Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

... and increased hydraulic conductivity by 90%, 106% and 72% for WB, MB and NB respectively, when compared with FB. The irrigation water saving was 36%, 40% on WB, 34%, 31% on MB and 7%, 8% on NB, for wheat and maize crops respectively, when compared with FB. The crop yields were higher by 14%, 25% on WB, 12%, 10% on MB and 3%, 13% on NB, respectively, compared with FB. Consequently, the water productivity was also increased by 43%, 71% on WB, 30%, 30% on MB and...

Habib Ullah Khan1*, Saleem Ullah1, Hamid Ullah Shah1, Muhammad Arif2

Abul Hassan Faiz*, Fakhar-i-Abbas and Lariab Zahra Faiz
..., saturation, electrical conductivity, pH, organic matter, phosphorus and potassium) in Pothwar Plateau (250 km long and 100 km wide). We compared 216 soil samples (mound soil and undisturbed soil), to collect data on percentage water saturation, electrical conductivity (E/C), pH, organic matter content, and phosphorus and potassium contents. We found significant differences (mound soil and undisturbed soil) in % water satur...
Umair Riaz*1, Zafar Abbas1, Qamar uz Zaman2, Muhammad Mubashir1, Mahwish Jabeen2, Syed Ali Zulqadar1, Zeenat Javeed1, Saeed-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Muhammad Javid Qamar1
...ties like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), sulfates (SO4-), carbonates (CO3-), bicarbonates (HCO3-), sodium (Na+), and chloride(Cl-). Results showed that 52.78% samples were unfit and 34.37% samples were considered as fit for irrigation. The interesting t...

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL
...alysis of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of soil. All the amendments when used alone or in combination with each other improved the chemical parameters of soil. All levels of gypsum (100%, 75% and 50% G.R) proved effective in lowering pH, EC, SAR and ESP of saline sodic soil. Similar trend was observed with the use of all levels of potassium -1 silicate (225, 150 and 75mg kg soil) of soi...

Samina Qamer*, Iram Nasir**, Um-Habiba Zafar**, Salma Sultana** and Tayyaba Sultana**

BIO-CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF HONEY PRODUCED BY APIS MELLIFERA HONEYBEE COLLECTED FROM JHANG, BAHAWALPUR, MULTAN, JHELUM AND KALAR KAHAR AREAS
....72 and 3.33; electrical conductivity, 204.67mScm-1 ,137.8 mScm-1 , 202.62mScm-1 ,277.33mScm-1 and 196.96mScm -1;free acidity 25.80 meqkg -1, 26.16 meqkg-1 , 24.97 meqkg -1, 30.25 meqkg , 25.4 meqkg -1; lactone 8.17 meqkg -1, 6.52 meqkg-1 , 6.68 meqkg -1, 5 meqkg -1and 4.08 meqkg-1 ; total acidity, 32.96meqkg-1 ,32.52meqkg-1 ,31.65meqkg -1,35.25meqkg and 28.55meqkg-1 ; proline content,376.64mgkg ,312.8mgkg ,260.17mgkg-1 ,402.57mgkg-1 and286.84-1 gkg . Hydroxym...

Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Abdul Malik2*, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak2, Naveedullah1, Naeem Ijaz3 and Ishaq Ahmad4 

Habibullah* and Sahib Alam  

...s of soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), N, P and K of the soil before sowing of maize crop were found to be 8.2, 0.37 dS/m, 0.95%, 1.74 mg/kg, 3.45 mg/kg, 61.5 mg/kg, respectively. Biochar and N application significantly (p≤0.05) increased soil pH whereas soil OM was substantially enhanced only with biochar at the reproductive stage of maize. However, at this stage, the effect of biochar and N application was not significant (p≥0...

Imran Khan1, Zahir Shah2, Wiqar Ahmad3*, Farmanullah Khan2 and Muhammad Sharif

... (OM) and the electrical conductivity (EC) but failed to improve the yield significantly. However, the RD, along with improving these parameters, also increased the yield significantly over the FP. Amongst all treatments, the 5 t ha-1 FYM and 75% NPK of the RD (INM5:75) stood superior with respect to yield as well as soil fertility status. However, efficacy was negative under deep tillage compared to shallow tillage for all treatments since yield as well as ha...

Babar Tasim1, Tariq Masood1*, Zafar Ali Shah1, Muhammad Arif2, Ata Ullah1, Ghazal Miraj3 and Muhammad Samiullah4 

...al values for electrical conductivity. Macro and micronutrients such as Zn, Mn, Mg and P were high (19.6, 20.4, 37.31 and 237 mg L-1, 510 mg 100g-1 respectively) in AD biochar while minimum values for Mn, Cu, P and Na (12.0, 20.4 mg L-1, 150 and 38 mg 100g-1) were noticed in SS biochar samples. All the biochar samples were highly porous except AD and MC biochar samples. The most abundant functional groups found in spectra of all biochar samples were C=C aromat...

Muhammad Sharif1*, Sadullah1, Ghulam Rasool2, Muhammad Nasir Khan1, Zubair Rehman1, Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Khalid Hussain4 

...eaction (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), soil bulk density, total soil porosity, soil temperature, crop biomass and crop yield. The results revealed that TOC under ZT (0.57%) was increased significantly. EC of ZT (0.314 ds m-1) was decreased numerically, but pH was not affected by tillage treatments. No significant difference regarding SWC, soil temperature, infiltration rate was observed under different tillage treatments, but the results under ZT were app...
Abdul Majeed1*, Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq2, Abid Niaz3, Abid Mahmood4, Naeem Ahmad1 and Hafiz Muhammad Walyat Ali Khan1
...bonate (RSC), electrical conductivity (EC), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). A substantial decrease in plant photosynthetic rate, and potassium contents were noted in all varieties under salt stress. Varieties i.e. V07096 and V05082 showed higher rate of photosynthesis and potassium contents than V05003 and V07194. The salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes, V07096 and V05003, respectively were then grown in soil medium. Lower plant sodium contents in so...

Aamir Saleem1, Arshad Mahmood Malik2*, Najam Ul Hassan1 and Imtiaz A. Qamar

...the soil (ph, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, organic matter and available phosphorus), crop parameter (Number of tillers, number of leaves, plant height, fresh land dry weight and crude protein) and meteorological data regarding rain fall, temperature, pan evaporation, sunshine and wind speed for interpreting results along with their statistical analysis as fixing legume with grass has improved the forage quality. Overall, these results has suggested...
Muhammad Asif Gondal, Qazal Waheed, Sana Tariq, Waseem Haider, Aisha Khan, Qudsia Rasib and Haroon Ahmed*
...). Higher the electrical conductivity of soil lower is the diversity of snail. A significant correlation was found between diversity and equitability (Pearson correlation value=0.961, p-value=0.00). Electrical conductivity and pH showed a significant correlation (Pearson correlation value=0.665; p=0.015). The saturation in soil was significantly correlated to calcium in the soil (Pearson correlation value=0.640...

Mahmood Alam Khan1, Muhammad Yaseen1, Mujahid Khan*2, Amjad Khan1 

TEMPORAL VARIATION IN GROUND WATER QUALITY DUE TO URBANIZATION. CASE STUDY: DISTRICT PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN
...o showed that electrical conductivity (EC), Cl-, SO4-2, NO3-1 were increased by 119.11%,
29.98%, 469.60%, and 59.47% respectively, while total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, total alkalinity, total hardness,
calcium (Ca++), HCO3-1 and Magnesium (Mg++) were decreased by 6%, 10.51%, 37.39% and 11.52%, 22.21%,
37.56% and 21.19% respectively. Results revealed that changes in water quality have occurred due to over population
of Pesh...

Ghulam Murtaza1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Ashraf Malik2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad3 

...line water of electrical conductivity values 2 and 3 dS m-1) were used alone and with farmyard manure (FYM) at 5 and 10 Mg/ha. This trial comprised of 09 treatments which were; T1 = irrigation of canal water, T2 = irrigation of EC 2 dS m-1 water, T3 = irrigation of EC 3 dS m-1 water, T4 = T1+ FYM at 5 Mg/ha, T5 = T2 + FYM at 5 Mg/ha, T6 = T3 + FYM at 5 Mg/ha, T7 = T1 + FYM at 10 Mg/ha, T8 = T2 + FYM at 10 Mg/ha and T9 = T3 + FYM at 10 Mg/ha. The design of rese...

Zahid Hassan Tarar1, Muhammad Salik Ali Khan2*, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi3, Raza Salim4, Irfan Ahmad Saleem1, Saima Nazar5, Munir David2, Tahir Majeed6, Muhammad Sufyan Mughal7, Muhammad Saleem8, Umer Iqbal9, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal10 and Muhammad Khalid Shaheen

... analysed for electrical conductivity (EC), soil pH and soil organic matter (SOM) contents. These characteristics were correlated with plant available micronutrients. The DTPA-extractable Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn ranged from 0.07-5.60, 0.11-1.22, 0.74-7.45 and 0.02-3.39 mg/Kg soil, respectively. Boron ranged from 0.06-0.69 mg/Kg soil. Considering the critical limits set by National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan, 92% soil samples were found...

Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Khalil Ahmed1*, Abdul Rasul Naseem1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Muhammad Khalid2, Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich3 and Muhammad Arif

... SAR (54.96%), hydraulic conductivity (9.75%), and bulk density (3.94%) over their initial values. Therefore, it was concluded that integrated use of gypsum @ 75% GR + humic acid @ 30 Kg ha-1 is equally effective as gypsum @ 100 % GR in improving the yield of wheat and rice crops and restoring the deteriorated properties of salt-affected soils. 

...

Khalil Ahmed1*, Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Abdul Rasul Naseem1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Muhammad Khalid2, Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich3 and Muhammad Arif4

Use of Hyacinth Compost in Salt-Affected Soils
...= 44.24, ECe (electrical conductivity of soil extract) = 5.02 (dS m-1), GR (gypsum requirement) = 10.18 (t ha-1), BD (bulk density) = 1.66 (Mg m-3), HC (hydraulic conductivity) = 0.35 (cm hr-1). Rice and wheat, crops were grown in the rotation. Data analysis showed that gypsum and hyacinth compost remarkably improved the soil SAR, pHs, ECe, BD, HC, growth and yield characteristics of rice and wheat crops, however at the same...
Nadia Islam1, Khalil Ahmed1,*, Maisoor Ahmed Nafees1, Mujtaba Khalil2, Ishtiaq Hussain3, Muhammad Ali1 and Raja Imran1
...U and 0.67 NTU, electric conductivity was 147.4 µS/cm and 226.7 µS/cm, total dissolved solids was 99 mg/l and 118 mg/l, pH was 6.8 and 6.8 and total phosphorus was 48.3 µgP/L and 64.3 µgP/L in both the seasons. Whereas Bar spring the mean values in both the seasons were 10.8oC and 16.0oC for temperature, 0.21 NTU and 0.36 NTU for turbidity, 177 µS/cm and 268.8 µS/cm for electric
Tariq Mahmood Khalil1,2*, Muhammad Ajmal3, Iftikhar Zeb1,4 and Muhammad Azeem Khan1,5
 
 
...potential and electrical conductivity has been already been researched and the readings are interchangeable if conversion is desired. This method can be used as an alternative to the existing traditional methods for measuring the soil salinity. It is also expected that this technique will also help in calibrating the existing salinity measuring devices and may minimize the influence of bias or prejudice induced due to instrumental errors.
...

Umar Farooq1, Muhammad Akmal1, Qadeer Ahmad2, Zahid Akram2, Adnan Arshad3, Huma Qamar4*, Hafeez Ullah5, Muhammad Zubair4 and Muhammad Rizwan Khurshid4

...s. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter and NPK of the soil were also significantly affected through Fe-enriched organic amendments.

...

Saima Naz1*, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha2, Saba Saeed1

...n dioxide and electrical conductivity whereas an inverse relationship was obtained with dissolved O2 for both Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala test mediums. It is concluded that acute concentration of nickel is lethal for both fish species with a significant difference of LC50 and lethal concentrations among two fish species.  
 
Novelty Statement | The study is novel in recommending continu...
Hadeer M. Mossa, Ausama A. Yousif, Emad A. Aboelsoud, Mahmoud El Gamal, Ahmed El-
Sanousi
...he changes in electrical conductivity
generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore (nanopore). Its portability, affordability, and
speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read
sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement by producing a high microbial diversity in
biological samples that was limited by using second generation sequencing as Il...

Hamida Bibi1*, Dave Rraffaelli2 and Muhammad Sharif1

... (ASPT) as well as water conductivity. For most sites the body mass distributions were skewed towards smaller body sizes with another apparent mode for large size class. Contrary Kernel Density Estimates (KDE) for body mass spectra revealed marked differences in modalities among the sites. The distributions of body masses in cleanest and polluted sites were inversely related with water quality while intermediate quality sites were highly variable in modality a...

Kirshan Chand1, Fahad Nazir Khoso1*, Arfan Ahmed Gilal1, Abdul Mubeen Lodhi2, Agha Mushtaque Ahmed1, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro3, Sohail Ahmed Otho1 and Jamal-U-Din Hajano4

...easurement of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, cations including potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), iron (Fe2+) and sodium (Na+). In anions, bicarbonate (HCO3−), carbonate (CO32−), chloride (Cl−), nitrate (NO3−) and sulphate (SO2-) were recorded. The Durov diagram was generated which delineated that the overall water samples fell under mixed zones, therefore, the groundwater found neither an...

Houria Bouazzara1,2,*, Rachid Chaibi 1,2, Farouk Benaceur 1,2,3, Amira Nouioua4 and Laura Bruno 5

...H, NH4+, NO3-, PO42- and conductivity were responsible for most differences in zooplankton organisms. Finally, we concluded that all sampling area were oligosabrobic indicating the good environmental quality of Wadi M’zi River.

...

Arab Khan Lund1*, Atta Hussain Shah2, Gul Bahar Khaskheli2, Mool Chand Malhi3, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi4, Abdul Samad Mangsi5 and Asad Ali Khaskheli6

...ion was also observed in conductivity, refractive index, moisture, fat, protein and lactose content, however, it was non-significant (p>0.05). Results are concluded that the nitrogen fractions markedly affected by different heating and time combinations followed by physical properties while less effect on the chemical components of milk ultimately nutritive value.

...

Abid Ali1*, Safia Naureen Malik3, Muhammad Akmal2, Hafeez Ullah Rafa2 and Abid Subhani3

...ujranwala for electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), chloride (Cl) and sodium (Na) of the groundwater. The results revealed that out of 565 samples, 231 (41%) were fit; 149 (26%) were marginally fit, and; 185 (33%) were unfit regarding their quality. The maximum samples were found unfit for high RSC followed by EC and combined effect of EC and RSC, implying that use of such groundwater for irrigation may b...

Zaidi Zona, Zulfiqar Ali*, Rida Ahmad and Irfan Zainab

...2.17 mg/L (as CaCO3) and conductivity 129.04 µs/cm. Planktonic study revealed the presence of variety of phytoplankton (n=31) and zooplankton (n=3) species in study area. In total, 37 fish species were found in the study area, with species richness rising from zone one (n =10) to zone five (n =33). Altogether, the fish diversity represents 25 genera and 13 families. To analyze the data, principal component analysis (PCA) was done by using XLSTAT and exce...

Ghulam Qadir1, Khalil Ahmed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum1, Quais Muhammad Affan2, Muhammad Zaighum Mushtaq3, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi4, Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Hafeezullah Rafa1, Abdul Wakeel1, Ghulam Shabir1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1 and Muhammad Faisal Nawaz1

...tress of ECe (electrical conductivity of soil extract) 0.79, 6 and 8 dS m-1 and SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) 5.99, 25 and 35. Each crop was grown for four months and biomass yield data was recorded. Results of three successive seasons suggest that all the evaluated medicinal plants can grow under the medium salinity and sodicity level of (6 dS m-1 + 25 SAR). However, biomass yield decreased linearly with increasing levels of salinity and sodicity and a maximu...

Ayesha Saeed1*, Farzana Kishwar2, Ahsan Nazir3, Sharjeel Abid4, Muhammad Abiodullah5, and Danial Ali6

...t increased the solution conductivity and decrease the surface tension and viscosity. Chemical reactions and presence of functional groups of SA, PVA, HRS and MA were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Crystallinity decreased as the SA and leaf extract loaded into the PVA nanofibers as studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD). SAMA nanofibers exhibited highest antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive bacteria...

Hasnain Raza1*, Tanveer-ul-Haq1, Muhammad Imran1, Nabeel Ahmad Ikram2 and Muhammad Bilal Shoukat1

...nd (COD), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), residual sodium carbonates (RSC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), carbonates (CO3), and bicarbonates (HCO3) by using standard analytical procedures. The contamination in the wastewater includes temperature, pH, EC, BOD, COD, TS, TDS, TSS, Na, Ca, Mg, K, SAR, RSC, CO3, HCO3, Cu, Ni, C...

Layth Saleem Salman Al-Shihmani

...sented by the electrical conductivity values, pH of soil, organic matter, carbonate minerals, and the cationic exchange capacity of the soil between the front and rear of the Kut Dam. As for the physical properties, there was a variation in the particle size distribution in the soil (sand and clay), as well as the values of the particle’s density and bulk density and total porosity of the soil between the front and rear of the Kut Dam. There was also a v...

Muhammad Khalid Bhatti, Khalil Ahmed*, Ghulam Shabir, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Muhammad Sarfraz, Amar Iqbal Saqib, Abdul Wakeel, Hafeezullah Rafa, Nadeem Iqbal, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz, Ghulam Qadir, Muhammad Rizwan and Muhammad Faisal Nawaz

...nted block at electrical conductivity of soil extract (ECe) 6 dS m-1 and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) 25. Data about plant height, shoot fresh/dry weight, root fresh/dry weight, panicle length, No. grain/ panicle, No. of tillers/plant, grain yield and 1000 grain weight were recorded at maturity while Na and K contents were determined in leaves. Overall results revealed that SRI-23 and SRI-28 showed better performance than all other genotypes and produced comp...

Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

June

Vol. 35, Iss. 2, Pages 259-476

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