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El-Sayed M. Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits and Thomas C. Mettenleiter

Avian Influenza H5N1 in Egypt: What we Know and What we have to Know?
...re applied nationwide to control the disease in poultry. Meanwhile, the viruses accumulated several point mutations in the HA immunogenic epitopes resulting in antigenic drift and the establishment of infections in vaccinated poultry. The Egyptian H5N1 viruses remain susceptible to oseltamivir, but genetic markers indicating resistance to amantadine have increased dramatically. In this mini-review, we discuss recent findings on the H5N1 viruses endemic in poul...

Joseph Andrew Bracken

Metaphysics for a World in Evolution
... unconsciously trying to control the thinking and behavior of others. Yet, as Colin Gunton points out, human beings, thus faced with an enormous diversity of options in virtually every area of human life, end up making important decisions simply on the basis of momentary personal preference. In this article, I first review the classical philosophical understanding of the relation between the One and Many in which the One is conceived as ontologically prior to ...

Muhangi Denis

...enting of prevention and control strategies could be explored in future control programs. This may call for investing resources in changing disease management behaviour in managing this disease.

...

Sandeep Satapathy and Rupam Ghosh

...cytoplasm and vice versa controlling the overexpression of IFN-beta and ISGs which subsequently triggers virus specific immune response.

...

Hanqin Shen1,3, Boliang Wu1,2, Guangwei Li1, Feng Chen1, Qingbin Luo1,3, Yimin Chen1, Qingmei Xie1,2,3*

... strategy to prevent and control H9N2 AIVs. There are three inactivated vaccines of H9N2 AIVs have been used in domestic poultry in China. But H9N2 AIVs occurred frequently and caused severe economic losses to the poultry industries. H9N2 AIVs can evade the pressure of vaccination by genetic evolution and antigen variation. Moreover, the ratio of L226 in the haemagglutin (HA) receptor binding site has increased, which indicates that the H9N2 virus has the incr...

Matheus Nunes Weber1, Simone Silveira1, André Felipe Streck1, Luís Gustavo Corbellini2, Cláudio Wageck Canal1*

...y Brazil has no official control program for BVDV. The significance of cattle production losses or the potential implementations of commercial barrier by other countries can possibly reason the placement of governmental veterinary measures in the near future.

...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

...espectively, relative to control eggs treated with water. The parasitism rates by female parasitic wasps emerged from host eggs treated at x dose when parasitoid was during egg, larval, and pupal stages were 21.6, 26.5, and 25.1%, respectively; the 2x dose resulted in parasitism (mean) of 23.1, 27.6, and 26.1 when parasitoids were treated in egg, larval, and pupal stages, respectively, while, 0.5x dose led to 21.0, 25.9, 27.7, mean parasitism, respectively. Th...

Arshad Ali Khan1, Muhammad Sajid1, Abdur Rab1, Sahib Alam2, Abdul Bari3

...combina- tions viz. 0-0 (control), 100-0, 75-25, 50-50, 25-75 and 0-100% of poultry manure (PM) and Sul- phate of Potash (SOP). All the factors (K-sources, cultivars and years) alone and in combination sig- nificantly affected the growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato. The highest number of leaves plant-1 (75.25) and yield (49.25 t ha-1) were gained by Falcon in 50-50 treatment during, 2010. However, the plant height (134 cm) and fruit size (147.1 cm3) wer...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...ularly in regions with uncontrolled livestock movements.

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Muhammad Mushtaq

E-mail | mushtaq@uaar.edu.pk

...f strychnine alkaloid in controlling the Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica, during 2006-07. Indian crested porcupine is a severe forest and agricultural pest throughout southern Asia and the Middle East, including Pakistan. The results suggested that in case of pre-baiting trial, a 25% reduction in burrow activity was achieved in case of groundnut – maize (1:1) grain bait loaded with 2% strychnine alkaloid and supplemented with 5% saccharin and a ...

Masood ur Rahman1*, Zahid Mahmood2, Taj Ali2, Muhammad Aziz Irfan Mufti3, Jehangir Khan Seyal4, Munir Ahmad5

E-mail | masoodra@hotmail.com

 

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 31, Iss. 1
...used for mechanical weed control and hoeing. It was observed that the worm gear used in its transmission often failed due to surface wear of gear teeth. Worm gears made from three different copper alloys were tested against soil resistance in sandy loam soil bin. The gears were formed of commercial gun metal (Cu 87.76%, Sn 7.74, Zn 1.52%), gun metal (Cu 88%, Sn 7.38%, Zn 1.78%), and gear bronze (Cu 85.92%, Sn 4.96%, Zn 2.93%, Ni 1.23%). The gear compositions w...

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1

 

...ertility treatments (T1, control; Phosphorus and Potash (PK) (80-60 kg ha-1) + inoculation, T3, (120-80-60 NPK kg ha-1); T4, poultry manure (PM) @ 15 t ha-1 and half PM+ half PK+ inoculation, half poultry manure (7.5 t ha-1) + half PK (40-30 kg ha-1) + inoculation. According to statistical analysis, data revealed that plots treated with PK + inoculation with Rhizobium gave 33% higher mungbean seed yield over control. Similar...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...0 and 280 kg ha-1) and a control one were studied in this trial. Growth and yield traits and quality such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein, crude fiber and ash percentage were significantly increased with increase nitrogen levels (200, 240, and 280 kg N ha-1). However, highest benefit-cost ratio was estimated when 240 kg N ha-1 was applied which was foun...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...r plant as compared with control. Wheat genotype Faisal-2008 exhibited comparatively more drought tolerance with less decrease in growth rate (18.70%); total dry matter (26.94%), 100-grain weight (23.45%) and grain yield (21.50%) as compared with all other treatments. It was concluded that water stress induced at grain filling stage showed a significant impact on wheat growth as compared with other growth stage stresses. Regarding genotypes, Faisal-2008 was le...

Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Aysha Sameen1, Mahr un Nisa2

 

... rabbits were considered control group while T1 rabbits were reared on 7% flaxseed, and T2 were on 3.5% flaxseed in the feed of rabbits. Bearing in mind that this range of flaxseed will fulfil omega 3 Poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration that contributes 8.5% of the total fatty acids. Rabbits were reared for the period of eight weeks. Enrichment of 7% flaxseed in the diet of rabbits significantly enhanced growth performance of rabbits and improved ...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

...-1, in addition to control were evaluated under lentil-sorghum and lentil-mungbean cropping patterns. Fertilizer treatments were only applied to lentil while their residual effect was studied on sorghum and mungbean. The results revealed that net benefits and marginal rate of return from NPK were the highest mainly due to high lentil yield and poultry manure was next to it. The residual analysis confirmed the findings. Similarly sorghum gave higher retur...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

... The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1), Farmyard Manure (20 t ha-1), Poultry Manure (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + P.M (20 t ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1) + P.M (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (10 t ha-1), and NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + P.M (10 t ha-1). All the relevant agronomic observ...

Guoyi Li1, Haiyan Tong1, Jiansheng Chen2, Jinliang Wei2, Xiaoming Zhao2, Guoping Zhang2, Zixue Shi2*

E-mail | shizixue@gmail.com

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...). Biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movements and inactivated vaccines were devised to combat the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1. HPAIV are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduce and/or limit the chance for its transmission and outbreaks. Many disinfectants have been evaluated f...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...ementation of integrated control measures and disease risk analysis, this entomological survey was performed on the risk of transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and identification of the main breeding sites of Culicoides. From April 2009 to March 2010, the study was carried out at 14 sites distributed across the country. Results indicated that the two most abundant Culicoides species were Culicoides imicola (94.2-95.85%) and Culicoides ne...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...ts over their respective controls at all doses and growth stages observed, attaining maximum with 40 grams Imidacloprid active ingredient per hectare-1 at day 15 after treatment. The antioxidative enzyme activity of SOD, APX and GR showed increasing trend in a dose-dependent manner, attaining maximum at 40 g.a.i ha-1 of Imidacloprid treatment at day 7 after treatment (DAT) followed by 3 and 15 DAT, respectively. On the contrary, the CAT activity was increased ...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

..., the plants grown under control treatment took minimum days (112.9) to flowering, maximum plant height (47.06 cm) and number of leaves (57.89) plant-1. Maximum fresh flower weight (47.85 g) and dry flower weight (5.80 g) was observed with 1500 ppm maleic hydrazide. The interaction between “potassium” and “maleic hydrazide” showed significant effects for some of the growth parameters. It can be concluded that potassium at the rate of 20...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...g potential as microbial control agent against A. sciodoxa and should be exploited under field conditions.

...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

... that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites and contact with blood of the suspected animal. 

...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...new strategy for disease control with focus on evaluation of disease progression has been proposed. For estimation of antibodies in serum and dried blood samples collected from mink, a VP2 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) system was recently evaluated. However, such estimations of disease progression are commonly based on single sampling occasions and it is essential to know if estimated antibody levels vary over a period of we...

Ilham Ulla, G. Arjumand, Nawab Ali and Mohammad Akmal*

...up>-1) including a control treatment in a randomized complete block (RCB) design in four replications. Sowing date (SD) were main plot and N-rate subplot treatments. Mean results of replications revealed a significant reduction in days to flowering and maturity by delay SD. However, positive responses were observed by increase in N-rate. Early planting showed maximum biomass and yield at 120 kg N ha-1 which was due to reflecting higher leaf ar...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...e experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or other countries of similar socio-economic and small ruminant rearing pattern to vaccinate and control PPR.

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...res that are required to control and eradicate it. However, with challenges such as uncontrolled movement of animals across porous borders, limited financial capacity of farmers to expand or improve the systems, and inadequate supply of quality vaccines and the problem of delivery to maintain cold chain, there is need for a very strong regional coordination for effective and sustainable control

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...tegies for the effective control and eradication of PPR. This review comprehend the current scenario of recombinant technology based vaccines and diagnostics, virus like particles (VLPs), reverse genetics approach etc., in the development of diagnostics and vaccines against PPR.

...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...se impact assessment and control. Particular attention is paid here to the potential role of PE in future research on the epidemiology and control of PPR. 

...

Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

... non-additive genes were controlling these characters. The magnitude of SCA variances were higher than GCA indicating pre-dominance of non-additive gene effects for spike length, spike density, seeds spike-1, grain yield plant- and harvest index, while GCA variances were greater for days to 75% maturity, tillers per plant. Parental cultivar TD-1 expressed maximum GCA effects for tillers plant-1, spike length, grain yield plant<...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...ost treatments including control as main plot treatment and two fert-N levels (0 and 75 kg N ha-1) as subplot treatments were used. Compost materials i.e. farmyard manure (FYM), cereal residue (CR) and legume residue (LR) were composted as sole or in various combinations six weeks before sowing and then were incorporated to plots at sowing both the years. All treatments including control were either supplemented with half of...

 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

...ent sources tested were; control, NPK50 (50% NPK), NPK75 (75% NPK), NPK100 (100% NPK), FYM10 (10 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM10, NPK75+FYM10, NPK100+FYM10, FYM20 (20 t ha-1 FYM), NPK50+FYM20, NPK75+FYM20, NPK100+FYM20. Results revealed that NPK75FYM20` significantly (p<0.05) improved the yield. As regards soil properties, NPK20FYM20 reduced bulk density, increased WHC, saturation percentage, organic matter content, plant available N, P and K significantly (p<0...

 Gul Naz and Mohammad Akmal

... ha-1 as compared to the control. Among the varieties for yield and yield traits, Pirsabak-2005 produced the highest grain yield (3043 kg ha-1) and the minimum (2494 kg ha-1) grain yield was observed by wheat variety Saleem-2000. The highest grain yield of the variety corresponds to higher thousand grains weight (46.98 g), spikes per meter square (263) and grains spike-1 (37.24). Variety Saleem-2000 showed the minimum number of spikes m-2 (242) and grains spik...

Christopher U Orji1*, Ignatius O Onyeocha2, Steven S Shaida3, Peter M Dede4, Bitrus Yakubu5, Elijah E Ella6 and Pam D Luka5

...>Glossinidae) vector control measures can rely upon knowledge of genetic diversity between species’ population. Two species were studied: Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA fragment primers- Cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and Cytochrome b (CytB). Twelve samples of laboratory-reared population of each species were used for the study. Sequencing data were used to calculate hapl...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

...improved with respect to control. It is concluded that R-2210 produced maximum yield, BCR value and N content in tissue with 350 kg N ha-1, however S content in soil and in tissue was more with 40 kg S ha-1. Hence, it is recommended that 350 kg N ha-1, and R-2210 should be used for optimum grain yield and economic benefits.

...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

... treatments consisted of control (untreated), eucalyptus water extract at 10, 20 and 30 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10, 20 and 30 g kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 10 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 10 ml kg-1 soil, eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil and eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+water extract at 30 ml kg-1 soil. Data showed that all the treatments of eucalyptus leaves water extract and powder caused substantial ...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...hree seasons effectively control the Varroa mite and can be used without any side effect during all the three seasons.

...

Muhammad Ibrahim, Jawaria Ali Khan, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Avais, Ali Husnain, Naimatullah Khan, Muhammad Kamran Ameen and Abdullah Iqbal

...ws were used as negative control so they can be used for comparing blood values and milk composition of healthy cows with animals under trial. Our study concluded that Vitamin E+ Se and Garlic were the most efficient drugs as 66% cows suffering from subclinical mastitis were recovered by treatment of each of them. Cows suffering from subclinical mastitis showed a 50 % recovery percentage when treated with lemon for five days and 33 percent cows recovered from ...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...t) and positive (4% fat) control samples. The cheese samples were ripened at 6-8oC for 30 days and analyzed for physico-chemical composition, functional, textural and sensory quality. The results showed that reduction in fat significantly (p < 0.05) increased the moisture and protein content. The addition of gums further augmented the moisture level owing to owing to their water retention properties. The melt-ability, flow-ability and yield of cheese decrea...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...as higher in the soil of control (RP0) plants, which decreases progressively with increasing fertility level. Less number of spores and percent root colonization was found at high RP level (RP100) in all hybrids. Higher P doses declined the sporulation and colonization. There was total seven AMF species that were observed and recorded. The dominant genus was Acaulospora which was followed by Glomus, Sclerocystis and Gigaspora. The average AMF spore density ran...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...were highly effective to control reddening of leaves, respectively. Interactive effect of NP @ 120-70 kg ha-1 × Zn @ 4 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum reduction of red leaves. Regardless the application of N, P or K and their control, reddening of leaves was linearly affected by Zn and B. It is concluded that there was no direct effect of N, P, K, Mg and Fe on the reddening of cotton leaves but B and Zn application decreas...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...ough soil application to control sugar beet cyst nematodes Heterodera schachtii. Lecanicillium muscarium decreased nematode population significantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nematode population compared to that of untreated control. A significant...

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

...s including a corn-based control diet and control plus 9% DDGS. After 105 d administration of experimental diets, growth performance, pork quality traits, and fatty acid composition in loin were analyzed. No significant difference in growth performance and quality traits of pork loin between control and DDGS was observed. Fatty acid composition in pork belly, however, was significantly aff...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...roup WST-0 was kept as a control, while WST-I, WST-II and WST-III were treated with W. somnifera water based infusion @ 10, 20 and 30ml/lit respectively. The means were compared by using CRD as statistical model for analysis. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly improved. Lipid profile and serum glucose was significantly reduced in all treated groups. Mean cholesterol was (157.66 mg/dl), triglyceride (65.64 mg/dl), HDL (58.88 mg/dl) while no alter...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

... cm (Wide Bed-WB)), with controlled traffic regime emplaced, in comparison with traditional intensive cultivated flat basin (FB) for evaluating impacts on soil, crop and water productivity. The results showed reduced bulk density by 7%, 6% and 5% and increased hydraulic conductivity by 90%, 106% and 72% for WB, MB and NB respectively, when compared with FB. The irrigation water saving was 36%, 40% on WB, 34%, 31% on MB and 7%, 8% on NB, for wheat and maize cro...

Zuhao Huang1, Feiyun Tu2 and Dianhua Ke1*

..., two rRNA genes and two control regions CR and CCR, which was first reported in the order Coraciiformes. The overall A+T content for the mitogenome is 52%, and the GC and AT skews are -0.400 and 0.108. Unlike to many other birds, no extra base is inserted at certain position relative to ND3. Interestingly, a 484bp repeated sequence appears in both CR and CCR. Genetic distance shows that the differences between M. v. viridis and M. v. americanus ...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

... and tRNA structure. The control region spanned 1571 bp, 1336 bp and 1332 bp in O. lacepedii, O. rebecca a...

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

...o 5 experimental groups (control group and 4 treatment groups) each including 16 and maintained individually in cages of 35 x 40 x 45 cm. The strongest correlations were found for egg weight-egg width (r=0.910, P<0.01), haugh unit-albumen index (r=0.876, P<0.01), egg weight-egg height (r=0.799, P<0.01), and egg shape index-egg height (r=0.693, P<0.01). ANOVA results revealed that treatment factor influenced only egg height among all the egg charact...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...t approaches, biological control is considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has also been reported from different localities of Pakistan. The main...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...der with melatonin at 0 (control), 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM. Diluted semen was cooled to 4°C for 2 h and equilibrated for 4 h at 4°C. Straws were then kept over liquid nitrogen vapours for 10 min and plunged in liquid nitrogen for storage. Thawing was performed after 24 h of storage, at 37°C for 30 seconds and post-thaw sperm quality parameters were assessed. Sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, viability and c...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

... maturation stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Queen oviposition rate was 1.4-fold higher in polycarbonate box compared to wooden and cardboard materials. Early start of egg-laying (first oviposition period) and earlier emergence of first worker were found in polycarbonate box as compared to others. Similarly, colony foundation stage in polycarbonate box took 58.3 days which was about 7-10 days shorter than others box types. Early emergence of sexu...

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...arked difference between control and exposed fishes, indicating that the herbicides negatively impact on these parameters. These behavioural and morphological anomalies became more pronounced with increasing concentrations of the herbicides. Mortality was also observed to be concentration dependent. After 96 h of exposure, the 96hr LC50 for paraquat was found to be 0.07mg/L while that of glyphosate was found to be 0.530mg/L. The result revealed that glyph...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...be the most efficient biocontrol agent by parasitizing the maximum number of eggs, whereas D. oviparasitica appeared to be the least efficient after 72 hours. The greatest numbers of cysts and eggs were found to be colonized with L. muscarium during microscopic observations. In the greenhouse experiment, L. muscarium had significant effects in reducing the nematode population in soil compared to the other treatments. In regard to the growth parameters, ro...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...nflower which should be controlled by exploiting of spiders and lady beetles.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...calcium cyanamide in the control of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, through soil application under greenhouse conditions. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in the number of galls and egg masses, eggs and juveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all chemical nematicides were also effective in reducing the nematode infest...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...y one normal age matched controls were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR using specific primers for GPR54 and GNRHR splice site exons. Mutations were analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or sequencing. No mutation was identified in GPR54 gene, while two mutations in GNRHR gene were observed in one sporadic case of isolated HH. The first was a synonymous substitution mutation of T to G at nucleotide position 12...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

... global strategy for the control and eradicaton of PPR, initiated by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on 2015.

...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...ps as follows: group (I) control group (lupus uninfected); group (II) live P. chabaudi infected group (lupus + live P. chabaudi infection); and group (III) irradiated P. chabaudi-infected group (lupus + irradiated P. chabaudi-infection). All groups were killed at day 14 post infection. Histological and biochemical investigations were performed.Live P. chabaudi infection was accompanied with an increase in spleen weight in comparison to either the

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...ed fish. Treatment 1 and control failed to spawn. Fish fed on 30% protein diet (treatment 1) and the control had the lowest fecundity showing insufficiency of protein required for proper development of the ovary. These studies revealed that 40% protein diet not only improved fish growth and health but also enhanced egg fecundity, gonadal development and spawning.

...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...in order to biologically control a number of pests for an eco-friendly pest control system.

...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

... in agriculture for pest control in Nigeria. This study investigated the effects of aluminium phosphide on the behaviour, haematology, oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemistry of African catfish (C. gariepinus) juvenile on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were exposed to 0.175, 0.0875 and 0.035 mg/L corresponding to 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50 of the 96 h LC50 value (1.75) of the pesticide. Behavioral responses which include colouration of the fish skin and opercula co...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

... the alternate option to control mastitis. In ongoing era, bacteriophages are an alternate possible effective remedy. Therefore, in this study the infection ability of three lytic phages SA, SANF and SA2 was determined against ten isolates of Staphylococci and one Micrococcus, isolated from five raw milk samples. Their morphological, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that two strains were S. aureus, while all others were different ...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...hed healthy individuals (control group) and RA patients were genotyped. Detection of rs2070424 polymorphism was carried out using allele specific PCR based amplification strategy. The serum samples were analyzed for determination of metals and minerals through Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA 6600 Shimadzu). The statistical analysis indicated that non-significant association existed between SOD1 (rs2070424) gene polymorphism and RA (p>0.05). Results ...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...1) were used as positive controls. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts was also determined. Syzygium aromaticum was proven to have excellent antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms, while C. sinensis and M. piperita showed weak antimicrobial activity. Methanolic plant extracts exhibited greater antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition exhibited by...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...n along with appropriate control measures.

...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...The six treatments were; control (T0), 10 tons (t) ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM) (T1), 20 t ha-1 pressmud (T2), 0.7 t ha-1 compost (T3), 5 t ha-1 poultry manure (T4) and mixed chemical fertilizer in the ratio of 100 : 40 : 56 kg ha-1 as N, P and K (T5). Each treatment was applied alone and with EM. Results showed that EM + pressmud combination significantly improved soil physical and chemical properties as well as spinach growth compared to other fertilizers wit...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...’s levels viz. F1 (control), F2 (inorganic fertilizers) and F3 (farm yard manure; FYM+ inorganic fertilizers). Deep tillage increased wheat yield by 60%, 37% and 29% over ST, STR and DTR, respectively. F2 and F3 increased grain and straw yield compare to F1. In the case of maize, DT increased grain yield by 53%, 20% and 15%, over ST, STR and DTR, respectively. Deep tillage showed statistically higher water use efficiency (WU...
Eman Mahmoud El-Diasty1,Madeha Abd El-Halim Ibrahimand Ghada Kamal El Khalafawy2,*
... and can also facilitate control of infections. A total of 50 isolates were isolated from 60 swab samples collected from two poultry processing plants represented broiler carcasses swabs and worker (hand swabs and nail scrapings). Phenotype-based methods for identifying yeast especially Candida species are often difficult, time-consuming and not enough to identify most yeast species. . Molecular biological techniques provide a useful alternative approach. Conc...
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
.../i> tabaci. Under controlled conditions different species of Fusarium restrained the growth of B. tabaci as compared with control.
...
Muge Aliye Hekimoglu*, Kgrşat Fırat, Şahin Saka, Cüney Suzer, Aysun Kop and Yaşar Durmaz
...oup (Group C) was fed on control basal diet (34.93±29.07 mg.g-1). Total carotenoid content of fish skin was determined at30-day intervals. At the end of the experiment the highest weight gain was found to be 1.73±0.37g in Group B, whereas the lowest performance (1.29±0.38 g) was received in Group C. The best feed conversion ratio was found in at Group B. The total carotenoid content of skin of fish were found to be 0.77±0...
Irshad Ahmad
... cultural and biological control methods for the substantial control of walnut borer. The present study offers valuable information through IPM, which appears to be a promising approach for the control of walnut borer. Collectively this strategy has resulted in significant reduction of the pest population in the target area of district Dir, Pakistan.
...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...>Effective diagnosis and control measures for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) requires continuous disease surveillance and understanding of field NDV strains. The NDVs, a prototype of Avian Paramyxoviruses (APMV-1), have been reported previously both in chicken and feral birds (natural reservoirs) in Pakistan; however, their molecular characterization is largely inadequate and requires continuous evaluation. In this study, sequencing and molecular analysis of fu...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

... protocols and infection control in the future.

...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
... syrup, date syrup and a control (water)] were used with different solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was observed that honey fed wasp pair produces significantly more number of eggs, adults and also lived significantly longer than other treatments. Highest fecundity and longevity of parasitoid was recorded in case of parasitoids feeding on 50% honey solution followed by 25% sugar and date syrups solutions respectively. It has provided useful informa...
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
... conservative mosquitoes control strategies in Pakistan especially in the unrestricted transport of tyres from southern part of the country to the northern parts.
...
Pinar Oztopcu-Vatan1, Gokhan Kus2, Emine Inan3, Melek Gunindi Korkut3, Selda Kabadere4,* and Ruhi Uyar4
...ions. Used as a positive control, 250 µM 5-Fluorouracil decreased the cell survival by only 40 % after 48 h, but licofelone treatment with the same dose and time duration decreased the number of surviving cells by 87 %. Treatments with 150, 200 and 250 µM licofelone caused early apoptotic cell rates of 4, 15 and 24 % for 24 h and 6, 13 and 24 % for 48 h, respectively. In addition, 150, 200 and 250 µM of 5-Fluorouracil resulted early apoptotic...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...uding eggplant. Chemical control of nematodes is hazardous to health and causes environmental pollution by contaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mosseae (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) were applied as protect...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...er pond (2 treated and 2 control) of approximate dimensions, 13.72 m × 10.97 m × 1.52 m (229 m3). In treated ponds, fish were fed with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in three equal meals. On the other hand, control ponds remained without additives. During the whole study period, water quality parameters of the experimental ponds remained as salin...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...ating very lower genetic control. This is the first study to show genetic of persistency of lactation. Although results may be validated using more data and more accurately recorded pedigree for several generations however, this is really useful firsthand information.
...
Yang Wang1, Zhide Cheng2, Mengjie Tang3, Haixia Zhou1, Xiaolu Yuan4,Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Shuting Mao1 and Jing Wang1,*
...p (experimental) and the control group, reach of 10 pikas. The pikas of experimental group were injected with 1 mL of 1 mol/L N-isopropyl oxamate, a specific LDH-C4 inhibitor, in biceps femoris muscle of hind legs, each leg with 500 μL. The pikas of control group were injected with the same volume of normal saline. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Ldh-c in plateau pika skeletal muscles we...
Nagwan F. Zahran, Ali F. Hamza and Rehab M. Sayed* 
...wed alterations from the control. Exposure to radiation caused very frequently the appearance of some extra bands and the deficiency of others in the RAPD-PCR amplification patterns of the irradiated insects. 
...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
...roups on comparison with control. Kisspeptin levels were significantly reduced in ≤13 years female (P<0.001). While significantly high levels were observed in >13 years of male (P<0.01). T3 levels were significantly increased in both thalassemic groups of female (P<0.01). While T4 levels were significantly reduced in ≤13 years of male alongwith significantly reduced (P<0.05) TSH levels. In >13 years male significan...
K.N. ArulJothi1, M. Abinaya1, B. Suruthi Abirami1, Melvin George2, S. Elangovan3 and A. Devi1*
...2 Normolipidemic healthy controls and 102 patients with hypercholesterolemia in a   Indian Tamilian population were included in the study. Genotyping of SCARB1 genetic polymorphisms was done by PCR-RFLP combined with gel electrophoresis. The genotype distribution in the population was found to be consistent with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Through logistic regression analysis, it was observed that, in Tamil population the CC and CT genotype carrier...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...trategies for Salmonella control in Nigeria with the aim of reducing Salmonella spread from poultry to humans.

...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...5 and 1.0% respectively, control (basal diet), and a positive control (Oxyfeed® @ 2g/kg). In the study, the treatment groups, which were given diet supplemented with herb and antibiotic, exhibited improved weight gain, average daily gain, and feed conversion (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in feed intake (P>0.05). The treatment groups supplemented with Allium sativum showed higher...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
...al feed in order to make control strategies and prevent toxic syndromes to this type of contamination.
...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

... of all groups including control were challenged with field strain of IBD virus collected from bursa of clinically infected chicks, No morbidity and mortality were observed. During present study, some milder infection with field strain of IBDV almost a week ago recorded were also found in the control group when challenged with IBDV, IBD vaccines in the presence of specific maternally antibodies of IBD could no induce antibod...
Salman Khalid1,*, Abdul Rehman2, Mohammad Yasin Amir1, Abdul Rehman1, Imran Sarfaraz1 and Muhammad Asif1
...cy of different drugs on controlling tick’s infestation in commercial layer, a double blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. For therapeutic trials, the 80 birds (n= 60 infested with ticks, n= 20 healthy birds) were selected and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D), each comprising of 20 birds. Group A and B were treated with Ivermectin @ 0.2mg/Kg orally for two days and Fipronil (Spray at once), respecti...

Muhammad Waqas1*, Anwar Ali Shad1, Omaira Bashir2 and Mohsin Iqbal3

...owder when compared with control. On the other hand spaghetti cooking becomes decrease by increase of carotenoids level in spaghetti when compared with control. Organoleptic evaluation of spaghetti prepared from lycopene revealed maximum score of smell, taste, odors, color texture and overall acceptability when compared with other tested sample and control

...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...plasmid vector under the control of the chicken β-actin promoter. The in vitro expression of recombinant plasmid DNA was performed by transfection of 293T (HEK) cell line. The HA protein was analyzed using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The pCAGG-optiH9 vaccine efficacy was evaluated by intramuscular immunization of SPF chickens with different concentrations of plasmid DNA and the sera were collected weekly post vaccinati...
Jun Gao1,2, Liang-Liang Yue3, Xianhuan Jiang1, Liju Ni4, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Yuxun Zhou,1 Kai Li1,* and Junhua Xiao1,*
... gene (cyt b) and control region (CR) were sequenced and 49 haplotypes were observed. No shared haplotype was found among different geographic populations. High Fst values among the populations suggested that fragmentation of habitat has resulted in genetically distinct populations. The trees, inferred from maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, highly supported all the M. fortis individuals clustering into one m...
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
...of mites of the positive control group treated with fenvalerate. Furthermore, the dead state of mites treated with stigmasterol was different from that of mites of the negative control group. This result confirmed the insecticidal activity of stigmasterol. We conducted a thorough research on the insecticidal molecular mechanism of stigmasterol to lay the foundation for the development of stigmasterol as nontoxic and pollutio...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...ng the following groups: control (CK), 100µm GSH, 10µm fasudil hydrochloride (FH) and a combination of the two (GSH + FH). A solution of 10% (v/v) Me2SO + 20% FBS was used as the standard cryopreservation solution. After 2 months, MTT assay showed significant differences in the proportion of adherent viable cells in the FH group and GSH group compared with the control group (p < 0.05), and the FH+H ...
Urooj Fatima1, Arslan Mehboob2, Muhammad Abid3, Muti-ur-rehman Khan4 and Tahir Yaqub4*

 

...s to carry out effective control strategies in future.
...

Sanaullah Jalil*, Asim Hayat, Abid Majeed, Syed Haider Abbas, Muhammad Noman, Muhammad Imran Kasana and Muhammad Mazhar Hussain

... of six treatments (T0 = control without rock phosphate & farmyard manure, T1= rock phosphate @150 kg P2O5 per hectare, T2 = FYM @5 tons per hectare, T3 = RP @100 kg P2O5 per hectare+ FYM @5 tons per hectare, E0 = without effective microbes and E1= EM-Biozote @ 50 l ha-1) on yield parametrs of wheat crop planted after the harvest of rice. All yield parameters significantly increased by the treatments consisting of RP (100 kg) with FYM (5 t ha-1) and EM @ 5...

M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
... trichoderma effectively controlled soil-borne diseases including root-knot nematode. Mahogany oil spray reduced infestation of stem borer,leaf hoppers of rice; shoot & fruit borer of brinjal and fruit flies of vegetables.Biopesticides (formulated trichoderma) and bio-agents (bracon,trichogramma, ladybird beetle) and sex pheromone are in the pipeline for commercial use.

...

Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...rmplasm collection of biocontrol agents were tested for their antagonistic effect on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici by dual culture test. Among the isolates of chilli microflora tested, Aspergillus flavus showed 70.2% inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and 54.9% inhibition of C. capsici.Among the isolates of Trichoderma sp. tested, T.virens (Tvs-KSD isolate) and T. pseudokoningii (Tpk-1) showed highest percent inhibition of C. gloeosporioides (69....

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...esult in respect of pest control and crop yield. The other treatments also exhibited better results in comparison to control followed by Bara Bishkatali, Neem seed oil, a mixture of Neem seed oil and sesame oil, and castor oil. The yield was 10.8 and 12.0 maunds per acre in the crop fields of Lalmonirhat and Rajshahi Oilseed cultivation Centres, respectively.

...

Sitansu Pan, Surojit Khalko and Amrita Das

Effect of some fungicides on seed mycoflora, germination, viability and their persistence in treated seeds
...bean seed than untreated control.Amarked reduction in population of A. brassicae by difenoconazole 25EC and flusilazole 40EC was observed in mustard seeds. Inhibitory effect of fungicides on seed germination of all tested seeds was observed with prochloraz 45EC and flusilazole 40EC. There was increase in the plumule length of mungbean seeds with prochloraz 45EC and difenoconazole 25EC over untreated control, whereas sharp re...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
...days prior to harvest to control post harvest diseases viz., anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae). Carbendazim dissipated to 1.01 and 2.14 mg kg in mature whole fruit after harvest (12 days after second spray) at 0.05 and 0.1 per cent concentrations, respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after 12 days were 0.57 and 1.26 mg kg . In another experiment, cold wa...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
...sts was found maximum in control plot and it was recorded lowest in T treatment which received soil application of phorate 10G at 40 DAPand foliar spray with imadichloprid and chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin at 55 and 70 DAP, respectively. But soil application of phorate at planting followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos, azadirachtin and Bt (T) was not as effective as T.

...

S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
... on four coccinellid bio-control agents (Micraspis crocea, Micraspis discolor, Brumus suturalis and Scymnus bourdilloni ). All botanicals tested showed least mortality and was on par with unsprayed control. Dimethoate (0.1%) was highly toxic causing 100% mortality. Whereas, dichlorvos (0.1%) was least toxic in comparison to dimethoate. Botanical insecticides tested in different conc./combinations are compatible with natural ...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
... maximum attention as biocontrol agent due to the fact that it is effective against a large number of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi, suppressive effects on some root nematodes without adversely affecting beneficial microbes like Rhizobium and capable of promoting growth of certain crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is g...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...ty of juveniles than the control (P< 0.05). The microorganisms which caused high nematicidal activity also showed antifungal activity in dual plate culture test in vitro. All the antagonists showed reduction in root knot and root rot disease and promote plants growth as the length and weight of root and shoot in pot trials on tomato plants. Keywords: Antagonistic fungi, root knot nematode, wilt fungus, bio-management
 

 

...

S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...tern region of India for controlled rearing (outdoor) of muga silkworm. It was observed that stems of som plant (specifically the pollarded plants) were generally infected with rot disease when it grows older. Phellinus contigus (under Polyporaceae), a white rot fungus, causes heart rot disease and Biscogniauxia mediterranea (= Hypoxylon mediterranea) (under Xylariaceae) causes canker rot disease of Som plant. A survey was conducted to study the infection of r...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...fy;">Abstract Biological control of plant diseases seems to be the best alternative for plant disease control. It is ecofriendly, reliable, cost effective and is an integral component of integrated plant disease management framework for sustainable crop production. A considerable number of biocontrol agents have been established successfully for their bioconrol potential including strains ...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
... disease was recorded in control treatment. The yield parameters like fresh weight of 100 leaves and leaf yield were good in treatments where BM was applied. Trichoderma applications resulted in better c : b ratio during 1 st year, where as applications of P. fluorescens over two year analysis of pooled data gave the best c : b ratio.

...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...ck farm, Kalyani for the control of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola by spraying three fungicides (carbendazim at 0.1%, mancozeb at 0.025% and blitox at 0.25%) and four biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride at 107 cfu / ml, T. harzianum at 107 cfu / ml, Pseudomonas fluorescens at 108 cell / ml and Biom...

K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
... best result in terms of control followed by neem seed oil, mehgoni seed oil, castor seed oil and tobacco leaf extract (20 % ).

...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...logical agents, cultural control measures, genetic techniques and sex pheromones technology. In tea husbandry, cultural control measures such as plucking, pruning, shade regulation, field sanitation, fertilizer application, manipulation or destruction of alternate hosts and selection of pest resistant/tolerant varieties and mechanical mechanisms like manual removal, heat treatments, light traps, use of bio-pesticides, bio-

Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Control of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) root and collar rot (Rhizoctonia solani) with some organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum under field condition
...kharif season of 2011 to control root and collar rot of cowpea caused by Rhizoctonia solani with two organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum along with other treatment combinations. It was observed that seed priming with mycelia preparation of the antagonist Trichoderma harzianum at 4g/kg of seed and organic formulation of the antagonist in vermicompost along with 20% neem cake (w/w) gave best disease control along wit...

Amitava Konar, Kiran A. More and Pradip Mondal

Efficacy of some insecticides against cutworm and molecricket of potato in West Bengal
...er treatments as well as control. Both the treatments (T5 and T6) were more or less equally effective to decrease the incidence of cutworm and molecricket. Yield of healthy tubers was recorded maximum (31.66 t ha -1) in T5 treatment succeeds by T6 than other treatments as well as control.


...

Amitava Konar, S. Paul and Kiran A. More

Efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules against aphid and whitefly on brinjal
...whitefly population over control during both the years of study. Consequently both the treatment schedules achieved maximum marketable fruits of brinjal as well as highest monetary return than the other treatments.


...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...for getting effective biocontrol agent [Acerophagus papayae (Noyes and Schauff)] through ICAR-NBAII (National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects)-TNAU was emphasized as the existing biocontrol agents could not give relief. Later, when the exotic parasitoid was imported by NBAII, Bangalore, the papain industry wholeheartedly supported the training programmes by deploying its field staff in release and multiplication o...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...en house experiments for control of Colletotrichum capsici, fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose disease in bell peppers (Capsicum frutescence L.). The results showed that all the selected plants have potential to inhibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique, whereas 15% increased seed germination and 26% reduce...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
... @ 0.005% gave effective control of the pest.


...

Md Riton Choudhury, Koushik Brahmachari, Sudeshna Kar and Rupayan Deb

Integration of weed management practices in rice-potato-groundnut cropping sequence
...veness of different weed control measures. Rice exhibited the maximum yield when treated with two hand weedings, but it may be profitably replaced by the application of herbicides. From the point of eco-safety measures and economy, combination of hand weeding and mulching can be judiciously recommended in potato and groundnut.


...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...orth Bengal and their biocontrol activity were tested in dual culture and found effective against soil-borne plant pathogens, namely, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Padw.) Matuo. and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Efficacy in plant growth promoting activity of all the isolates was also tested on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.), chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with culture filtrate of bio

M.S. Islam, M.Ali, and I. Ahmad

Efficacy of sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP to control die-back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh
...mancozeb + metalaxyl) to control of dieback disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh. The pathogen, C. gloeosporioides was isolated from the dieback infected tea twigs on PDA medium. Mycelial blocks of the isolated pathogen were transferred to PDA plates amended with sedomil 72WP (mancozeb) @ 720, 1080, 1440 and 1800 ppm and recozeb 80WP (mancozeb + metalaxyl) @ 800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 ppm concentrations. Sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP cau...

Biswajit Pramanick, Sruti Karmakar, Koushik Brahmachari, Rupayan Deb 

An integration of weed management practices in potato un-der New Alluvial soil
...effect of different weed control measures on the yield of potato, a field experiment was carried out with this crop (var. Kufri-Jyoti) for two consecutive years (2009-10; 2010-11) at ‘C’ Block farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in RBD with nine treatments replicated thrice. The predominant weed flora in the experimental field of potato was Cyperus rotundas, Chenopodium album, Anaga...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...ential as a bioagents to control nematodes. Their inconsistent success in control of nematodes in field trials, however, is enigmatic. This paper takes a review of the researches done by various workers on the diversity, morphology ecology, physiology of nutrition, trap formation and mechanism of nematode capture as well as probable causes of death. The review traces the shift in the areas of research as well as ups and down...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...d also provide effective control of the identified pest in order to maintain or stall resurgence. 

...

A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...lants and were absent in control. The formulation was tested to have good emulsion stability. The antifungal activity of the formulation persisted up to seven days after spraying the formulation on rice plants. The formulation retained its 100% antifungal efficacy up to three months of storage. Surprisingly, spraying cowpea plants with the formulation as simultaneous spray reduced the number of lesions produced by Groundnut Bud Necrosis virus in cowpea by 88.3...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...rla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with application of diafenthiuron at 15 days interval from seedling to early fruiting stage. Among the ecofriendly options, alternate use of garlic with spirit performed better than their single repeated use starting from seedling to early fruiting stage at every 15 days interval. 

...

M. S. Joshi , D.M. Sawant and A.P. Gaikwad

Isolate variations in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting pomegranate
...um gloeosporioides under controlled conditions. Inoculated fruits were assessed on the basis of virulence of the isolates and reaction of a particular variety was expressed in Disease Reaction Index (DRI). There was considerable variation in virulence and suscep-tibility within isolates and varieties. Isolate Cg 86 was found to be virulent (DRI 7.2), Cg 81 as less virulent (DRI 2.87), and other isolates were moderately virulent irrespective of varieties. Fruit...

Goutam Samui and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal incidence and management of Apsylla cistellata Bucton. on mango in West Bengal
... gall psylla, mechanical control (Pruning) and insecticidal control measure were taken up in the district of Murshidabad. In mechanical control, both pruning of 15 cm and 30 cm of affected shoots resulted in the formation of lower number of gall/shoot as compared to control. But pruning at 30c m had been found to be most effective in managing the psyllid...

S. Pal, H. Banerjee and N. N. Mandal 

Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.)
...weeding practice of weed control in transplanted kharif rice.
 

 

...

Someshwar Bhagat and Sitansu Pan

Comparative ecological behaviour of some pre- and post-tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from Andaman & Nicobar Islands
...al behavoiur of these biocontrol agents. All the isolates showed better parasitic ability and rhizosphere colonization when the competition of other organisms withdrawn compared to natural and sun dried soil. Both competitive parasitic behaviour and rhizosphere colonization was low in post-Tsunami isolates of Trichoderma. The chlamydospore inoculum was found best in percentage colonization of sclerotia of boh R. solani and S. rolfsii, followed by mycelial and ...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...chnology monoculture and controlled management of a single major soil borne pathogen or pest across vast cultivated area but not for the peasant farming or the pest complex ridden unaided agriculture as in India. PA is not about an abstract of characterization. The specific values indicating variations in population at exact grids and helping the individual farmer in decision-making in pest management at varied pesticide doses depending on varied soil pest pop...

K. K. Hegde and B. S. Nandihalli 

Bioefficacy of some indigenous products in the management of okra fruit borers
...an (0.07%) and untreated control. Repeated sprays of GCKE recorded least number of eggs (1.40 eggs/plant) followed by NSKE (5%) alternated with cow dung 10 per cent (1.71 eggs/plant). Repeated sprays of cow dung and cow urine used individually were not effective against the borers and recorded higher fruit damage of 55.70 and 52.10 per cent, respectively. GCKE was significantly superior in reducing the fruit borer damage to the tune of 64.83 per cent with high...

Shekharappa

Biological control of earhead caterpillar, Helicoverpea armigera Hubner in sorghum
...d compared with chemical control with Melathian 5% @ 30 kg.ha-1 for the management of ear head caterpillar (H. armigera) in sorghum ecosystem of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The mycoinsecticide N. rileyi was highly infective at both the dosages 1x108 conidia per litre & 2x108 conidia per litre against H. armigera as compared to Ha NPV 250 LE per hectare and chemical control in mitigating the pest populat...

Sujoy Mondal and S. S. Ghatak

Bioefficacy of some indigenous plant extracts against epilachna beetle (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr.) infesting cucumber
...h methanol as solvent in controlling epilachna beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Fabr; Both Neem Azal and seed extracts of Annona squamosa were used at 4ml, 5ml and 6ml (per Lt. of water) while this was 1ml, 2ml and 3ml (per Lt. of water) in case of petroleum ether extract of rhizome of Acorus calamus. Endosulfan 35 EC was used at 1ml, 1.5ml and 2ml (per Lt. of water) to compare the efficacy of plant products. Results of the experiment revealed that ...

Shyam Singh and L.P. Awasthi

Plant products for the management of yellow mosaic disease of mungbean and urdbean
...e recorded in untreated (control) plots in both mungbean and urdbean crops.
 

 

...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...C and D was unchallenged control containing commercial and SAN chicks. The Blood samples were collected from group A, B, C and D on 3rd, 5th and 7th day of post infection for biochemical analysis. The Albumin and total protein values were significantly low (P<0.05) in infected groups A and B as compared to control groups C and D on 5th and 7th day. The alanine aminotr...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...th standard diet disease control group. ANA autoantibodies, C3c and renal damage between gluten and standard diet group was non-significant. The remission of SLE manifestations was observed in prednisone treated group except renal damage. From the study it was concluded that gluten intake could worsen the clinical manifestations in SLE patients, therefore, administration of gluten free diet might be a better strategy for SLE patients. However, further confirma...
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
... antimicrobial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol, this study was designed to isolate lactoferrin from milk of camel. Cation exchange resin (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isolation of lactoferrin using the fast protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylami...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...n not be returned to the control value on refeeding 12 h, and it returned to control level on refeeding 7 days, but body fat mass can not be restored to the control level on refeeding 7 days. RMR and mass of liver decreased significantly in fasting groups, which can return to the control level after refeeding. Fasting for 12 h decreased serum leptin leve...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...insecticide were used to control aphids during the season. Aphid infestations were higher in untreated plots of mid-Dec sown crop followed by end-Nov and mid-Nov sown crops. Heavy infestation of aphids in untreated plot caused for reduction in plant photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content. Untreated plots had significantly less grain yield as compared to treated plot in all three crops. Cost benefit ratios were significantly different among three crops as ...
Madeeha Arshad1, Naveed Ahmad2,*, Muhammad Khalid3, Asmatullah1, Mohammad Tahir2, Khadija Naveed1 and Asia Iqbal4
..., respectively, with one control and one vehicle control group. Fetuses were recovered on 18th day of gestation and fixed for morphometric and morphological studies. Experimental groups showed variable degree of fetal abnormalities, along with reduction in body weights parallel to increase in dose concentration, as compared to control and vehicle control...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...oil disinfection and bio-control, (ii) only prophylactic soil disinfection, and (iii) only curative soil disinfection over uprooting and destruction of diseased plants (farmers’ practice). Results indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best appro...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

... may became promising biocontrol agents. A total of 7 weed plants include Commelina benghalensis, Cyperus rotundus, Crotalaria verrucosa, Digera muricata, Sida cordifolia, Ipomoea pestigridis and Trianthema portulacastrum were selected for in vitro studies. Fungal isolates namely Ascochyta cypericola, Bipolaris sp., Chaetomium globosum, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata, Curvularia tuberculata, ...

Hussein Aly Hussein1*, Omneya Mohamed Khattab2, Shereen Mohamed Aly2, and Mohammed Abdel Mohsen Rohaim1 

...ission of LSDV. So, tick control is a crucial part, which should be included as a part of LSDV control measures in endemic countries.

...
Mehmet Avci1, Recep Aydin1,* and Jale Metin Kiyici2
...r feed and the calves in control group were supplied with natural roughage and concentrate feed separately. The calves were supplied with milk at about 8% of their birth weights and weaned at 49th day. Mixed chopped and separate natural supply of roughage and concentrate feed did not created any significant differences in live weights, daily weight gains, feed conversion ratios and behavioral characteristics of the calves.
...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
...s. One group served as a control while the other was treated with rumen bolus of trace elements containing copper (Cu) cobalt (Co); selenium (Se), manganese (Mn); zinc (Zn) and iodine (I). Blood samples were collected from ewes and their newborns at parturition. Colostrum yield and biochemical analysis at parturition was also determined. A significant (P<0.05) increase of calcium (Ca), Zn, Co and Se levels in blood of ewes treated with bolus with a signific...
Muzammil Sattar
... by protein hydrolysate (control diet). The F1 progeny larvae that developed from adults consuming (Nu lure 5ml) diet had the shortest larval and pupal periods and complete all developmental stages in shortest period of time. Insects reared on different concentrations of proteins. Insects rear on different diets compared on the basis of egg to adult survival, female (%) and pupal weight (g) with low and high protein concentrations.
...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...ckbone of the biological control program of cotton mealybug in Pakistan, but its multiplication for inundative releases has been impacted by a hyperparasitoid, Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: Eriaporinae). Traditionally the detection of hyperparasitoid is done by host-rearing, but that is time-consuming when working with field populations at larger scale. The current study used morphology and DNA sequences from mitochond...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...IV (DSM-IV) criteria and controls (n=120) were selected from the same ancestry during August 2011 to January 2014fromSir Ganga Ram Hospital and Panjab Institute of Mental Health, Lahore. The demographic values for age, employment and marital status did not differ significantly among case and control groups. Exonic regions of BDNF gene were sequenced. In-silico analysis was performed to detect the possible disease caus...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...ctata as compared to control and aphids alone (0.7667±0.1204 and 0.8333±0.1153). With every next hour (3, 6 and 12 h) of observation the movement of C. septempunctata toward target localities was elevated. Finding of the current investigation revealed that wheat, brassica, citrus and rose infested with aphids can be used as host plants for mass rearing and culture maintenance of C. septempunctata.
...
Madiha Hashmi1, Abid Hussain1, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Farida Ahmed2, Shahbaz Aslam3,Nadeem Afzal4 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
...s as compared to healthy controls. HLA-DRB1*11 demonstrated significant association with aeroallergens and could have a protective role for allergy while HLA-DRB1*12 did not show any association with aeroallergen sensitization.
...
Farah Ashfaq* and Tasnim Farasat
...years and 100 comparable control subjects were included. Serum resistin and insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were found significantly high in overweight and obese groups as compared to the normal weight group (p<0.01). In overweight group, resistin levels were significantly related with cholesterol, insulin levels and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.375, p = .000; r = 0.336, p < 0.01; r = 0.301, ...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...of 25%, 50% and 100% and control were used against T. clareae in naturally infested honey bee, A. mellifera colonies in Honeybee Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. The percentage of infestation by T. clareae on worker brood, number of dead/fallen mites per hive/weekon white formica sheet, percent mite mortality and honey yield per colony was determined before and after the treatments in the expe...
Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
...hanging queen (FCQ), and controlling beehives in summer (CFB), respectively. Minimum beekeeping farm numbers for parent and child nodes were arranged as 8:4 in CART, CHAID and Exhaustive CHAID for attaining the best predictive performance in AHY. In the Exhaustive CHAID, only 3 independent variables, NFB, WPA and CFB were found statistically. In the CART algorithm, only NFB, WPA and AB independent variables were found significantly. In the MARS algorithm, sign...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...level. Group I comprised control group of induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on purified diet AIN-93 G. Group II comprised induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on WBF. Group III comprised induced hypercholesterolemic rats fed on MBF, Group IV comprised hypercholesterolemic rats reared on SGF and Group V comprised hypercholesterolemic rats fed on BGF. Both BGF and SGF significantly lowered the TPC in experimental animals compared with purified diet AIN-93, ...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
... an efficient biological control for integrated management of chili plants under controlled condition cultivation. To explore the nature of resistance response of C-33 to M. incognita and S. rolfsii further research is needed. 
...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...c health risk, effective control of the virus in imperative. DNA vaccination is a promising new approach for the prevention and treatment of many viral diseases because of its ability to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against antigens encoded by recombinant DNA. The goal of this study was to construct Egy-H5 plasmid DNA-based vaccine against a currently circulating avian influenza virus H5N1 strain in Egypt targeting the HA gene. The HA gene...

Murad Ali1, Farmanullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad2* and Imran Khan1

...rteen treatments viz the control (T1), recommended dose (RD) (120:90:60 kg ha-1 N: P2O5: K2O. T2), four combinations of farmyard manure (FYM) i.e 20, 15, 10 and 5 t ha-1 with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the RD (T3, T4, T5, T6, respectively), four combinations of poultry manure (PM) i.e. 10, 7.5, 5 and 2.5 t ha-1 with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the RD (T7, T8, T9, T10, respectively) and four combinations of the mixed FYM (5 t ha-1) and PM (2.5 t ha-1) with 0, 25, 50, 75% of the R...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...d 250 kg N ha-1 sources (control, 100, 70, 50, 0% from FYM with the remaining from urea). Phenological stages (tasseling, silking, and physiological maturity) occurred earlier in no-mulch practice, but emergence in plastic mulching. Plants took less days to emergence (6 days) in 70% FYM, however, tasseling (45 days), silking (49 days) and physiological maturity (94 days) arrived earlier in no-fertilized plots. Tasseling, silking and maturity delayed with incre...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

...parameters compared with control. Highest germination (85.42% and 84.31%) was recorded from wheat varieties (Lalma-2013 and Pirsabak-2005). Minimum germination (64.40% and 73.89%), tillers plant-1(2.83 and 3.49), leaves plant-1(11.44 and 12.79), leaf area (21.47cm2 and 25.20cm2) and more days to emergence (9.92 and 8.98), was recorded from salinity levels of 135mM and 90mM, respectively compared with maximum germination (94.80%), tillers plant-1 (4.42), leaves...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...gion and warrants proper control measures. 
...
Sumaira Maqsood1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1,Waqas Wakil2 andMuhammad Hussnain Babar3

 

...ntial pathogen which can control a wide range of bollworm larvae in both agricultural and horticultural crpos. Flubendiamide is a new chemistry insecticide which also controls bollworm effectively and relatively safer for natural enemies and beneficial arthropods. Present investigations were carried out to determine their impact on larval mortality, pupal and adult emergence of 2nd and 4th instar larvae...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
...as very close to that of control plots for both post-treatment observations. Based on these findings, Confidor and Jozer are recommended to be considered for their integration in sucking pests’ management strategies on transgenic crops such as Bt cotton.
...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...on and to optimize their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, frequency percent of root rot fungi and nematodes population. Maximum disease prevalence was recorded in Tibba Sultanpur (100%) and Dunyapur (88%) whereas disease incidence calculated was 5% and 4.4%, respectively, in these areas. Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) was frequent...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...t difference between the control and surgical groups in testosterone was noted. In this study, although the application of different castration methods in 4-month-old male Norduz sheep resulted in changes in the blood hormone levels, it was determined that these changes did not affect body weight. In conclusion, the evaluation of the process in castrated six-month-old sheep revealed an increase in the body weight which was similar to that in the
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
...phocytes number than the control group. The heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and antibody titer was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the treated groups. Based on these results, it is concluded that supplementation of diets with betaine improved broiler feed intake, weight gain, FCR and increased immunity were under heat stress condition.
...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...s biological insect pest control agent in our agricultural ecosystem. To analyze this activity present work was planned to collect the preliminary information about habitat requirements and different breeding aspects of Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). The fieldwork was performed for two years (2012, 2013) at three different stations in the surrounding area of Faisalabad. Based on results it was concluded that Cattle egrets are colonial breeders and coloni...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
...five priming techniques (control, on-farm priming, hydro priming, hydration inoculation and osmo priming with 0.5% urea solution. Results revealed that hydro priming, on-farm priming and hydration inoculation significantly reduced the time to 50% emergence (E50), mean emergence time (MET) and emergence index (EI) of both soybean varieties. Moreover, osmo priming had no significant effect on E50, MET and EI that was at par with
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...effective prevention and control strategies.
...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...ch genotype were used as control. Field experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replicates in the green house. Radiation effects were observed on some agronomic traits like Plant height, Number of branches plant-1, number of bolls plant-1, Fiber Fineness and yield of seed. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences for radiation treatments, genotypes and interaction for treatment...
Sumit K. Satpathi1, Suprakash Pal2*, Rupsanatan Mandal2, Nonigopal Shit2 and Ashutosh Sarkar3
...s augmenting the natural control of pests.
 
Keywords: Cowpea, insect pests, biopesticides, bioefficacy, cost-benefit ratio, natural enemiesl
...
Zuhao Huang*, Meifang Li, Rujue Ruan and Jiawei Qin
...deidae mitochondrial DNA control region, the control region genes of 20 species were analyzed. All the Ardeidae species had duplicate control regions, except four species having only single region. The control region spans the region between the genes for tRNAGlu - tRNAPhe in the most Ardeidae species. The length of the
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...IV (DSM-IV) criteria and controls (n=120) from Sir Ganga Ram Hospital and Panjab Institute of Mental Health, Lahore from August 2011 to January 2014. During the sample collection the factors like age/period, employment status and marital status were considered after informed consent. We found one single base change G>C at c.745 resulting in a nonsynonymous change p.E249Q in theCOMT gene. In-silico analysis predicted it to be damaging and disease causing. Sc...
Shabana1,*, Farah Ehsan1 and Shahida Hasnain1,2
...d samples (diabetic=451, controls=449) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. A significant difference in genotype distribution was observed between cases (Gly/Gly, 66.9%; Gly/Ser, 20.17%; Ser/Ser, 12.8%) and controls (Gly/Gly, 67.4%; Gly/Ser, 28.5%; Ser/Ser, 4.00%) (p = 0.013). The cases showed significantly higher frequency of the Ser allele compared to the controls (22.9% vs. 18.3%; OR: 1.3...

Abdur Rab1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Naveed Ahmad1, Khalid Nawab2, Syed Ghias Ali3

...plication as compared to control plants.

...
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
...llitus (GDM) and healthy controls and to propose a cut off value for serum B12 levels as a predictive biomarker for GDM. Study design was Quantitative cross-sectional study. This study was carried out at Lady Atchison Hospital/Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan from January to December 2016. Cobalamin levels were measured in women diagnosed with GDM (n=59) and controls (n=41). GDM was diagnosed when fasting blood sugar levels we...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

... be used as a reagent to control the sex differentiation of carp, but also can be used to disturb gonad differentiation, and then to reveal the molecular mechanism.

...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos1,*, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Elsayeid O. Swilam1 and Mu’ath Q. Al-Ghadi3
...th anticoccidial drug to control coccidiosis in broiler chicken. 
...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
...a L. worldwide. Many control measures including application of chemicals are adapted to resistor the influx of mites in hives of honey bee. The indiscriminate use of pesticides involve many problems; cause resistance in mites, residual in honey, wax and potentially hazardous to man and environment. Plant-derived mixtures are normally more easily degradable and could show a minor undesirable impact on environment with respect to synthetic compounds. This st...

Muhammad Sohail1, Muhammad Nauman-ul-Islam1, Hayazuddin2*, Imtiaz Ali Shah1, Abdur Raziq1, Subhan Ullah3 and Arsalan Ali Shah1

...to diet containing zero (control), 12 and 18 percent MSC. All the three rations were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogeniuos. Each cow was given a daily feed ration according to NARC standards. Milk yield of each experimental animals were recorded twice daily while its composition were checked through milk analyzer twice a week. Mean daily production of milk among three groups was significantly (p<0.05) different, however highest milk production (4.8±0.74 l...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...amely housing type, tick control, age and sex of animal presented significant (P <0.05) association with tick infestation and burden while type of breed showed significant association with tick infestation but was non-significant with tick burden. Topography presented inverse behavior to that of breed with tick burden and tick infestation. On the other hand, geo-location was only factor exhibiting non-significant ly associated (P>0.05) association with b...
Rana Muhammad Aadil1,2*, Xin-An Zeng1, Saqib Jabbar3, Akmal Nazir2, Abid Aslam Mann2, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan2, Abdullah2, Amna Ramzan2
...justify;">The effects of control, thermal and high pressure processing (HPP) techniques on some quality parameters of grapefruit juice were investigated based on pH, acidity, ºBrix, viscosity, cloud value, hunter color values, bioactive compounds, microorganisms and enzyme analysis. The grapefruit juice was treated with processing variables of HPP treatment (0, 150, 200 and 250 MPa), temperature (40, 50 and 60 oC), for processing time of 3 minu...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...ntify alternates like biocontrol agents, plant extracts etc. In the present study the extract of Citrullus colocynthis in different solvents were evaluated on second instar larvae of H. armigera under laboratory studies for toxicity, sublethal and antifeedant effect. The result showed that ethanol based extract was the most effective to control the H. armigera followed by the ethyl acetate. The su...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

...cines are widely used to control viral diseases in poultry, however, the interference of physico-chemical properties of the emulsions are overlooked when compared to antigenic properties. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different commercial inactivated water-in-oil multivalent vaccines; vaccine A contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and D274 strains), NDV (Clone 30), aMPV (BUT 8544) and IBDV (classic strain) whereas vaccine B contains IBV (Massa...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...sub> T2 and a control (T0) each was replicated twice. Fenugreek as an additive was added in experimental feed at the rate of 0.5% in T1 and 1.0% in T2 while control T0 was without fenugreek supplementation. Fish was fed for six days a week at the rate of 4% of its body weight twice a day. Results showed significant (P≤0.05) higher growth performance among the three tr...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

...reatments consisted of a control (no strains) and 5 different strains of cyanobacteria i.e Oscillatory-MMF-1 (Oscillatoria princeps), Leptolyngbaya-MMF-2 (Lyngbya mucicola), Leptolyngbaya- MMF-3 (Lyngbya Phormidium), Gloeobacter-MMF-4 (Gloeocapsa) and Microcoleus-MMF-5 (Cryophilus) were applied randomly to flooded rice in pots. Rice seedlings were transplanted to each pot on July 18, 2016. The data were recorded on agronomic parameters of rice crop, plant tiss...

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...1, NPK @ 150:120: 90 and control (without amendments), replicated four times. The results revealed that organic and inorganic amendments, irrespective of their kind and combinations, exerted significant (p≤0.05) variation in plant growth, yield parameters of wheat and water use efficiency. The inorganic fertilizer gave significantly higher total dry matter, grain and straw yield and also due to the greater grain yield the water use efficiency calculated was...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

...ion by 33.9% compared to control treatment. It has also been observed that cysteine enhanced the expression of GUS in the basal scutellar regions of immature embryos compared to apical and embryo axis region. Heat shock of 46 oC for 3 minutes increased the transformation efficiency of immature embryos by 26.96%. Growth of infected immature embryos on resting medium after co-cultivation period enhanced the survival of kanamycin resistant calli on selection medi...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...li by 54.90% compared to control treatment. Maximum regeneration (58.33%) was observed when embryogenic calli were placed on N6 medium supplemented with 60 gL-1 sucrose and 1 mgL-1 NAA for one week initially in dark and then three weeks on MS medium augmented with 2 gL-1 myo-inositol and 20 gL-1 sucrose under 16/8 hours light/dark photoperiod. The study confirmed that embryogenic type II calli obtained from half of coleoptilar node of maize seedling is fully c...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
...ameters when compared to control.
...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
...five cattle. Group A was controls: Animals in Group B and C were at 45 days prepartum with and without VES: animals in D and E were at day 60 prepartum with and without VES: animals in F and G were at 75 days prepartum stage with and without VES: respectively. At day 0 of experimental trial VES was given to animals in group C, E and G. All groups were given oil based HS vaccine at day 15 and alum based FMD trivalent vaccine at day 30 of experimental trial exce...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
Mehmet Guvenc1,*, Ayşe Nilay Guvenc3, Ökkeş Yılmaz2 and Mehmet Tuzcu2
...ivided into four groups; control, resveratrol, fructose, and resveratrol plus fructose. Resveratrol was administered 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Fructose (10% w/v) was administered with drinking water for 56 days every alternate day. Fructose administration increased the hepatic omega-6/omega-3 and 16:1 n7 / 16:0 ratios (p<0.001, p<0.001), but decreased the retinol and alfa tocoferol levels (p<0.01) compared with control

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...d agricultural credit to control credit fungibility. 

...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
...l for the prevention and control can be established.
...
Rehana Shahida1, Tasnim Farasat1, Shagufta Naz1,* and Shahjahan2
... and age matched healthy control (n=35), and to identify the relationship of inflammatory cytokines with insulin resistance and the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of atherosclerosis and hyperglycemia within the context of chosen pro atherogenic parameters including plasma glucose level, serum levels of insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α. Serum level of thrombomodulin was assessed as a measure of vascular damage. Different demographic parameters a...
Talat Bilal Yasoob and Nasir Ali Tauqir* 
...ub>3 was served as control whereas other five rations had 0.15-0.73% NaHCO3 in the rations. In this way six dietary treatments resulted in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and sodium levels of 245, 262, 279, 297, 314, 331 meq/kg and 0.166, 0.206, 0.246, 0.286, 0.326, 0.336%, respectively. Protein and energy values in all broiler starter rations were kept at 20% and 2800 kcal/kg, respectively. In second phase, six finisher rations (5-6 weeks) ...
Prof. Dr. Saira Afzal
... essentially the quality control mechanism. Scientific discoveries and advancements have far reaching implications especially in health and medical publications. The quality assurance mechanism in medical journals has to be stringent and flawless. The peer review systems are continuously being criticized, debated and updated. It may be open peer review or blind peer review, both have advantages and disadvantages. Open peer review is performed for scientific qu...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
... hectare), significantly controlled the aphid population and enhanced the yield of all wheat varieties. The higher aphid infestations in untreated plots resulted in less chlorophyll content and reduced photosynthetic activity. Photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents were significantly higher in insecticide treated plots. Maximum cost-benefit ratio was found (1:9.2) in NW-1-8183-8 when treated against aphids. Wheat varieties, Galaxy-13 and Faisalabad-08 we...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
...ge without additive as a control (c); glucose 1% fresh matter basis (G1); glucose 2% (G2); glucose 3% (G3); Lactobacillus Plantarum (LAB1); Pediococuss acidilactici (LAB2); Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LAB3). All the silos were incubated at 25°C. Then, 90 days later, the fermentation quality of tested silages was analyzed. No significant difference was found between the control and treated groups in term...
Tahira Perveen1,*, Shaista Emad1, Saara Ahmad2, Zehra Batool1, Sarwat Yousuf1, Sheeza Sheikh1, Sara Qadeer1 and Saida Haider1
...ded into three groups as control, drug and oil which were respectively treated with water, fluoxetine (0.3 mg/kg) and fennel oil (0.5 ml/day). The treatment was continued for three weeks. Struggling time in forced swim test (FST), number of square crossed in open field test (OFT) and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze (EPM) was monitored weekly. Repeated administration of fennel oil for 3 weeks showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like e...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...ammotropin is crucial in controlling the growth of mammary tissue during pregnancy and its release during pregnancy accounts for increased mammogenesis. Bubaline placenta was obtained and processed for extraction of extracellular proteins at pH 9.5 using Tris-Glycine buffer. Placental lactogen was purified by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex-G100 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE- Sepharose, employing a linear salt gradient. SDS-PAGE was used...
Karim El-Sabrout* and Mohamed H. Khalil
...ent than the eggs of G1 (control). We could conclude that providing LED light during incubation can improve chick performance.
...
Toshina Mushtaq, Muhammad Javed and Sidra Abbas*
...ively as compared to the control fish liver (0.123±0.002UmL-1) and kidney (0.056±0.004UmL-1).
...
Pei-feng Yin1,2,Xiu-xiu Li1,Qi-wei Zeng3, Cheng-chen Shen1, Le Gao1 andJian-zhang Ton2,*
...ilkworms group was given control mulberry leaves that were infection free. Results showed that infected leaves exhibited limited toxicity to the silkworm; however, the cocoons yield found in infected group was deeply affected. Compared with control group, the biggest body weight, cocoon weigh, cocoon shell weight, pupal weight in infected group was 9.3%, 8.8%, 11.4% and 10.2%, respectively, lower than that of

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...cides are mostly used to control weeds. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the Chemical control of broad-leaved weeds in wheat at the Koont Research Farm, PMAS-Arid Agricultural University, Rawalpindi, during rabbi season, 2014. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications, with a plot size of 06 x 04 m2. Four different herbicides were applied as post emergence ...

Imran Ali Rajput1*, Tajwer Sultana Syed1, Ghulam Hussain Abro1, Imran Khatri1 and Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2 

...o-extracts are useful in controlling the pest problem without destroying the natural enemies and environmental hazards. 

...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...t. The chemicals used to control this pest are prohibited in this region due to tea cultivation. For this reason, new strategies are needed to control this pest. With the awareness on the negative effects of the chemicals used in the control against pests and with the increasing awareness on environmental issues, alternative methods were sought in the past; and in this context, studies wer...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...sses. The pest is mainly controlled by chemicals which cause deleterious effects to human, livestock and environment. To dispense with the detrimental consequences of chemicals, use of resistant cultivars can prove one of the effective and reliable alternative approaches for the management of this pest. As the information regarding resistant cultivars is lacking, therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify resistant sources from among the ava...
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
....Double blind randomized control trial. Study conducted in department of anaesthesia and obstetrics of Allama Iqbal Medical College, Jinnah hospital (tertiary care) conducted from13th June 2014to 13th December 2014. Sample size was calculated 60 (30 each) cases using 95% confidence interval, 80% power of test. Patients who developed PDPH after spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean section were divided into 2 group; Group A (Convention...
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
...th comparison of healthy controls. Fecal samples from fifteen patients and five healthy individuals were collected. PCR-DGGE, by using universal primers focusing V3 region of 16S rRNA gene, was performed for characterization of gut microbial composition. Sequencing of most dominant excised gel bands was done. Real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the copy numbers of dominant bacteria of gut microbiota. The results indicated that a significant diversity diffe...
Muhammad Saqlain1, Humaira Kalsoom1, Muhammad Fiaz1,2, Abid Mahmood1, Rizwan Aziz Qazi4 ,Waseem Safdar5, Pakeeza Arzoo Shaiq1,Bernard M.Y. Cheung3 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1,*
...ation. MetS subjects and controls were recruited from out-patient departments of Pakistani hospitals. Ala54Thr genotyping of 200 MetS patients and 200 healthy controls was performed using a PCR-RFLP. Genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and computed for genetic associations presented as odds ratios (ORs) with a threshold of p≤0.05 to determine statistical significance. The frequency of 54Thr allele of FABP2 ...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

... mM KH2PO4 solution over control. The shoot and root [P] as well as its total uptake by wheat seedlings also showed several times increase over control. Further increase beyond 144 mM KH2PO4 though did not show any adverse effect and was no better than lower P levels. It is concluded from the present study that [P] applied as foliar spray up to 144 mM KH2PO4 could be an effective way to enhance the plant growth in P deficien...
Hayat Badshah1, Farman Ullah1, Paul-André Calatayud2, Hidayat Ullah3 and Bashir Ahmad1
... in Pakistan. Biological control approach by using Aenasius bambawalei Hayat(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has been developed recently to control this pest. However, the efficiency of this parasitoid is variable according to the locality and the plants on which P. solenopsis is feeding. In this context, this experiment investigated under field and laboratory conditions the influence of the host plant of P....
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...d with mock-treated fish control. However, there was no statistically supported level of significance was observed for growth rates and feed conversion rates among groups. Improved live weight and protein efficiency rates reflected positively on the survival rate in MOS-fed fish. Interestingly, the whole body and fillet fatty acid composition shown no-correlation between treated and control groups (p>0.05). During the cou...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...afely used in biological control programs, as it has little or no effects on biological control agents such as predatory mite, N. cucumeris, which is widely associated with the infestation of two spotted spider mite, T. urticae on tomato plants.
...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...methods for managing and controlling it. A huge fund was given for managing and controlling RPW in several countries. In this study, the potential toxicity of oxamyl to RPW was evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, oxamyl had significant effects on the mortality of RPW. After exposure to direct spray of oxamyl, adult mortality was 62, 82 and 100% whereas larvae mortality was 72, 77 and 100%...
Lihong Qin1, Guoliang Zhang1, Chaojie Zhu1, Jian Wu1, Zhihui Zhao2,* and Yumin Zhao1,*
...P1B-mut and negative control groups. Meanwhile, PDK4, DUSP4 and FKBP1B expression levels were down-regulated due to miR-122 and miR-449a overexpression (p<0.01). Moreover, cells proliferation ability was activated after DUSP4, PDK4 and FKBP1B overexpression (p<0.01). Finally, MTT assay results demonstrated that miR-122 or miR-449a could promote bull testicular Sertoli cells proliferation. Collectively, these ...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...ceptible population as a control. The activities of NADPH-CPR, ethylmorphine-N demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and soluble protein contents were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations with reference to phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher microsomal enzyme activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations. The inc...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
... of Punjab; hence strict control measures should be adopted to minimize its damage. Some cultivars were found resistant to the borer infestation and are recommended for cultivation.
...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...ated fish as compared to control group. The results supported the use of Comet assay for evaluating the toxicity of pollutants which may be used as part of environmental monitoring programs.
...
Muhammad Iqbal Anjum*, Shahbaz Javaid and Mukhtar Ahmad Nadeem
...epared as: R-I served as control with 0.83% di-calcium phosphate (DCP); R-II contained 50% less DCP (0.41%) than R-I and R-III contained R-II plus phytase Quantum® Blue @ 100 g/ton feed. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain per replicate were recorded for 35 days. On 35th day, blood and tibia bone samples from 5 birds per treatment were collected. Total weight gain and dry matter intake in chicks fed rations I, II and III were 1861, 173...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...layed as compared to the control. High ellurite reduction potential was shown 98% (1f) and 97% (2b) after 24 h of incubation. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was increased to 279% (1f) and 150% (2b) when ompared to the respective control indicating the ability to tolerate tellurite tress. Differential pattern of bacterial proteins in tellurite stress was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Both bacterial strains can be ...

Punjab University Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 32, Iss. 1, Pages 1-158

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