4.443) and average root length (5.687 cm) were recorded with 4000 ppm IBA treatment. Percentage of root...

Tariq Mahmood, M. Sudheer Tariq, Khalid Mahmood Khokar, Hidayatullah and Syed Ijaz Hussain*

...%) with dung ash as dust controlled the attack of red pumpkin beetle on the crop with no mortality of plants. Highest mortality of plants due to foliage eating by red pumpkin beetle was observed in control where no permethrin was applied. None of the plant extracts tested in this study as dust alone or mixed with dung ash was effective in controlling red pumpkin beetle attack. Permethrin d...

Barkat Ali*, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah, Ghulam Shabbir** and Nasir Mahmood Cheema***

... type of gene action was controlling the inheritance of monopodial and sympodial branches plant height number of bolls and boll weight. The line CP-15/2 possessed maximum dominant genes for monopodial branches, plant height and boll weight, BJA-592 for sympodial branches and ACALA-SJ-4 has maximum dominant genes for bolls per plant. However the cultivar CIM-497 carried maximum recessive genes for monopodial branches and plant height, PB-899 for bolls per plant...

 M. Yasin Mirza, Mubashir A. Khan, M. Akmal, Akbar S. Mohmand, Malik S. Nawaz, Nazakat Nawaz and Najeeb Ullah*

...ased on these additively controlled traits is suggested for improvement of yield. Plant height, number of bolls plant-1 and 1000-seed weight showed genetic advance of 7.96, 8.85 and 17.23 % respectively with the prospects of improving seed yield up to the level of 18.33 %.

...

 Ashiq Saleem, Habib Iqbal Javed, Rashid Saleem,* Muhammad Ansar** and M. Amir Zia*

...in yield was recorded in control. In sorghum, maximum grain yield (4356 kgha-1 ) and stalk yield (13422 kgha-1 ) was recorded with the application of 120 kgha-1 of Potash with three splits. All the parameters except plant height had significant effect in both maize and sorghum. Days to 50% silk in maize are significantly affected by potash when compared with control treatment, but there was no significant effect between sing...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...over-exploitation and un-controlled grazing. Traditionally these species are used for the treatment of fever and pain. Annual or German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), and perennial chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) are the most important species all over the world due to multipurpose uses. Field experiments were conducted at Arid Zone Research Centre, Quetta to evaluate the growth and production potential of Matricaria recutita. Two crops a year are possible...

Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 

...om each union council as controls. The serum sample of each subject was tested against each of the five antigens against the serovars. A total of 250 subjects were included in the study. Out of these, 125 subjects were exposed to the rice paddy water where as 125 were not exposed to rice paddy water. The cumulative seropositivity among the exposed is (83.2%) as compared to (42%) among the non exposed to rice paddy field water. The calculated cumulative odds ra...

Mian Sajjad Ahmad1, Somia Iqtadar1, Sami Ullah Mumtaz1*, Zafar Niaz1, Iqra Waheed2 and Sajid Abaidullah

...drugs should be taken to control obesity. 

...

Halima Shoukat1*, Hafiz Sheraz Arshad2, Faiza Sharif1, Arooj Fatima1 and Filza Shoukat

Iracema Nunes de Barros1,2, Luciane Dubina Pinto3, Rosely Bianca dos Santos Kuroda1, Sheila Oliveira de Souza Silva1, Leonardo José Richtzenhain1,2, Cláudio Wageck Canal3 and Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2* 

...sion dynamics and future control strategies. 

...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
...se as T1, T2, T3 and T4 (control). At the end of feeding trial, 100% survival rate was recorded. Growth rate was significantly increased in fish fed with enzyme supplemented diets in comparison with control group. The maximum increase in growth rate was recorded in treatment # 2. Highest protein contents 68.18% was observed in treatment # 3 (0.75g kg-1 α-amylase). Specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ...
Nay Naing Htoo1, Basit Zeshan1,2,*, Aung Tun Khaing1, Than Kyaw1, Erkihun Aklilu Woldegiorgis1 and Mohd Azam Khan1
...e (CF) while last group (control) had access to their does’ milk (DM) only. All kids had access to their dam’s milk. The kids were weaned at day 84 and two kids from each treatment group were sacrificed. The results showed that the rumen morphological characteristics, papillary surface area and keratinized layer of CFR (4.15mm2, 50.54µm), were not significantly different from CF (3.81mm2, 49.26µm) (P>0.05) but i...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
...0 days and compared with control group. After 30 days, fish was sacrificed and their gills and liver isolated to determine the effect of PbCl2 on peroxidase activity. Activity of peroxidase enzyme in metal stressed fish was compared with control. The physico-chemical parameters of the test media viz. pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, total hardness, calcium, magnesium and total ammonia were monitored on...
Asad Sultan1, Sahal Ahmad1, Sarzamin Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Tahir3 and Shakoor Ahmad2
...eived a basal diet only (control group), second group of birds received a diet supplemented with silymarin at the level of 10g/kg and third group of birds received a diet supplemented with ZnO at the level of 60 mg/kg in both TN and HS birds. It was found that supplementation of ZnO significantly (P<0.05) improved feed intake, dressing percentage, body weight, feed conversion ratio, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility at both levels of thermal zones...
Jaime Molina-Ochoa1, 2, 6,*, Edelmira Galindo-Velasco2, Ana María Rosales-Gutiérrez2, Martín González-Ramírez3, Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez3, Wilberth Chan-Cupul3, Steven R. Skoda4, Muhammad Irfan Ullah5, Luis Jorge García-Márquez2 and  John E. Foster6
...rt to obtain alternative controls for cattle ticks. Soil cores from grasslands were baited with last instars of the great wax moth (GWM), Galleria mellonella L., and an EPN isolate was obtained, it belonged to the genus Heterorhabditis and identified as JMO71. The nematodes were cultivated in GWM larvae, and the emerging infective juveniles (IJs) were collected from White traps, and pooled in canted neck vented plastic flasks. The susceptibility ...
Hina Safdar1,*, Nazir Javed1, Sajid Aleem Khan1 and Muhammad Arshad2
...spectively.
...

Imtiaz Hussain*, Hassnain Shah, M. Azeem Khan, Waqar Akhtar**, Abdul Majid*** and M. Yaqub Mujahid*

Corresponding author:izhussain@yahoo.com

PRODUCTIVITY IN RICE-WHEAT CROP ROTATION OF PUNJAB: AN APPLICATION OF TYPICAL FARM METHODOLOGY
...his riceberseem rotation control weeds in the next wheat crop along with yield -1 -1 improvement of both rice (upto 5.4 md acre ) and wheat (4.4 md acre ). However there is need to assess the economic impact and evaluation of berseem in rice-wheat cropping system and evaluation of different wheat planting techniques in relation with residue management. These techniques may include farmer practice (partial burning, land preparation and broadcast); partial burni...

 Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik**, M. Aslam Gill*** and
Nasir M. Cheema*

Corresponding author: parvezkhaliq786@yahoo.com

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON MAIZE FODDER YIELD UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
...than that of the FYM and control treatments. The FYM treatment gave -1 lowest fodder yield (16997 kg ha ) and was significantly lower than the fodder -1 yield (17278.7 kg ha ) obtained in control treatment. The nutrient availability in RF+FYM treatment significantly increased the biomass production, however, application of FYM promoted the weed infestation that reduced the green fodder yield of maize, but it improved the ove...

 Amanullah, Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Saifullah Khan, Munir Ahmed and Jahangir Khan*

 
Corresponding author:aman_azrc@yahoo.com
BIOFERTILIZER- A POSSIBLE SUBSITUTE OF FERTILIZERS IN PRODUCTION OF WHEAT VARIETY ZARDANA IN BALOCHISTAN
...nts were compared with a control treatment (no fertilizer). Significant grain yield were measured at all sites, although, at all sites both fertilizer treatments apparently out yielded the control and the biofertilizer + half mineral fertilizer treatment out yielded the high fertilizer treatment by 220- -1 1180 kgha . Fresh yields differed significantly at all sites. At Mastung field, -1 both fertilizer treatments out yielde...

 Hidayatullah, T. Mahmood, M. Farooq, M. A. Khokhar and S.I. Hussain*

* Corresponding author: hidayatu2003@yahoo.uk.co.uk

PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AFFECTING SEX EXPRESSION OF BOTTLE GOURD (LAGENARIA SICERARIA MOLINA) PLANTS
...water were considered as control. Among all foliar agents, the response of -l GA3 3 and MH was found better. Exogenous application with 30 µmol l GA maximally increased the pistillate flower production as compared to control. Moreover, the treatment produced maximum number of fruits -1 -1 (22.24 plant ) and fruit weight (6.31 kg plant ). However, foliar spray with different combinations of ethrel did not improve yield ...

 Faisal Khalil, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Ammaz Khan, Fakhar-ul-Hassan and Nabila Bibi*

EFFECT OF GIRDLING AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA)
... Treatments consisted of control, girdling and spray of gibberellic acid, salicylic acid and naphthalene acetic acid @ 30 ppm, 250 ppm and 60 ppm, respectively. This experiment was laid out according to Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors, in four replications. Statistical analysis of data showed that T where GA was applied @ 30 ppm caused 2 3 more pronounced effect on number of inflorescence, flower count, perfect flower percentage, fruit drop p...

 Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Muhammad Ansar*, Ashiq Saleem**, Zafar ullah Arif*, H.I. Javed and Rashid Saleem**

IMPROVEMENT OF MASH BEAN PRODUCTION UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS BY RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION AND LOW RATES OF STARTER NITROGEN
...ombinations applied were control, 20, 40 and 50 kg N ha , 750 g inoculum -1 -1 -1 - ha , inoculum + 20 kg N ha , inoculum + 40 kg N ha , inoculum + 50 kg N ha 1 . The experiment was laid out in a split plot design keeping varieties in main plots and fertilizer/inoculum combinations in sub-plots. The results showed significant differences for all the plant characters under the study. -1 The crop maturity was earlier in control

 Parvez Khaliq*, Azim Malik**, Nasir Mahmood Cheema* and Muhammad Umair***

ECONOMICS OF WHEAT BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN RAINFED AREAS OF PAKISTAN
...tilizer treatments viz., control (C), recommended dose of fertilizer for each crop (F), farmyard manure (FYM) @ -1 5 tha . The recommended doses of fertilizer for individual crop with FYM (F+FYM) were also included in the study to know their impact on the crops yield in the cropping systems. Economic analysis of the data revealed that the traditional wheat-fallow-wheat cropping system could be economically replaced with wheat-maize fodder-wheat cropping system...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzad Arshad Saleem**

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF STRAWBERRY JUICE
...of time. Spoilage can be controlled by keeping the juice in refrigerator and using preservatives. Thus with good storage conditions, the shelf life of the strawberry juice can be increased satisfactorily.

...

 Arshad Ali, Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Imdad Ali Mahmood and Badar-uz-Zaman*

RICE PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL HEALTH AS AFFECTED BY WHEAT RESIDUE INCORPORATION ALONG WITH NITROGEN STARTER DOSE UNDER SALT-AFFECTED SOIL
... yield was 19% more than control 2+ + treatment. Positive correlations (r= 0.74) and (r=0.73) between Ca and K contents in grain and its yield were calculated. However negative + correlation (-0.85) between Na content in grain and paddy yield was 2+ + noticed. Data indicates presence of significantly higher Ca and K contents in grain receiving wheat straw incorporation along with N starter -1 dose (30 kg ha ). Economical analysis showed that maximum value cost...

 Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Muhammad Arshadullah, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

EFFECT OF BORON NUTRITION ON PADDY YIELD UNDER SALINESODIC SOILS
...g B ha and 22% more than control treatment. Maximum plant height (155.7 cm) and -1 -1 number of grains spike (125) were recorded with B application @ 1 kg ha . B concentration in grain increased with boron application. Positive correlation (r= 0.94) was found between B contents in grain and paddy grain yield. Economical analysis showed that maximum value cost ratio was -1 (12.5:1) with the application of 1.5 kg B ha .

...

 Asrar Ali*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Abdul Rehman***, Javed Khan, Waseem Ahmad Gillani** and Maria Rauf*

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATUS FAB. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) AT VARYING TEMPERATURE ON RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI L.

 Shafique Qadir Memon*, Muhamamd Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal** Nadeem Amjad***, Muhammad Azhar Saeed, Shabbir Kalwar, Asif Ali Mirani and Habib Iqbal Javed****

TILLAGE AND NPK EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPRING MAIZE IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
...rtilizer levels viz., -1 control 100-50-50, 150-75-75 and 200-100-100 NPK kg ha . The randomized complete block design was used with three replications. There was significant differences in maize emergence percentage, plant height, -1 grains cob , 1000-grain weight and grain yield due to tillage practices and various fertilizer levels, between tillage practices. However, the NPK @ -1 200-100-100 kg ha and deep tillage produced the highest emergence percentage,...

 Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF SULFUR AND CALCIUM ON WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOILS
... yield was 43% more than control treatment. Positive correlations (r= 2+ + 0.96), (r=0.96) and (r=0.91) between Ca , K , S and negative correlation r= + (-0.99) between Na contents in grain and wheat grain yield, respectively. 2+ + It indicates presence of significantly higher Ca , K contents in grain 2+ + + receiving CaSO4 help plants to attain more Ca , K and S to avoid Na uptake.

...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
...followed by insect pests control by local nd rd recipes and their mass killing which were ranked 2 and 3 with mean values 3.03 and 2.84, respectively. Likewise, chemical and manual weed st nd control measures were ranked 1 and 2 with mean values 2.99 and 2.97, respectively. Correspondingly, farmers' skills in furrow irrigation was ranked at the top with mean value 3.32 followed by flood, border and basin irrigation technique...

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY

 Maria Rauf*, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Javed Khan**, Abdul Rehman***, Waseem Ahmad Gillani* and Asrar Ali**

BIOLOGY AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTATA LINN. ON SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM APHID UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS

 Muhammad Yasin Mirza*, Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Muhammad Amjad* and Malik Shah Nawaz*

STABILITY ANALYSIS FOR ECONOMIC TRAITS IN SESAME ( L.)
...otypes was under genetic control. The b-values of V-90005, T-89 and PARS-I were larger than unit regression; hence were suitable for favourable environments for yield. Whereas, V-III and SangharI were with b-values less than unity indicating their below average response. For branches per plant, Sanghar-1 and S-17 had regression coefficients less than one with negative sign making them suitable only for poor environment. Four genotypes namely, Sanghar-I, S-17, ...

 Khalid Naseem*, Naseem Bibi**, Saeeda Raza*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui*, Amina Bibi*** and Muhammad Ahsan Khan****

DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF HIGH ENERGY BISCUITS FOR COMBATING MALNOURISHMENT AMONG CHILDREN IN PAKISTAN
...lementation were kept as control treatment. Chemical and sensory evaluation of supplemented biscuits was carried out. An increase in nutritive values have been observed with an increase in supplementation level. Proximate analysis shows that T and T get the highest values for protein, zinc and iron. Results of all treatments were in acceptable range regarding sensory evaluation. These results indicate that biscuits can be successfully supplemented with chickpe...

 Adnan Umair*, Safdar Ali**, Muhammad Sarwar***, Kashif Bashir**, Muhammad Javed Tareen**** and Muhammad Asghar Malik*****

ASSESSMENT OF SOME PRIMING TECHNIQUES IN MUNGBEAN (VIGNA RADIATA) : A GREEN HOUSE STUDY
...d dry seeds were used as control. All the invigoration treatments significantly improved plant vigor in terms of final germination biomass, root, shoot length and nutrient uptake of mungbean seedlings compared to control (non-primed dry seedling). The application of seed priming also improved the protein concentration at the early stage of seedlings. Phosphorous application through priming significantly improved germination ...

 Khawer Jawad Ahmad*, Asif Razzaq*, Khalida Hamid Abbasi*, Muhammad Shafiq*, Muhammad Saleem** and Muhammad Arshadullah***

THYMOL AS CONTROL AGENT OF MITES (VARROA DESTRUCTOR) ON HONEYBEES (APIS MELLIFERA)
...rried out on thymol as a controlling agent -1 for bee mites. In this study thymol powder (5mg hive ) was compared with formic acid 65 % and fluvalinate (strip) as standard control measure against Varroa mite. The mite mortality rate was recorded in honeybee colonies of Apis mellifera during 2011-12 at research farm of Beekeeping and Hill Fruit Pests Research Station, Rawalpindi. Analysis of variance for different treatments ...

 Javed Khan*, Ehsan-ul-Haq*, Habib Iqbal Javed*, Tariq Mahmood*,
Awais Rasool*, Naheed Akhtar and Saleem Abid**

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PREDATORY POTENTIAL OF CHRYSOPERLA CARNEA (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) FEEDING ON WHEAT APHID SCHIZAPHIS GRAMINUM (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
...ed out in Insecatry- Bio control Laboratories, Insect Pest Management Programme, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results indicate that incubation period was 3.8±0.08 days with 87.0% hatchability. The developmental duration of first, second and third instar larvae were 3.2 ± 0.13, 4.0±0.21 and 4.8±0.25 days, respectively. The total larval developmental ...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
...indirect impacts on weed control strategies and management options in conservation crop production.

...

 Nazakat Nawaz*, Malik Shah Nawaz*, Mubashir Ahmad Khan*, Mirza M. Yasin*, Doulat Baig*, Nasir Mehmood Cheema**, Muhammad Amjad** and M. Altaf Sher**

EFFECT OF BORON ON PEANUT GENOTYPES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...he tested genotypes over control. Dry pod yields of BARD-479, ICG-7326, and ICGV-92023 increased by 14- 20%, 21- 26% and 27- 34%, respectively. Genotype BARD-479 was the most boron efficient user, 83- 88% followed by ICG-7326, 79-83% and ICGV- 92023, 75- 79%. Critical boron concentrations in plant shoot terminals -1 recorded were 22-48, 23-50 and 25-54 mg kg during 2008 and 27-51, 30- -1 55 and 31-58 mg kg during 2009 in BARD-479, ICG-7326 and ICGV-92023, resp...

 Farman Ullah Shah*, G. Mustafa Sajid** and Sadar Uddin Siddiqui**

EVALUATION OF MULCHING MATERIALS AS INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT COMPONENT IN MAIZE CROP
...ulch, are recommended to control weeds and get maximum yield as well as net economic return.

...

 Asghar Ali*, Muhammad Tahir**, Shahid Riaz Malik* and Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*

EVALUATION OF PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
...m yield. The manual weed control is simply not feasible because it is time consuming and costly. The chemical weed control is the effective method of weed management. A field study was conducted to evaluate pre and post-emergence herbicides for weed control in lentil. The experiment comprised eight treatments including three herbicides, manual weeding and check (no weeding). The yield was ...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Abdul Jabbar** and Sajida Taj*** 

FINANCIAL PROFITABILITY OF WHITE SUGAR PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...s are needed for disease control and optimal pesticide use. Adequate supply of water, optimal use of fertilizer and judicious use of pesticides can improve yield and hence higher financial profitability.

...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Mehwish Ishaque**, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Saleem-ud-din* and Syeda Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SEED PROTEINS, OIL CONTENT AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
...tive type of gene action controlling the characters. Non-additive type of gene action can be utilized for varietal improvement through heterosis breeding. The lines x testers were the major contributors in inheritance of all characters studied.

...

 Aniqa Iram*, Javed Khan**, Nadeem Aslam**, Ehsan-ul-Haq**, Habib Iqbal Javed**, Muhammad Irfan*, Awais Rasool*, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi** and Sumera Aslam* 

EFFICACY OF PLANT DERIVED OILS AND EXTRACTS AGAINST WHITEFLY, BEMISIA TABACI (GENNADIUS) ON SESAME CROP
...s are being used for its control. The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of some plant extracts of mint (Mentha spp.) and geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) and soybean oil (Glycine max), mustard oil (Brassica spp.) and taramera oil (Eruca sativa) against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci on sesame crop. The data were recorded 24h before and 24h, 48h, 72h and 168h after application of each spray material. The results showed that whitefly population...

 Muhammad Tahir*, Muhammad Irfan* and Aziz-Ur-Rehman*

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ZINC ON YIELD AND OIL CONTENTS OF FLAX
...ferent zinc levels viz., control, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00%, 1.25%, 1.50%, 1.75%, 2.00%, 2.25%, 2.50%, 2.75% and 3.00% were applied by foliar spray at bud initiation and after capsule filling stage of flax. Zinc was used as a source of ZnSO . All the zinc treatments significantly improved plant height, stem 4 -1 length, fruiting zone length, fruiting branches, number of capsule plant , -1 number of seed capsule , 1000-seed weight, straw yield, seed yield, and...

 Gul Zamin Khan*, Imtiaz Ali Khan**, Inamullah Khan* and Mian Inayatullah**

OUTDOOR BREEDING OF MOSQUITO SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
... development of ultimate control strategies of mosquito breeding in outdoor habitats. Larvae were collected from various mosquito breeding habitats such as irrigation channels, irrigation water leakages, pots, vase, tyres, temporary containers stagnant flood waters, etc. Ovitraps were used as monitoring tools in urban areas of the selected sites. Results showed that mosquitoes are active throughout the year with their most active season during May, September a...

 Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Arshad Ali**, Tariq Sultan** and Muhammad Munir Ahmed***

CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ROOT SYSTEM OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L) GROWN UNDER SALT AFFECTED AREA OF PAKISTAN
...KS 44 showed maximum bio-control activity (fungal growth inhibition) than other isolated strains.

...

 Anum Fatima*, Saleem Abid* and Sobia Naheed* 

TRENDS IN WHOLESALE PRICES OF ONION AND POTATO IN MAJOR MARKETS OF PAKISTAN: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS
...nd regulations regarding control of prices. 

...

Muhammad Hidayat Rasool*, Abuzar Muhammad Afzal*, Abu Baker Siddique*, Waseem Akram**, Muhammad Saqalein*, Madiha Basit* and Muhammad Farooq Tahir***

ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF VIRO CARE GZ-08 AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN POULTRY AND ITS IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY
...on, other prevention and control measures are necessary to prevent ND outbreaks. Natural resources have been exploited to obtain antiviral compounds in several latest studies. In this study, the antiviral activity of Viro Care GZ-08™ was checked up invitro, in-ovo and in-vivo. The cytotoxicity assay of the product was performed using Vero cell line. All the trials revealed that the stock solution and 1:2 dilution of GZ-08™ had some antiviral activi...

 Ali Raza Shah**, Muhammad Saffar Mirjat**, Abdul Quadir Mughal***, Inayatullah Rajper** and Asif Ali Mirani****

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS IN A CLAY LOAM SOIL*
...), zero tillage (ZT) and controlled traffic farming (CTF) was carried out to evaluate the performance of tillage systems. Results indicated that the soil pulverization was higher (P<0.05) under MT and lower under CT treatments while, it was nonsignificant between MT and CTF treatments. Similarly, soil volume disturbed and effective ploughing depth was maximum (P<0.05) under CT followed by MT, CTF and minimum under ZT. Similarly the operating speed was si...

 Saima Kanwal*, Saeeda Raza*, Khalid Naseem*, Muhammad Amjad*, Naseem Bibi* and Musarrat Gillani*

DEVELOPMENT, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BISCUITS SUPPLEMENTED WITH PUMPKIN SEEDS TO COMBAT CHILDHOOD MALNUTRITION IN PAKISTAN
...20%), were compared with control (T ). Chemical 3 4 5 1 attributes of biscuits showed that T has maximum level of pumpkin flour (20%) 5 with maximum protein (12.30%), fat (28.29%), ash (4.13%), iron (2.28%) and zinc (3.11%). Sensory results also revealed increasing trend in all sensory parameters. Results showed acceptability at all levels but treatment T with 15 % pumpkin 4 seed flour scored highest (8.0) for maximum overall acceptability. It was concluded th...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Muhammad Arshad*, Maryam Kamal**, Doulat Baig *, M. Tariq*, Talat Gilani* and Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY STUDIES FOR SEED YIELD TRAITS IN SUNFLOWER
...tive type of gene action controlling the characters. Estimates of proportional contribution of inbred lines, testers and their inter- action to total variances for seed yield and related traits indicated the highest contribution of lines x testers in inheritance of all characters except harvest index where the contribution of lines was higher than testers and line x testers. Nonadditive type of gene action can be utilized in a hybrid improvement programme thro...

 Doulat Baig*, Fida Mohammad Abbasi*, Habib Ahmed*, Maqsood Qamar** and Muhammad Ayub Khan**

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
... -1 ha ) was observed in control treatment (N ). Polynomial regression line showed 0 -1 that the rate of yield increase was higher up to 180 kg N ha and become slow -1 thereafter. The hybrid SMH-0907 produced more achene (2736 kg ha ) as compared -1 to the hybrid SMH-0917 (2694 kg ha ). Results revealed that economized application of different doses of N can boost up the yield in both sunflower hybrids SMH-0907 and SMH-0917. These findings could be helpful in ...

 Azhar Usman Ali*, Ghulam Sarwar*, Muhammad Aftab* and Sher Muhammad**

EFFECT OF SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLIED COPPER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
...5 treatments viz., -1 -1 control, soil application of copper @ 2 mg kg (level 1), @ 4 mg kg (level 2), foliar application of copper @ 1% solution (level 1) and @ 2% solution (level 2). These treatments were replicated thrice. All the pots were arranged using completely randomized design. Soil application of copper was done before sowing wheat seeds. Seeds of wheat (Lasani-2000) were sown and 3 plants were maintained in each pot after germination. Foliar applic...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON
...ded four topping levels: control (no topping), topping at 90 cm, 120 cm and 150 cm height; three -1 nitrogen levels: 150, 200 and 250 kg ha . Net plot size was 6 m × 3 m. Maximum days to first floral bud initiation (44.68), appearance of first flower (65.64), first boll splition (105.47) and monopodial branches per plant (0.81) were recorded at 250 kg -1 N ha . Minimum days for first floral bud initiation (36.66), appearance of first flower (55.97), firs...

 Muhammad Mansoor*, Noman Latif*, Zafar Islam**, Sher Muhammad**, Amanullah* and Muhammad Umair***

IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AMENDMENTS ON SOIL CAPPING IN MUNGBEAN PRODUCTION USING CENTRAL PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN CLAYEY SOILS
...ed soil plot was kept as control. The size of each plot was 4m x 3m. The results depicted that parameters such as number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of grains per pod, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield were significantly affected by different soil amendments at P>0.05, except for number of clusters per plant. -1 -1 Maximum of 6.2 branches plant , 62.6 pods plant , 8.3cm pod length, 8.9 grains -1 pod , and 43.3 g of 1...

Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Tariq Sultan**, Arshad Ali**, Ghulam Qadir*** Imdad Ali Mahmood**, Tauseef Tabassam**, Muhammad Arshad Ullah** and Nasir Abbas* 

EFFECT OF PGPR STRAINS ON SUNFLOWER GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS UNDER SALINITY STRESS
...tively was recorded over control at 8 dS m salinity level. -1 Similar trend was observed at 5dS m salinity level. The phosphorus and potassium content significantly increased because of bacterial inoculation. The strain KS 7 -1 indicated the maximum phosphorus contents at 5dS m which was 313% higher as compared to control. Similarly K+ content significantly increased at all salinity levels. This study concluded that PGPR iso...

 Muneeb Zafar*, Tahir Mehmood**, Irfan Ahmad Baig**, Abdul Saboor** Mazher Abbas***, Shumaila Sadiq** and Khalid Mahmood****

ANALYTICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NON-OPTIMAL USE OF PESTICIDES AND HEALTH HAZARDS FOR VEGETABLE PICKERS
... pesticides are meant to control pests in the fields. Up to certain optimal use of a typical pesticide, it enhances the yield of crops and vegetables. But, eventually amplified use of pesticides results in contamination of environment (water, soil, and air) and increase the health cost of vegetable pickers. The purpose of this study is to estimate the excessive use of pesticides and economic cost of health hazards for the vegetable pickers in district Vehari. ...

 Farid Asif Shaheen*, Sadia Parveen*, Ahmed Zia**, Ghulam Qadir*,
Mureed Husain*** and Rifat Ullah Khan****

PREDATORY APTNESS OF ANTS AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM HERBST (TENEBRIONIDAE: COLEOPTERA) IN WHEAT FLOUR
...orest ant population and control with 73.33% and 11.66% pupal predation, respectively. C. rufipes from forest habitat showed maximum adult predation (25%), which was significantly higher than non-forest ant population and control jar with 15% and 3.33% adult predation, respectively. The forest population of M. minimum exhibited 56.66% larval predation that was significantly different from non-forest population with 41.66% la...

 Inayat-Ur-Rahman*, Shamsher Ali**, Mukhtar Alam*, Mohammad Adnan*, Hidayat ullah*, Muhammad Faisal Anwar Malik*, Abdul Sattar Shah* Mohammad Ibrahim*

EFFECT OF SEED PRIMING ON GERMINATION PERFORMANCE AND YIELD OF OKRA ( L.)
...e dry seeds were used as control. Same primed seeds were used in the field experiment. Priming proved effective in improving percent germination and reducing the mean germination time (MGT) as compared to unprimed seeds. Priming agents, its osmotic potential and duration significantly affected germination percentage, which increased as osmotic potential lowered from 0 to -1.2 Mpa while further lowering osmotic potential to -1.6 Mpa and below adversely affected...

 Ishaq Ahmad*, Abdul Rehman**, Ehsan –Ul- Haq*** and Arif Mahmood****

RESISTANCE RESPONSE OF RICE ( L.) GERMPLASM AGAINST RICE LEAF FOLDER ( G.) UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITION IN PAKISTAN
...as compared to any other control measure. It was imperative to exploit the sources of resistance to cope with threat the pest and its environmental friendly control. Present study was carried out in greenhouse of Plant Genetic Resources Institute (PGRI), NARC. Twenty six Pakistani genotypes of rice germplasm including 15 coarse and 10 fine genotypes were screened in pot experiment during 2011 including TNI, used as susceptib...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA
...d in the experiment as a control. The experiment was conducted during 2014-15 at National Tea & High Value Crops Research Institute (NTHRI) Shinkiari, Mansehra. Altogether seven pea genotypes were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Normal agronomic practices were carried out during the growth period and data was recorded on different growth parameters. Significant differences were observed for all the agronomic tra...

 Muhammad Bilal*, Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Muhammad Aslam*, Muhammad Ijaz****, Adnan Shakeel***, Mushtaq Ahmad*** and Kashif Bashir*****

RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT COTTON ( L.) GENOTYPES AT VARIOUS SALINITY LEVELS
...ton boll was recorded in control practice as compared to salinity gradient treatments. Sodium (Na ), Potassium (K ) and Chloride (Cl ) contents in leaf sap were present more in salinity gradient treatment cotton genotypes as compared to farmer practice. Overall, findings revealed that higher to lower salinity levels did not suit to tested varieties. At optimum salinity stress level, all varieties performed optimally under salt conditions.

...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Neelam Yasin*

EFFECT OF MICRONUTRIENTS FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF MAIZE
...cronutrient application (control), water spray and foliar application of micronutrients mixture @ 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500 ml ha at stem elongation stage of maize. All micronutrients treatments significantly improved plant height, cob length, number of grains rows cob , cob weight, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, grain protein and grain oil contents. However, micronutrients application at stem elongation stage showed ...

Mehwish Kiran*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Kashif Waseem*
and Muhammad Sohail**

EFFECT OF ORGANIC MANURES AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF RADISH ( L)
... The treatments included control, farm yard manure (FYM) @ 25 t ha , poultry manure (PM) @ 10 t ha , goat manure (GM) @ 15 t ha , press mud (PrM) @ 20 t ha , sewage sludge (SS) @ 20 t ha and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK) @ 120-65-100 kg ha . Data on leaf plant , leaf length (cm), fresh leaf weight plant (g), dry leaf weight plant (g), root length (cm), root diameter (cm), fresh root weight plant (g), dry root weight plant (g), total biomass plant (g), ...

 Ghazala Nawaz*, Muhammad Nawaz Malik**, Muhammad Hassan
Mushtaq***, Fraz Munir Ahmad****, Ali Abdullah Shah*****, Farooq
Iqbal******, Shinawar Waseem Ali*******, Zahida Fatima******** and
Amjad Khan*********

SURVEILLANCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN LIVESTOCK IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...o develop prevention and control strategy, that hasn't been done in Pakistan. Active disease surveillance at door steps was conducted to collect blood samples from small and large ruminants of subtropical rural communities in the province of Punjab during January-March, 2015. Total 59665 sera samples from apparently healthy animals were collected and screened by Rose Bengal Plate test and confirmed by Complement fixation test, respectively. After adjustment fo...

 Shafique Qadir Memon* , Nadeem Amjad** and Riaz Ahmed Dayo***

INVESTIGATION ENERGY AND ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF MAIZE PRODUCATION
...mpared to cow manure and control treatment gave the lowest output energy. Cow manure used high energy as compared to NPK and control. The results further revealed that other NPK fertilizer treatments were affected by the high input costs thus maximum benefits were achieved. It is interesting to note that the NPK treatment appeared to be the best for all farmyard manure and control plots.

 

ROLE OF HONEY BEES FORAGING ACTIVITIES IN INCREASED FRUIT SETTING AND PRODUCTION OF APPLES APIS MELLIFERA MALUS DOMESTICA

...) and no pollination (T ,control). There was a significant increase in the apple fruit setting and weight gain in pollinated plants compared to non-pollinated plants. Maximum number of fruits per panicle were 5.33±0.51(Mean±SE) whereas the highest fruit weight 170±2.65g (Mean±SE) was recorded in plants provided with augmentation of honey bees along with natural pollination. The lowest fruit weight of 80±3.05g (Mean±SE)...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...tanical herbicide in the control of this noxious weed species.

...
Anum Rafique, Sajid Abdullah, Khalid Abbas, Huma Naz* and Wardah Hassan
...p of fish was kept under controlled conditions. Partial purification of SOD was done by Ammonium sulphate precipitation. Ion-exchange column chromatography was used to purify enzyme for further partial characterization against different range of temperature and pH. As a result of ion exchange chromatography enzyme from kidney of control and Pb+Cr treated fish had highest activity as 508.33 and 427 UmL-1 while high...
Rabia Faiz and Dilara A. Bukhari*
...idal formulation for the control of mosquitoes.
...

Hina Zubair1, Saima Perveen2, Saeed Alam3, Akkad Rafiq4* and Sara Ejaz 

Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Arshad1, Rashid Mahmood2,* and Ziyad Abdul Qadir2
...es was left untreated as control. As seen from results, all acaricides significantly reduced the infestation levels of varroa mite on adult honeybees and worker brood and the efficacy of Perizin® and Apistan® was high (91.3%±0.81 and 81.6%±1.2, respectively). Lowest mite mortality (52.3%±1.2) was recorded in Apitol® treatment. Overall, the data indicated that acaricides like Perizin®
Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2 and Saleh S. Alhewairini1,*
...atment compared with the control (well water), respectively. The application of Huwa-San TR50 showed a promising safety profile when compared to other acaricides, as it spared predatory mites at concentrations which had a high lethality to tomato russet mites. Hence, Huwa-San TR50 can be utilized in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program as an acaricide agent.
...
Filiz Kutluyer* 
...ruhensis compared to control group. Highest sperm motility rate and its duration, and fertility and hatching rate of eggs of O. mykiss, S. rizeensis and S. coruhensis were 0.5 mM, 5 mM and 2 mM, respectively. To conclude, sperm quality and fertility were positively affected by quantitative changes different concentrations of L-tryptophan. In addition, L-tryptophan can be used in activation medium for O. mykiss, S. rizeensis
Fatmagün Aydin1,* and Fatma Burcu Harmantepe2
... differences between the control and all other treatments. Feed intake, specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were decreased significantly with the increase of sage oil levels in diets (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in hepatosomatic index (HIS), viscero somatic index (VSI) and condition factor (CF). The data of this study show that sage oil can be used to diets of tilapia up to 0.25% without any adverse effect on growth, feed uti...
Asmatullah1, Chaman Ara1,*, Shagufta Andleeb2, Maha Tahir1, Beenish Zahid1 and Madeeha Arshad1
...nd tail size compared to control fetuses. Morphological studies of fetuses showed abnormalities like micromelia, skeletal defects, hemorrhages, displacement of limbs, open eyelids and distorted axis. Histological defects included dilation and absence of ventricles, underdeveloped cerebellum, microcardia, necrosis in atrium, underdeveloped ventricles, hydropericardium and necrosis of the liver. Skeleton analysis of cadmium treated groups showed mostly un-ossifi...
Abid Hussain1,*, Mansur-ud-Din Ahmad2, Muhammad Hussan Mushtaq2, Mamoona Chaudhry2, Muhammad Sarwar Khan2, Michael Reichel3, Tanveer Hussain4, Amjad Khan2, MuhammadNisar2 and Imtiaz Ahmad Khan5
...ze increase. It order to control the mastitis, it is mandatory to screen the mastitis cases at quarter and herd size level.
...
María Magdalena Crosby-Galván1, Bernardino Espinoza-Velasco1 and Mónica Ramirez-Mella2,*
...tments were evaluated: a control using a standard diet for ruminants elaborated with corn stover, corn grain and soybean meal, and three experimental diets with 10, 20 and 30% dry residue of chihua pumpkin instead of corn stover. Dry matter digestibility and gas production was determined at 24 h of incubation in ruminal fluid obtained from two Holstein cows with a ruminal cannula. Randomized block experimental design was used as and a comparison of means was p...
Ahmad Farooq1, Usman Waheed2,3, Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3, Abdul Rauf4, Abida Arshad5, and Muhammad Arshad1,*
...under a standard quality control and a nation wise validation study is highly recommended.
...
Tariq Mukhtar,1,* Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Usman Raja1 and Humayun Javed2
...rveillance and stringent control strategies should be adopted to prevent the nematode from becoming a threat to wheat. Similarly, no incidence of the nematode was recorded on Shafaq-2006 and Aas-2011 cultivars, therefore, cultivation of these cultivars should be encouraged.
...
Ambreen Asghar, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh*
...in the serum compared to control rats. Taken together, our findings conclude that diets rich in fats result in dysfunction of immune system and iron metabolism. 
...
Shagufta Andleeb*1, Shabana Shaukat1, Chaman Ara2
...32.5, 72.5, and 87.5% in control, dose, dose+antidote, and anitodote groups respectively with delayed hatching in some cases in dose and dose+antidote groups. Chicks and dead embryos were studied for morphological and morphometric analysis. Liver tissues were dissected out from each group for histological analysis. Cadmium chloride induced significant developmental abnormalities such as reduced body weight and crown rump length, exencephaly, ablepharia, crosse...
Mei Li1, Di Zhang2 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...reased RMR compared with control on day 14, and reduced the gross energy intake (GEI) and digestible energy intake (DEI). On day 28, E. miletus fed diets containing tannic acid showed no significant changes in RMR, GEI and DEI. The apparent digestibility and NST were kept stabled during the experiment. These results indicated that tannic acid can increase RMR and reduce energy intake within a short period and the changed physiological function returned ...

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

...was sprayed as untreated control on maize seedlings 20 DAE. After foliar application, the plants were regularly irrigated upto one week and water stress was imposed by withholding water from half of the pots for 20 days. Data were recorded on the relative water content (RWC), proline, sugar content and transcripts abundance of Lhcb2 gene in the selected leaves. Application of CaCl2 increased the RWC, proline and sugar content as well as the Lhcb2 expression in...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou3, Jian-hua Huang1, Qi-bin Yang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1,*
...thout eyestalk ablation (control), cultivated under a water temperature of 27.0±1.5 °C, salinity of 30–32, pH of 8.0–8.3, and light intensity of 1000 lx. Results showed that food consumption and feeding intensity of the eyestalk-ablated broodstock were higher than those without eyestalk ablation. The night-time feeding intensity was 1.46-fold and 1.31-fold higher than the daytime feeding intensity in the treatment and
Sherin Reda Rouby
...irus vaccinal strains as control. LSDV yield amplicon differed in length by 21 nucleotides from those produced from SPPV either field or vaccinal strain. Among different LSD clinical samples, skin nodules and scabs are proved excellent sample material as they yield clear DNA bands that reflect the high concentrations of the virus. The results of the current study confirm the suitability of RP030 gene in differentiation of lumpy skin disease virus and sheep pox...
Shagufta Andleeb*1, Fariha Zahid1, Noor-ul-Ain1, Yousra Nisar1, Chaman Ara2
...na bifida as compared to control. The findings of this study clearly indicate that permethrin is potentially toxic to developing chicks, especially the highest concentrations used in the study.
...

Muhammad Iftikharul Husnain1, Aneel Salman1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Tahir Mahmood3 

...mperature on agriculture controlling for potential endogeneity by using locality as an instrument. Unsurprisingly, the magnitude of temperature coefficient increases substantially when endogeneity is controlled and becomes significantly higher (6 percent to 13 percent) than the previously reported findings in the literature. The findings suggest that endogeneity is a crucial issue and must be control...
Jehangir Khan1,*, Rasheedullah1, Bakht Tarin Khan2, Ayaz Ahmad3, Muhammad Salman4 and Khalid Khan5
... plan strategies for the control of hepatitis C disease particularly in district Shangla and generally in Pakistan.
...

Shahid Ali1* and Salamat Ali2  

...shed and environmentally controlled (EC) shed broiler farms in Punjab, Pakistan. Multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of sampled respondents. 120 farmers, 60 farmers of open shed and 60 farmers of EC shed were interviewed during 2014. Dummy variable regression was applied for estimation and comparison of costs and revenues of open shed and EC shed broiler farms. Results revealed that there was statistically significant difference between the...
Felicia NkechiEkeh*, Ifeanyi Oscar Ndimkaoha Aguzie, Joy Ihuoma Nzei, Chinenye Maria-Goretti Ohanu, Godwin Ikechukwu Ngwu and ChukwudiebubeUgolo
...C for each extract and a control D. The treatment groups were in triplicates with each containing three catfish. The groups contained fish infested with 20 larvae, 20 adults and eggs of D. maculatus. Groups A – C were exposed to 8, 12 and 15% ( w/w) of extract per kilogram of fish respectively. Observation for mortality and larval emergence was made every 3 days and cumulative taking at the end of 28 days. Mortality of adult D. maculatus wa...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

...reatments consisted of a control (no strains) and 5 different strains of cyanobacteria i.e Oscillatory-MMF-1 (Oscillatoria princeps), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-2 (Lyngbya mucicola), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-3 (Lyngbya Phormidium), Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Five seedlings of rice (Kianat cv.) were transplanted to each pot on 18th of July 2016. The growth of rice crop was maintained for abou...
Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar1,*, Hummaira Iqbal1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Haseena Ghulam Muhammad1 and Muhammad Irfan1
...the laboratory. Both the control and insecticide treated spiders were offered larvae of Drosophila melanogaster in different densities. C. citricola increased prey consumption as the prey density was increased. Insecticide treated C. citricola consumed less prey as compared to control. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the prey consumption of C. citricola were more drastic than bifenthrin. It was also re...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...ight was observed in the control treatment. P. agglomerans showed more reduction in galling index and increase in plant growth than P. putida. The results concluded that M. incognita has a wide host range in ornamental plants and they could be managed by using antagonistic, growth promoting endophytic bacteria. 

...

Mehran Ali, Inamullah*, Sajjad Ahmad and Arsalan Khan 

... while nitrogen sources (control, cattle manure, poultry manure, sheep manure, mushroom spent, mungbean residue and urea) in subplots. The results exhibited that, higher plant height (200.4 cm), grains ear-1(351), seed index (228.8 g), grain yield (3522 kg ha-1), and biological yield (10799 kg ha-1) were observed with nitrogen sources incorporated with mould board plough. In case of nitrogen sources; poultry manure (3507 kg ha-1), sheep manure (3468 kg ha-1) a...

Baharullah Khattak1*, Saifullah2, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharraf Ahmad2, Asad Ali2, Mohammad Junaid2, Ijaz Ahmad Khan3, Taj Ali Khan1 and Mubbashir Hussain1 

...and is being used as bio control agent for the management of important plant pathogens including root knot nematodes (RKN). In the present studies, 15 isolates of Trichoderma harzianum were collected from different the root knot nematodes-infested tomato field of Malakand and Swat, Pakistan. These isolates were tested for their nematocidal effects against Meloidogyne javanica. Anti-J2 antagonistic test divided the isolates into 5 antagonistic groups or AGs. AG...

Madeeha Alamzeb1, Shazma Anwar1, Asif Iqbal1,2*, Song Meizhen2, Mazhar Iqbal3, Sara4, Muhammad Ramzan2 and Afza Tabassum1
 

...y than lower N rates and control. Likewise, wheat sown with deep tillage system resulted in increased dry matter partitioning into different plant parts than conventional tillage system. We concluded from this study that integrated use of inorganic nitrogen (125 kg N ha-1) and poultry manure (5 ton ha-1) improve dry matter partitioning of wheat under deep tillage system. 

...
Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Khalid Mahmood Mughal2, Sarfraz Ahmed Mian2 and Atta Ullah Khan2
...eloped glasshouses under controlled weather conditions during summer and winter. Rising population and stagnancy both in yield of vegetables and cultivated area of the country, are negatively affecting food supply in Pakistan. Supply of hydroponics products provides solution to the problem of decade old stagnancy in yield of the vegetables especially tomato to cater the increasing demand due to gigantic population increase. This study has been designed to anal...
Pasqua Rotondi1, Maria Antonietta Colonna1, Giuseppe Marsico1, Francesco Giannico1, Marco Ragni1 and Anna Maria Facciolongo2,*
...g feeding treatments: C) control: commercial pelleted feed; L) pelleted feed containing 3% extruded linseed; LO) pelleted feed containing 3% extruded linseed and 0.6% dried oregano inflorescences. Kids were slaughtered at 60 days of age. Diet did not affect in vivo performances, dressing percentage, pH and meat colour, but it influenced meat tenderness, that was lower (P<0.01) in meat from kids receiving oregano, probably due to the lesser (P<0.05...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Sidra Naz3, Sidra Abbas2, Wardah Hassan2, Shakeela Perveen2, Moazama Batool1, Laiba Shafique2
...igala as compared to control. This study suggests that the behavioral and biochemical parameters can be used as a valuable bio-marker to identify the toxic effects of pollutants in aquatic systems. 
...
Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*, Anum Feroz1, Ayesha Gondal1,Sahar Akram2 and Tanzeela Riaz3
... with reference to their control (untreated group). Among carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, the activities of amylase and invertase were significantly reduced while activity of trehalase were significantly increased after treatment with sub lethal dose of λ-cyhalothrin as compared to control. The metabolic derangements induced by sub-lethal dose of λ-cyhalothrin suggest that infestation caused by T. granari...
Baoying Guo*1, Yu Chen1, Chuan Zhang2, Zhenming Lv1, Kaida Xu3, Hongling Ping4 and Huilai Shi4
...ing regions [both in the control regions (CR)]. The composition and order of genes in S. lycidas were similar to those of most other invertebrates. The overall base composition of S. lycidas is 35.8% T, 14.8% C, 41.3% A, and 8.1% G, with extremely high A+T content (77.1%). Both control regions contain termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were us...

Nashwa Mohamed Eid1, Al-Hussien Mohamed Dahshan1, El-Shayma El-Nahass2, Basma Shalaby3 and Ahmed Ali1* 

...ve for prevention and/or control of Clostridium perfringens (CP) type A induced necrotic enteritis (NE) in broiler chickens. The influence of varying concentrations of both EOs was determined in vitro using the agar dilution test. Concentration as low as 0.25% and 0.125% of thyme and clove oils, respectively, were able to completely inhibit the growth of CP. An in vivo study was conducted in commercial broiler chickens, where, 2 groups of 10 day-old broilers w...
Muhammad Nazar Aftab1, Ahmed Ali1, Muhammad Asad1, Sadia Fatima2 and Furhan Iqbal2,*
... for 16 days while control group was treated with saline solution for the same period of time. Complete blood count were determined in both experimental treatments at the end of dose supplementation. Our results revealed that oral supplementation of 80mg/Kg body weight of AlCl3 for 16 days did not affect (P > 0.05) any of the studied parameters of complete blood count. On the other hand, serological parameters like triglycerides (P = 0.0075...
Fazul Nabi1,2, Hui Zhang1, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal1 , Mujeeb ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahzad3, Khalid Mehmood1,3 and Jiakui Li1,* 
...ted chickens compared to control group. The SM administration to TD affected birds significantly ameliorated lameness, stimulated ALP level with a decrease in ALT and AST contents, increase in antioxidant parameter and decrease in MDA contents significantly (P<0.05). SM treatment of TD-afflicted birds prevented lameness and reinstated antioxidant imbalance. SM may be effective for the treatment and control of TD and minim...

Fayaz Ahmad1*, Noorullah Khan1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Qamar uz Zaman1, Shamsul Islam1, Muhammad Abbas Khan1 and Sair Sarwar

...1 was also compared with control for studying its role in the recovery and growth of deeply pruned tea. The earliest shoot sprouting (April, 2013) was recorded in tea bushes pruned on November, 2012 and receiving potash fertilizer @ 150 kg ha1 as compared to a19 days delay recorded in first shoot sprouting in tea bushes pruned on March, 2013 and receiving no potash fertilizer. Time of pruning significantly affected the shoot growth and it ranged from 54.75 cm ...

Wiqar Ahmad1* and Farmanullah Khan

... amendments (SA); i. The control (C), ii. Farmers practice (FP; 60:45:0 N: P2O5: K2O), iii. Recommended NPK dose (RD; 120:90:60 N: P2O5: K2O ) and iv. 60:90:60 N: P2O5: K2O integrated with FYM 20 t ha-1 (N1/2PKF) in sub plots. Maize (Zea mays L.) CV Azam (yield data contained in this paper belongs to maize only), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) CV Uqab and lentils (Lense Culinarus M.) CV NM-89 were cultivated in rotation. Results revealed that during 2006, maize ...

Samiullah*, Mohammad Aslam Khan and Atta-ur-Rahman  

...olidation or development control, it is hard to see any expected change in landholding and farm fragmentation and continued invasion of farmland by urban uses. 

...
Nadia Saeed1,Mian Sayed Khan2, Habib Ahmad3, Muhammad Abdullah4 and Muzafar Shah5,*
...c amendments effectively controlled the nematode population. Among all applied organic amendments castor oil cakes and cow dung were found more effective and saw dust was least effective. The studies showed that organic amendments were significantly effective against nematodes.
...
Gulnaz Malik1, Abdul Qadir1 and Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,*
...es may provide effective control of rice weevils under high temperature conditions.

 

...
Abdur Rahman1,*, Ibrahim Sadi Cetingul2, Ismail Bayram2, Cangir Uyarlar2, Abdil Burhaneddin Akkaya2, Eyup Eren Gultepe2, Hikmet Keles3, Aykut Ulucan4 and Zafar Hayat1
...r in group D compared to control group, whereas crypt depth was significantly higher in all supplemented groups specifically remarkable in group D. Thickness of the tunica muscularis was higher in group C while other groups like D, E and F showed reduction in thickness compared to control group. Overall, this study data suggest that group D, which was supplemented with 3% dried oregano leaves, showed better performance than ...
Tariq Mukhtar
...i> have the potential to control M. incognita.
...
Hazrat Nabi1, Irshad Hussain2, Muhammad Adil3, Amar Nasir3,*, Arbab Sikandar3, Saeed Khan1 and Nasrullah Khan3

 

...CR was found between the controls (A, B and C) and mycotoxin binders fed groups (experimental group E and F). Significantly reduced geometric mean titer (GMT) was recorded for birds fed aflatoxins alone. However, difference in the calculated values of GMT for control group and birds fed toxin binders was not significant. Treatment related changes in organ body weight ratio of thymus, spleen and Bursa of fabricius of aflatoxi...
Souheila Slimani1,*, Sonia Hamouda1, Chahrazed Souadi1, Sara Silini2, Cherif Abdennour2 and Leila Delimi3
...e sexual activity of the control lasted only 04 weeks, characterized by significant increase in the testicular volume, followed by spontaneous gonadal regressionup to week 10. Consequently, an azospermia and lack of germ cells in control birds was noticed,which confirm the testicular regression.In the treated groups, thiram delayed the refractory phase along the experimental period, but testicular weight were superior in the...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*and Tariq Mukhtar2
...not nematodes are mainly controlled by chemicals and their use is often coupled with health hazards. The deleterious effects of pesticides can be averted by using non-chemical approaches, and resistant cultivars can prove a promising substitute. For their fitness as nematode-suppressive crops, the reproductive and developmental rates of the nematode must be assessed on these cultivars. As there is meager information on the reproductive potential of Meloidog...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1Arshad Javid2, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain3, Nosheen Aslam4, Qasim Ali5, Majid Hussain6Muhammad Masoom ul Hassan Rehan7, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,8Anam Khalid1 and Danish Riaz1
...condition as compared to control (0% MOLM) and other test diets. Digestibility coefficients for MOLM based diet at 10% replacement level of fish meal, increased 13.98%, 14.29% and 10.52% for crude fat, crude protein and supposed gross energy when compared to control diet, respectively. The next higher growth performance and nutrient digestibility values were observed at 20% replacement level based diet. It was concluded that...
Muhammad Shahid Saeed1, Adeela Shahid2, Samia Jawed3, Muhammad Akram4, Irshad Hussain Qureshi5 
...> A double blind placebo control study was conduced on about 132 asthmatics, which were aged between 18-60 years at Mayo Hospital Emergency with FEV1 ≤ 30% of the predicted value. Spirometry of all asthmatics (study and placebo groups) in the emergency department was performed by Spirolab III. Detailed history, general physical and systemic examination was conducted and all parameters were recorded. Modified Borg scale was used to determine ...

Abdul Basit1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,4*, Sohail Ahmed2, Gohar Ali2 and Muhammad Javaid

...). Results revealed that control treatment exhibited significantly higher fruit fly infestation (60%) with minimum marketable fruit yield (374g/bed) than all other treatments. Among treatments, yellow colored refractive sheet treatments exhibited maximum fruit fly incidence (i.e. 5 flies/net-sweep and 3-4 maggots/fruit) and fruit infestation (17%) as compared to other color sheets. Minimum fruit fly infestation (6%) and higher marketable yield (855g/bed) was r...
Abdul Wajid1,*, Asma Basharat2, Muhammad Akbar Shahid3, Sidra Tul Muntaha1, Abdul Basit4, Tanveer Hussain5, Muhammad Farooq Tahir6, Muhammad Azhar7, Masroor Ellahi Babar1 and Shafqat Fatima Rehmani2
...usion body hepatitis. To control FAdvs, strict biosecurity protection measures are necessary and we propose the continuous epidemiological surveillance to support the prevention of the viruses spread into non-epidemic areas.
...
Fangxiao Dong1,2, Xuan Luo1,2, Delu Yuan1,2, Aixin Liang1,2* and Liguo Yang1,2*
...ibody level than that in control (p < 0.05), and mice in T1 group induced significantly higher serum GH and PRL concentration in comparison with T2 and control groups (p < 0.05). Expectantly, mice in T1 group also showed significantly higher average weight gain and offspring weaning weight than that in T2 and control groups, respectively (p < 0.05). Overall, t...
Ayesha Iftikhar1,*, Muhammad Asif Aziz1, Muhammad Naeem1, Munir Ahmad1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...oratory and use as a bio-control agent against cotton mealy bug in the field at different temperature conditions.
...

Muhammad Fiaz1*, Muhammad Afzal1 and Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,2 

...binations as compared to control (F8, 107 = 70.36; P-value = 0.001 for 2016 and F8, 107 = 63.58; P-value < 0.001 for 2017). Combined application of spirotetramat along with I. fumosorosea formulation has shown a significant synergistic effect against D. citri infestation and is recommended to citrus growers against sucking insect pests. 

...
Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1
...culoviruses are known biocontrol agents of several crop pests, however, their activity is deteriorated rapidly when exposed to the sunlight. Many UV protectants were used to improve the efficacy of these viruses under field conditions. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plant extracts to improve the persistence of Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) against beet army worm, Spodopt...
Yan Li1, Kai Zhan1,*, Junying Li1, Wei Liu1, Ruiyu Ma1, Shengnan Liu1, Haijun Cui1 and Xin Zhang2
... chicks served as intact control. Trimming of claw of group 2 chicks was performed by the method of partial amputation of the third toe (along the distal phalanx) at day of hatch; the first and third toes were declawed in the group 3, while the second and fourth ones were trimming in group 4. They were caged with the same batch of non-declawed hens. Compared with intact control, laying rate was significantly increased in gro...

Saeed Ullah1, Amanullah Jan1, Murad Ali2*, Wiqar Ahmad3, Hafeez Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Ishaq2 and Bilal Ahmad2  

...%, respectively over the control with fertilizer banding compared with broadcast. Plots receiving 10 kg Zn ha-1 registered a significant increase of 8, 9, 4, 27 and 9%, in plant height (PH), PN, GY, BY and HI, respectively over the control, and recorded the lowest number of days to maturity (185) compared to control (188 days). Both 70 and 105 kg P2O5 ha-1 registered PH with 8% increase, P...

Tanzim Ullah Khan1*, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Ahmad Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Muhammad Ishaq2, Khilwat Afridi2, Murad Ali2, Muhammad Adeel Qureshi2, Imtiaz Ahmad3 and Muhammad Saeed2  

...orated plots compared to control. Optimum population of productive tillers (239), wider leaf area (27.9 cm2), more number of grains per spike (43), thousand grains weight (48.85 g), biological yield (7147 kg ha-1), grain yield (2701 kg ha-1) and harvest index (37.82%) resulted from split application of inorganic N in comparison to both early and late full applications. Thus, the use of 100 kg N ha-1 as half at sowing and half at boot stage with poultry manure ...

Muhammad Shoaib Saleem*, Muhammad Faheem Akbar, Amjad Sultan and Saqib Ali 

... treatments inclusive of control. The recommended doses of Nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (combination of Nitenpyram+Chlorfenapyr) and Buprofezin were applied when population of insect pests reached at economic threshold level (ETL). Pre-treatment data were taken before 24 hours and post-treatment data were recorded after 24, 72, 168 and 336 hours of each spray. In this manner the data of three sprays were collected. Amongst neonicotinoids Clothianidin was...
Muhammad Shaheer1*, Asad Aslam Khan2, Nasir Ahmed3, Tehseen Mahmood Mahju4, Ummarah Rasheed5
...ckness. Large randomized controlled trials are required to establish or rule out any association between this decrease in thickness and incidence if glaucoma in such patients.
...
Maaz Ahmad1*, Mussab Ahmad2 and Tehreem Munir3
...community based, placebo-controlled, double -blind, multi-centered, and randomized clinical trial through systematic random sampling was conducted in Lahore urban community.After initial diagnostic investigations in 200 patients diagnosed as cases of FD fulfilling Rome III criteria were recruited after taking written consent and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment groups (CP extract group or placebo) in equal number. A 7 days medication free period was obs...
Muhammad Kashif Munir1*, Sana Rehman1, Rizwan Iqbal1, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Muhammad Aasim1
... is necessary for timely control of the disease. GeneXpert test has already been implemented by World Health Organization to diagnose the infection on urgent basis.
Objectives: This study was designed to apply GeneXpert MTB/RIF assays for the detection of rifampicin resistant tuberculosis and validation of assays by comparing with conventional standard drug proportion method. Additionally, to explore whether the assay can be utilized in trea...
Faisal Masood*1, Ranjit Kumar Sah2 and Ahmad Humayun Sarfaraz3
...rants further randomized control trial study to establish its efficacy in such cases.
...
Muhammad Anwar Iqbal1, Habib Rehman2, Ali Hussain3,*, Faiza Jabeen4, Ijaz Ahmad2, Kamran Ashraf5, Muhammad Irshad Arshad6 and Omaima Khan7
...basal diet) was given to control group birds (Group A) and the same feed mixed with three different concentrations of MOS i.e., 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 %, was offered for 35 days to the birds of experimental groups, B, C and D, respectively. Results showed that the birds of group C were heavier (P < 0.05) during 2nd and 3rd weeks compared to the other groups. Feed conversion ratio was not affected by the dietary supplementation except on week 2, whic...
Madeeha Arshad1, Asmatullah1, Chaman Ara1, Shagufta Andleeb2 and Naveed Ahmad3,*
...tions in comparison with control group. The fetal body weight and CR length reduced significantly (P<0.005) in all dose group. Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole has significant potential to cause congenital defects in developing embryo.
...
Xia Lin Zheng1, Zhen Hua Xian1, Zhen De Yang2, Xiu Hao Yang3 and Wen Lu1,*
...at can be used for their control.
...
Sana Rafique1, Hina Saqib1, Khushi Muhammad2, Nazia Akbar2, Abdul Rauf3, Muzafar Shah4,*
...s should be taken out to control DENV spread in future.
...

Abdur Rehman and Zahir Shah 

...ixation by 85 % over the control. Application of Mo and Fe at all levels alone or in combinations also improved soil organic matter, mineral N, P and K status that could be associated with more N2 fixation, enhanced plant and root growths of plants. These results suggested that application of both Mo and Fe is necessary for pea crop enhanced nodulation, N2 fixation, yield, nutrient uptake and for improved soil fertility 

...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...necessary to prevent and control the infection using latest molecular diagnostics and effective vaccine along with anti-viral therapeutics. This short commentary deals with current knowledge and opportunities on ORFV and future challenges as control perspectives in India. 

...
Mudassar Javed1,Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1,*, Muhammad Sufyan1, Sajjad Ali2 and Muhammad Afzal1
...arvae/plant in untreated control plots. For the botanicals, an average of 2.57 and 2.92 larvae/plant was recorded in 2015 and 2016 respectively, compared with 4.12 in untreated control plots. Among the synthetic insecticides tested, emamectin benzoate and indoxacarb caused the most significant reduction of okra borers, followed by abamectin and lambda-cyhalothrin. While among the botanicals, Azadirachta indica, Citrullus ...
Kamran Khan1, Sarzamin Khan2, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,* and Naseer Ahmad2
...ve treatment groups. The control group was fed on standard concentrate basal diet, whereas in the treated groups, the basal diet was supplemented with low (3.5%; LCF) or high (7%; HCF) level of crushed flaxseed and low (1.5%; LFO) or high (3%; HFO) level of flaxseed oil until slaughtering (day 90). Carcass fat deposition was greater (P < 0.05) in the supplemented groups as compared to the control group. The contents of my...
Rana Zeeshan Habib1, Muhammad Afzal1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2,*, Mahroze Fatima3, Muhammad Bilal4 and Syed Makhdoom Hussain5
...g) at the level of 0, 0 (control); 0, 1000; 0, 2000; 1.5, 0; 1.5, 1000; 1.5, 2000; 3, 0; 3, 1000; 3, 2000 respectively. Chromic oxide was used as inert marker in diets to estimate mineral digestibility. Fish fed on PHY supplemented diet showed higher apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC%) of Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn. Similarly, CA addition also improved (p<0.05) ADC% of Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Fe and Cu, however, ADC% of Mn and Zn remained unaff...
Jingen Xu1, Yang Liu2, Erhui Jin1, Youfang Gu1, Qin Zhang3 and Shenghe Li1,*
...ne functions and genetic control of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets. Also, several differentially expressed immune-related genes may be candidate genes for disease resistance breeding in pigs.
...
Ayesha Aihetasham, Saira Shariq and Javed Iqbal Qazi*
...> is a potent biological control agent against H. indicola. Scaleable cultivation of this fungal species and its application for controlling the termite under select situation need further investigation.
...
Qudsia Yousafi1,*, Muhammad Afzal2, Muhammad Aslam3 and Allah Ditta Abid4
...t trap, T3= T1+T2 and T4=control. The seedlings were transplanted on April 21, 2013 keeping plant to plant distance of 30cm. Kerosene oil lantern, hung over metallic tray filled with water, was used as light trap. Data for fruit infestation was recorded fortnightly, starting from mid-May, from twenty randomly selected plants. The percent fruit infestation in all three treatments was lower than control except on June 15 when ...
Ai Guo1,2,3, Jiaguang Xiao4, Binbin Shan4, Tianxiang Gao5 and Yongdong Zhou3,*
...etected in length of the control region, mainly caused by the variable number of tandem repeats. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on 13 concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding genes from 8 Coilia mitochondrial genomes. The results supported that C. lindmani at first clustered with C. nasus and C. grayii which had close relationships (d=0.028), then clustered with C. mystus which exhibited obvious genetic differenti...

Shahen Shah1*, Manzoor Hussain1, Arshad Jalal1, Mohammad Sayyar Khan2, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Ilyas1 and Muhammad Uzair3 

... tillering) along with a control were allotted to the sub plots. Data regarding number of productive and unproductive tillers m-2, thousand grain weight, grains spike-1, biomass yield and value cost ratio (VCR) of wheat were significantly affected by N and S. Sulfur and its application time prominently influenced the productive tillers m-2 and biomass yield. Nitrogen at 150 kg ha-1 resulted in more number of productive tillers m-2, less un-productive tillers m...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...al and novel measures to control this pathogen are needed, along with contemporary information about antibiotic resistances that are present in isolates from different environments. In the present study 72 samples from blood, 43 from sputum, and 19 were obtained from tracheal aspirates patients suffering from chronic and acute lung infections admitted to a local hospital in Lahore. Susceptibility of 134 isolates of P. aeruginosa was tested against selec...
Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3,*
... and tRNA structure. The control region spanned 1571 bp, 1336 bp and 1332 bp in O. lacepedii, O. rebecca and Odontamblyopus sp., respectively, and was A+T-rich. The length variation of control region was due to the tandemly repeated sequences. Three species were only detected termination-associated sequence domain (TAS) and conserved sequence blocks domain (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). The Bayesian and ML tr...
Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*, Tanzeela Riaz2, Uzma Ramzan1, Anum Feroz1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,3,*
... with reference to their control (untreated group). Among carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, the activities of trehalase, amylase and invertase were significantly reduced after treatment with sub lethal dose of esfenvalerate as compared to control. The metabolic derangements induced by sub-lethal dose of esfenvalerate suggest that infestation caused by T. granarium in godowns could be overcome by calculating lethal do...

Muhammad Sajid Mahmood1*, Muhammad Ashraf1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Sohail Latif4 Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar5 and Waqas Ahmad6 

...(pre-emergence) for weed control in mungbean during summer season, 2009. The treatments were: Control (weedy check), Hand weeding (30 and 45 DAS), Pendimethalin herbicide @ 1.5 kg a.i. ha-1 (recommended dose), Barley W.E. @ 12 L ha-1 (20, 30, 40 and 50 DAS), Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1, Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 0.75 kg a.i. ha-1, Barley W.E. + pendimethalin @ 12 L ha-1 + 0.50 k...
Nevran Eylem Akman Gündüz1,* and Özgür Özcan2
...mg/L with respect to the control group. The lipid level of hemolymph fluctuated among the tested GA3 concentrations. It was significantly reduced at 5 and 10 mg/L, but increased at 50 and 200 mg/L. GA3 application also enhanced the carbohydrate level at 50, 100, 200 and 1000 mg/L and the glycogen content at 100 and 200 mg/L. 
...
Kiran Aqil1, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan2, Asim Aslam2, Aqeel Javeed5, Rizwan Qayyum1, Farooq Yousaf,1 Farkhanda Yasmeen1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail3 and Sajid Umar4,*
...unt as compared with the control negative (P<0.05) in all the tested modes of action. The current experiment revealed that the alcoholic extracts of N. sativa (50 µg/ml) could increase the viability of infected cells, and curtail the cytopathic effects of PPRV. N. sativa seed extracts should be explored in field conditions for the control of PPR.
...
Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2,*, Rashid Mushtaq1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,2, Sumaira Maqsood3, Ishita Ahuja4 and Atle M. Bones4
...n future may effectively control S. litura.
...

Ghulam Abbas1, Khalid Pervez Akhtar1, Muhammad Ahsan2, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1, Fiaz Ahmad1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...I. Mung Kabuli (positive control) showed susceptible response with PDI value of 60 %. Thus 43 highly resistant genotypes proved to be a good source of resistance to YMD despite high disease pressure and can, therefore, be used directly as varieties to manage the disease after evaluation for acceptable agronomic characteristics, adaptation, and stability in various regions or can be used as a resistant source in further breeding programs 

...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...o chemical fungicides in controlling popcorn disease of mulberry.
...
Arifa Mehreen1, Iram Liaqat2,Muhammad Arshad3, Muzzamil Waheed4 and Najma Arshad1,*
... designing treatment and control strategies.
...

Ali Sher1*, Khalid Naveed1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Ayub Khan1, Muhammad Saeed1 and Shah Masaud1 

...a-1) each along with two controls i.e. no micro nutrients no water (control-I) and no micro nutrients + water (control-II). The N was soil applied and MN as foliar spray at booting stage. Days to anthesis, leaf area tiller-1, leaf area index, plant height, days to physiological maturity and biological yield were significantly increased by both N and Zn while the same parameters except days...
Majid Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Razia Iqbal2, Arshad Javid3, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,4 and Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1
...was sub-divided into one control diet (0% CA) and five test diets, each supplemented with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% CA, respectively. Chromic oxide as an inert marker was added in the diets to determine nutrient digestibility. The fingerlings were fed twice daily at the rate of 5 % of live wet body weight on their respective diets. Supplementation of CA in MOLM based diets significantly (p< 0.05) enhanced nutrient digestibility and growth performance of ...
Shoukat Ara1, Sheikh Adil2,*and Manzoor Ahmad Khan3
...tes of 16 each. Birds in control (T1) group were fed the basal diet, where as other groups the groundnut cake was replaced with 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20% (T5) Azolla. The results revealed that inclusion of Azolla showed a non-significant increase (p>0.05) on the body weight gain of grower birds. Further, the SGPT and SGOT levels of birds did not differ among various treatments at 19...

Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2 and Mujahid Iqbal3  

...ile phone) and other was control (face-to-face). Two- population independent t-test was applied for comparison of the two methods of instructions. The results of the study revealed that both methods were equally applicable and effective regarding timely transfer of information or knowledge to the farmers for aphid attack on wheat crop. Hence, it is concluded that the goal for creating awareness among farmers for the use of Mobile phone cellular technology is a...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

September

Vol. 34, Iss. 3, Pages 494-711

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